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Fairness Perceptions as a Moderator in the Curvilinear Relationships Between Job Demands, and Job Performance and Job Satisfaction

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... Innovative work behavior (IWB) scale developed by Janssen (2000Janssen ( , 2001 was used for measuring employees' innovative work behavior in the organization. Participants self-rated their innovative behavior at work with the IWB scale consisted of 9 items. ...
... Participants self-rated their innovative behavior at work with the IWB scale consisted of 9 items. Janssen (2000Janssen ( , 2001 described IWB scale with three dimensions by utilizing Kanter's (1988) work on the stages of innovation. First three items refer to "idea generation", the next three items refer to "idea promotion" and the last three items refer to "idea realization" dimensions. ...
... When the factor analysis performed with the remaining items again, it was found that innovative work behavior variable was grouped under two factors and total variance explained ratio was 64%. When the items which were grouped under these two factors examined, it was found that the items of idea generation were formed the same as Janssen's (2000Janssen's ( , 2001 instrument. However, idea promotion and idea realization dimensions emerged as one dimension. ...
Article
In this study, it is searched the relationship between the organizational climate for innovation and innovative work behavior of the employees in the ICT “Information and Communication Technology” sector in Turkey. According to the findings of this study, positive innovative climate in the organization has a significant and positive effect on the innovative work behavior of the employees whereas, negative innovative climate in the organization has a negative impact on the innovative work behavior of the employees. Resource supply for the innovation in the organization has also a significant and positive effect on the innovative work behavior of the employees. However this effect is relatively weaker than the effect of the positive innovative climate in the organization.
... There are several related constructs that have been measured by survey scales. These include outcomes of creativity (e.g., Tierney et al., 1999) and individual-level innovative behaviour (e.g., Janssen, 2001) as well as underlying processes and components (e.g., Axtell et al., 2000 -suggestions and implementation) and types (e.g., Madjar et al., 2011 -radical and incremental). Scales also exist for related constructs, including creative process engagement (Zhang & Bartol, 2010) and creative personality (e.g., Gough, 1979). ...
... Within the category of creative actual, we can distinguish between constructs measuring idea generation outcomes (Oldham & Cummings, 1996), generation1suggestion outcomes (Baer & Oldham, 2006) and generation1implementation outcomes (Axtell et al., 2000;. We can also distinguish between constructs measuring creativity outcomes (Baer & Oldham, 2006;Oldham & Cummings, 1996;Tierney et al., 1999), those measuring engagement in creativity processes (Janssen, 2001;Scott & Bruce, 1994;Zhang & Bartol, 2010) and those measuring both . Finally, we can also distinguish between constructs assessing creativity outcomes overall (Oldham & Cummings, 1996) and those assessing different outcomes, namely radical and incremental creativity (Madjar et al., 2011). ...
Chapter
It seems paradoxical, but much research into creativity is done in a noncreative, standardized way. Survey scales are one of the most common ways of assessing creativity, particularly in social psychology, social science and management research. In this chapter, we will discuss the method’s background, how it has been used to measure creativity, the advantages and disadvantages, and the implications for researchers. In particular, we will share some data which combines the most commonly used creativity survey scales and discuss overlaps, reliability and validity.
... It has been shown that innovative behavior is crucial for the effective functioning of organizations (George & Zhou, 2001). Individual innovative behaviors in the workplace are complex and consist of a set of three different tasks: idea generation, idea promotion, and idea realization (Janssen, 2001;Scott & Bruce, 1994). As innovative behaviors are usually characterized by discontinuous activities (Schroeder et al., 1989), individuals can be involved in any combination of generating, promoting, and realizing ideas at any one time (Scott & Bruce, 1994;Van der Vegt & Janssen, 2003). ...
... Leaders' immediate supervisors rated how often the leaders performed innovative behavior by completing Janssen's (2001) nine-item scale. A sample item is "Creating new ideas for difficult issues." ...
Article
Idiosyncratic deals (i-deals) are individualized agreements of a nonstandard nature negotiated between employers and employees regarding employment terms, which are regarded as being beneficial for the organization. On the bases of social comparison theory and equity theory, we hypothesized that witnessing the development i-deals of their coworkers would trigger employees' feeling of unfairness, causing lower cooperation intention. We further hypothesized that perceived future i-deals and task interdependence would play moderating roles in this reduction. Participants were 284 employees in China. The results show that feelings of unfairness mediated the relationship between witnessing development i-deals and the witnesses' cooperation intention. The positive relationship between witnessing development i-deals and feelings of unfairness was weaker when employees perceived a stronger possibility of themselves obtaining a future i-deal, and a high level of task interdependence weakened the negative effect of feelings of unfairness on employees' cooperation intention.
