Article

Security Challenges of Wireless Communications Networks: A Survey

Abstract

Despite the gains offered by wireless communications networks, such as portability, flexibility, increased productivity, roaming capabilities, cheap installation costs, and many more, the security of wireless networks has continued to be of great challenge and concern. Currently, wireless communications vulnerabilities are on the increase due to the higher demand for higher data rates, the need for advanced services and that of roaming, and the huge deployment of services across the globe. Consequently, this has created serious challenging issues in the security of wireless systems and applications in wireless environments. Incidentally, wireless networks and handheld devices are exposed to the same level of vulnerabilities and risks with that of conventional wired networks. However, nowadays, the risks and threats associated with wireless networks have taken a new dimension, ostensibly because the communication medium, the air-wave, of wireless networks is openly exposed to intruders, who take advantage of that to launch malicious attacks such as denial-of-service attacks, identity theft, violation of privacy rights, insertion of viruses or malicious codes to disrupt operations, passive eavesdropping for data interception and active jamming attacks to disrupt legitimate transmissions. Again, intruders also by-pass firewall protection to gain access to sensitive data communicated between two wireless devices. This paper therefore critically examines the security vulnerabilities and risks incurred by the inherent open nature of wireless networks as well as suggest ways of improvements. The paper first presents a comprehensive overview of security attacks encountered in wireless networks. Next, it conducts a survey of the existing security protocols and envisions some standard algorithms for wireless networks such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, WiMAX, LTE systems, and so on. It further presents the state-of-the-art security-control measures for securing the open communication environment against eavesdroppers. This is followed by an analysis of the various jamming attacks based on jamming effectiveness and complexity and a proposition of some anti-jamming techniques.
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 13, Number 8 (2018) pp. 5680-5692
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Security Challenges of Wireless Communications Networks: A Survey
1Gerald K. Ijemaru, 2Ibrahim A. Adeyanju, 1Kehinde O. Olusuyi, 1Temidayo J. Ofusori,
3Ericmoore T. Ngharamike and 2Adedayo A. Sobowale
1Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Federal University Oye-Ekiti, Nigeria.
2Department of Computer Engineering, Federal University Oye-Ekiti, Nigeria.
3Department of Computer Science, Federal University Oye-Ekiti, Nigeria.
Abstract
Despite the gains offered by wireless communications
networks, such as portability, flexibility, increased
productivity, roaming capabilities, cheap installation costs,
and many more, the security of wireless networks has
continued to be of great challenge and concern. Currently,
wireless communications vulnerabilities are on the increase
due to the higher demand for higher data rates, the need for
advanced services and that of roaming, and the huge
deployment of services across the globe. Consequently, this
has created serious challenging issues in the security of
wireless systems and applications in wireless environments.
Incidentally, wireless networks and handheld devices are
exposed to the same level of vulnerabilities and risks with that
of conventional wired networks. However, nowadays, the
risks and threats associated with wireless networks have taken
a new dimension, ostensibly because the communication
medium, the airwave, of wireless networks is openly exposed
to intruders, who take advantage of that to launch malicious
attacks such as denial-of-service attacks, identity theft,
violation of privacy rights, insertion of viruses or malicious
codes to disrupt operations, passive eavesdropping for data
interception and active jamming attacks to disrupt legitimate
transmissions. Again, intruders also by-pass firewall-
protection to gain access to sensitive data communicated
between two wireless devices. This paper therefore critically
examines the security vulnerabilities and risks incurred by the
inherent open nature of wireless networks as well as suggest
ways of improvements. The paper first presents a
comprehensive overview of security attacks encountered in
wireless networks. Next, it conducts a survey of the existing
security protocols and envisions some standard algorithms for
wireless networks such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, WiMAX, LTE-
systems, and so on. It further presents the state-of-the-art
security-control measures for securing the open
communication environment against eavesdroppers. This is
followed by an analysis of the various jamming attacks based
on jamming effectiveness and complexity and a proposition of
some anti-jamming techniques.
