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Assessing the Relationship between Industry Characteristics and Organizational Culture: How Different can You Be?

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... Organizational culture (with six cultural factors of: innovation, outcome orientation, attention to detail, team orientation, respect for people, and stability) was proposed by O' Reilly et al. (1991) and developed and completed by Chatman and Jehn (1994) and Windsor and Ashkanasy (1996). Among the six organizational cultural factors, innovative culture (also known as the management's value orientation towards innovation) has received special attention from research of the organizational culture (Baird, 2007;Baird et al., 2011;2018;Chia & Koh, 2007;K. ...
... Managers were asked to respond to the level of use of management accounting information on four dimensions: broad-scope (four items), integration (four items), timeliness (four items), and aggregated (three items). Second, management's value orientation towards innovation scales were adapted consistent with Chatman and Jehn (1994), O'Reilly et al. (1991), Windsor andAshkanasy (1996), andMcKinnon et al. (2003). This scale has been used in many studies (Baird et al., 2007;2011;2018;Chia & Koh, 2007;K. ...
Article
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Drawing on a contingency theory and a resource-based perspective, the this study examines the relationship between organizational culture, management accounting information, innovation capability and firm performance in Vietnamese small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Data for the study were collected by survey questionnaires from a sample of 200 top-level and middle-level managers in Vietnamese SMEs. The results reveal that management’s cultural orientation combined with management accounting information has a significant positive effect on innovation capability and enhanced firm performance. In addition, the results show that the use of management accounting information fully mediates the relationship between management’s value orientation towards innovation and firm performance. The study thereby contributes to a greater understanding of the role of management’s value orientation towards innovation and management accounting information as levers for innovation capability, which in turn leads to higher firm performance in the context of Vietnamese SMEs.
... Another opportunity to use a configurational approach would be investigating how organizational culture is related to sustainable supply chain management. Chatman and Jehn (1994) identify six dimensions of organizational culture: people orientation, stability, outcome orientation, easygoingness, detail orientation, and team orientation. Carter and Jennings (2004) investigate one of these dimensions-people orientation-and find a positive relationship between a people-orientated culture and purchasing social responsibility. ...
... This finding suggests that a people-oriented (dimension of) culture might enhance sustainable supply chain management. There is an opportunity to expand on this finding by (1) simultaneously investigating the potential effect of all six of Chatman and Jehn's (1994) dimensions of organizational culture on sustainable supply chain management and (2) using configurational approach(es) to do so. For example, could there be a configuration of cultural dimensions that does not include a people orientation, such as outcome orientation and detail orientation? ...
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In introducing the 2020 Emerging Discourse Incubator, Flynn et al. (2020, https://doi.org/10.1111/jscm.12227) urged supply chain scholars to leverage fresh approaches in order to develop supply chain-specific theory, including approaches that are underutilized within the discipline. In response, we explain how more examination of configurations-meaningful sets of observations within a sample-can enhance theory development and, in particular , fuel the construction of supply chain-specific theory. First, we describe the value of configurational theorizing while contrasting it with two more popular approaches: one that centers on linear relationships and one that spotlights the unique features of individual observations. Second, we explain the main configurational approaches available to scholars. Here, we pay special attention to qualitative comparative analysis (QCA)-an approach to configurational theorizing that is relatively new to organizational research. Third, we offer examples of how configurational theorizing via the use of QCA can be used to develop supply chain management theory. Although QCA is employed regularly in neighboring fields, QCA remains something of a conceptual curiosity within supply chain management research. This state of affairs represents an important opportunity because QCA's emphasis on causal complexity fits well with the fact that supply chain outcomes usually arise from an array of variables-often at different levels of analysis-and the interplay among them. Thus, better leveraging configurational theory development can facilitate the creation of novel conceptualizations and useful advice for practice.
... It includes the value statements of being people and/or team-oriented and collaborative (O'Reilly et al., 1991). Managers and subordinates from team-oriented cultures prefer to work in a team to solve problems and achieve organisation goals (Su et al., 2009;Chatman and Jehn, 1994). An employee's ability to work in a team is essential to accomplish organisational activities under an intensely competitive market arena, especially in responding to contemporary changes. ...
... Managers from high attention to detail cultures consider all probable sources of information and become reliant on analytical models when making strategic decisions, which in turn, increases decision-making accuracy (Gul, 1991). Conversely, when there is less attention to detail, decision-making processes become less reliant on analytical models and depend more on subjective judgement, while the risk of errors and misjudgement in decision-making increases (Subramaniam and Ashkanasy, 2001;Chatman and Jehn, 1994). Strategic decisions, which are undertaken at the organisational corporate level and require a fundamental redesign of organisational business processes because of their organisational-wide impact, should consider all pertinent information and probable alternative courses of actions to respond towards contemporary business changes. ...
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Purpose This study aims to investigate the influence of organisational culture, specifically O’Reilly et al. ’s (1991) six dimensions of the organisational culture profile (respect for people, outcome orientation, team orientation, innovation, attention to detail and stability) on corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices and the subsequent impact of CSR practices on organisational performance from the context of an emerging economy. Design/methodology/approach The study used a survey of middle- and higher-level managers in Bangladeshi organisations to develop a seven-dimensional model of CSR practices and used structural equation modelling to analyse the developed hypotheses. Findings The findings provide evidence of the influence of the six different dimensions of organisational culture on the different dimensions of CSR practices. The findings highlight the diverse impacts (i.e. positive and negative) of CSR practices on organisational performance. The study also highlights the direct influence of organisational culture on both financial and non-financial performance. In particular, the outcome and team orientation culture are positively associated with non-financial and financial performance, respectively, while an innovative culture is negatively associated with both non-financial and financial performance. Practical implications The findings of the study provide practitioners, internal (i.e. the managers and business owners of both the local and multinational organisations) and external policy-makers, and foreign investors in an emerging economy with new insights into the role of an intra-organisational factor (i.e. organisational culture) in influencing the adoption of CSR practices and the subsequent impact of CSR practices on organisational performance. Originality/value Using the 52 guidelines of CSR practices provided by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, this study provides a unique empirical insight into the influence of organisational culture on CSR practices and the impact of CSR practices on organisational performance. The findings contribute to the limited CSR literature examining the influence of organisational culture on the adoption of CSR practices and its subsequent impact on organisational performance in an emerging economy.
... For example, the extent to which an organization clearly communicates its goals, makes fair and rational decisions, encourages cooperative communication among subunits and encourages individual initiative are positively correlated to organizational performance in terms of profitability, financial strength, morale and public goodwill (Gordon & DiTomaso, 1992). There is also empirical evidence to the effect that corporate culture differs systematically across industries (Chatman & Jehn, 1994;Gordon & Christensen, 1993;. The demands of activities that businesses within an industry are supposed to undertake differs and may also require different approaches and styles in dealing with such demands. ...