... IWB helps an individual generate, promote and realise ideas in order to modify herself as well as the work environment (Janssen, 2000). Extant literature considers IWB to be a complex behaviour comprising of three distinct behavioural tasksidea generation, idea promotion and idea realisation (Janssen, 2000(Janssen, , 2001Janssen and Van Yperen, 2004). These innovation processes require managers to engage in discontinuous activities and extra-role behaviours (Janssen, 2000), and they "can be expected to be involved in any combination of these behaviours at any time" (Scott and Bruce, 1994, p. 582). ...
... Engaging in innovative behaviour at the workplace is considered to be an extrarole behaviour (Janssen, 2000;Katz and Kahn, 1978), and this requires individuals to go beyond their prescribed role expectations (standard job performance) (Janssen, 2001) and simultaneously engage in discretionary innovation-related activities (Katz and Kahn, 1978). Thus, individual ambidexterity will help enhance IWB because it requires a balancing of the in-role and extra-role work behaviours (i.e., standard job performance and IWB, respectively). ...
... IWB helps an individual generate, promote and realise ideas in order to modify herself as well as the work environment (Janssen, 2000). Extant literature considers IWB to be a complex behaviour comprising of three distinct behavioural tasksidea generation, idea promotion and idea realisation (Janssen, 2000(Janssen, , 2001Janssen and Van Yperen, 2004). These innovation processes require managers to engage in discontinuous activities and extra-role behaviours (Janssen, 2000), and they "can be expected to be involved in any combination of these behaviours at any time" (Scott and Bruce, 1994, p. 582). ...
... Engaging in innovative behaviour at the workplace is considered to be an extrarole behaviour (Janssen, 2000;Katz and Kahn, 1978), and this requires individuals to go beyond their prescribed role expectations (standard job performance) (Janssen, 2001) and simultaneously engage in discretionary innovation-related activities (Katz and Kahn, 1978). Thus, individual ambidexterity will help enhance IWB because it requires a balancing of the in-role and extra-role work behaviours (i.e., standard job performance and IWB, respectively). ...
... We assessed employees' engagement in disruptive creative behaviour with a three-item scale based on previous research (De Clercq, Rahman, & Belausteguigoitia, 2017;Janssen, 2001). In light of our focus on the radical character of this behaviour, we adapted the wording of the original items, such that they captured the extent to which employees come up with ideas or solutions that strongly deviate from the status quo, instead of being just new ideas or solutions. ...
... The extent to which employees experience extensive time pressures during the execution of their job tasks was measured with a four-item scale of work overload, consistent with prior research (Janssen, 2001;Pooja et al., 2016). Two example items were "I often have to work too fast" and "I often have problems with the pace of work" (Cronbach's alpha = .78). ...
Article
With a basis in conservation of resources theory, this article considers the connection between employees' resilience and disruptive creative behaviour—conceptualized herein as the extent to which they generate radically new ideas for organizational improvement—as well as how this connection might be invigorated by resource‐draining work conditions that stem from excessive workloads and unfavourable decision‐making processes. Data collected through a survey administered to employees in an organization that operates in the distribution sector reveal that employees' resilience levels spur their disruptive creative behaviour, and this process is more prominent among employees who believe they have insufficient time to complete their work tasks (i.e., suffer from high work overload) and operate in organizational climates marked by high rigidity or dysfunctional politics. The findings accordingly inform organizational practitioners that the allocation of employees' personal resource bases to disruptive creative behaviours might be particularly useful among employees who face substantial adversity in their organizational functioning.
... It has been shown that innovative behavior is crucial for the effective functioning of organizations (George & Zhou, 2001). Individual innovative behaviors in the workplace are complex and consist of a set of three different tasks: idea generation, idea promotion, and idea realization (Janssen, 2001;Scott & Bruce, 1994). As innovative behaviors are usually characterized by discontinuous activities (Schroeder et al., 1989), individuals can be involved in any combination of generating, promoting, and realizing ideas at any one time (Scott & Bruce, 1994;Van der Vegt & Janssen, 2003). ...
... Leaders' immediate supervisors rated how often the leaders performed innovative behavior by completing Janssen's (2001) nine-item scale. A sample item is "Creating new ideas for difficult issues." ...