Keywords: Communication system security, Mobile
communication, Network security, WiMAX, Wireless
Communication, Wireless LAN, Wireless Networks
INTRODUCTION
Wireless communications are, by any measure, the fastest
growing segment of the communications industry. As such, it
has captured the attention of the media and the imagination of
the public. Cellular systems have experienced exponential
growth over the last decade and there are currently around two
billion users worldwide [1 3]. The latest statistics from the
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) in 2013
reveals that [4] there are more than 6 billion mobile
subscribers worldwide, and more than 40% of the world’s
population have access to the internet. The authors in [5] and
[6] define wireless communications as the transmission of
message signal via low-energy radio frequency waves using
open air, a transmitter and a receiver as the media. The
message signal is transmitted to the closest antenna site and is
delivered via optic-fibre cable to a wired telephone or by radio
signal to another wireless phone. The open nature of wireless
networks makes wireless transmissions much prone to various
malicious attacks by intruders. This ranges from denial-of-
service attacks, eavesdropping for data interception, identity
theft, violation of privacy rights, to insertion of viruses or
malicious codes to disrupt legitimate transmissions, and
jamming attacks. Furthermore, intruders can disable firewall-
protection to gain access to sensitive information transmitted
between two wireless devices, if such information is not well
protected by strong encryption. Hence, the need to improve
wireless communication security to fight against cyber-
criminal activities, since a greater number of people are using
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wireless networks such as cellular networks and Wi-Fi for
online banking and personal emails, owing to the widespread
use of smartphones [6] .
In the works of [7], we cite that wireless networks generally
adopt the open systems interconnection (OSI) protocol
architecture, which comprises the application layer, transport
layer, network layer [8] medium access control (MAC) layer
[9] and physical layer [10-11]. Each of these protocol layers
has its individual threats and vulnerabilities. Therefore,
protection at each network layer should be given in order to
meet the network security requirement; these include
authenticity, confidentiality, availability and integrity [6]. For
instance, data integrity and confidentiality is achieved by
employing cryptographic techniques aimed at preventing
information disclosure to unauthorized users. In order to
guarantee the authenticity of a caller or receiver, existing
wireless networks classically employ several approaches of
authentication at different protocol layers. Some of these
approaches include MAC-layer authentication [12], network-
layer authentication [13], [14] and transport-layer
authentication [15]. For instance, unauthorized access to data
can be prevented in the MAC-layer by simply authenticating
the MAC address of a user, whereas the Wi-Fi Protected
Access (WPA) and the Wi-Fi Protected Access II (WPA2) are
two commonly used protocols for the network-layer
authentication [6], [16-17]. Moreover, the security protocols
in the transport-layer include the secure socket layer (SSL)
and the transport-layer security (TLS) [18-20]. Therefore, it is
obvious that proper exploitation of multiple authentication
mechanisms can possibly enhance the security of wireless
networks. Fig. 1 shows the major wireless security protocols
such as the authentication, authorization and encryption for
which the other design factors may be sustained.
It is instructive to note that the broadcast nature (the airwave)
of the wireless medium makes wireless networks much more
vulnerable to risks and malicious attacks than the
corresponding wired networks. Some of these attacks are in
the form of eavesdropping to intercept data [21], jamming
attacks to disrupt legitimate transmissions, identity theft,
violation of privacy rights, denial-of-service attacks [22],
spoofing attack and session hijacking [23], man-in-the-middle
attack [24], message falsification/injection attack [25],
sniffing attack [22, 23], cafe latte attack [26], traffic
redirection [27], and so on. To avoid any issues arising from
confidentiality, the authors in [28] and [29] propose the use of
cryptographic techniques, which will help to prevent
eavesdropping on wireless transmissions.
