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We present an analysis of human–bear (Ursus spp.) conflicts that occurred in Alaska, USA, from 1880 to 2015. We collected 682 human–bear conflicts, consisting of 61,226 data entries, from various sources available to us. We found that human–bear attacks are rare events, averaging 2.6/year across the study period, though increasing to 7.6/year in the current decade. Grizzly bears (U. arctos) dominated conflicts (88%), followed by black bears (U. americanus; 11%), and lastly polar bears (U. maritimus; 1%). Although grizzly bear family groups are often involved in conflicts (32% of all attacks), single grizzlies are involved more than any other cohort (45%). Human–bear conflicts occurred during every month of the year and the majority occurred during daytime when people were most active (82%). Human group size was a significant factor in bear conflicts: the larger the group (≥2 persons), the less likely to be involved in a confrontation. Habitat visibility also contributed to conflict, the poorer the visibility the more likely bears were to engage with people, presumably because of an inability to detect them until very close. When domestic dogs intervened in attacks, they terminated them nearly half of the time (47.5%). However, in 12.5% of cases, dogs appeared to have initiated the conflict. When involved, rescuers terminated maulings in 90.3% of cases, but were themselves mauled 9.7% of the time. We offer these, and other, insights derived from this work that will inform wildlife biologists’ bear safety training and public outreach. © 2018 The Wildlife Society.
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Original Article
Human–Bear Conflict in Alaska: 1880–2015
Department of Plant and Wildlife Sciences, Brigham Young University, 5050 LSB, Provo, UT 84602, USA
STEPHEN HERRERO, Environmental Science Program, Faculty of Environmental Design, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
ABSTRACT We present an analysis of human–bear (Ursus spp.) conflicts that occurred in Alaska, USA,
from 1880 to 2015. We collected 682 human–bear conflicts, consisting of 61,226 data entries, from various
sources available to us. We found that human–bear attacks are rare events, averaging 2.6/year across the study
period, though increasing to 7.6/year in the current decade. Grizzly bears (U. arctos) dominated conflicts
(88%), followed by black bears (U. americanus; 11%), and lastly polar bears (U. maritimus; 1%). Although
grizzly bear family groups are often involved in conflicts (32% of all attacks), single grizzlies are involved more
than any other cohort (45%). Human–bear conflicts occurred during every month of the year and the majority
occurred during daytime when people were most active (82%). Human group size was a significant factor in
bear conflicts: the larger the group (2 persons), the less likely to be involved in a confrontation. Habitat
visibility also contributed to conflict, the poorer the visibility the more likely bears were to engage with
people, presumably because of an inability to detect them until very close. When domestic dogs intervened in
attacks, they terminated them nearly half of the time (47.5%). However, in 12.5% of cases, dogs appeared to
have initiated the conflict. When involved, rescuers terminated maulings in 90.3% of cases, but were
themselves mauled 9.7% of the time. We offer these, and other, insights derived from this work that will
inform wildlife biologists’ bear safety training and public outreach. Ó2018 The Wildlife Society.
KEY WORDS Alaska, bear attacks, black bear, brown bear, grizzly bear, human–bear conflict, polar bears, Ursus
americanus,Ursus arctos, Ursus maritimus.
Throughout North America, human–bear conflict periodi-
cally results in serious, and sometimes fatal, injuries to both
humans and bears (Herrero 2002). Conflicts between people
and bears include negative interactions that are aggressive,
defensive, or nuisance in nature (Gore et al. 2006). A number
of studies have investigated human–bear conflict in North
America (Herrero 1970; Middaugh 1987; Miller and
Chihuly 1987; Herrero and Higgins 1998, 1999, 2003;
Herrero and Fleck 1990; Miller and Tutterow 1999;
Gunther et al. 2004; Herrero et al. 2011; Wilder et al.
2017). A few authors have specifically addressed human–bear
conflict in Alaska, USA (Middaugh 1987; Miller and
Chihuly 1987; Miller and Tutterow 1999; Suring and Del
Frate 2002; Smith et al. 2008, 2012). Among these,
Middaugh (1987) analyzed Alaska bear attacks from 1900
to 1985. Miller and Tutterow (1999) reported that brown
bear (synonymous with grizzly bear) attacks resulted in 2.75
injuries and 0.42 deaths/year in Alaska from 1986 to 1996.
Our work here expands on that of previous authors,
including 135 years of human–bear conflict in Alaska.
Most of Alaska is home to polar (Ursus maritimus), black (U.
americanus), and grizzly (U. arctos) bears. All 3 have been
involved in human–bear conflicts that can be minimized by
understanding circumstances associated with such events.
Without this knowledge, fear and ignorance may lead to
conflict that is otherwise avoidable. A willingness of humans to
tolerate apical predators, in spite of the risk of injury they
represent, is key to bear conservation (Loe and Roskaft 2004).
It is critical that managers provide bear safety messages that are
based on the best information possible, not on supposition and
conventional wisdom. Accurate data regarding the risk of bear
conflict generate public support for bear management and
conservation (Loe and Roskaft 2004, Gore et al. 2006).
Our research objectives were to locate, categorize, and
analyze all available records of human–bear conflict in Alaska,
and synthesize implications for management, including how
bear conflict may be avoided. We focused on both attacks
(injury) and incidents (the person was not injured) because
both provide insight into bear behavior and the most effective
means for dealing with aggressive bears. We discuss the process
used for reviewing and deciding which records to include in
these types of analyses. To construct this data set, we included
variables associated with these events, including specific
aspects of the bear(s) and human(s) involved, temporal and
spatial characteristics of the attack–incident location, and all
other information we believed would foster a better
understanding of the nature of these events.
Alaska is located in the northwestern portion of North
America and occupies an area of 1,530,699 km
. The human
Received: 9 December 2016; Accepted: 29 December 2017
Wildlife Society Bulletin; DOI: 10.1002/wsb.870
Smith and Herrero Alaska Human–Bear Conflict 1
population in Alaska was estimated to be 33,426 in 1880, but
grew to 739,828 by 2016. We obtained population estimates
for each decade from 1880 to present from Alaska censuses
( The grizzly bear
ranges throughout the state, except for a few islands and
wetlands in western Alaska. The most recent published
estimate of grizzly bears in Alaska was 31,700 (Miller 1993).
Black bears occur in most forested areas of Alaska. Formal
population estimates do not exist for black bears, but the
Alaska Department of Fish and Game states that there were
approximately 100,000 black bears in Alaska (Alaska
Department of Fish and Game 2017). Polar bears are
marine mammals that occasionally venture onto land
(Amstrup 2003). In Alaska, polar bears from both the
Chukchi and Southern Beaufort Seas subpopulations
occasionally range up to 80 km inland, primarily for maternal
denning. Recent estimates of polar bear were about 3,800
(Amstrup 2003).