Article
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Servant leadership has become an increasingly popular construct in organizational behavior research because of its effectiveness in organizations. Using self-determination theory and broaden-and-build theory, we proposed a moderated mediation framework in which the leader's sense of accomplishment would mediate the relationship between servant leadership behaviors and the leader's innovative behavior. The leader's extraversion was used as the boundary condition of the relationship. Participants comprised 232 leaders and their immediate supervisors, working in firms based in northern China. Results show that servant leadership behaviors indirectly influenced leaders' innovative behavior via their sense of accomplishment. In addition, leaders' extraversion strengthened the impact of sense of accomplishment on their innovative behavior, as well as the indirect effect of servant leadership behaviors on their innovative behavior. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... For measuring in-role job performance five-item scale is developed by Podsakoff and MacKenzie's (1989). However, Janssen, 2001) nine-item measures innovative or extra-role job performance. Podsakoff and MacKenzie (1989) developed a five-item scale to measure in-role-job performance. ...
... Podsakoff and MacKenzie (1989) developed a five-item scale to measure in-role-job performance. The nine items of Janssen (2000, Janssen, 2001 are used to measure the extra role job performance or innovative job performance. Figure 1 ...
... Employees that involved entirely in the process of work will be satisfied with their work if they think they receive fair treatment equivalent to the effort they invest. Many scholar supported these findings where rewards that based on individual performance is more significant in increasing job satisfaction (Janssen, 2001). ...
... An individual's innovative behaviors consist of complex behavioral tasks, including idea generation, idea promotion, and idea realization (Janssen, 2001). Research has shown that physiological capital components foster innovative behaviors in the workplace (Abbas & Raja, 2015). ...
Article
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Keywords: Ambidexterity, Managers' Psychological Capital, Exploration and Exploitation The purpose of the present research is to propose a psychological framework for managers' ambidexterity in public organizations. The data were collected through 11 interviews conducted over five months. The saturation was reached at nine interviews using conventional content analysis. As a result, eight factors were identified to achieve ambidexterity in public organizations, including courage, gratitude, spirituality, creativity, resilience, optimism, hope, and self-efficacy. These factors can be used to develop a new framework for ambidexterity in public non-profit organizations. This framework can also provide a psychological basis for creating and strengthening managers' ability to plan ambidextrous behaviors. ©CIKD Publishing
... Job demands are not inherently a negative phenomenon in the workplace. If job demands are reasonably manageable, many managers may find the challenges interesting and satisfying, as the work offers them opportunity to apply and develop their expertise and experience (Gardner 1986;Garner and Cummings 1988;Janssen 2001;Scott 1996). After all, people in leadership positions usually reach their status from seeking and succeeding in situations others may avoid. ...
Article
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Decision making by nurses is complicated by the stress, chaos, and challenging demands of the work. One of the major stressors confronting nurses is perceived time pressure. Given the potential negative outcomes on nurses due to perceived time pressures, it seems logical that a nurse manager's ability to lead nurses in moderating this time pressure and in turn to make better decisions could enhance nurse well-being and performance. Paralleling research in the nursing literature suggests that, in order to improve patients' judgement of the care they received, nurse managers should embrace ways to lower nurses' perceived time pressure. In this conceptual paper, we propose a model to help mitigate time pressure on nurse managers and their frontline nurses based on the research regarding time pressure, psychosocial care, time management, and self-leadership. Three metaconjectures and suggested future studies are given for further consideration by organizational and psychological researchers.
... given that our team creativity and innovation measure assesses both a general tendency for overall innovative job performance behaviour (see Janssen, 2001) as well as two sub-components. The fit indices were χ 2 (102) = 39.880, ...
Article
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Visionary leaders paint an image of the future with the intention to persuade others to contribute to the realization of that specific future. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that visionary leadership stimulates team creativity and innovation because visionary leadership promotes goal alignment amongst team members which, in turn, facilitates team creativity and innovation. In an experimental study (N = 50 groups), we found that goal alignment indeed mediated the relationship between visionary leadership and team creativity, but not between visionary leadership and team innovation. In a field study (N = 308 respondents) we found visionary leadership to be related to both team creativity and innovation through goal alignment. Moreover, the field study also showed that communication quality strengthened the relationship between goal alignment and team innovation. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of visionary leadership in teams where creativity and innovation are desirable team performance outcomes.