Figure1. Design Elements for Wireless Security Network
Protocol
This paper is organised into eight sections. The introductory
part in section 1 deals on the general perspectives and the
main motive behind this study. Advancement of wireless
communications is presented in section 2, while section 3
presents the security vulnerabilities in wireless networks. In
section 4 briefly presents some of the factors that can cause
network congestion and call-drops, while section V
summarizes the family of IEEE 802.11B standard for wireless
security-control as well as their weaknesses. These
discussions are succeeded by sections VI and VII, which deal
with the security-control mechanisms for wireless networks
and an analysis of jamming attacks and their counter-
measures respectively. Finally, section VIII concludes the
conclusion.
ADVANCEMENT OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS
The birth of wireless communications is credited to M.G
Marconi in the late 1800s, when he successfully pioneered a
work of establishing a radio link between a land-based station
and tugboat [30]. This was succeeded by Fessenden in 1906,
where amplitude modulation (AM) was invented for music
broadcasting, while Edwin H. Armstrong brought frequency
modulation in 1933 [31]. Indeed, since the last two decades,
we have seen an explosion in the advancements of wireless
systems. The migration of wireless communications systems
dates back to 1980s from the first-generation (1G), where
voice transmission was used on narrow-band analogue
signalling to the second-generation (2G) narrow-band
systems in the 1990s, which used digital communication
techniques with TDMA, FDMA or CDMA. 2G was deployed
for the transmission of voice signal operating on GSM
900MHz with GPRS 56Kbps to 114Kbps. 2G technology also
saw the invention of the Global Systems for Mobility (GSM),
personal digital cellular (PDC), IS-136, and IS-95, which
make use of digital transmission techniques [5], [3233].
Currently, different wireless technologies such as GSM,
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CDMA, and TDMA) are deployed throughout the world for
2G, 2.5G, and eventually 3G networks. In the works of [34]
[35], [44] & [36], we discover that the data rate of 144Kbps
offered by 2.5G network was higher than that offered by 2G
and could also be used to deliver basic data services like text
messages.
However, 2.5G could not be used to download an image or
browse a website from a PDA [34, 37]. 3G technology was
conceived to overcome the various limitations of the 2G
technology. This type of technology should at least offer more
innovative and advanced services like the broadband
multimedia services [35][36], [38][39]. Moreover, 3G
technology should make information services immediately
available. The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
(UMTS) is a 3G cell phone technology, which is also being
developed into a 4G technology. 3G technologies used digital
communication techniques that involved the transmission of
voice signals as well as multimedia services. Following the
3G technology was the 3.5G or 3G+ (HSDPA), which
targeted between 7.2 and 14.4Mbps on mobile phones for
high-speed downloading of mp3 files [40] [43].
The recently released 4G technology is aimed at completing
the cycle of technological advancement in wireless
communication to improve broadband wireless access with
data rates of 100Mbps. A 4G technology can guarantee a
much faster speed in data transfer and wider area coverage. A
4G system, also known as Long Term Evolution (LTE)
technology, should be capable of providing a comprehensive
and secure IP solution where voice, data, and streamed
multimedia could be given to users on “anytime-anywhere”
basis and at a higher data rate than the previous generations.
A Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is a flexible data
communications system that can use either infrared or radio
frequency technology to transmit and receive information over
the air. The first WLAN standard 802.11 was implemented
in 1997 based on radio technology operating with a frequency
of 2.4 GHz and a maximum throughput of 1 to 2 Mbps. The
most current standard, IEEE 802.11B, was introduced early
2000 with the same frequency range but has a maximum
speed of 11 Mbps. One major advantage of WLAN is the
simplicity of its installation which usually eliminates the
needs to pull cable through walls and ceilings. The basic units
of a WLAN are Access Points (APs) and Network Interface
Cards (NICs)/client adapters. More about WLAN can be
found in the works of [13, 41 & 43].
SECURITY VULNERABILITIES IN WIRELESS
NETWORKS
Wireless communications security involves any measures that
prevent unauthorized access or damage to information
transmitted over wireless networks as well as ensure that the
integrity and confidentiality of data are not compromised.