... As posited in the study of Chatman et al. (1994), the demands that businesses within an industry are supposed to undertake differs and therefore requires different approach and style in dealing with such demands. This therefore suggest that the kind of industry one operates demands for certain cultural attributes in order for one to succeed and remain competitive in that industry. ...
Book
Description The hospitality, travel, and tourism industries play a major role in citizen wellbeing, socio-cultural integration, and the economic advancement of a nation. The industries are increasingly complex in operation, demanding excellence across a far-reaching and diverse set of capabilities and changes in management practices across the board. With growing expectations for a better service quality from the users and endless calls for value-added service, managers are under constant pressure to improve their services across all aspects while growing customer numbers to meet various stakeholder expectations. Contemporary Management Approaches to the Global Hospitality and Tourism Industry is a key reference source that provides crucial knowledge on the application of new management practices and trends in the tourism industry. While highlighting topics such as service quality, culture sensitivity, and brand marketing, this publication explores the influence of globalization and the methods of sustainable business practices. This book is ideally designed for managers, hotel directors, restaurateurs, researchers, industry professionals, professors, and students seeking cutting-edge hospitality and tourism management strategies.
... In order to achieve comparability across our cases, all of our cases are characterised by value propositions that can be defined as digital services (c.f. Chatman and Jehn, 1994;de Wulf et al., 2001;Schoenecker and Cooper, 1998). ...
... This approach to comparing cases from different industries by the formation of a common cluster has been used before (e.g. Chatman and Jehn, 1994;de Wulf et al., 2001;Frankenberger and Sauer, 2019;Schoenecker and Cooper, 1998). In addition, prior research on ecosystems has also used such sampling strategies in order to obtain a more comprehensive view, whilst still making sure the findings are not distorted by cross-industry differences (e.g. ...
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Ecosystems are formed by organisations that jointly create a value proposition that a single firm could not create in isolation. To deliver this value proposition, the partners need a focal firm, the orchestrator, to be align them towards the joint value proposition. Thus, how orchestrators design the alignment structure of an ecosystem is at the very heart of the ecosystem concept-yet it has not been sufficiently addressed by extant research. This is all the more true for the question of how the design of an ecosystem is shaped depending on surrounding conditions. This paper applies a qualitative study with ten cases and, based on the attention-based view of the firm, contributes to research on ecosystems in several ways. First, it explains which ecosystem designs are beneficial under which conditions. Second, it elucidates the structure and activities within ecosystems and shows that start-ups can be just as good ecosystem orchestrators as incumbents. Third, it explains the circumstances under which single vs. multi orchestrator ecosystems occur. Fourth, it presents the conditions when incumbents or start-ups make better orchestrators. Finally, it is among the first studies to apply the attention-based view to business ecosystems, and shows that doing so yields intriguing insights into this emerging field of research.
... Örgüt kültürünün tanımının net olarak ortaya konulamamasının nedeni organizasyon kavramının kendisinin muğlâk olması gerçeğinden kaynaklanmaktadır . Bu nedenle örgüt kültürünün çok sayıda tanımı yapılmıştır (O'Reilly, 1989;Chatman ve Jehn, 1994;Hofstede, 1980). Kültür, temel varsayım yapıları, belirli bir grup tarafından keşfedilen ve geliştirilen, dış uyum ve iç bütünleşme sorunları ile baş etmeyi öğreten, geçerliliği kabul edilen ve bu nedenle çalışanların problemler karşısında doğru hissetme, algılama ve düşünmesini sağlayan ve öğrenilmesi gerekli olan değerler bütünü : 111) olarak ifade edilmektedir. ...
Article
ZET Günümüzde rekabet yeteneğine sahip olmak örgütler için kritik öneme sahiptir. Bu yeteneğin kazanılmasında anahtar rol oynayan değişkenlerden birisi çalışanların yenilikçi davranışa sahip olmalarıdır. Çalışanların yenilikçi davranış gösterebilmeleri örgütün yapı ve işleyişinde gelişim kültürü, etik iklim ve dağıtım adaleti gibi çalışanların algı, tutum ve davranışlarını üzerinde belirleyici etkiye sahip değişkenlerin uygun bir şekilde yer alması ile mümkündür. Bu kapsamda çalışanların yenilikçi davranışlarında, gelişim kültürü ve etik iklimin rolü ve bu etkide dağıtım adaletinin aracılık rolünü belirlemek bu çalışmanın temel problemini oluşturmaktadır. Havacılık ve uzay sanayiinde yapılan bir araştırma ile 576 çalışanın tutumları ölçülerek açıklayıcı bulgulara ulaşılmaya çalışılmıştır. Araştırma neticesinde, gelişim kültürü ve etik iklimin yenilikçi davranışı olumlu yönde etkilediği ve bu etkiye dağıtım adaletinin aracılık etkisinin olduğu belirlenmiştir. Böylelikle çalışmada ele alınan değişkenler arasındaki ilişkileri ait elde edilen bulgular neticesinde yöneticilere önerilerde bulunulmuştur. ABSTRACT Today, it is very crucial for organizations to have competence ability. Employees' innovative behaviour is one of the critical factors needed to acquire this ability. It's possible for employees to act innovative only if organizations have some structurel and operational variables such as development culture, ethical climate and distributive justice that has determinant affect on employees' perceptions, attitudes and behaviours. This study examines the effect of development culture and ethical climate on employees' innovative behaviour and mediating role of distributive justice on this effect. This study was conducted in aviation and aerospace industry Industry and aimed to get explanatory findings by evaluating 576 workers' attitudes. As a result of this study, it's found that development culture and ethical climate have positive effect on entrepreneur behaviour and distributive justice has already mediating role on this effect. Hereby, some suggestions are made for managers in consequence of findings about the relation among the variables examined in this sutdy. 1. GİRİŞ Artan rekabet, işletmelerin küreselleşmesi, pazar ve teknolojideki sürekli değişimler işletmeleri pazarlarda rekabet avantajı kazanmak için farklı yöntem ve stratejileri etkin bir şekilde düşünmeye zorlamaktadır. Yenilik birçok işletme tarafından rekabet üstünlüğü sağlamanın ve örgütsel başarının yollarından biri olarak kabul edilmektedir. Çalışanlar, yenilikçi davranışların iş rolleri ve birimlerinde performans veya verimlilik artışı getireceğine inandıklarında beklenen performans sonuçları pozitif olduğu bilinmektedir (Ostroff ve Schmitt, 1993). Son yıllarda işletmeler rekabet avantajı elde edebilmek için, yönetim ve üretim süreçleri başta olmak üzere ürün ve hizmet üretiminde yenilik kapasitesine sahip olmaya büyük önem vermeye başlamışlardır. Çünkü yenilik, rekabet avantajı elde edilmesini sağlayan çok güçlü bir kaynaktır (Sastry,1999). Örgüt kültürü, çalışanların davranış kurallarını düzenleyen, işlem ve süreçler ile ilgili algılamaları biçimlendiren ve başarılı olmalarını sağlayan değerler bütünüdür (Schein, 1984). Alt kültür ise; örgütlerde farklı anlayış, davranış ve kültürel yapılara sahip çalışan gruplarını tanımlayabilmek için örgüt kültüründen belirgin farklılık gösteren anlayış ve uygulamalar olarak ifade edilmektedir (Trice ve Morand, 1991). Literatürde örgüt kültürü farklı alt kültür boyutlarında ele alınmıştır. Quinn ve Spreitzer (1991) örgüt kültürünü hiyerarşik kültür, grup kültürü, rasyonel kültür ve gelişim kültürü olarak dört alt boyutta ele almıştır. Gelişim kültürü, çalışanların motivasyonunu sağlayan bir örgütsel alt kültürdür. (Scott vd., 2003; Lok vd., 2005). Alt kültürler çalışanların işe ait değer ve tutumlarını güçlendiren, örgüt kültürüne kıyasla bu değerlerin içselleştirilmesi kapsamında alt kültürler daha fazla odaklanma ve tutarlılık sağlamaktadır (Lok vd., 2005). Nitekim
... Following a review on previous research of digital technology use within organizations for employer branding purpose and taking all the topics discussed into consideration, suggestions on how and in what form employer branding should be communicated in digital media as well as a theoretical framework will be presented. employees accept and adopt this culture, organizational commitment, organizational identification (Ashforth & Mael, 1989;Riketta, 2005), pride (Chatman & Jehn, 1994) and satisfaction (George, 1990) will follow, which altogether will enhance organizational performance (Backhaus & Tikoo, 2004). ...