For clarity, we use human–bear conflict definitions consistent
with Smith et al. (2005) and Hopkins et al. (2010). A
“human–bear interaction” (also known as an “encounter”),
occurs when a person and bear are mutually aware of each
other (Smith et al. 2005). Bears may react with seeming
indifference, by leaving the area or by approaching the person
(s). “Human–bear conflict” occurs when a bear has exhibited
stress-related or curious behavior such that a person took
evasive action, a bear made physical contact with a person,
exhibited predatory behavior, or was intentionally harmed or
killed (not including legal harvests) by a person. Human–
bear conflict includes both bear attacks and human–bear
incidents. A “bear attack“ involves intentional contact by a
bear resulting in human injury (Smith et al. 2005). A
“human–bear incident” (or simply “bear incident”) involves
“human–bear conflict” but did not lead to a person that was
physically harmed, yet the person was at significant risk of
injury. By the term “significant risk of injury,” we mean that
the bear could have injured (or even killed) the person,
though the outcome was otherwise. In all such cases, the
person and bear were in close proximity (generally within
<10 m), and sometimes made contact. We included bear
incidents in our database and analyses because the only
difference between an incident and attack was physical
injury; we can learn important aspects of human–bear
conflict from them. Hence, in this paper, we report on both
bear attacks (injury events) and bear incidents (noninjury
No state or federal agency is responsible for maintaining
records of injuries or deaths from bear attacks or bear
incidents in Alaska (Miller and Chihuly 1987). Therefore,
we collected bear incidents from available state and federal
records, news media, books, online computer searches, and
word of mouth. The state of Alaska maintains records of
defense of life or property (DLP) involving the out-of-season
taking of bears when they are damaging property or
threatening persons. We accessed those records up through
1990, but we were not granted access to more recent records,
presumably to protect the identities of persons involved.
Upon request, a number of federal agencies (National Park
Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Land
Management, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Forest Service)
provided access to records of human–bear conflict having
occurred within their respective jurisdictions. We carefully
reviewed these records and included them in the database as
appropriate. By the term “as appropriate,” we mean to say
that some records did not include risk of injury to the person
(s) involved (e.g., a National Park that included a record of a
bear damaging a structure). We did not include events of that
nature. Some agencies maintained very detailed accounts,
including multiple interviews of the person(s) involved.
Others, however, provided records lacking essential details
(i.e., time of day, no. of persons involved, firearm type, etc.),
but we included them because they provided data that
promoted a better understanding of the behaviors by bears
and humans that likely played a role in human–bear conflict.
We searched many online databases of regional news
sources for archived records of human–bear conflict. All
online searches included the term “bear” along with the
following words in various combinations: attack, confronta-
tion, incident, encounter, mauling, and injury. News sources
included both newspapers and television news reports. We
accessed newspapers—such as the Fairbanks Daily News
Miner, the Anchorage Daily News, the Juneau Empire, and
the Chilkat Valley News—over the internet. We also
accessed archived television news reports, such as those from
local television stations in Anchorage, Alaska. Several of
these sources reported on the same conflict and provided
additional details that increased our understanding of a given
confrontation. We drew from all sources to gather as much
detail as possible.
In search of additional human–bear conflicts, as well as
supplementary details regarding records already collected, we
carefully reviewed a number of books devoted to human–bear
conflicts. For example, L. Kaniut published 4 books (Kaniut
1983, 1989, 1997, 2001) that chronicled human–bear
conflict in Alaska. Other works, such as Etling’s (1997)
double volume Bear Attacks: Classic Tales of Dangerous North
American Bears provided additional confrontations from
Alaska. We contacted several of these authors for additional
details and clarification as needed. We occasionally
interviewed persons regarding bear confrontations in which
they were involved so we could gather additional information
or clarify existing reports. For example, we telephoned and
emailed a number of federal and state employees who had
been involved in bear conflict. These interviews provided
valuable insight regarding these events. Occasionally, victims
of bear attacks contacted us with details their encounter,
often providing additional details.
There is no means of independently verifying the accuracy
of human–bear conflict, particularly those instances that
occurred many years previous; therefore, we included all
records that fit our selection criteria. However, we did
exclude those encounters where the person(s) involved was
not at significant risk of injury. For example, Alaska State law
allows for the legal killing of bears out of season, or without a
2 Wildlife Society Bulletin 9999()
harvest permit, when a person’s life or property (DLP) is at stake
dlp.pdf). When reviewing Alaska’s records, we found that the
majority of DLP records involved little to no risk to the person
involved (e.g., shot the offending bear from a vehicle, cabin
window, etc.), so we did not include them in analysis. However,
in some DLP records, the person involved was at risk of the bear
injuring them, so we included those records. Some speculate that
more records are needed for a more accurate analysis of human–
bear conflict in Alaska, but we have no reason to believe that the
significant ways with their addition.
We have exercised caution when interpreting each record of
conflict, and are aware that our sample may be unintention-
ally biased. We do believe, nonetheless, that we have not
excluded many records because of the sensational nature of
bear attacks and intense interest in bear–human conflict
shared by wildlife professionals and the public alike.
Nonetheless, we believe that this large sample size has
allowed us to identify important variables associated with
human–bear conflict that will promote human safety and
bear conservation though conflict avoidance. We do caution
the reader, however, to be aware of potential biases in
conclusions based on these data of unproven authenticity,
accuracy, and perhaps possible inconsistencies of reporting
over time.
Human–bear conflicts included in this analysis, involved
1 bears, 1 persons, and the person(s) was either injured
(i.e., an attack) or at significant risk of injury (i.e., an
incident). Our database contained up to 141 variables for
each conflict, including the date and time of conflict,
location, number of persons, bear species, bear cohort,
human injury, success of firearms or bear spray, etc. We made
an effort to restrict analyses and conclusions to those aspects
of these data we felt confident were accurate and unbiased.
Importantly, no single record provided information regard-
ing every variable we assessed, so in analyses and reporting
our results, the number of incidents that contributed
information rarely added up to the total number reported.
For example, few victims reported how long incidents lasted
in minutes; however, some victims did provide a time
duration, and when we analyzed those incidents to provide
an assessment of duration, the number of contributing
confrontations did not add up to the total number of
incidents in the database.
We recorded both the size of groups in bear country (e.g.,
size of a hunting party), as well as the size of the group
involved in the bear encounter. For example, a party of 4
individuals may have been on a hunting trip, but only 1 of
them encountered a bear while hunting solo. Similarly,
when 3 persons were hiking on a trail but not together, the
encounter group size was 1, not 3, when encountering a
We assigned a person’s activity to 1 of 2 categories: primary
and secondary. Primary activity referred to the reason that a
person(s) was in bear country (i.e., hunting, camping,
logging, etc.), whereas the secondary activity referred to what
the person(s) was doing at the time of the encounter (e.g.,
hiking, hunting, jogging, etc.). After reviewing each event we
ascribed probable cause using the following categories:
1. Wounded—the bear had been shot and was attempting to
evade pursuers when the conflict occurred.
2. Carcass defense—the bear was guarding–feeding upon a
carcass when the person(s) came upon it.
3. Surprise encounter—the human–bear encounter was
abrupt and the human and bear were surprised. Such
encounters generally occurred at close range (<50 m). A
person rounding the bend in a trail and suddenly
encountering a mother and cubs would be an example
of a surprise encounter.
4. Curiosity—the bear appears to have been attracted to a
person, their camp, or property. There is no surprise
element and curiosity appears to have been the bear’s
5. Provoked—the person approached the bear, which
triggered a defensive–aggressive reaction. An example
would be a person moving closer for a photograph.
6. Predation—was identified by a series of behaviors—
searching, following and testing, attacking (capturing),
killing, sometimes dragging a person, sometimes burying,
and often feeding upon a person. Vocalizing and stress
behaviors by the bear were usually absent (Herrero and
Higgins 2003).
7. Potential predation—the bear stalked or moved steadily
toward people and was persistent in this approach.
We used linear regression to quantify the relationship
between human population size in Alaska and number of
human–bear conflicts per decade. We obtained Alaska’s
human population statistics from
We used Wallace’s “rule of nines” to subdivide the human
body into representative surficial proportions (Evers et al.