Majority of the security architectures that are currently in
place have been compromised due to the fact that the airwaves
are prone to snooping from anybody with radio frequency
(RF) antenna. This has made it difficult to achieve a 100%
security over wireless systems. But online transactions made
on several applications for e-commerce and credit card
purposes need to be secure against hackers and attackers.
Table1 summarizes the various security vulnerabilities and
weaknesses associated with wireless networks.
Figure 2. Interoperability Issues related to mobile networks
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Table 1: Security Vulnerabilities in Wireless Networks
S/N
Ref.
Security Issue
Brief Explanation
1.
[21, 44]
Eavesdropping
to intercept data
This is the act of illegitimately intercepting and receiving information
communicated over wireless communication channels, which can possibly
result in the affected information or data being compromised. Because the
airwave is non-secure, an attacker can hijack the signal over the air from a
certain distance.
2.
[22, 45]
Electromagnetic
Interference
Interference is very common in broadcasting where a radio receiver may pick
up two or more signals at the same time. This often results in signal fading and
disruption of smooth transmissions.
3.
[24]
Bandwidth
Congestion
Congestion of bandwidth is caused by piggybacking, which is the
unauthorised access of a wireless LAN. It involves a practice of accessing a
wireless internet connection by someone who uses another subscriber’s
wireless internet service without the person’s explicit knowledge or
permission. Piggybacking can also cause service violations, direct attack on
your computer and illegal activities by malicious users which may be traced to
you.
4.
[24, 45]
Wireless
Network
Sniffing
A wireless sniffer is a piece of software or hardware designed to intercept data
as it is transmitted over a network and decode the data into a format that is
readable for humans. Wireless sniffers are packet analysers specifically
designed to capture data transmitted over wireless networks. While wireless
packet sniffers are valuable tools for maintaining wireless networks, their
capabilities also make them popular tools for malicious attacks. Hackers can
use these tools to steal data, spy on network. Such sensitive information like
bank details, passwords, logins, credit card details, bank accounts etc. can be
tracked by hackers using sniffing tools. Wireless sniffer attacks can be
mitigated by using secure protocols such as HTTPS, Secure File Transfer
Protocol (SFTP) & Secure Shell (SSH). These secure protocols ensure that any
information transmitted is automatically encrypted.
5.
[22, 33]
Denial-of-
Service Attacks
This is a situation whereby a wireless user is illegitimately deprived of the
services of the network resources by a malicious attacker. The attacker floods
the network with unnecessary messages to make the network unavailable so as
to record the codes with some cracking devices during the recovery of the
network, thereby breaking the security and gaining unauthorized access to
information.
6.
[44, 46]
Wireless
Spoofing
attacks
Spoofing is a type of attack where an attacker uses information obtained by a
wireless sniffer to impersonate another machine on the network. Spoofing
attacks often target business’ networks and can be used to steal sensitive
information or run man-in-the-middle attacks against network hosts. Spoofing
attacks can be mitigated by the use of firewalls capable of deep packet
inspection or by taking measures to verify the identity of the sender or
recipient of a message
7.
[32]
Traffic
Redirection
This involves a change in the traffic route of a particular computer to that of a
malicious attacker by manipulating the media access control (MAC) address as
well as the IP address of a particular wired station.
8.
[37, 38]
Rogue Access
Point
This is a wireless access point that is installed by an attacker on a secure
network without explicit authorization from a local network administrator
(usually in public areas such as shared office space, airports, etc.), which
accepts traffic from unsuspecting wireless clients in order to extract sensitive
information.
9.
[39]
Cafe Latte
Attack
This type of attack allows an intruder to break into the WEP key of a remote
client by sending a flood of encrypted ARP requests. If the ARP packet of the
client is captured, he uses the ARP responses to obtain the WEP in just few
minutes.
