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Nutritive value of paulownia (Paulownia SPP.) hybrid tree leaves

Authors:
  • Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences
  • Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Godollo

Abstract

Paulownia is a very adaptable, fast growing and multi-purpose agroforestry tree species. Paulownia and its hybrids become much more interesting globally in the last few decades, because of many uses including timber (for construction, doors, furniture, kitchens, boats etc.), intercropping (with wheat, maize, grass or other crops), CO2 and dust absorption etc. Additionally, Paulownia leaves are used for animal feed in some countries of the World, as well. According to that, this paper is dealing with the evaluation of nutritive value of Paulownia hybrid tree leaves. For determining the nutritive value of Paulownia containing dry matter (DM) 286.4 g/kg forage, crude protein 177.5 g/kg DM; neutral detergent fibre (NDF) 415.2 g/kg DM; acid detergent fibre (ADF) 372.6 g/kg DM; acid detergent lignin (ADL) 94.7 g/kg DM. In terms of the crude protein contents, this trial reported that the leaves of investigated Paulownia spp. hybrid could be used as forage for the ruminant nutrition.
... 14 Further, Paulownia leaves possess high protein, nitrogen-free extract, ether extract, phosphorus, and potassium contents. 28 Bodn ar et al. 29 found that Paulownia leaves DM content is moderately low of 28.6%, the content of crude protein was medium of 11.7% for fresh forage, while these contents suggest favorable use in the animal feed. 22,30 However, the crude fiber content of Paulownia leaves found to be low of 12.4% compared to other green forages (20-30%) for ruminants, as reported by Schmidt et al. 31 Furthermore, Bodn ar et al. 29 illustrated that the main fatty acids (FA) in Paulownia plant ( Table 2) were linolenic acid (C18:3n3), palmitic acid (C16:0), linoleic acid (C18:2n6), oleic acid (C18:1n9c). ...
... 28 Bodn ar et al. 29 found that Paulownia leaves DM content is moderately low of 28.6%, the content of crude protein was medium of 11.7% for fresh forage, while these contents suggest favorable use in the animal feed. 22,30 However, the crude fiber content of Paulownia leaves found to be low of 12.4% compared to other green forages (20-30%) for ruminants, as reported by Schmidt et al. 31 Furthermore, Bodn ar et al. 29 illustrated that the main fatty acids (FA) in Paulownia plant ( Table 2) were linolenic acid (C18:3n3), palmitic acid (C16:0), linoleic acid (C18:2n6), oleic acid (C18:1n9c). These FA, especially n À 3, is suitable for enhancing the contents of the milk health promoters. ...
... Fatty acid profile of Paulownia plant. Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography by Bodn ar et al.29 . ...
Article
Due to the continuous increase in animal feed prices, and the presence of competition between humans and animals on food materials, it is imperative to identify other non-food plant resources to assist the animal feed industry and improve livestock productivity. Plant wastes may cause air, soil, and water pollution. However, if judiciously managed, they would be important resources. Plant wastes are used as feedstuffs and fertilizers. However, their use as animal feed is more useful than fertilizers. Because of the high content of fiber and non-protein N, these wastes are more valuable for feeding ruminants than poultry. The use of the plant wastes as feedstuffs could improve the environmental quality and profits for feed producers. Paulownias are fast-growing trees initially cultivated for wood production. However, due to their good nutritive value, their leaves have been used for ruminants, non-ruminants animals and poultry feeding. Furthermore, they are well-known for its medicinal and antibacterial properties. However, little is still known about its characteristics. This review aimed at providing detailed information about the nature, nutritional value, phytochemicals, and uses of Paulownia as a promising feedstuff in the fields of ruminants, non-ruminants, and poultry nutrition.
... With optimal conditions in terms of light and moisture, Paulownia is reported to be one of the fastest growing trees in the world [8]. It is mainly suggested to use hybrids of Paulownia species as the basic trees for forestation and intercropping systems [9,10]. Several kinds of hybrids have been selected during the last few decades around the World, according to the environmental conditions and local circumstances (e.g. ...