... Earlier studies have identified the satisfaction of an employee with the work and his/her immediate supervisor as the most important feature of employee satisfaction in the workplace (Janssen, 2001). This finding led to Kreitner and Kinicki (2001) calling this feeling of employees about their work like job satisfaction and defining it as an emotional reaction of an employee arising from work. ...
Article
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This paper aims to report on the outcome of the study that investigated the cause of the ongoing antagonistic employment relationship (ER) in the South African public sector workplace, which has negatively affected employment relations satisfaction (ERS) and psychological contract (PC) fulfilment. This antagonism between management and employees has lowered the levels of employer-employee trust (Sudiarta, 2021), as well as job satisfaction (Silitonga et al., 2020) in the workplace. This study, therefore, explored the type of ER, levels of ERS, and state of PC that is prevalent in the workplace to recommend solutions for the situation. A quantitative research approach was adopted for the study because of its appropriateness for the study’s objectives. Data collection was done by means of a structured questionnaire. The results revealed a prevalence of positive ER in the workplace, a higher level of ERS among employees, a negative state of PC, and a positive inter-relationship among the three variables. This led to the conclusion that although the three variables are positively interrelated, the PC influences both ER and ERS negatively in the workplace. This study contributes to knowledge and literature on ER, ERS and PC pertaining to their nature, interrelationship and collective effect in the workplace.
... Perceived fairness is essential in performance management because employees tend to accept unfavourable decisions if the results are produced through fair and transparent procedures (Frey, Homberg, and Osterloh 2013). Janssen (2001) found that employee recognition of unfair rewards in job evaluation processes might reduce job satisfaction and performance. Salimäki and Jämsén (2010) also stated that perceived fairness in pay decisions is related to merit pay effectiveness and employees' perceived effectiveness of performance-related pay systems. ...
Article
The purpose of this study is to examine the differing effects of pay for performance on organizational commitment and job satisfaction in the public, private, and nonprofit sectors. Using data from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study, this research found that pay for performance has a positive relationship with job satisfaction and organizational commitment in the private sector, a negative relationship with job satisfaction in the public sector, and a negative relationship with organizational commitment in the nonprofit sector. Points for practitioners When organizations in the public and nonprofit sectors begin adopting policies to increase extrinsic motivation, managers and scholars should carefully consider the negative effects of monetary incentives on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The public sector emphasizes public values and public interests, which explains the significant effect of pay for performance on job satisfaction; meanwhile, the fact that the nonprofit sector focuses on organizational missions and goals, stakeholders, and employee motivation explains the positive effect of pay for performance on organizational commitment.
... However, our research did not make this distinction but instead treated innovation as a more generic concept. We did so because a host of prior studies has shown that generation and implementation are indicative of the same underlying concept (e.g., Hülsheger et al., 2009;Janssen, 2000Janssen, , 2001Janssen & Van Yperen, 2004;Miron et al., 2004;Scott & Bruce, 1994). Although the present study has made important strides toward providing a comprehensive understanding of how the interactive relationship between leaders and their subordinates shapes the innovation process, by treating innovation as a unitary concept, it is unclear if our findings apply to both innovation stages. ...
Article
Most prior research has examined procrastination as a type of self-defeating behavior. The present research, however, focused on the social consequences of procrastination, by investigating how decisional leader procrastination as a leader trait affects others in the workplace. We specifically developed the argument that the way in which employees deal with changes plays a critical moderating role in the relationship between leader procrastination and employee innovation. More precisely, we hypothesized that decisional leader procrastination negatively impacts employee innovation, but only so for employees who are low (compared to high) in resistance to change. This prediction was tested in an experimental study (Study 1) and two double-source survey studies (Studies 2 and 3). In support of our prediction, the results showed that an indecisive leader indeed undermines the innovation of those employees who embrace—rather than resist—changes. Critically, however, our findings also illustrated that when being supervised by a decisive leader, these particular employees are actually most likely to bring forward the process of innovation. Theoretical and practical implications of our results are discussed.
... We assessed workload with a four items tool (Janssen, 2001). Data regarding time pressure was collected through three items questionnaire designed by Semmer et al. (1998). ...