2010). According to Wallace, the surface area of an average
human body can be subdivided as follows: head–neck (9%),
back (18%), chest (18%), arms (9% each), perineum (1%),
and legs (18% each). Bear-inflicted injuries were tallied by
region of the body (i.e., head, back, arms, chest, perineum,
and legs), then compared with expected rates per region had
attack sites been randomly distributed. We determined
differences between observed and expected attack-site
frequencies using chi-square analysis.
In an attempt to determine whether the bear or the
human initiated a given conflict, we qualitatively evaluated
each incident by reviewing whether or not the person(s)
involved adhered to conventional wisdom for bear
avoidance (e.g., making noise while hiking) and deterrence
(e.g., carrying bear spray, a firearm or some other defense).
As we reviewed the details of each incident, we scored
persons a þ1 for each bear safe practice they followed and a
1 for those activities that predispose one to bear
problems. We classified the resulting summed value as
follows: initiator indeterminable, bear was likely the
initiator, bear was the initiator, person was likely the
initiator, and the person was the initiator.
Smith and Herrero Alaska Human–Bear Conflict 3
We qualitatively ranked visibility of the land cover in which
conflicts occurred. Those rated “poor” were either heavily
forested, dense shrub lands, or rough terrain with short sight
distances. Land cover rated “fair” had trees–shrub cover, but
also open areas providing improved visibility, as compared
with those rated “poor.” Land cover rated “good” was
typically very open, such as beaches, alpine meadows, and
We used the chi-square goodness-of-fit test to determine
whether observed and expected data were independent of
each other, such as whether party group size and bear
encounter group size were different or not (Dytham 2003).
We used the z-test to compare the proportions from 2
independent groups to determine if they were different. We
also used the Pearson product-moment correlation coeffi-
cient (r) as a measure of the strength of the linear relationship
between two variables. We determined significance at
a¼0.05 level for all statistical tests.
We collected 682 human–bear conflicts, consisting of 61,226
data entries, from the various sources available to us in Alaska
(Fig. 1). Using our defined human-at-risk criteria, we
reviewed 650 DLP incidents on file at Alaska Department of
Fish and Game and included 59 (9%) in our database. These
conflicts spanned 135 years (1880–2015), and affected
groups comprised 1,447 persons, although only 1,141 (79%)
of them were directly involved in the confrontation. Of these
conflicts, 326 were noncontact incidents and 352 were
attacks, for average annual occurrences of 2.4 and 2.6/year,
respectively. These conflicts involved 698 bears with 131
dependent offspring, including 543 grizzly bears (78%), 92
black bears (13%), 13 polar bears (2%), and 34 bears of
unreported species (5%).
Three-hundred forty six bear-inflicted injuries included 62
fatalities, 59 persons severely injured, 71 persons moderately
injured, 86 persons slightly injured, and 68 persons injured
without the specific degree reported. In 336 incidents (336 of
682 ¼49%), no one was injured but we included these in the
analysis because persons involved were deemed to have been
at significant risk of injury. We found that grizzly bears
(n¼289) inflicted 83.5% of all injuries; black bears (n¼32)
9.2%; polar bears (n¼4 conflicts) 1.2%, and unknown
species of bears 6.1% (n¼21). Of the 62 bear-inflicted
fatalities, grizzly bears accounted for 79.0% (n¼49), black
bears 8.1% (n¼5), polar bears 3.2% (n¼2), and unknown
species of bear 9.7% (n¼6; Table 1).
Specific locations of bear-inflicted injuries on victims’
bodies were reported in 312 of 682 incidents (46%; Fig. 2).
Locations of victims’ injuries differed from those expected
under a nonselective, random scenario (x
P<0.001). The head–neck region of victims was attacked
4.5 times more than expected, while other regions of the
body were involved roughly half as much as expected, other
than the arms, where injuries did not vary from those
Temporal Nature of Bear Conflicts
Alaska human–bear conflicts steadily increased from the
earliest recorded in 1880 until 2015, with an annual average
of 2.6 attacks/year across the entire study period, 4.8/year in
the past 50 years, and 7.6 attacks in the past decade (Fig. 3).
Alaska population growth and the steady increase in bear
attacks between 1880 and 2015 were found to be highly, and
positively, correlated (r¼0.93, P<0.001).
Bear attacks (n¼300) occurred during every month of the
year in Alaska. Most (145/300; 48%) occurred during the
summer months (Jun–Aug), followed by autumn (Sep–Nov;
78/300; 26%), with equal numbers (38/300; 13%) in winter
(Dec–Feb), and spring (Mar–May). The time of day was
reported for 266 human–bear conflicts, including 141
incidents and 125 attacks (Fig. 4). These conflicts were
not randomly distributed throughout the day (x
P<0.001), with the most incidents occurring between
1000–1200 (23%) and 1700–1900 (20%), with attacks most
frequently occurring from 1400 to 1900 (36%). Few
incidents occurred from midnight through 1000 (18%);
Figure 1. Spatial distribution of human–bear confrontations in Alaska,
USA, 1880–2015.
Table 1. Bear-inflicted injuries caused by grizzly, black, and polar bears in
Alaska, USA, 1880–2015.
Injury level
species Polar Black Grizzly
4 0 10 47 61
No injury 12 7 58 242 319
Slight injury 4 1 11 66 82
21 1 61 65
Severe injury 2 0 4 45 51
Fatality 6 2 5 47 60
Grand total 30 11 89 508 638
4 Wildlife Society Bulletin 9999()
whereas, a third of all attacks took place during those early
morning hours.
Estimates of duration were provided for many human–bear
conflicts (attacks: n¼254; incidents: n¼303; Fig. 5). Most
attacks lasted <3 min (n¼137, 54%), and half of all
incidents were <3 min as well (n¼152, 50%). Approxi-
mately 85% of attacks (216 of 254) and 75% of incidents (227
of 303) were over in <10 min. Very few of either category
(7% or 10%, respectively) extended beyond 30 min, though
some lasted more than 1 hr (3% and 5% each).
Profile of Bears Involved
Polar bears conflicts have been so rare (n¼12) that few
conclusions can be made from these data (Table 2). However,
a key difference between black and grizzly bears involved in
conflicts is apparent in the involvement of family groups:
black bear mothers and dependent young rarely engaged with
humans (16% of all black bear conflicts), whereas grizzly bear
family groups were the second only to single bears (32% of all
grizzly bear conflicts; Table 2). Focusing specifically on
attacks data, black bear family groups constituted only 11%
of attacks, whereas grizzly bear family groups accounted for
37% of all attacks (Table 2).
In 426 conflicts (62%), persons reported the bear’s activity
when first observed. For example, upon rounding a bend in a
trail a person may have encountered a bear digging roots,
fishing, or simply walking the trail toward them (Fig. 6). In a
majority of instances (55%), bears were engaged in natural
activities (e.g., resting, walking, foraging, etc.) when first
encountered. In the remaining observations (45%), bears
were already engaged with the person when the person
became aware of them (e.g., charging, stalking, etc.). Bears
involved in conflicts with people (n¼577) had the following
outcomes: bears suffering no injury (n¼351, 61%), bears
wounded to some degree (n¼24, 4%), bears severely injured
(n¼10, 2%), bears that died from human-inflicted injuries
(n¼186, 32%), or died because of management action
(n¼6, 1%).
Profile of Humans Involved
The majority of persons involved in bear conflicts (n¼669)
were adult men (n¼553, 83%), with less than one-fifth as
many women (n¼98, 14%). Few children (n¼24, 4%) were
directly involved in bear conflicts and they were accompanied
by adults in all cases.