... Paulownia leaves are reported to have a similar feeding value to alfalfa and are suitable for combining with wheat straw or hay for feeding to cattle, sheep or goats [10,13]. World Paulownia Institute [13] stated that if trees are planted at 540 trees/ha, Paulownia will produce 1220 kg DM/ha with 20 % protein and 60 % digestibility. ...
... elongata, P. fortunei and P. tomantosa) it was found that the dry matter of Paulownia leaves is relatively low (286.4 g/kg dry matter, DM) [10]. It is lower than the values reported for tree leaves (46-66 % of kg DM) by Azim. ...
Article
Full-text available
Paulownia spp. is a very adaptable, fast growing and multipurpose agroforestry tree. This species is a genus of Asian hardwood trees which have been cultivated there for the past 3000 years. They are native to much of China, south to northern Laos and Vietnam, and long cultivated elsewhere in eastern Asia, notably in Japan and Korea. Paulownia plays a very critical role in providing timber, fuel wood, fodder and food in many countries of the World. Besides its fast-growing nature and several utilization opportunities, Paulownia leaves have similar feeding value to other forage crops. Due to previous studies, it has been reported that Paulownia leaves are suitable for feeding to domestic animals.
... Their high capacity for CO 2 fixation contributes to decontamination of air, and fallen leaves improve soil quality by increasing its organic matter content. Paulownia leaves are palatable and with good energy value, so they are appropriate as an animal feed ingredient (Zhaohua, 1987;Mueller et al., 2001;Barton et al., 2007;Koleva et al., 2011;Descals et al., 2013;Bodnár et al., 2014;Stewart et al., 2018). The crude protein content varies from 11.3 tо 27.1% (Descals et al., 2013) and is characterised with high content of glutamic acid (16.04%) and aspartic acid (11.30%), contains also higher amounts of essential amino acids compared to other leafy feeds (Koleva et al., 2011а). ...
... The lowest CF percentage was found out in spring -12.9%, then it increased to 15.7% in summer and decreased to 14.1% in autumn before leaf fall. Even lower values of 12.43% CF were reported by Bodnár et al. (2014). ...
... Ash content was 14.94% which was higher than that found by Bodnár et al. (2014) -10.5% and reported in early August and mid-October by Gutiérrez et al. (2015): 7.62% and 10.76%, respectively. Values from 6% to 9% were reported by Stewart et al. (2018) between the vegetation period, whereas in leaves collected in October, crude ash content reported by Al-Sagheer et al. (2019) was 8.85%. ...
Article
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The aim of the study was to determine the digestibility and energy content of Paulownia elongata S.Y.Hu leaves after leaf fall. Leaves together with petioles were dried at room temperature and milled with a roughage mill before feeding to animals. A classical digestion trial was performed, with three rams weighing 55.4kg on average, by determining the chemical composition of consumed feed, feed leftovers and excreted faeces. Digestibility was evaluated as difference in the amount of ingested nutrients and nutrients excreted with faeces and it was determined to be 50.72, 52.08, 31.63, 54.09, 55.15 and 56.06% for dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude fibre (CF) and nitrogen-free extract (NFE). The energy value for ruminants calculated on the basis of chemical composition and established digestibility was 8.29 MJ digestible energy (DE)/kg DM, 6.55 MJ metabolizable energy (ME)/ kg DM, 0.59 feed units for milk (FUM)/kg DM and 0.52 feed units for growth (FUG)/kg DM.
... The leaves and flowers of Paulownia are rich in nitrogen and other nutrients, which could serve as good natural fertilisers [8]. Furthermore, the leaves of Paulownia have high nutritive content suitable for ruminants [9] and can be ensiled as a fodder crop. The leaves are also fed to pigs and rabbits [2;8]. ...
... According to the analysis of El-Showk and El-Showk [8], paulownia leaves contain 22.6% CP and 7.8% ash. Moreover, according to the analysis of Koleva et al. [10] and Bodnár et al. [25], Paulownia elongata leaves can be used as a new feed ingredient in diets for ruminants and other herbivorous agricultural species such as rabbits and horses. In the present study, the content of all nutrients was nearly similar in the experimental diets containing PLM and alfalfa hay. ...