Article
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Stress is an integral part of the teaching profession. Hindrance stressors can affect teaching faculty negatively whereas challenge stressors have a positive effect on teaching faculty. Covid19 has increased the overall stress mainly due to online teaching mode and work from home (WHF). The faculty working in higher education institutions (HEIs) in general and the faculty appointed under the tenure track system (TTS) were already under stress due to challenging jobs and goals. This study aimed to investigate the impact of challenge stressors (time pressure and workload) on the job performance of TTS faculty during the Covid19 pandemic. This study also investigated career satisfaction as a moderator between challenge stress and job performance (under the prevailing Covid-19) circumstance. The Survey technique was used for data collection from Ph.D. faculty appointed on TTS in HEIs of Pakistan. 129 TTS faculty participated in this study. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), VIF, correlation, reliability, and moderation tests were used. Results showed the significant and positive impact of workload, time pressure on job performance of TTS faculty during the Covid-19 pandemic. Moreover, career satisfaction was found to have moderating effect between challenge stress and job performance. Thus, it is concluded from the study that TTS faculty's performance is improved due to an increase in challenge stressors during Covid-19.
... This concept originated from the theory of individual innovative behavior (Scott and Bruce, 1994;Janssen, 2001), which includes three components according to the stages of innovation: idea generation, idea promotion and idea realization. Scott and Bruce (1994) argued that innovation begins with creative thinking or ideas, and then individuals seek support and cooperation from the environment until they are able to apply the creative idea in practice, and then complete innovation. ...
Article
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The home quarantine in the COVID-19 pandemic has created challenges for teaching across the world and called for innovative teaching, as well as teachers' learning. Given the rapid development of teachers' online learning and teaching, identifying effective ways to facilitate innovative teaching under such challenging conditions is a critical issue. Although researchers have realized that workplace informal learning (IL) increasingly reveals its potential value to individual development, the relationship between IL and innovation has been under-explored. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of IL on innovative teaching, through the mediating roles of three types of teaching-related efficacy, with a particular focus on college teachers and online context. A sample of 479 Chinese college teachers was randomly selected to participate in the survey. The results showed that teachers' online IL in pandemic improved their personal teaching efficacy and ICT efficacy (information and communication technology efficacy), and then facilitated their innovative teaching without differences of gender and teaching-age effect. Whereas, general teaching efficacy was not a mediator between online IL and innovative teaching. Hence, we proposed a can-do motivating model of teacher efficacy in fostering innovative teaching through informal learning. It implies three properties of teachers' online IL: social interaction, autonomous learning and novelty-seeking. It also revealed that innovative teaching can be driven in COVID-19 pandemic, mainly by learning domain-specific knowledge and skills, thus enhancing personal teaching efficacy and ICT efficacy in online teaching context.
... Since supervisors play an important role in appraisal and reward systems, a subordinate's job performance might be best rated by his or her supervisor (Janssen, 2001). Accordingly, in the second wave of data collection, we contacted 85 supervisors who were the departmental heads of the respondents who participated in the first wave and requested them to rate their subordinates' job performance. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to investigate the direct and indirect effects of protean career attitude on subjective and objective career success representing personal outcomes and task performance reflecting an organizational outcome. Drawing on the intelligent career framework, three knowing career competencies, i.e., career insight (knowing why), networking (knowing whom), and career/job-related skills (knowing how), were hypothesized as mediators linking protean career attitude with its personal and organizational outcomes. Participants of the study were 241 faculty members and matched supervisors from five large public sector universities in Islamabad, Pakistan. Data were collected in two waves through a personally administered questionnaire and analyzed through covariance-based structural equation modeling (CB-SEM). Results showed that protean career attitude has direct positive impacts on subjective career success, objective career success, and task performance. Further, the mediating role of three knowing career competencies was partially supported. We contribute to the literature by proposing and testing a research model linking protean career attitude with its personal and organizational outcomes directly and indirectly through three ways of knowing. A number of practical implications along with future research directions are also discussed.
... To measure employees' innovative job performance, we aimed to determine their ratings of their innovative job performance considering the presented task. To this end, we used items from Janssen's (2001) scale for individual innovation in the workplace, which included items such as "By carrying out the described task, I would mobilize support for innovative ideas." Table 3 displays the means, standard deviations, correlations, and alpha reliabilities as well as factor reliabilities and discriminant validity scores. ...
Article
Digital transformation (DT) initiatives are often not successful. Research underlines leadership as a key to transformation success; however, studies have not systematically examined the impact of leaders on organizational change, particularly concerning organizations’ DT. To fill this research gap, we conducted an experimental study with 815 participants to analyze the effectiveness of complementary leadership behaviors that are relevant in the digital age: task-oriented (more precisely, digital transformation–oriented) and people-oriented leadership behaviors, and in particular their interaction. Surprisingly and in contrast to prior studies, the results show that the combination of complementary leadership behaviors did not lead to the highest (lowest) level of employees’ desirable (undesirable) affective, cognitive, and behavioral change responses. This study reveals that organizations are well-advised not to disregard people orientation when going digital as this leadership behavior buffers the potential downsides of digital transformation–oriented leadership behavior, which is mandatory to stay competitive in the digital era.