Chapter
Organizations are embracing employer branding now more than ever as a tool to retain, motivate, and attract a valuable competitive asset, namely talented employees, as they play a vital role in organizational success. Recently, new digital technologies, particularly social media, have replaced the traditional communication channels and made it harder for companies to achieve their employer-branding objectives. Most organizations are now employing digital technologies at a great extent to get in touch with all their key stakeholders. This chapter initially provides an overview of research on employer branding and its longterm strategic benefits to organizations. The author discusses the use of digital technologies, particularly social media, for employer branding. A framework is introduced covering all the topics mentioned and providing insights to organizations on how and in what form employer brand value should be communicated within the digital media.
... Khan, & Pye, 2000;Erwin & Garman, 2010;Latta, 2015).Chatman & Jehn (1994) su prepoznali sedam osnovnih karakteristika na osnovu kojih se dalje diferenciraju kulture: inovativnost i sklonost ka riziku, orijentacija na detalje, orijentacija na rezultat, orijentacija na ljude, timska orijentacija, agilnost i stabilnost. Posmatrajući ove karakteristike organizacionih kultura sa aspekta organizacionih promena, mož ...
Thesis
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Notable low success rate of organizational changes, complex and uncertain business environment imposes a growing need for examing, developing, integrating and adopting appropriate approaches, models, tools and software solutions in the area of organizational change management aiming at creating an expected value for business. In addition to the challenges managers are faced with nowadays, significant issue refers to prediction of organizational change success, that is to a great extend founded on subjective assessments, and as such represents a major limitation to managing change process in today's highly turbulent and uncertain business environment, characterized by significant transformations. With that in mind, it represents key concern that can create irreparable costs for an organization. Taking all into account, the central problem that the dissertation considers is to examine the possibility of predicting an organizational change success using quantitative Beckhard and Harris's model. The conceptual Beckhard and Harris's model does not contain elaborated components of measurement and control that represent key dimensions for organizational change management, resulting in the need for further model verification. This study has twofold objective. The scientific objective of this research paper is to extend and deepen theoretical fund in the organizational change management area by establishing correlations and causal relationships in the model, examining the prediction of organizational change success. The expected level of cognition is to achieve the degree of classification and explanation. The degree of classification aims at finding explicit characteristics of the research phenomenon, based on which greatest value can be achieved in further intellection. The degree of scientific explanation aims to explain research phenomenon by determining the relationship among relevant variables, as well as to explore the causality that can result into conclusions of the cause-and-effect relationship of an organizational change success. The study intends to provide a quantitative prediction model in the area of organizational change management that is mostly designed at an inappropriate approach referring to subjective individual assessment, before formalizing the measurement construct. The primary social objective of this study is to improve both, efficiency and effectiveness of organizational change management on the basis of predicting a change success, further implying improvement of an overall change design process, i.e. improvement of implementation process management. The purpose of this paper is to examine the usability of the model, i.e. to investigate its reliability and applicability in practice. In other words, the study seeks to explore the possibility of introducing a quantitative approach of predicting organizational changes success in change management practices, implying additional value for an organization. Reliable framework for planning, implementing and measuring a change success at each phase of the change program lifecycle, allows a holistic view on the results or on underdeveloped elements that influence final output of change process, indicating possibility for effective decision making and providing a corresponding basis for finding appropriate solutions grounded on lessons learned for future organizational change programs. Predicting an organizational change success using quantitative Beckhard and Harris's change model will be based on the statistical general scientific method. The statistical general scientific method includes particular basic methods that refer to statistical tests, correlation and regression. Beckard and Harris's change model has not been empirically certified so far. The research will show its effectiveness using quantitative approach. In terms of scientific contributions, expectations lie in recognition of the model effectiveness with description, classification and explanation of the phenomenon. This research will enrich theoritical fund in the discipline of organizational changes, supported by empirical findings. In methodological terms, the research follows the principles of methodological procedures of social research. Social contribution is greatly significant, taking into account that research deals with the present-day subject that does not provide expected results in organizations. The expectations of this study are numerous. It is expected that the paper improve efficiency and effectiveness of organizational change management based on the prediction of the final outcome, further enhancing the overall design of change process, that is, managing of change implementation. The conceptual Beckhard and Harris's change model explained this, but it does not contain the elaborated measurement and control components that are key to the management concept. Hence, it is expected that the research will provide an insight into the usability value of the model, that is, the study will show whether Beckard and Harris model can be a reliable and applicable tool for managers and change agents who deal with organizational changes. Furthermore, it is expected that the research will depict situations in which the model will be most effective in practice. It is also expected that the study will enable more effective decision-making in management of organizational changes, and empower change success. Equally important, the applied approach in this research can provide measurement of the change success and holistic view into the limiting factors that should be further improved until final expected outcome.