Article
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This experiment was conducted to study the effects of paulownia leaf meal (PLM) as a nontraditional feed on the growth, carcasses, digestibility, blood chemistry, and intestinal microbiota of growing rabbits. Sixty rabbits (5-weeks old) were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments containing three amounts of PLM (0%, 15%, and 30%). The results showed that PLM has a higher content of ether extract, organic matter, methionine, tyrosine, histidine, manganese, and zinc than alfalfa hay. Body weight gain decreased when 30% PLM was provided. The best feed conversion ratio was recorded in the rabbits fed 15% PLM. A notable increase in high-density lipoprotein levels with a significant decrease in low-density lipoprotein was noted in the rabbits fed the PLM diets. Total fungi and Enterobacteriaceae and total bacterial count in the feed were significantly reduced because of PLM. In the cecum, coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae species, and total bacterial count declined in the rabbits fed the PLM diets. Conclusively, up to 15% PLM can be used in rabbit diets without any deleterious effects on the performance, nutrient digestibility, and blood constituents. In addition, dietary inclusion of PLM has the potential to reduce cecal pathogenic bacteria in rabbits.
... The leaves and flowers of Paulownia are rich in nitrogen and other nutrients which could serve as good natural fertiliser (Wang and Shogren, 1992). Furthermore, the leaves of Paulownia have a high nutritive content suitable for ruminants (Bodnár et al., 2014) and can be ensiled as a fodder crop. The leaves are also fed to pigs and rabbits (Wang and Shogren, 1992;Zhao-Hua et al, 1986). ...
Conference Paper
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The field experiment was carried out in 2016 on sandy soil in the forest nursery Białe-Błota (Bydgoszcz Forest Division, Poland). The effect of sprinkler irrigation on the growth Paulownia Shan Tong trees was investigated. The experiment was established as one factorial. The variability factor was the irrigation: S-sprinkler irrigation and C- without irrigation (control). The process included the controls of growth parameters: tree height, trunk diameter, number and surface of leaves. It was found that the sprinkled seedlings of Paulownia Shan Tong were significantly higher than those growing in the non-irrigated plots. The sprinkler irrigation applied in the experiment resulted in an increase in the number of leaves of the Paulownia and their surface area, which resulted in an increase in biomass yield. By analysing the results of the study on trunk diameter, leaf number and surface, it may be stated that irrigation watering significantly influenced the tested parameters. Irrigation significantly increased the height of Paulownia trees. The positive effect of the usage of sprinkler irrigation may indicate the possibility of effective application of this method in the field cultivation of Paulownia Shan Tong.
... Furthermore, the leaves of Paulownia have a high nutritive content suitable for ruminants (Bodnár et al., 2014) and can be ensiled as a fodder crop. -Showk, 2003) This is of significance when referring to a recent study by Luske and van Eekeren (2014) comparing the feeding value of perennial ryegrass with common agroforestry fodder tree species for NW Europe with the following protein contents reported as per It has been recorded that an 8-10 year old Paulownia tree can produce 100 kg of fresh leaves per year (Wang and Shogren, 1992). ...