... A second critical type of political knowledge consists of an understanding of both the demands made of an influential target and the resources available to him or her. These can include formal and informal job requirements (Janssen, 2000(Janssen, , 2001Karasek, 1979), as well as self-imposed demands (Cordes & Dougherty, 1993) insofar as they shape the influential target's decision-making. Meeting these demands is critical to the target's own performance, career trajectory, and job security (Katz & Kahn, 1978;Mauno, Kinnunen, & Ruokolainen, 2007). ...
Article
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In this paper, we conceptualize and integrate a measure of political knowledge into the broader literatures on political behaviour, proactivity, and followership. Political knowledge refers to an individual's perceived understanding of the relationships, demands, resources, and preferences of an influential target, such as their leader. We examine political knowledge in the follower–leader context with two studies of employees (Ns = 301 & 492) and two studies of follower–leader pairs (Ns = 187 & 130 dyads). Findings generally support the convergent and discriminant validity of our political knowledge measure. In addition, we find consistent evidence for the mediating role of political knowledge of one's leader in the relationship between follower political skill and political will with self‐reported follower proactive behaviours. Taken together, the results contribute to the political influence framework and offer insight into the importance of ‘knowing your leader’ in enabling followers to engage in politically risky proactivity. Political knowledge describes an individual's understanding of specific influential others’ relationships, demands, resources, and preferences. Followers with political knowledge are more likely to take charge and enact change, which we think is because this knowledge makes enacting change seem less risky. Leaders seeking to improve their followers’ political knowledge should focus on building high‐quality relationships with followers; these relationships are positively associated with political knowledge.
... Since supervisors play an important role in appraisal and reward systems, a subordinate's job performance might be best rated by his or her supervisor (Janssen, 2001). Accordingly, in the second wave of data collection, we contacted 85 supervisors who were the departmental heads of the respondents who participated in the first wave and requested them to rate their subordinates' job performance. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to investigate the direct and indirect effects of protean career attitude on subjective and objective career success representing personal outcomes and task performance reflecting an organizational outcome. Drawing on the intelligent career framework, three knowing career competencies i.e., career insight (knowing why), networking (knowing whom), and career/job-related skills (knowing how) were hypothesized as mediators linking protean career attitude with its personal and organizational outcomes. Participants of the study were 241 faculty members and matched supervisors from five large public sector universities in Islamabad, Pakistan. Data were collected in two waves through a personally administered questionnaire and analyzed through covariance-based structural equation modeling (CB-SEM). Results showed that protean career attitude has direct positive impacts on subjective career success, objective career success, and task performance. Further, the mediating role of three knowing career competencies was partially supported. We contribute to the literature by proposing and testing a research model linking protean career attitude with its personal and organizational outcomes directly and indirectly through three ways of knowing. A number of practical implications along with future research directions are also discussed.
... In this research, researchers used team level creativity of employees of multiple teams working at different offices of the bank. Team creativity is measured using 4-items, 5 points Likert-type scale (Janssen 2001). A sample item is "How creative do you consider your team to be?" supervisors will rank their respective team on this scale (α = .95). ...
Article
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This study investigated the relationship between empowering leadership and team creativity by integrating the theory of group behavior with componential theory of creativity. For this study, data was collected from two sources (343 Subordinates, 67 Supervisors) by temporally dividing data collection process into two points in time for independent, dependent, and mediating variables from employees of a bank operating in Pakistan. Random coefficient analysis technique was used with Mplus 7.0 to analyze nested data for preliminary analysis and analysis of mediation and indirect effects. Mediation was analyzed using the indirect effect of random models and further confirmed the confidence using bootstrapping procedure. Through this study, the researchers tried to explore the inconsistent relationship between empowering leadership behavior and team creativity. It was found that empowering leadership behavior affects the team level creativity of employees directly and indirectly through the mediation of team learning behavior and team psychological empowerment as team process and team emergent states respectively. The results indicated that empowering leadership enhances the learning potential of teams and team empowerment perception which in turn enhances team level creativity. Further research findings, implications, and future research directions also discussed in this research.
... Innovation performance was assessed using Janssen's (2000Janssen's ( , 2001 and Janssen and Van Yperen's (2004) nine-item scale of individual innovation in the workplace, which draws on Kanter's (1988) work on the stages of innovation. Three items refer to idea generation, three items to idea promotion, and the remaining three to idea realization. ...