... To more clearly align themselves with firm-internal cultural norms and reap the possible benefits, speakers may converge on a dialect norm that reflects membership in the organization. These organizational cultures can cluster within industries (Chatman and Jehn 1994), creating industry-level patterns and maintaining symbolic boundaries between industries that produce the clustering evident in our data. This idea has some support in the sociolinguistic literature when drawing on theories of accommodation to the speech of conversation partners (Coupland 1984;Giles, Coupland, and Coupland 1991), but studies of accommodation only address short-term dialect differences (i.e., a single interaction). ...
Article
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The authors examine how linguistic niches may develop in certain industries. Using acoustic measurement techniques, the authors examine the extent to which workers in different industries display dialect features associated with the American South. The data are drawn from 190 semistructured sociolinguistic interviews from 2008 to 2017. Six linguistic variables were constructed to measure dialect features associated with southern American English. The results show that workers who are employed in the technology industry display significantly fewer southern dialect features than workers in interactive service work, law, and government. The general movement away from southern American English over time was also more prominent among technology workers. These results suggest that newer and more professional industries display less traditional patterns of southern speech. While the results do not support causal claims, they imply that individuals tend to work in industries that match their linguistic and cultural backgrounds.
... Elemen budaya tidak dapat dipisahkan dari organisasi (Goffee & Jones 1996). Mengikut kajian moden, budaya organisasi mempunyai pelbagai kepentingan seperti berikut; budaya boleh menyokong hubungan antara penerapan teknologi dan pertumbuhan organisasi (Chatman & Jehn 1994); ia boleh menjadi faktor penentu keberhasilan dalam perlaksanaan strategi pengeluaran (Bates et al. 1995); ia memainkan peranan yang signifikan dalam menentukan kejayaan proses penggabungan dan pengambilalihan (Javidan 2001). Secara ringkasnya, budaya organisasi mempunyai kaitan langsung dengan prestasi organisasi. ...
Article
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ABSTRAK Teori hierarki keperluan Maslow yang menerangkan aras keperluan manusia telah digunapakai secara meluas dan diterima dalam dunia akademik dan pengamal pengurusan organisasi moden untuk meningkatkan prestasi organisasi. Walaupun begitu, ianya tidak langsung memiliki unsur-unsur yang bersifat pembinaan aspek kerohanian. Justeru, kajian konseptual ini bertujuan untuk meneruskan legasi dan usaha Islamisasi ilmu dengan memilih teori hierarki keperluan Maslow iaitu tingkat keperluan asas untuk dibincang, dibahas dan dihubungkan dengan kerangka ilmu-ilmu Islam sedia ada. Analisis terhadap ilmu moden dibincangkan melalui perbincangan dari sudut tasawwur Islam. Kajian ini juga mengemukakan idea Islamisasi melalui tiga (3) pendekatan utama dalam teori Maslow iaitu pengetahuan.
... Although, there is still a lack of a single definition (Zammuto et al. 2000); Sackman (1991) stated that there are as many definitions as are those who study organizational culture. While there are various meanings associated to the term of organizational culture, it is acknowledged that organizational culture refers to underlying shared values that provide employees with behavioral norms in the firm (Baird et al. 2007;Chatman and Jehn 1994). According to Hofstede et al. (2010), organizational culture is defined as "the way in which members of an organization relate to each other, their work and the outside world in comparison to other organizations". ...
... 24 Innovativeness is defined as organizational support of employees' experimental and initiative activities, work flexibility, and focused risk-taking behaviors. 25 Innovativeness was found to increase KS in organizations. For example, innovativeness increases the use of KM tools for collaborative efforts. ...
Article
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of Confucian values, social fear and organizational knowledge sharing culture on the knowledge sharing intention of Information Systems (IS) professionals in an East Asian context. We surveyed 187 professionals working in IS in South Korean companies and applied partial least squares structural equation modeling for testing our hypotheses. The results show that Confucian values negatively influence knowledge sharing intention by increasing social fear. Conversely, knowledge sharing culture enhances knowledge sharing intention directly, and by mitigating the negative effects of Confucian values and social fear. Thus, while individuals' reluctance to share knowledge has been conceptualized as a rational cost-benefit process in a Western context, our study shows that negative emotions and the underlying values, which stimulate these emotions, influence knowledge sharing intention in an East Asian context.
... Furthermore, by evaluating how banks alter the allocation of risky assets and low-risk assets in response to the increase in regulatory pressure, we contribute to the literature concerning the risk of risk-weighted assets and the behaviour of banks around them (i.e., Acharya, Engle, & Pierret, 2014Das & Sy, 2012Lesle & Avramova, 2012. Arguably, the focus on the adjustment of banks' risk-weighted assets and their decompositions in one country (i.e., the U.S.) can also allow us to account for confounding social, economic and political factors (Berger, Molyneux, & Wilson, 2020;Chatman & Jehn, 1994;Schneider, Ehrhart, & Macey, 2013). This subsequently enables us to obtain more creditable analysis and inference of the impact of supervisory stress tests on bank ex-ante risk-taking behaviour. ...
Article
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We use the Federal Reserve's stress-testing regime as a quasi-natural experiment to examine the impact of supervisory stress tests on bank ex-ante risk taking behaviour. Using a sample comprising large U.S. bank holding companies over the period from 2003Q1 to 2016Q4, we find that banks which are subjected to annual supervisory stress tests tend to reduce their overall risk by choosing asset portfolios of lower risk exposures. Nevertheless, this risk reduction happens mainly because stress-tested banks reduce the holding of low-risk assets rather than risky assets. We also find that stress-tested banks tend to reduce their on-balance sheet exposures rather than off-balance sheet exposures. Overall, our finding implies that, while supervisory stress tests can help to reduce the banks' overall risks, policy makers should also have a closer look at the mechanisms in which banks allocate risk to mitigate moral hazard and regulatory arbitrage behaviour.
... Gordon & DiTomaso (1992) found evidence in favor of Denison et al. (2004) that an influential culture predicts short-term corporate performance. The results are consistent with the results obtained by Chatman & Jehn (1994), who found that companies in different industries developed different cultural patterns to meet their business demands. Lee & Yu (2004) showed that organizational culture strength is related to organizational performance in some cases. ...
Article
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There is a lack of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and regional-owned enterprises (ROEs) of Indonesia in reporting their social responsibility activities to the provincial governments. At the same time, corporate social responsibility is a mandatory obligation outlined in the Indonesia law. This study aims to analyze the mediating effect of social responsibility in relationship organizational culture and firm performance of SOEs and ROEs in Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. This study is survey research by distributing questionnaires to respondents who are SOEs and ROEs employees. The total sample is 245 respondents. The data are analyzed using path analysis. The result of this study shows that organizational culture does not affect firm performance partially. Another finding shows that SOEs and ROEs' organizational culture affects firm performance if the firm does and reports corporate social responsibility. These results mean that social responsibility plays a vital role in increasing firm performance besides focusing on improving organizational culture.