Data for 648 groups were considered, except for 7 groups
that were >7 persons (Fig. 7). If bear encounters were
independent of group size, we would expect conflicts to
reflect the proportion of group sizes reported. However, the
observed distribution varied from these expectations, with
single persons involved more than expected and groups 2
involved less than expected (x
¼145.21, P<0.001; Fig. 7).
The primary activity (n¼421) persons were most often
engaged in when encountering bears was hunting (n¼190,
45%), followed by hiking (n¼119, 28%; Fig. 8). However,
when confronted by a bear, the most common secondary
activity (n¼376) people were engaged in was hiking
(n¼221, 59%), followed by hunting (n¼59, 16%). This
reversal is due to the fact that many hunters were hiking, not
hunting, at the time they engaged with bears. Persons
conducting research, fishing, and hunting were less often
involved in bear incidents than expected, whereas those
preparing fish and game, as well as hiking, were involved
more often than expected (x
¼327.90, P<0.001).
Generally, bears involved in incidents left the area on their
own (n¼420, 72.8%), but were sometimes driven off by
rescuers or dogs. In 17.9% of incidents (n¼124), a person
came to the rescue of the person(s) being mauled. Rescuers
were successful in terminating the mauling 90.3% of the
time, whereas 9.7% (n¼12) of them were also attacked. In
5.9% (n¼40) of incidents, domestic dogs (Canis familiaris)
intervened. Dogs defending persons were successful in
terminating the mauling 47.5% (n¼19) of the time. In 5
instances (12.5%) the dog was likely responsible for inciting
an attack, either by bringing a bear back to its owners (n¼4)
or barking, thus attracting the bear (n¼1).
Bear Avoidance and Deterrence Evaluations
We subjectively evaluated each conflict and ascribed probable
causes to those with sufficient information (n¼596; Fig. 9).
Human-initiated incidents, including surprise encounters
(n¼239), invading bears’ personal space (n¼62), wounding
bears while hunting (n¼27), provoking the bear (n¼7), and
stumbling upon a bear defending a carcass (n¼15),
accounted for the majority of human–bear interactions
(350 of 596 conflicts; 59%). Bear-initiated incidents,
Figure 2. Bodily distribution of bear-inflicted injuries on 313 persons in
Alaska, USA, 1880–2015.
Figure 3. Distribution of human–bear conflicts (incidents þattacks) from
1880 to 2015, Alaska, USA.
Smith and Herrero Alaska Human–Bear Conflict 5
including curiosity (n¼197) and predatory (n¼49),
accounted for 41% of conflicts (246 of 596 incidents).
Examining conflicts in yet greater detail, we evaluated
individuals’ actions with respect to conventional wisdom
pertaining to bear avoidance and deterrence. This analysis
allowed us to assess whether the bear or human had initiated
the conflict (n¼577; Fig. 10). In 24% of these records
(n¼138), we could not determine whether the bear or
person(s) initiated the interaction (“indeterminable”). Bears
were deemed initiator 30% of the time (n¼175 of 577
records), and humans 46% of the time (n¼264 of 577
records). Rankings of land cover in which human–bear
conflicts occurred (n¼403) indicated that the poorer the
visibility, the more likely conflicts were to occur, with the
attack-to-incident ratio highest in the poor visibility areas
(n¼234, 58%; Fig. 11).
The role of firearms and bear spray in resolving human–
bear conflicts has been previously addressed (Herrero and
Higgins 1998; Smith et al. 2008, 2012). As of 2015, 75
instances of bear spray use were recorded, of which 70
(93.3%) were successful in altering bears’ aggressive behavior,
whereas 5 (6.7%) were not. However, of the 197 persons
involved in these 75 encounters, only 4 received slight
injuries (2.0%), all inflicted by grizzly bears. We reviewed
328 conflicts involving firearms and found that firearm
success varied by type, with long guns 75% successful (144 of
193 incidents) and handguns 81% (35 of 43 incidents)
successful in defending the user against aggressive bears,
Figure 4. Temporal distribution (hr of day) of human–bear conflicts in Alaska, USA (n¼266), 1880–2015.
Figure 5. Duration (min) of attacks and conflicts of human–bear conflicts in
Alaska (n¼557), 1880–2015.
Table 2. Demographic composition of bears involved in conflicts with
humans in Alaska, USA, 1880–2015.
Bear species Bear cohort Attacks (n) Incidents (n)
Polar Unknown or single 2 4
Female with young 0 2
Adult females 0 1
Adult males 2 1
Black Unknown or single 29 37
Female with young 4 11
Adult females 2 4
Adult males 0 5
Grizzly Unknown or single 148 123
Female with young 107 64
Adult females 9 22
Adult males 29 40
Total 332 314
6 Wildlife Society Bulletin 9999()
although the differences between handgun and long gun
success were not significant (z¼1.07, P¼0.29). Reasons for
firearms failure included not enough time to react, shots
missed the bear, wounded bear, mechanical failure (i.e.,
short-stroked or mechanism jammed), and reluctance to
shoot (which gave the bear time to make contact). Only long
guns were used on polar bears with 100% kills (n¼6), but
one person was fatally mauled before the bear died. Long
guns were the predominant firearm used on both black (73%)
and grizzly bears (82%). Given that nearly 50% of all
encounters occurred within <10 m, it is not surprising that
firearms can be difficult to bring into play in many bear
encounters (Smith et al. 2012).
Our research not only confirms many widely believed tenets
of bear safety, but also provides a number of unique insights.
The risk of aggressive bear encounters in Alaska is very low,
as elsewhere in North America. Undoubtedly, countless
interactions between people and bears occur without incident
(Herrero 2002). Nonetheless, conflict does occur and our
research provides findings that can help to reduce it.
We found a strong, positive correlation between the
increase of human–bear conflicts and human population
growth in Alaska. Herrero et al. (2011) reported a similar
relationship between black bear-inflicted fatalities in North
America and the size of the associated human population.
This relationship between population size and bear attack
frequency has also been reported for other bear species, such
as the sloth bear (Melursus ursinus) in India (Sharp et al.
2017). This suggests that the more people work and recreate
in bear country, the more likely conflict will occur. However,
alternative theories explaining the increase in bear conflict
exist. For example, Shelton (1998) interpreted a rise in bear
conflict in British Columbia, Canada, to be due to wildlife
management policies that supported the release, rather than
euthanizing, of problem bears back into the wild. Alaska
rarely relocates bears; therefore, we believe the steady
increase in human-bear conflict over time is largely due to an
increase in the number of Alaskans and more people
spending time in bear habitat, rather than problem bears
being released into the wild instead of killed.
The number of people in parties involved in bear
confrontations suggests that smaller groups (1 or 2 persons)
are more likely to be attacked than are larger parties. Our
analysis of encounter group size and overall group size
showed that small groups (<2 persons) were much more
likely than expected to be involved in bear conflicts.
Underlying reasons for this relationship may include 1)
Figure 6. Bear activity prior to human–bear conflict in Alaska, USA
(n¼430), 1880–2015.
Figure 7. Size of groups of people involved in human–bear conflicts in
Alaska, USA (n¼638), 1880–2015.
Figure 8. The primary and secondary activities of persons involved in
human–bear conflicts in Alaska, USA, 1880–2015.
Figure 9. The probable cause for human–bear conflicts in Alaska, USA
(n¼592), 1880–2015.
Smith and Herrero Alaska Human–Bear Conflict 7
bears are less likely to be surprised by larger groups because
they are noisier and therefore easier to detect and avoid, and
2) larger groups represent a greater counter-threat to a bear.