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The projected growth and rapid technological development in maritime transportation will create demand for a newly skilled and motivated workforce in the port sector. Thus, it is important for ports to attract, recruit and retain talented employees to promote innovation and enhance competitive advantages. This manuscript focuses on the welfare and talent of port staff from the perspective of person-environment (P-E) fit. Using polynomial regression with response surface analysis, this study explores the effect of P-E fit on job satisfaction, work engagement and innovation performance, and bootstrapping is applied to confirm the mediating roles of job satisfaction and work engagement in the relationship between P-E fit and innovation performance. Results show that (1) need-supply (N-S) fit and demands-abilities (D-A) fit improved port employees' job satisfaction, work engagement and innovation performance, and the impacts on work engagement and innovation performance show an inverted "U" and "U" shape, respectively; (2) D-A fit is more important when job satisfaction plays a mediating role; and (3) N-S fit makes a greater contribution when work engagement mediates the effect of P-E fit on the innovation performance. These findings contribute to P-E fit research as well as to human resource management practices in ports.
... The construct points to the overall evaluation of work as intrinsically valuable and worth doing. For job satisfaction, we rely on reflective items by Janssen (2001). The construct points to job satisfaction as "a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences" (Locke 1976(Locke , p. 1300). ...
Thesis
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Traditional organizations are strongly encouraged by emerging digital customer behavior and digital competition to transform their businesses for the digital age. Incumbents are particularly exposed to the field of tension between maintaining and renewing their business model. Banking is one of the industries most affected by digitalization, with a large stream of digital innovations around Fintech. Most research contributions focus on digital innovations, such as Fintech, but there are only a few studies on the related challenges and perspectives of incumbent organizations, such as traditional banks. Against this background, this dissertation examines the specific causes, effects and solutions for traditional banks in digital transformation − an underrepresented research area so far. The first part of the thesis examines how digitalization has changed the latent customer expectations in banking and studies the underlying technological drivers of evolving business-to-consumer (B2C) business models. Online consumer reviews are systematized to identify latent concepts of customer behavior and future decision paths as strategic digitalization effects. Furthermore, the service attribute preferences, the impact of influencing factors and the underlying customer segments are uncovered for checking accounts in a discrete choice experiment. The dissertation contributes here to customer behavior research in digital transformation, moving beyond the technology acceptance model. In addition, the dissertation systematizes value proposition types in the evolving discourse around smart products and services as key drivers of business models and market power in the platform economy. The second part of the thesis focuses on the effects of digital transformation on the strategy development of financial service providers, which are classified along with their firm performance levels. Standard types are derived based on fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), with facade digitalization as one typical standard type for low performing incumbent banks that lack a holistic strategic response to digital transformation. Based on this, the contradictory impact of digitalization measures on key business figures is examined for German savings banks, confirming that the shift towards digital customer interaction was not accompanied by new revenue models diminishing bank profitability. The dissertation further contributes to the discourse on digitalized work designs and the consequences for job perceptions in banking customer advisory. The threefold impact of the IT support perceived in customer interaction on the job satisfaction of customer advisors is disentangled. In the third part of the dissertation, solutions are developed design-oriented for core action areas of digitalized business models, i.e., data and platforms. A consolidated taxonomy for data-driven business models and a future reference model for digital banking have been developed. The impact of the platform economy is demonstrated here using the example of the market entry by Bigtech. The role-based e3-value modeling is extended by meta-roles and role segments and linked to value co-creation mapping in VDML. In this way, the dissertation extends enterprise modeling research on platform ecosystems and value co-creation using the example of banking.
... Another limitation is that we considered only subjective measures of both outcomes. Janssen (2001) noted that the self-reported performance measure might be better than the supervisor rating of job performance because it is highly susceptible to idiosyncratic interpretations and is likely to vary across different raters. Moreover, the data revealed considerable variance in both outcomes, suggesting subjective measures were not a concern. ...
Article
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Mindfulness research is growing within organizational studies. Emerging evidence across many fields demonstrates that mindfulness is related to numerous individuals’ outcomes in the workplace, but this knowledge base has not been investigated enough. This study extends previous literature by examining the extent to which trait mindfulness influences individuals’ job performance and career success. Also, this study investigates the interactive effects of trait mindfulness and proactive personality on job performance and career success. The sample of the study included three hundred subjects with at least of three years of work experience in the United States of America. Hypotheses were tested using multiple linear regression. The results supported the hypotheses that trait mindfulness would be positively associated with both job performance and career success, measured by career satisfaction. Interestingly, trait mindfulness moderated the relationship between proactive personality and both job performance and career satisfaction such that high trait mindfulness substitutes the positive influence of proactive personality. Practical implications, possible limitations, and future research directions are briefly discussed.