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10
[28, 40]
Interoperability
Challenge: see
Fig. 2
Since antennas have different standards for different vendor and types, such as
space diversity, combining, polar, pattern, and so on; there is therefore
different control and operational procedure. Hence, various vendors have
complex and costly integration. Integration of modules for fixed, GSM and
CDMA is likely to be too costly.
11.
[28]
Congestion
Problem
Congestion problem is incurred in a communication network when free
Random Access Channel (RAC) is inaccessible by subscribers to either make
or respond to a call. Hence, in-coming and outgoing calls experience blockage
during congestion. Traffic channels congestions occurs when an Access Grant
Channel cannot get any free traffic channel (TCH) to allocate to the request of
the mobile terminal through the random access channel.
12.
[41]
Network
Injection Attack
This is an attack whereby a cracker makes use of access points that are
exposed to non-filtered network traffic (e.g. broadcasting network traffic) to
inject fake networking re-configuration commands. This act is capable of
bringing down a whole network and will require require rebooting or even
reprogramming of all intelligent networking devices.
13.
[24, 47]
Man-in-the-
middle attack
This is a form of eavesdropping attack, whereby the attacker secretly
intercepts a conversation between two parties. The attacker impersonates both
parties and gains access to information that the two parties are trying to relay
to each other. One type of man-in-the-middle attack relies on security faults in
challenge and handshake protocols to execute a “de-authentication attack”.
Fig. 3 shows the Open System Interconnected (OSI) layered
protocol architecture for wireless networks. The four layers
are application, transport, network, MAC and physical. With
these protocols, a network node A can transmit it packets to
another network node B. wires and wireless networks share
some common features of the protocols such as application,
transport and network, while MAC and physical layers apply
only to wireless networks.
Tables 2 6 present a summary of the various wireless
potential attacks common to each OSI layer as presented in
Fig. 3. Each protocol layer has its own unique security
challenges.
Figure 3. Basic features of an Open System Interconnected Layers
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Table 2: Wireless attacks common to the PHY Layer Protocol
Characteristic and Features
Interception of confidential Information [48]
Interruption of Legitimate Transmission [49]
Table 3: Wireless attacks common to the MAC Layer Protocol
MAC Layer Attacks
Characteristics and Features
MAC Spoofing
Falsification of MAC address [50]
Identify theft
MAC id of legitimate user lost to cyber-criminal
MITM attacks
Pair of communication nodes impersonated [51]
Network injection
Injection of forged network commands and packets [52]
Table 4: Wireless attacks common to the Network Layer Protocol
Networks layer attacks
Characteristics and Features
IP Spoofing
Falsification of IP address [50]
IP or Route or BGP hijacking
The IP addresses of legitimate internet users are impersonated [53]
Smurf attacks
By using a program called Smurf, an attacker causes denial-of-service attack on a network and
renders it inoperable. The act tends to paralyze a network [54].
Table 5: Wireless attacks common to the Transport Layer Protocol
Transport layer attacks
Characteristics and Features
TCP SYN flooding attack
It is a form of denial-of-service attack in which an attacker sends a successive requests to the
victim’s system in order to consume enough network resources & consequently make the
system unresponsive to legitimate traffic [6], [55]
UDP flood attack
This is a type of denial-of-service attack that uses the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) [56]
TCP sequence prediction attack
The attacker tries to predict the sequence number used to identify the packets in a
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). [6]
Table 6: Wireless attacks common to the Application Layer Protocol
Application layer attacks
Characteristics and Features
Malware attack
Hostile or intrusive software such as viruses, spyware, scareware, malicious
programs/codes specifically designed by an attacker to gain access illegitimately [57]
SQL injection
An attacker injects nefarious Structured Query Language (SQL) codes to a website in
order to gain access to network resources or effect changes on data.
Cross-site scripting attack
Malicious scripts are injected into trusted websites by an attacker to bypass some of the
access control measures
SMTP attack
Malicious attacks in e-mail transferring between the SMTP servers and clients [6]
FTP bounce attack
An attacker exploits the FTP protocol by using the PORT command to request access
to ports indirectly through the use of the victim’s IP address.