Regardless, hiking in groups of 2 persons appears to
provide greater safety when in bear country, but only if
groups remain together rather than dispersed. A group of 5
persons hiking hundreds of meters apart is actually 5 groups
of 1 person each. Importantly, we have no records of 2
persons grouping together and standing their ground when
faced with an aggressive bear and being injured. Unfortu-
nately, bear encounters are generally sudden, chaotic, and
result in some degree of panic with persons running for
safety. In those incidents, bears often pursue fleeing single
persons and attack.
The majority of persons involved in bear attacks were adult
males (83%), with adult females comprising 14% and
children 4%. Children were never involved with bears when
unaccompanied by adults. We do not know the exposure rate
of bears to the different age–sex classes of people in Alaska,
so we cannot tell if bears are more likely to attack a specific
age–sex group of humans. The user groups most often
involved in bear confrontations were hikers, hunters, and
anglers. Middaugh (1987) reported a significant shift in the
activities that persons were engaged in when attacked for the
periods of 1900–1979 to 1980–1985. Earlier in the 20th
century, hunters (49%) were more often engaged in bear
attacks than any other user group (e.g., hikers comprised
13%). After 1980, however, the hunter user group had
declined to 15% of all incidents, while hiking had increased
to 35%. However, Middaugh (1987) had relatively small
sample sizes (79 attacks before 1980 and 26 after 1980).
When we compared our data from before and after 1980, we
found that hunters were involved in 37% of all attacks prior
to 1979 (n¼77) and had declined to 27% (n¼124) after
1979. Before 1979, hiking was involved in 18% of all attacks
(n¼38), but this increased only slightly after 1979 (n¼105)
to 23%. Although our numbers differ, trends are the same as
noted by Middaugh (1987), showing that the percentage of
attacks involving hunters has declined while percentage of
those involving outdoor recreationists has increased. For the
same time period (before and after 1980), joggers involved in
bear attacks increased 19-fold (from 1 incident to 19),
bicyclists 5-fold (from 1 incident to 5), and researchers 7-fold
(from 5 incidents to 33 after 1980). None of these joggers or
bicyclists were carrying a bear deterrent and we believe that
contributed to the outcome.
In our data, no person carrying bear spray was killed, and
98% of persons involved suffered no bear-inflicted injuries.
Those injured (n¼4), received only minor injuries. This
finding is consistent with previous studies of the effectiveness
of bear spray (Herrero and Higgins 1998, Smith et al. 2008).
Persons carrying firearms fared worse (76% success rate
overall; Smith et al. 2012). Attempting to dispatch a
charging bear in heavy cover over uneven ground while under
extreme duress is undoubtedly difficult. Hence, we suggest
only those proficient with firearms in extreme conditions as
present in a sudden bear encounter should rely on them for
There has been much written about the different
temperaments of North America’s bear species. Herrero
(1972, 2002) speculated that the grizzly bear was most often
involved in injurious human–bear conflicts because of its
evolutionary history. On the sparsely treed tundra of North
America where grizzlies evolved, the best defense may have
been having a good offense: attack first and evaluate later.
Alternately, forest-dwelling black bears have opportunities
to avoid conflict not afforded grizzlies by either climbing a
tree or disappearing into the underbrush. Consequently,
most human–black bear interactions end with the bear
seeking refuge in cover. The paucity of black bear attacks in
135 years of history attest to this strategy. Polar bears, though
occasionally touted as stalkers and killers of man, have failed
largely to live up to that moniker (Cramond 1986, Fleck and
Herrero 1989, Wilder et al. 2017). Polar bears are primarily
dependent on marine mammals, such as ringed seals (Pusa
hispida) for sustenance (Amstrup 2003), and humans are not
a part of bears’ search image for food. Anything as large and
equipped with claw and fang as a polar bear potentially is very
dangerous, but that is not to say that they have an innate
inclination to see humans as food and our data confirm that.
Our findings agree with the conclusions that grizzly bears are
Figure 10. An assessment of responsibility for human–bear conflict in
Alaska, USA (n¼577), 1880–2015.
Figure 11. Relationship between habitat visibility and human–bear
conflicts, Alaska, USA (n¼403), 1880–2015.
8 Wildlife Society Bulletin 9999()
by far the most dangerous of North American bears, with
black bears a distant second, and polar bears the least likely to
engage with humans. Although all 3 species are potentially
dangerous, the innate tendencies of these bears toward
human intrusion indicate very different survival strategies as
evidenced by our data.
From these analyses, we summarize here a number of
insights regarding safety in bear country that will be
beneficial for managers to incorporate in the bear safety
trainings as well as safety messaging to the public:
1. Human–bear conflicts are rare events (2.6/yr overall),
and recent increases (up to 7.6/yr in the most recent
decade) closely track population increases. This suggests
that rather than bears becoming more aggressive over
time, increases in human–bear conflict are largely due to
more people using bear habitat.
2. Our data suggest that grizzly bears are much more likely
to engage in conflict with humans than are black bears,
and the least likely bear to engage in conflict is the polar
3. When bears attack, they focus on the victims’ head–
neck region 4.5 times more often than would be
expected if the attack site was a random choice. Once
physically attacked, protection of the head and neck is
critical. The defensive positions described by Herrero
(2002) are recommended to protect the head and
4. Bear conflicts have occurred during every month of the
year in Alaska. Therefore, it is unwise to enter bear
country without a deterrent, or to be careless with food at
any time.
5. Bear conflicts occur mostly during the day (82%) when
people are hiking through bear habitat, not in camp or at
6. Bear attacks are brief, with most lasting <3 min.
7. Grizzly bear family groups are often involved in conflicts
(32% of all attacks), but single bears are involved more
than any other cohort (45%).
8. When in bear country, group size plays an important role
in avoiding bear conflicts: soloists were involved in bear
conflicts significantly more than expected, whereas
groups 2 were involved significantly less than expected.
9. We deemed the majority of bear conflicts as avoidable,
with 60% likely due to people’s inappropriate actions in
bear country.
10. Bear conflicts were most common in poor visibility areas.
When poor visibility areas cannot be avoided, people
should group together and make noise to avoid
surprising bears.
11. Bear spray was highly effective in Alaska, with 98% of
persons using spray avoiding any injury.
12. Firearms were effective 76% of the time when used as
bear deterrents. Only skilled firearms users should rely
primarily on firearms for bear protection.
13. Rescuers made a difference in the outcome of bear attack
victims. When rescuers came to the aid of bear attack
victims, the mauling ended 91% of the time. However,
8.8% of rescuers also suffered injuries by the attacking
bear (12 of 136 instances).
14. Domestic dogs helped terminate maulings nearly half of
the time (47.5%). However, in 12.5% of cases, dogs
appeared to have initiated the attack.
This data set represents a sampling of human–bear conflict
in Alaska. Consequently, we have attempted to limit
conclusions to those aspects of these data that would be
relatively unaffected by the addition of more records. For
example, the distribution of conflicts by time of day or year
would not likely be affected by the addition of more reports
because there is no reason to believe a bias exists in this
respect. Unquestionably, many incidents go unreported for a
variety of reasons. It is believed that many human–bear
interactions resolve peaceably, are not newsworthy, and
therefore, underreported. This includes times when persons
successfully dispatch a bear with a firearm. Such conflicts are
not reported by those who desire to avoid attention for any
number of reasons. That said, although these data are
incomplete, we believe that many useful insights can be
gained from our analysis of the data. Just as provoking a bear
attack for scientific investigation is unethical, so is doing
nothing with available data. It is our hope that insights
gained from this effort will further human safety and bear
An important management strategy to reduce bear attacks is
to inform people how to avoid and manage aggressive
encounters with bears. Strategies such as carrying deterrents
like bear spray, traveling in groups of 2 people, and being
alert for bears and bear sign are well-known and supported by
our results. Given the convenience and effectiveness of bear
spray, as well as the efficacy of firearms in the hands of skilled
persons, entering bear country with no deterrent is unwise.