... Although the author included survey questions regarding social desirability bias and conducted a pilot test and a pre-test to reduce the possibility of the biases, the author may not completely be able to discount them. Some researchers suggested that self-reports are useful when measuring individuals' perceptions, feelings, beliefs, and judgment and can be more subtle than the manager or supervisor rates when it comes to measuring individual performancerelated outcomes (Janssen, 2001;George and Pandey, 2017). However, using both self-reported and supervisors' or managers' ratings of individual performance-related outcomes should be considered in future research. ...
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Ghanaian higher education is continuously transforming, and teachers are constantly encouraged to innovate and change. We test a mediated-moderation model that assesses interplays among individual learning (IL), team learning (TL), gender, and innovative work behaviours (IWB) in a sample of 487 lecturers from six technical universities in Ghana. Results suggest that team learning mediates the influence of individual learning on IWB, and gender moderates the remaining direct association between individual learning and IWB such that individual learning appears conducive to IWB among men but not women. This study encourages focusing on team learning to drive knowledge-sharing within and across faculties to generate sustainable innovative outcomes, and it points to ways in which higher education managers and human resources practitioners can invest in human resources to enhance IWB and, subsequently, performance in higher education.
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Using activation theory, this study explores the possibility of an inverted U-shaped association between abusive supervision and subordinates’ performance in India, characterized by a hierarchical culture. Our first study examined the role of subordinates' conscientiousness as a moderator in this curvilinear relationship. Hierarchical regression analysis results illustrate that subordinates’ conscientiousness moderates the curvilinear effects such that these effects remained when conscientiousness was high but were rendered insignificant when conscientiousness was low. We conducted a second study to investigate the driver of these curvilinear effects. We found that subordinates’ attentiveness partially mediates the curvilinear effects of abusive supervision on job performance. Across both studies, multi-source data was collected from full-time employees and their immediate supervisors across different time points. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
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Precarious workers usually have some of the most unstable working conditions in any country. In this research, we firstly investigated the influence of organizational fairness on the emotional exhaustion and leave intentions of Peruvian precarious workers. Then, we tested the mediating role of anomie at work in the relationship between organizational fairness and the emotional exhaustion and leave intentions of precarious workers. To identify the impact of organizational fairness on these workers, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 206 precarious workers in Peru. Our results showed that treating precarious workers fairly reduced their emotional exhaustion and leave intentions. Furthermore, we found that anomie at work mediate the relationship between organizational fairness and the emotional exhaustion and the relationship between organizational fairness and leave intentions of precarious workers. We provide empirical evidence of the critical role of organizational fairness in the reduction of emotional exhaustion and leave intentions among precarious workers. Examining the consequences of precarious workers’ perceptions of organizational fairness is needed for owners and managers of companies to have a clear understanding of how precarious workers’ working environments may shape their attitudes and work behaviors.
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Despite literature identifies aspects that might promote innovation, the relationship between the leadership style and nurses' innovative behavior still remains unclear, and little research has provided evidence of this. To help advance in knowledge of effects of leadership on nurses' innovative behavior, we researched the effect of altruistic leadership on nurses' innovative behavior. In addition, the mediating role of affiliative humor in the relationship between altruistic leadership and nurses' innovative behavior was examined. Questionnaire survey method was followed with a sample of 324 nurses working in public hospitals in Spain. We used structural equation models, to check the research hypotheses. This research reveals that affiliative humor partially mediates the relationship between altruistic leadership and nurses' innovative behavior. Thus, unselfish leaders are crucial to promoting innovative behaviors among nurses, and affiliative humor plays a fundamental role to explain how altruistic leaders enhance nurses' innovative behavior.
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Karasek (1979) drew attention to the possibilities that job characteristics may be non-linearly associated with employee well-being, and that they may combine interactively in relation to well-being. This paper examines those issues, and finds that both linear and non-linear components are present in relationships between job features and well-being. However, there is no evidence for a synergistic interaction between decision latitude and job demands. Those job features are differentially predictive of two aspects of well-being: job-related depression-enthusiasm and anxiety-contentment.