... Organisational culture can be defined in terms of the values shared and adhered to by an organisation (Chatman & Jehn, 1994). According to Callan (2007), organisational culture is progressively evolving into an important subject of consideration as to its relation to work-life balance. ...
Article
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Work and personal life are usually perceived as mutually incompatible domains, needing to be maintained in clear segregation for the experience of stress-free living. However, with evolving occupational demands, advancements in communication technology, and the threat of career obsolescence, dictating the norms of organisational cultures, the boundary separating the work domain from the home domain is nowadays indistinct. Thus, this study has been conducted using the qualitative phenomenological study to explore the influence of organisational culture on the work-life balance of academics. Thus, five married full-time academicians at Kuala Lumpur, employed for a minimum of one academic semester, were involved in a semi-structured interview. The present study found that work demands would usually lead to reduced involvement with the family. Academicians would mostly compensate by negotiating with their family members for quality time in the future. Mostly, the experience of work-life conflict would occur in the direction of work to family, rather than the other way around. Thus, academicians also revealed occasionally externalising their stress toward family members as a result of work-related emotions impinging on their emotional state at home. The findings of this study highlight the importance of implementing work-life balance strategies and fostering an organisational culture focused on the satisfaction of employees rather than strictly organisational objectives.
... 656). Finally, the definitions of O'Reilly [48] and Chatman and Jehn [49] indicate that organizational culture is a set of widely shared and strongly held values. ...
Article
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In recent years, the concept of an organizational culture in hotels has held an important position on both a theoretical and practical level because this culture significantly affects organizational performance and the strategies adopted by hotels. Therefore, it is considered one of the key factors in determining hotels’ tendency towards outsourcing and sustainable performance. In this study, we aim to analyze the impact of the organizational culture on the level of outsourcing and sustainable performance. To do so, we will use the Competing Values Framework (CVF), which divides organizational culture into four typologies: hierarchical, group, rational, and development cultures. A personal questionnaire was administered to the directors or managers of 114 hotels located in two Egyptian cities: Hurgada and Sharm El Sheikh. The results of the structural model suggest the negative impact of the hierarchical and development cultures on the level of outsourcing. The results show a positive influence of the four types of organizational culture on sustainable performance, suggesting that these hotels have a strong interest in sustainability and the environment. The findings reveal a negative relationship between the level of outsourcing and sustainable performance. Finally, this study presents academic and practical implications, as well as recommendations for future research.
... Similarly, Chatman and Jehn (1994) compared 15 U.S. companies in four different industries (i.e., public accounting, consulting, government/postal, and transportation) and found significant cultural similarities within an industry and cultural differences between industries-for example, profit-oriented accounting and consulting firms had higher levels of cultural aggressiveness to attract clients, and quasi-governmental postal services were higher on cultural stability. Furthermore, in health care and other potentially hazardous industries, conformity and reliability were both priorities and central characteristics in their organizations' cultures (Hudson, 2003;Kolk & Levy, 2001;Vogus, Sutcliffe, & Weick, 2010). ...
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This review presents comprehensive analyses of extant research on culture creation and change. We use the framework of culture creation and change (Kim & Toh, 2019), which consists of three unique perspectives, to understand past research on the antecedents of cultures. The basis of the functionality perspective is that environmental changes shape cultures, and thus, the created cultures enable an organization to address the demands of its environments effectively. In contrast, the leadership perspective argues that leaders have disproportional influence on cultures, and when exercising such influence, they are often unsuccessful at creating functional cultures. The leadership perspective comprises two subperspectives-the leader-trait and cultural transfer perspectives. The leader-trait perspective argues that when creating cultures, leaders often overlook the functionality of cultures but rely heavily on their traits. The cultural transfer perspective suggests that leaders often recreate the cultures that they have experienced in the past. Building on this framework, we review 74 studies in 68 articles across multiple disciplines to widen our understanding of culture creation and change. We then present agendas for future research guided by a four-stage model and a theory of coordinated actions for creating functional cultures. Finally, we discuss methodological limitations in past studies and offer possible solutions.
... When enterprises and stakeholders establish sound information disclosure channels, the corporate resources utilization rate and effect would be uplifted (Orlitzky, 2003), and ultimately it would be reflected in the improvement of financial performance (Waddock, 1997). Disclosure of more environment related promises and practical information by enterprises, apart from accumulating the organizational reputation resources and establishing legitimate status (Gray, 1995;Cho, 2009;Deegan, 2000;Hooghiemstra, 2000), can also uplift the product innovation ability and dynamic environmental protection demand response ability (Chatman, 1994;Shrivastava, 1995), and enhance brand image and corporate reputation (Brown, 1997;Maignan, 2001), which, ultimately, will be reflected inthe satisfactory financial performance. ...
... Universities and colleges also face the challenges of shrinking state support, competition in college enrolment, and pressure to secure endowments (Manning 2017). We argue that, because universities and colleges operate based on these shared values, higher education employees show some degree of uniformities in their perceptions towards their organisations, despite any differences in organisational cultures (Chatman and Jehn 1994;Kam, Mattson, and Goel 2020). That is, although different employees shape different perceptions toward higher education institutions, overall, their perceptions mirror the reality of higher education. ...
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The United States higher education is facing a unique challenge in information security management due to its distinctive characteristics, such as decentralised structure, academic freedom, and shared governance. These characteristics sharply distinguish higher education from traditional corporations. Gradually, this is beginning to pose a challenge for higher education institutions to adopt the appropriate information technology governance framework, which, for traditional corporations, mostly addresses security governance and leadership in a top-down manner. To address this issue, we examine the effect of perceived information security management approaches on perceived security practices. Our results show that the perceived flexible-oriented approach of information security management is more effective to use in implementing security controls in high education institutions. This seems to contradict most of the findings in the literature that suggest that a control-oriented approach is more effective in enforcing information security policies. Research contributions and implications are discussed, accordingly.
... Additionally, by defining and capturing TR motives, we are able to show the central role that this multidimensional construct plays for TRs in their social causes, especially when these motives are predicted by proactive personality. Tempered radicals desire to change organizations' values over time as internal agents (Chatman & Jehn, 1994) and insider activists (Briscoe & Gupta, 2016). Our results indicate that such individuals are motivated through the combination of a need (self-identity preservation), desire (organizational identity), and wherewithal (coalition building willingness) for enacting self-initiated changes. ...