Nonetheless, the vast majority of persons in our database
(n¼855) had no bear deterrent on them, and when faced
with an aggressive or predatory bear, had few options. Hence,
people run, climb trees and play dead, all with poor results,
when they should have been readying a proven deterrent and
standing their ground. We have presented a number of
insights regarding safety in bear country, information that
managers can incorporate into their respective bear safety
messages to help the public and colleagues recreate and work
safely in bear country. It is our hope that efforts such as this
will not only enhance human safety in bear country but also
promote bear conservation through conflict avoidance.
We thank the many persons who provided incidents for this
analysis. We also thank many biological technicians and
assistants who aided in gathering incidents and inputting
them into the database. We thank those who provided
additional insights regarding specific bear encounters. We
are grateful for the constructive comments of Associate
Editor D. Haukos of the Wildlife Society Bulletin and for
valuable input from several anonymous reviewers.
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Associate Editor: Haukos.
10 Wildlife Society Bulletin 9999()
... Direct attacks on humans by large carnivores, among other types of conflict, can have serious and far-reaching implications for both carnivores and humans [6,7]. On the contrary, reliable information on the characteristics of such incidents might assist people in avoiding or minimizing such circumstances [8,9]. This, in turn, can help garner support from general public to protect and coexist with large carnivores, which is especially useful in areas where humans are present on a regular basis in carnivore habitats [9][10][11]. ...
... On the contrary, reliable information on the characteristics of such incidents might assist people in avoiding or minimizing such circumstances [8,9]. This, in turn, can help garner support from general public to protect and coexist with large carnivores, which is especially useful in areas where humans are present on a regular basis in carnivore habitats [9][10][11]. ...
... In accordance with Hopkins et al. [33] vocabulary of terminology and concepts developed for human-bear study and management, we define human-sloth bear conflict as any incident in which humans and bears come into close proximity, prompting the bear to react aggressively, resulting in the human taking evasive action and/or the bear making physical contact with the person. Therefore, we also took into account the incidents where the people were not attacked but were at considerable risk of being attacked and injured by the bears [9,19]. ...
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Human-sloth bear conflict is common throughout most areas where sloth bears coexist with humans. Though similar reports are available from different parts of Nepal’s lowlands, comprehensive studies that can inform human safety and conflict mitigation are highly lacking. We used data from questionnaire-based interviews with conflict-affected people and witnesses to provide detailed information about human-sloth bear conflict (1990-2021) in the Trijuga forest, an important but unprotected area for sloth bear conservation in Nepal. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and regression analysis. For the time period, 66 conflict incidents involving 69 human individuals were recorded, with an annual average of 2.06 (SD = 1.48) incidents and 1.80 (SD = 1.32) attacks. The attacks injured 59 people with a fatality rate of 8.47% among those that were injured. Conflicts primarily impacted people from minority ethnic groups and mostly affected men. Victims were generally of working age group (25 – 55), engaged in farming, and frequented the forest regularly for resources. Conflicts typically occurred between 0900 and 1500, inside forests, and in places of poor land cover visibility. Poor visibility was also a significant positive determinant of bear attacks on humans. Despite statistically insignificant variation in conflicts across seasons or months, they tended to be more prevalent during the monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Victims of bear attacks frequently had serious injuries, especially to the head and neck area of the body. Serious injuries were more likely to occur to lone individuals than to people who were in groups of two or more. Taking into account sloth bear ecology and the socio-demographic profile of the conflict victims, we discuss measures that can promote coexistence between humans and sloth bears in light of the findings.
... In areas where human development and activities overlap habitat with abundant food resources, such as a salmon stream, it is imperative to have mitigation strategies aimed at reducing negative bear interactions (Johnson et al. 2018). While educating people recreating, working, or living in bear country is a critical aspect of brown bear management (Wilder et al. 2007, Smith andHerrero 2018), identifying areas of concentrated and elevated use by bears allows for targeted mitigation measures. Moreover, knowing which species of bear is present in an area and involved in an incident is critical to how educators teach people how to react to particular situations (Smith and Herrero 2018). ...
... While educating people recreating, working, or living in bear country is a critical aspect of brown bear management (Wilder et al. 2007, Smith andHerrero 2018), identifying areas of concentrated and elevated use by bears allows for targeted mitigation measures. Moreover, knowing which species of bear is present in an area and involved in an incident is critical to how educators teach people how to react to particular situations (Smith and Herrero 2018). ...
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Aggregated use along salmon-bearing (Oncorhynchus spp.) streams is common for coastal brown bears Ursus arctos; however, it is much less common in non-coastal (interior) environments, especially in the Arctic. A concurrent study of GPS-collared brown bears in the interior Brooks Range mountains, northern Alaska, revealed that salmon-bearing streams and their use by brown bears were more prevalent than previously known. Our goal was to estimate the number, gender, and species of bears (Ursus spp.) using anadromous streams while salmon were present in an area of northern, interior Alaska. We deployed single-catch breakaway hair snares on heavily-used bear trails along 7 km sections of two anadromous streams to identify individual animals through DNA genotypes. We collected 119 hair samples from August and September in 2016 and 2017 which revealed 31 unique brown bears and five American black bears Ursus americanus across both streams. Using a capture-with-replacement analysis, we estimated 24 (95% CI: 22–27) brown bears used 7 km of one stream and 15 (95% CI: 9–35) brown bears used 7 km of the other. Across both streams, we detected a higher proportion of females than males, more brown bears than black bears, and greater relatedness among bears that used the same stream. The high number of brown bears estimated along these streams belies their overall low densities in the region, while relatedness patterns suggests that bears obtain behavioral specialization through social learning. A 354 km industrial road is permitted to be constructed along the southern flanks of the Brooks Range, bisecting numerous streams and rivers, including the two sampled above. Given our findings, we identify potential mitigation measures to reduce human-bear conflicts related to aggregated brown bear use along anadromous streams.
... 3 Though, they are also reported from other parts of Nepal. 4 Studies showed that chances of human and bear encounters with injuries to humans were higher in their territory diminished area. [5][6][7] However, such encounter-mauling and categorical complex injuries perpetrated by a black bear are scarcely reported from the primary site of the incident happened that lacks the true information. ...
... In our study, major number of mauls occurred 11 (78.57%) were from the same village which is closed by forest, the habitat of bears, which has a similarity with other studies. 2,5,6 There were certain limitations of this study. These included the small sample size and single centre with secondary data that would limit its generalisation. ...
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Introduction: Bears are robust and agile wild creatures that can potentially inflict injuries. Black bears (Ursus thibetanus) are an inhabitant of the mountainous part of Nepal. Encounters between humans and bears generally occur in the bear-prevalent areas of Nepal and the world inflicting complex categorical injuries. The aim of the study was to find the prevalence of bear maul injury among patients presenting to the Department of Surgery in a tertiary care centre. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was done in the Department of Surgery in a tertiary care centre from 1 August 2017 to 1 September 2022. Data was collected from the records of the Department of Surgery after receiving ethical approval from the Institutional Review Committee (Reference number: 078/79/38). The collected data included time of arrival in the hospital, type of bear, types of laceration, wound type, and demographic of patients. Convenience sampling method was used. Point estimate and 95% Confidence Interval were calculated. Results: Among 2980 patients presenting to the Department of Surgery, the prevalence of bear maul injury was 15 (0.50%) (0.25-0.75, 95% Confidence Interval). Of which, all had laceration injury, with the face and scalp 9 (60%) being the highest injured site. Autumn was the season attacked most in daytime. Conclusions: The prevalence of bear maul injury was lower than in other studies done in similar settings.