Thesis
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The combined impacts of climate change, soil erosion, deforestation, pollution, population growth and resource depletion require urgent attention in instituting regenerative agricultural practices worldwide. This is particularly the case in NW Europe where the current farming paradigm is becoming obsolete due to pressures from many fronts. A new way forward has become necessary using agroecology wherein agroforestry is a key component. Paulownia species are indigenous to China and have been used as an agroforestry tree for over 2600 years due to their many positive attributes and multifaceted uses. Over the last four decades, the use of Paulownia intercropping systems have been established on up to three million hectares on the North China Plain and the species has been introduced as a plantation crop on all inhabited continents being one of fastest growing hardwood species in the world with up to six meters growth per year possible under optimal conditions. Paulownia, in particular P. tomentosa has been planted as an ornamental tree in NW Europe since the early 1800s but has not been considered as a possible commercial species in the region until the last few years. This study set out to explore whether Paulownia species could be suitable as an agroforestry species in intercropping systems on a field scale in NW Europe using methods consisting of literature review, secondary data analysis, and interviews with experts and growers. Furthermore, two case studies were carried out from existing commercial operations growing Paulownia in the focus area. Specific areas covered to assess suitability included a review of species and cultivars, ecological requirements, planting and growing techniques, invasiveness risk and market research into the timber product based on data from EU and abroad. In addition to the species assessment, a review was carried out identifying the main barriers to the adoption of agroforestry in NW Europe as part of a broader overview and analysing how Paulownia species could possibly have added advantages in overcoming some of these barriers. The results indicated that Paulownia species and hybrids could grow successfully as a commercial agroforestry crop in NW Europe based on data gathered from existing sites in the focus area established since 2009 where high survival rates and growth rates greater than 1 m per year were reported. No particular species or hybrid was identified as most suitable for agroforestry in the focus area but differences were confirmed depending on country of origin and propagation method. It was confirmed that species/hybrid selection, propagation method, site establishment, management practices in maintenance and pruning are critical factors to take into account in order to achieve timber of high quality. Invasiveness risk in NW Europe is assessed to be very low due to low summer temperatures and the use of sterile hybrid clones in agroforestry rather than P. tomentosa. Research showed that there is presently no established market in NW Europe for the timber but that interest in the unique properties of the wood is increasing in EU and the potential exists for profitable niche market in the future in particular for slow grown wood to be sold either in Europe or overseas. The study concludes that Paulownia species’ actual performance under local field conditions, adaptability and its diverse products and services fulfil most of the attributes of an ideal agroforestry tree and has the potential to be used more widely in NW European farming systems with the recommendation that further field trials be carried out into finding the most suitable species/hybrids in addition to increased dissemination of knowledge to farmers about the species.
Article
Paulownia is a genus of fast-growing trees that generate a huge mass of leaves, which can be utilized as a feed resource for ruminants. In the present study, the chemical and phytochemical composition, in vitro ruminal fermentation and methane production, and nutrient degradability of fresh Paulownia hybrid leaves (PL) and its silage (PLS) were investigated. The crude protein content of PL and PLS ranged from 132 to 199 g/kg dry matter, which was comparable to alfalfa silage (AS). Ensiling of PL increased the amount of both phenolic acids and flavonoids. The amino acid content increased, and total saturated fatty acid concentration tended to increase in PLS compared with PL. In the in vitro study with the ruminal fluid (batch culture), PL and PLS decreased pH (P < 0.01) and methane emission compared with AS. Total archaea counts were lowest in PLS, intermediate in PL, and highest in AS. Fibrobacter succinogenes, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, and Prevotella spp. were higher (P ≤ 0.03) in the PL and PLS than the AS group. Ruminal ammonia concentration was lower (P < 0.01) in PLS than in PL. The total gas production and total volatile fatty acid concentrations were higher (P < 0.01) in both PL and PLS than in AS. The concentrations of acetate in PL and of propionate in PL and PLS were greater than those in AS. In the in sacco experiment, the potential degradability of DM was higher (P < 0.01) for PL and PLS than for AS. PLS had significantly the greatest potential degradability and effective degradability compared to the other groups (P < 0.001). It can be concluded that PL and PLS can mitigate methane production by inhibiting methanogens and improving ruminal fermentation characteristics. PL and PLS may serve as valuable dietary components for lactating dairy cows, which can be used year-round on a large scale; however, these in vitro results need to be validated under in vivo conditions.
Article
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Short-rotation plantations for wood biomass production are systems in which different, fast-growing forest species are grown in intensive agricultural technologies to achieve high biomass yields. The genus paulownia comprises very fast-growing tree species, mainly used in biomass production for energy purposes, but not only. The biomass produced by this plant is used in its entirety; as heating material, industrial, ecological and decorative wood, protection of soil erosion, phytoremediation of polluted soils, air purification, animal feed, pharmaceutical industry, melifer, etc. Among the most promising applications are the production of biopolymers and bioethanol derived from cellulose. The proper cultivation and use of paulownia species contribute to maintaining ecological balance and nature conservation. The main objective of the paper was to carry out a careful and detailed analysis of the specific scientific literature describing their main characteristics and practical applicability to the different species of the genus Paulownia. The paper also examines the importance of cultivating paulownia species under conditions of economic viability while ensuring the maintenance of biodiversity and the protection of ecosystems.
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