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Organizations that are adaptive, diverse, and socially responsible are often built by Tempered Radicals (TRs) who implement positive change. These TRs are insider activists who serve as the catalysts for incremental constructive changes within their organization. Little is known about what motivates such individuals. To better understand their motives, we conduct two studies encompassing four samples (N = 1009) from the U.S. In Study 1a-c, we develop and validate a measure of TR motives. The findings support its multidimensionality as a measure as well as its nomological validity. In Study 2, based on the literature on TRs and the proactive motivation model, we hypothesize a model in which the relationships among proactive personality, leader-member exchange, TR motives, and three relevant work outcomes are examined. Using a two-wave survey study design, we find support for the proposed hypotheses. These findings carry implications for practice and future research.
... Civil Service Competency Framework 2012-2017 (2017) Civil Service Human Resources.https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/civil-service-competency-framework.50 Ibidem. ...
... Thus, we suggest future research should validate our study findings in other countries. Furthermore, although our study sample contained many different industries and although we controlled for the industry differences we admit that innovation behaviour could also vary when looking at different industries (Chatman and Jehn, 1994). Therefore, we encourage future researchers to test our findings in further industries focusing on the variances which may result from the different industries. ...
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... According to O'Reilly & Tushman (2008), successful organizations have the capacity to absorb organizational innovativeness into organizational culture and managerial processes in organizations. Basic elements of organizational culture: values, beliefs, and expected behavior influence organizational innovativeness in two ways: through socialization (Chatman & Jehn 1994) and through basic values, assumptions, and beliefs that become guides to behaviors within the organization (Tesluk et al. 1997). Organizational culture has two functions, internal integration and coordination (Martins & Terblanche 2003) and can force members of the organization to accept innovation as the main value of the organization (Hartmann, 2006). ...
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Industry features are considered by Porter, Schmalensee, and many other scholars as the determinants of effective strategy formulation and implementation. While industries are widely different from each other, some common features shape all existing and future industries. This chapter aims to identify these common building blocks of industries and their possible effects on strategizing for the future in a fast transitioning business world. The chapter employs a systematic literature review from the top related journals with at least one of the nine keywords about the industry. The chapter reviews 47 factors or characteristics that form every industry. These industry features are grouped into ten sets of elements, which shapes the ten forces framework, reflecting the interaction among building-blocks of the industry with each other and with strategy implementation practice inside an organization. The chapter concludes by proposing the 'macro-environment, industry, and organization' (MIO) model, which could be utilized by integrating three levels of analyses.
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This literature review provides the current industry context and outlines a theoretical basis to support the research project Reimagining the workforce: building smart, sustainable, safe public transport. This project is funded by the Victorian Department of Transport and the Rail Manufacturing Cooperative Research Centre (RMCRC). The project aims to understand the current needs associated with the future public transport rolling stock workforce in Victoria, and in particular, the strengths, opportunities and challenges presented in overcoming the projected skills and capability crisis it currently faces and the need for innovation. It examines the different organisations who manufacture, maintain and operate rolling stock, and the influences that shape these, such as the procurement process, culture and the community. The review is presented in five sections to provide an overview of the system in which both the issues outlined above exist in the Victorian public transport workforce. The aim of the review is to present a holistic overview of the local context, but it also draws on international literature to understand the deeper underlying issues.
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This research examines how organizational error management culture influences organizational commitment and employee turnover intention through employee psychological safety and perceived fairness. Data was collected from 173 hotel employees in Hong Kong. Using structural equation modeling, this study found that (1) error management culture positively influences employee psychological safety and perceived fairness; (2) error management culture had significant indirect effect on employee’ s turnover intentions, sequentially mediated by perceived fairness, psychological safety and organization commitment.
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This study investigates whether or not accounting and legal decision-makers at publicly traded US firms exhibit a professional affiliation bias with respect to their selection of business service providers. Executives at NYSE or NASDAQ firms who were affiliated with the accounting profession, the legal profession, or neither profession indicated their likelihood of using one of three randomly assigned types of firms (i.e., a CPA firm, a law firm, or a firm with both CPA and attorney partners) to provide five selected business services. The five business services represent the range of accounting and legal services that firms often outsource: audit, tax representation, mergers and acquisitions, trade regulation/interstate commerce, and litigation. We find that executive level decision-makers at publicly traded US firms do exhibit a professional affiliation bias in the selection of business service providers and that this professional affiliation bias is stronger in attorneys than in CPAs. The fact that all respondents were NYSE or NASDAQ executives, rather than students or another surrogate population, provides additional relevance and generalizability to our findings. Identifying this bias can help executives avoid suboptimal initial selection decisions and/or inaccurate performance evaluations of external business service providers.
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Companies perform in the market by their unique organisational culture (OC). Literature has shown that OC is a crucial factor for successful businesses. Being such an important element, OC is widely studied and has captured the attention of researchers all over the world. Strategic orientation, tradition or new market’s demands are main factors that can influence the culture of each enterprise and can provide distinctive organisational cultures. This paper intends to fill a gap in the literature about the general dimensions of organisational culture in Albanian companies. This study also compares results between family and non-family firms. Albania is a developing country that is rapidly changing, and its market is affected by its national culture and globalisation as well. Around 30 years ago a free market was established in Albania. In this perspective, it will be beneficial to develop a comprehensive insight into the culture that business has created during this period of time. Data are gathered between December 2018 and June 2019. SPSS is used to analyse them. Company's fundamental values, attention to details and leaders as a good representation of OC are factors that showed interesting results, indicating a clear perception. Furthermore, regarding the attitudes of family businesses (FBs) compared to non-FBs, innovation and companies' behaviour toward their members are found to have differences.
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The emergency services play an integral role in public health and safety, and operating motor vehicles represents a key activity for these staff. Emergency service workforces are large, and under ever increasing demands. Motor vehicle crashes involving emergency vehicles have been recognized as a serious problem, with emergency and high-risk operating environments routine for these workers. However, given the unique operational structures of these organizations, implementing effective interventions can be difficult. A case study was undertaken with a large emergency service organization in Australia. A mixed methods approach to data collection was used to address the primary aim of exploring the challenges, barriers and facilitators for the uptake of fleet safety initiatives in the emergency service organization. Case study data were collected through document analysis, interviews, observations and site visits. This paper identifies a number of challenges associated with implementing effective interventions in emergency service fleets. Despite knowledge of the specific attributes and risk factors of workplace driving, prevention strategies have traditionally been informed by more general road safety approaches and are driver-centric, which is a similar observation for emergency fleets. Factors contributing to risk, as well as challenges in adhering to safe working practices, were identified across all levels of the risk management framework, particularly at the Agency level (training; management of drivers, including volunteers; fleet purchasing decisions), Regulator level (auditing) and Government level (allocation of resources; response time targets; road rules).