... In Romany, half of the bear attacks were related to people fighting with bears (Bombieri et al. 2019). Human responses to bear encounters can provoke attacks if bears are injured, humans are hunting bears, bears are surprised, or bears are defending food (Smith and Herrero 2018). ...
... These results highlight the clear difference in circumstances leading to attacks in low-and high-income countries, and the special challenges faced by low-income nations. In high-income regions, such as most North American states, human activities and large carnivores are frequently spatially separated, and most people involved in conflicts are those (a) visiting natural areas for recreational purposes [7,9,36,49]; or (b) living in urban and nearby landscapes, where potentially dangerous species may approach houses or inner-city parks, e.g., because they are involuntary attracted by anthropogenic food, or voluntarily fed [9,50]. In contrast, in lower-income countries, a greater portion of the human population live and work in rural areas where human and large carnivore habitat and activities overlap [18,40,51] (see also S1 File and S1 Table for more details on attack circumstances per species and region). ...
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Large carnivores have long fascinated human societies and have profound influences on ecosystems. However, their conservation represents one of the greatest challenges of our time, particularly where attacks on humans occur. Where human recreational and/or livelihood activities overlap with large carnivore ranges, conflicts can become particularly serious. Two different scenarios are responsible for such overlap: In some regions of the world, increasing human populations lead to extended encroachment into large carnivore ranges, which are subject to increasing contraction, fragmentation, and degradation. In other regions, human and large carnivore populations are expanding, thus exacerbating conflicts, especially in those areas where these species were extirpated and are now returning. We thus face the problem of learning how to live with species that can pose serious threats to humans. We collected a total of 5,440 large carnivore (Felidae, Canidae, and Ursidae; 12 species) attacks worldwide between 1950 and 2019. The number of reported attacks increased over time, especially in lower-income countries. Most attacks (68%) resulted in human injuries, whereas 32% were fatal. Although attack scenarios varied greatly within and among species, as well as in different areas of the world, factors triggering large carnivore attacks on humans largely depend on the socioeconomic context, with people being at risk mainly during recreational activities in high-income countries and during livelihood activities in low-income countries. The specific combination of local socioeconomic and ecological factors is thus a risky mix triggering large carnivore attacks on humans, whose circumstances and frequencies cannot only be ascribed to the animal species. This also implies that effective measures to reduce large carnivore attacks must also consider the diverse local ecological and social contexts.
... Humans kill black bears in retaliation for such losses or to prevent future losses, posing severe threats to the species' conservation (Garshelis and Steinmetz, 2020;Letro et al., 2020;Gomez et al., 2021). Moreover, these conflicts appear to increase in many areas (Can et al., 2014;Smith and Herrero, 2018;Prajapati et al., 2021), which pose significant challenges to human-bear coexistence (Ali et al., 2018). ...
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Conflicts between humans and Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) are widespread in Asia and pose challenges to human-bear coexistence. Identifying effective mitigation measures requires a thorough understanding of human-bear conflicts (HBC). We assessed spatial-temporal patterns of HBC and their impact factors around the Baoshan Section of the Gaoligongshan Nature Reserve (GNNR) between 2012 and 2020. The results suggested that crop raiding by bears occurred most commonly, followed by beehive loss, livestock depredation, and human casualties. HBC hotspots occurred near the protected area where local people frequently encountered bears. The landscapes with lower elevation and human density were at higher risk of HBC. Furthermore, villages with more fragmented forests or less fragmented croplands were more vulnerable to HBC. The differences in agricultural structures contributed to the diverse composition of HBC between the two regions. In addition, crop raiding by bears decreased significantly, probably due to the changing landscape composition and configuration derived from human behaviors, yet livestock depredation and beehive loss increased. Our findings indicated the complex interrelationship between the environment, bears, and humans, which could guide the implementation of mitigation measures. We recommend multiple approaches based on a social-ecological system to mitigate HBC.
... These studies all support the idea that physical human-wildlife conflict for mammal species culminates from increased territorial defense associated with offspring presence (Wolff and Peterson 1998). For example, wolves exhibited aggressive behaviors to defend dens (McNay 2002), and the presence of offspring increases likelihood of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) attacks on people (Smith and Herrero 2018). ...
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The establishment of coyote (Canis latrans) populations in urban areas across North America has been accompanied by increased rates of human–coyote conflict. One factor thought to promote physical conflict between coyotes and people or pets is the presence of coyote pups near natal dens; however, this idea has not been tested, and no multivariate study of den selection within cities has occurred. Our objectives were to conduct a multivariate analysis of third‐ (i.e., home range) and fourth‐order (i.e., den sites) habitat selection at dens and determine whether proximity to dens is associated with reports of physical conflict with coyotes. We found 120 dens by following coyote trails using snow tracking within urban green spaces that comprise presumed high‐quality habitat for coyotes in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. We used resource selection functions to assess habitat selection for dens, testing variables related to land cover and anthropogenic features at the third order, and testing microsite habitat features via paired sites at the fourth order. We defined conflict encounters from comments in a community reporting database and used general linear models to assess their spatial proximity to the nearest den and prevalence during the pup‐rearing period compared to the rest of the year. Habitat selection was strongest at the fourth order, wherein coyotes selected for abundant hiding cover, steep slopes, and eastern exposure. The prevalence of physical conflict with coyotes increased during the pup‐rearing period. Conflict also increased near known dens as an overall effect and when reports occurred outside of naturalized urban areas. These results suggest that coyotes in Edmonton den in green spaces near human development in microsites that minimize detection by people via steep slopes and dense vegetation. We suggest urban wildlife managers increase public safety education about recognition of coyote denning habitat and coyote defensive behaviors, especially outside of naturalized urban areas, because of the observed increase in physical conflict near dens. Urban coyotes selected den sites with abundant hiding cover, steep slopes, and eastern exposure at a fine scale, but they did not exhibit strong selection at a coarser scale or avoidance of human infrastructure. Because coyote dens are associated with higher rates of physical conflict between coyotes and people or pets, this information will enable land managers to proactively mitigate risk through strategic management.
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Численность популяции бурого медведя Камчатки растет на протяжении последних 20 лет. В период 2016-2022 гг. плодовитость отмечается на уровне 2,0 медвежат на одну самку, с небольшими флуктуациями в разные по урожайности основных кормов годы. The population of Kamchatka brown bear has been growing over the past 20 years. In the period 2016-2022 birth rate averages 2 cubs per female, with small fluctuations in different of main feed yield years.
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Understanding causes of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) attacks on humans is critical to ensuring both human safety and polar bear conservation. Although considerable attention has been focused on understanding black (U. americanus) and grizzly (U. arctos) bear conflicts with humans, there have been few attempts to systematically collect, analyze, and interpret available information on human-polar bear conflicts across their range. To help fill this knowledge gap, a database was developed (Polar Bear-Human Information Management System [PBHIMS]) to facilitate the range-wide collection and analysis of human-polar bear conflict data. We populated the PBHIMS with data collected throughout the polar bear range, analyzed polar bear attacks on people, and found that reported attacks have been extremely rare. From 1870–2014, we documented 73 attacks by wild polar bears, distributed among the 5 polar bear Range States (Canada, Greenland, Norway, Russia, and United States), which resulted in 20 human fatalities and 63 human injuries. We found that nutritionally stressed adult male polar bears were the most likely to pose threats to human safety. Attacks by adult females were rare, and most were attributed to defense of cubs. We judged that bears acted as a predator in most attacks, and that nearly all attacks involved ≤2 people. Increased concern for both human and bear safety is warranted in light of predictions of increased numbers of nutritionally stressed bears spending longer amounts of time on land near people because of the loss of their sea ice habitat. Improved conflict investigation is needed to collect accurate and relevant data and communicate accurate bear safety messages and mitigation strategies to the public. With better information, people can take proactive measures in polar bear habitat to ensure their safety and prevent conflicts with polar bears. This work represents an important first step towards improving our understanding of factors influencing human-polar bear conflicts. Continued collection and analysis of range-wide data on interactions and conflicts will help increase human safety and ensure the conservation of polar bears for future generations.
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We examined the reasons bears are reported killed in defense of life or property (DLP) in Alaska as an index to causes and frequency of conflicts between humans and bears, and compared the sex and age composition of DLP kills with that of sport-killed bears. Data came from standardized questionnaires filled out by persons shooting the bears. Numbers of sport-killed brown bears (Ursus arctos) and black bears (U. americanus) and number of DLP-killed brown bears increased during 1970-96, but number of DLP-killed black bears did not increase. Overall, bear deaths in DLP circumstances were a small proportion of total deaths for both brown bears (5.2%) and black bears (3.1%). In urban areas, however, DLP deaths represented up to 22.3% of total brown bear mortalities and 6.1% of total black bear mortalities. Compared to sport kills of brown bears, DLP kills contained relatively more subadult males (P < 0.001) and more older (age 11-19) females (P < 0.001). More DLP brown bears were shot because the shooter considered them an immediate threat (40.8%) or a potential threat (30.1 %) than to protect property (29.0%). Only 11 % of DLP black bears were considered an immediate threat; 48.9% were considered a potential threat, and 35.3% were shot to protect property. Adult brown bear females accompanied by offspring were much more likely to have been shot because they were an immediate threat (84.4%) than solitary adult females (40.7%) (P< 0.001). The type of property most often damaged or threatened by both brown bears and black bears killed in DLP circumstances was a dwelling, but most respondents indicated no property damage occurred. For both species, most DLP bears were killed when the shooter was at home or in a dwelling, but a larger proportion of brown bear (32.1 %) than black bear (4.9%) DLP deaths occurred when the shooter was hunting. Based on newspaper accounts collected during 1985-96, brown bear attacks resulted in 2.75 human injuries and 0.42 deaths per year in Alaska. Black bear attacks in Alaska resulted in 0.33 human injuries/year during this same period. Only 1 human death caused by a black bear in Alaska is known to the authors during a period that encompassed >25 years.
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We compiled, summarized, and reviewed 269 incidents of bear-human conflict involving firearms that occurred in Alaska during 1883-2009. Encounters involving brown bears (Ursus arctos; 218 incidents, 81%), black bears (Ursus americanus; 30 incidents, 11%), polar bears (Ursus maritimus; 6 incidents, 2%), and 15 (6%) unidentified species provided insight into firearms success and failure. A total of 444 people and at least 367 bears were involved in these incidents. We found no significant difference in success rates (i.e., success being when the bear was stopped in its aggressive behavior) associated with long guns (76%) and handguns (84%). Moreover, firearm bearers suffered the same injury rates in close encounters with bears whether they used their firearms or not. Bears were killed in 61% (n = 162) of bear-firearms incidents. Additionally, we identified multiple reasons for firearms failing to stop an aggressive bear. Using logistic regression, the best model for predicting a successful outcome for firearm users included species and cohort of bear, human activity at time of encounter, whether or not the bear charged, and if fish or game meat was present. Firearm variables (e.g., type of gun, number of shots) were not useful in predicting outcomes in bear-firearms incidents. Although firearms have failed to protect some users, they are the only deterrent that can lethally stop an aggressive bear. Where firearms have failed to protect people, we identified contributing causes. Our findings suggest that only those proficient in firearms use should rely on them for protection in bear country.
We analyzed 66 cases of field use of capsicum sprays between 1984-94. In 94% (15 of 16) of the close-range encounters with aggressive brown (grizzly) bears (Ursus arctos), the spray appeared to stop the behavior that the bear was displaying immediately prior to being sprayed. In 6 cases, the bear continued to act aggressively; in 3 of these cases the bear attacked the person spraying. In 1 of these 3 cases, the bear left after further spraying. In all 3 injurious encounters, the bear received a substantial dose of spray to the face. In 88% (14/16). of the cases, the bear eventually left the area after being sprayed. While we do not know how these encounters would have ended in the absence of spray, the use of spray appears to have prevented injury in most of these encounters. In 100% (20 of 20) of the encounters with curious brown bears or bears searching for people's food or garbage, the spray appeared to stop the behavior. The bear left the area in 90% (18 of 20) of the cases. In only 2 of these 18 cases was it known to have returned. In 100% (4 of 4) of the encounters with aggressive and surprised, or possibly predacious black bears (Ursus americanus), the spray appeared to stop the behavior that the bear was displaying immediately prior to being sprayed. However, no bears left in response to being sprayed. In 73% (19 of 26) of the cases associated with curiosity, the spray appeared to stop the behavior. The bear left the area in 54% (14 of 26) of the cases, but in 6 of these 14 cases it returned. In 62% (8 of 13) of the incidents where the black bear received a substantial dose to the face, it either did not leave the area or left the area and returned. Sprays containing capsicum appear to be potentially useful in a variety of field situations: however, variable responses by bears occur. Because the database is composed of diverse field records, the results should be viewed with caution.
We update or extend data presented by Herrero (1985). Injury rates were low, 1980-1985. The highest rates were 317,700 and 328,645 park visitors per injury inflicted by black or grizzly bear in Kluane and Denali National Parks. Injury rates calculated against number of backcountry user nights were significantly higher for all parks where injuries occurred, but this exaggerates the danger from bears in backcountry areas since day use is not included. In certain national parks such as Glacier (Montana) there appears to have been an increase in grizzly bear-inflicted injury to persons travelling off-trail. The potential danger from grizzly bears that are habituated to people and/or have learned to feed on people's food or garbage is stressed by focussing on 8 fatal, predatory attacks on people in Glacier (Montana), Yellowstone, and Banff National Parks between 1967-1986. Habituated grizzly bears may also attract photographers who may be injured or killed by such bears. Carrying dead ungulates or imitating the sounds of prey may attract grizzly bears and this may lead to human injury. Five cases of grizzly bear-inflicted injury (including 2 deaths) were identified in which this appeared to have been a common circumstance. Additional evidence is cited supporting the idea that grizzly bear injuries inflicted during sudden encounters are most likely to occur in habitat where grizzly bears have been attracted by natural foods during the time when the injury occurred. A through search for records dated between about 1965-1985 of polar bear-inflicted injury revealed only 20 injurious incidents. In 15 or 16 of these the bear's motivation appeared to have been predation. Six people were killed in such incidents. At least 251 polar bears were killed during aggressive encounters. Only 5 or 6 aggressive interactions (3 or 4 leading to human injury) were attributed to females apparently defending their young. Female polar bears appear to be less aggressive toward people in defense of young than are grizzly bears, but more aggressive than black bears.