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This chapter focuses on the use of corporate culture as a competitive tool to enhance the performance of organisations. However, the focus of the study was on star-rated hotels in Ghana. To address this, the chapter first focused on determining the corporate culture that is dominant among the star-rated hotels operating in Ghana. Secondly, it also sought to establish the influence that corporate culture has on organisational performance. Out of a population of 680 star-rated hotel managers, a sample of 248 were chosen using stratified random sampling technique. Self-administered questionnaires were used to solicit the views of managers of the selected hotels. In all, a total of 178 responses were retrieved and analysed using descriptive and partial least squares in structural equation modelling. Findings of the study revealed that the rule-bound culture is the dominant corporate practiced by the star-rated hot hotels in Ghana. The study also found that corporate culture significantly predicted organisational performance of star-rated hotels in the country.
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The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of organizational culture types on innovation and to reveal the mediating role of psychological safety in this relationship. This research was carried out with 445 people working in four-star and five-star hotel enterprises, which allowed the research, operating in Turkey. Within the scope of this research, organizational culture was examined over four types of organizations: clan, adhocracy, hierarchy and market. As a result of the analysis, it can be seen that clan, adhocracy and market culture positively affect organizational innovation. However, when psychological safety is included in the model as a mediating variable in the relationship between clan and adhocracy, the analysis shows that psychological well-being is partial in the relationship between clan culture and innovation, and it is fully mediated in the relationship between adhocracy and innovation. JEL Classifications: M140, M540, O310
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Ecosystems have become a major trend in research and practice alike. Within an ecosystem, the so-called orchestrator is considered to be one of the most important roles. However, extant research falls short of explaining how and why this orchestrator role and the resulting tasks of orchestration are allocated to specific ecosystem members. Based on a case study with eight cases, this paper aims to shed light on this crucial question. Our results revealed three basic patterns of ecosystem orchestration: single-, double-, and multi-orchestration ecosystems. These were determined by two key contingencies: production related knowledge and consumption related knowledge. This discovery yields several contributions to research and managerial practice. We show whether, and under which circumstances, orchestrators might include other ecosystem participants in the key tasks of orchestration. We demonstrate how orchestrators allocate these tasks to specific participants in the ecosystem. Furthermore, our results shed light on how orchestrators manage their ecosystem partners and secure their position within the ecosystem. And finally, we introduce a new view on the role of the orchestrator.
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Bir kurumun en değerli varlığı itibarıdır. İtibar kendiliğinden ortaya çıkan bir sonuç değil, yönetilerek geliştirilebilen bir değerdir. İtibar, kurumların çeşitli paydaşları ile olan ilişkilerinde gösterdikleri tutarlı davranışların sonucunda kazanılabilir.
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Der Leser hat ein grundlegendes Verständnis vom Phänomen der Unternehmenskultur und versteht, wie dieses Phänomen inhaltlich und strukturell präzisiert werden kann.
Article
Purpose Culture has been identified as one of the main drivers of the “competitive productivity” (CP) of nations. However, research studies examining the relationships between culture, competition and productivity are highly fragmented across different streams of literature, leaving researchers with a lack of a holistic view of the topic. This study reviews research studies that examined the relationships between culture and productivity and between culture and competitiveness, as well as the joint relationships between culture, productivity and competitiveness in leading economic, business and management journals in the period 2009–2018 in order to identify research gaps and opportunities for future research. Design/methodology/approach The authors used a combination of bibliometric analysis using VOSviewer, text analysis using Leximancer and systematic review by expert reviewers to analyze 293 articles that consider culture, productivity and competitiveness published in leading business, management and economics journals in the period 2009–2018. Findings The findings indicate that, although productivity and competitiveness are often discussed jointly in some policy circles, research studies on the roles of culture on productivity and on competitiveness take place in quite different streams of academic literature, drawing on different sets of concepts and theoretical frameworks. The concept of innovation appears prominently in both sets of the literature as an antecedent of both productivity improvement and international competitiveness. Research limitations/implications The findings highlight the need for more research studies which jointly examine culture, productivity and competitiveness and the relationships between them. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is among the first attempts to systematically analyze the literature on the relationship between culture and CP.
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Decision-making in drug development benefits from an integrated systems approach, where the stakeholders identify and address the critical questions for the system through carefully designed and performed studies. Biopharmaceutics Risk Assessment Roadmap (BioRAM) is such a systems approach for application of systems thinking to patient focused and timely decision-making, suitable for all stages of drug discovery and development. We described the BioRAM therapy-driven drug delivery framework, strategic roadmap, and integrated risk assessment instrument (BioRAM Scoring Grid) in previous publications (J Pharm Sci 103:3377–97, 2014; J Pharm Sci 105:3243–55, 2016). Integration of systems thinking with pharmaceutical development, manufacturing, and clinical sciences and health care is unique to BioRAM where the developed strategy identifies the system and enables risk characterization and balancing for the entire system. Successful decision-making process in BioRAM starts with the Blueprint (BP) meetings. Through shared understanding of the system, the program strategy is developed and captured in the program BP. Here, we provide three semi-hypothetical examples for illustrating risk-based decision-making in high and moderate risk settings. In the high-risk setting, which is a rare disease area, two completely alternate development approaches are considered (gene therapy and small molecule). The two moderate-risk examples represent varied knowledge levels and drivers for the programs. In one moderate-risk example, knowledge leveraging opportunities are drawn from the manufacturing knowledge and clinical performance of a similar drug substance. In the other example, knowledge on acute tolerance patterns for a similar mechanistic pathway is utilized for identifying markers to inform the drug release profile from the dosage form with the necessary “flexibility” for dosing. All examples illustrate implementation of the BioRAM strategy for leveraging knowledge and decision-making to optimize the clinical performance of drug products for patient benefit.
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With the rapid development of computer-based information systems in China, securing organizational systems as information assets is central to achieving a strategic advantage. Because information security (IS) experts with database access are the weakest link in the IS chain, scholarly contributions are needed in this important area. The interpretations of widespread data breaches committed by organizations’ information security experts have significant grounding. Drawing on social control theory, we propose a research framework to examine formal control, informal control, and self-control systems that can affect IS professionals’ perceptions and IS behaviors in Chinese IT organizations. We use in-depth interviews with IS professionals in Wuhan, Beijing, and Shenzhen to answer research questions relating to the research framework. The study’s primary contribution is to go beyond the extant IS research, which concentrates on sanction-based deterrence, and identify multiple dimensions rooted in social control perspectives. Based on interviews with practitioners and researchers, this study further advances our understanding of IS control deviance using information management and communication-related approaches.
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Small and medium-sized enterprises have an important role in contributing to Gross National Product and employment. Therefore their existence needs serious attention, especially in terms of organizational culture, organizational learning and information technology, their influence on competitive strategy because these factors also affect its performance. This review shows that corporate culture has a positive and significant effect on organizational learning and has no significant positive impact on competitive strategy but substantially affects the competitive system. Information technology has a positive and significant impact on the competitive process and company performance. The competitive strategy has a positive and significant effect on company performance.
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Kultura w zarządzaniu to problem bardzo ważny, a zarazem otwarty i niejednoznaczny, zarówno z punktu widzenia teorii, jak i praktyki. Istota problemu wiąże się z jego znaczeniem dla funkcjonowania organizacji jako całości. Kultura stanowi medium uniwersalne, pole działania ludzi i organizacji, a także podstawę wszystkich procesów: sprawowania władzy i wartościowania oraz komunikacji1. Procesy kulturowe w organizacjach pozostają od wielu dekad w obszarze zainteresowań nauk o zarządzaniu. Z jednej strony jest to nurt związany ze społecznymi uwarunkowaniami procesów pracy, sięgający do stosunków społecznych, z drugiej zaś od lat 70. bada się zróżnicowanie kulturowe społeczeństw i jego wpływ na kształt zarządzania. Wśród najważniejszych projektów można wymienić badania społecznych i kulturowych uwarunkowań zarządzania: E. Mayo, E. Jacquesa, G. Hosftede, A. Trompenaarsa i C. Hampden- Turnera, R. House’a. W badaniu procesów kulturowych w zarządzaniu szczególne miejsce zajmują analizy kultury organizacyjnej, prowadzone przez: A. Kennedy’ego, E. Scheina, Ch. Handy’ego, T.E. Deala, P. Bate’a i wielu innych. Analizy te koncentrowały się na pojęciu swoistym dla nauk o zarządzaniu: na kulturze organizacyjnej. Skrypt, który mają Państwo przed sobą, analizuje procesy kulturowe w organizacjach, przyjmując właśnie te dwa główne kierunki rozważań. Główny przedmiot zainteresowania stanowią koncepcje kultury organizacyjnej, będące sercem dyskursu kulturowego w zarządzaniu. Jednakże, jak się wydaje, koncentracja tylko na kulturze organizacyjnej byłaby zbyt wąska. Istotną rolę odgrywa również wpływ kontekstu kulturowego na procesy zarządzania organizacjami. Kultura organizacyjna, kultura społeczeństw, narodów czy regionów, a nawet kultury profesjonalne, są współzależne. Z tych względów nie można prowadzić analizy kultury organizacyjnej z pominięciem innych procesów kulturotwórczych wokół organizacji. Zatem, aby pojąć fenomen kultury organizacyjnej, należy odnieść się do zróżnicowania społeczeństw pod względem wartości kluczowych dla organizacji, takich jak: stosunek do jednostki i grupy, władzy, niepewności i podejmowania ryzyka. Takie postawienie problemu kultury w zarządzaniu pozwala usytuować tę problematykę w szerszym kontekście procesów kulturowych w naukach społecznych. Teoria kultury organizacyjnej stanowi bowiem odbicie rozwijającej się teorii kultury w naukach humanistycznych i społecznych. Celem skryptu jest opisanie perspektyw rozumienia i badania procesów kulturowych w organizacjach, ale także ukazanie płaszczyzn ich możliwej integracji. Podjąłem również próbę przejścia od analizy teoretycznej do propozycji metodologicznych, czyli oceny możliwości zastosowania przyjętego podejścia do badania kulturowych procesów organizowania oraz zarządzania procesami zmian kulturowych. Wydaje się, że w badaniach kultury organizacyjnej warto sięgnąć po nowe inspiracje, ponieważ najbardziej rozpowszechnione koncepcje wyczerpują swój potencjał poznawczy i pragmatyczny. Dalsza eksploatacja klasycznych już modeli E. Scheina czy G. Hofstede, niewiele, moim zdaniem, wnosi do zarządzania. Sądzę, że dobrze byłoby skorzystać z nowych koncepcji kultury, których w naukach humanistycznych i społecznych nie brak. Dlatego też nacisk położony został na poszukiwanie inspiracji w słabo jeszcze rozpowszechnionych, lecz wartościowych perspektywach, takich jak: neoewolucjonistyczne rozumienie kultury organizacyjnej czy krytyczne ujęcie procesów kulturowych w zarządzaniu. To szczególnie ważne, zarówno z punktu widzenia epistemologicznego, jak i metodologicznego oraz pragmatycznego. Chodzi o lepsze zrozumienie kultury w zarządzaniu, która „wpadła w koleiny” modelu „góry lodowej” oraz wymiarów kultury G. Hofstede. Ponadto ważna jest dogłębna analiza skuteczności poznawczej zróżnicowanych metod badania kultury organizacyjnej oraz kultury w zarządzaniu. Co więcej, warto odnieść się do skuteczności praktycznej nurtu zarządzania kulturą, zwłaszcza w obliczu rosnącego sceptycyzmu co do możliwości zarządzania kulturowego samego w sobie. Można wnioskować, że kluczowe dla badaczy kultury w zarządzaniu jest z jednej strony przemyślenie dotychczasowych koncepcji i metod, z drugiej otwarcie się na nowe inspiracje. Pragmatyczna orientacja nauk o zarządzaniu zachęca do podjęcia analizy z punktu widzenia przydatności kultury organizacyjnej dla procesu przeprowadzania zmian. Normatywne dążenia naszej dyscypliny mają na celu doskonalenie organizacji. W tym znaczeniu kultura organizacyjna staje się narzędziem wprowadzania pozytywnych zmian. Wydaje się jednak, że wielu badaczy, w szczególności interpretatywistów i zwolenników nurtu krytycznego, nie traktuje w ten sposób kultury organizacyjnej. Mamy w związku z tym do czynienia z problemem badawczym, który będzie analizowany w tym skrypcie. Jest to podstawowe pytanie o związki pomiędzy procesami kulturowymi organizacji a zarządzaniem zmianami. Książka wykorzystuje moje doświadczenia i dorobek z ostatnich kilkunastu lat, począwszy od problemów poruszanych w publikacjach: „Kulturowe procesy zarządzania” oraz „Kulturowa zmienność organizacji”, poprzez liczne badania i artykuły na temat kultury, aż po nowsze monografie i artykuły na temat neoewolucjonizmu, epistemologii i metodologii zarządzania. Praca ma charakter przeglądowy i koncentruje się na analizach dostępnych wyników badań na temat kultury organizacyjnej. Książka w całości opiera się na opublikowanej w 2012 roku monografii „Kulturowe procesy zarządzania” mojego autorstwa. Osoby zainteresowane poszerzeniem wiedzy na temat kultury organizacyjnej i zarządzania międzykulturowego odsyłam do tej właśnie publikacji.
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