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FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR CONGESTION AND
DROPPED-CALL IN GSM NETWORKS
A call-drop is a voice call which after being successfully
established, is interrupted before it is completed. Call Drop
Rate (CDR) is the fraction of the telephone calls which are cut
off due to some technical reasons before the speaking parties
are done with their conversation. To be able to assess the
performance of their networks, Network Service Providers
(NSP) use the CDR as one of the key performance indicators
(KPI). Some parameters like network availability, connection
establishment, connection maintenance and points of
interconnection are indices for assessing the network
providers. A comprehensive analysis of the various
parameters was conducted to get an insight into the causes of
call drops. Fig. 4 below shows the factors that may likely
cause call drops as spotted in the works of the authors in [28,
31, 40-41].
IEEE 802.11B SECURITY MEASURES AND THEIR
LIMITATIONS
In this section, we summarize the family of IEEE 802.11B
standard for wireless security-control and their corresponding
weaknesses as cited in the works of the authors in [22], [30]
[31], [37], and [38].
Figure 4. Factors affecting Call Drop in GSM Networks
Table 7: IEEE 802.11B Standard Security Measures & their weaknesses
S/N
Item
Explanation
Limitation
1.
Service Set
Identifier
(SSID)
Here, all devices trying to get access to a particular
WLAN must first be configured with the same SSID. It
is added to the header of packet sent over the WLAN
and verified by Access Point. Hence, a client cannot
communicate with a particular access point unless both
have the same SSID configuration
It provides very little security as it is more of a
network identifier than a security feature. The SSID
and the access point name are not encrypted in the
header of 802.11 packets.
2.
Wired
Equivalent
Privacy
(WEP)
This is a standard encryption mechanism for wireless
networking used to overcome the security threats. It is
an algorithm used to guard wireless networks against
eavesdropping attacks. Its secondary function is to
restrict unauthorized access to a wireless network. It
utilizes some secret key used to encrypt packets prior to
transmission. The information transmitted is encrypted
and can only be decrypted with the same encryption
key.
Lack of provision of forgery protection, thereby
making it possible for an attacker to masquerade as
an authentic user and deliver data to unauthorized
parties.
Lack of protection against replays.
It is possible for an attacker to decrypt the encrypted
data without having to learn the encryption key.
3.
Media Access
Control
(MAC)
Here, the access point is configured to accept
association and connection requests from only those
nodes whose MAC addresses are registered with it. This
scheme makes provision for an additional security layer.
The limitation of this scheme is that an attacker who
has stolen a laptop with a registered MAC address
will continue to appear to the network as a
legitimate user.
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SECURITY-CONTROL MECHANISMS IN WIRELESS
NETWORKS
Broadly speaking, the security requirements for wireless
networks can be classified into four types as shown in Table
VIII. Every wireless network is required to meet these
requirements to guarantee its protection against malicious
attacks. In fact, all information security controls aim to
address at least the three major security requirements, which
includes protecting the confidentiality of information,
preserving the integrity of information, and promoting the
availability of information to authorized users. Table VIII
summarizes the major security requirements for wireless
networks. It is very instructive to note that while these
security measures are easily implemented in wired networks,
they appear to be a bit difficult with wireless networks. For
instance, to protect against jamming attacks, a wireless node
uses additional DSSS (or FHSS) techniques.
Now, consider the implementation of one of the security
requirements such as authorization in a Bluetooth technology.
A Bluetooth security architecture has a security manager as
the key component responsible for authentication,
authorization and encryption [6]. Implemented on Bluetooth
technology are confidentiality, authentication and key
derivation. The key is generated based on a Bluetooth PIN,
which must be entered into both devices. During pairing, an
initialization key or master key is generated, using the E22
algorithm. The authorization process is employed to enable a
Bluetooth device have access to another device. Fig. 5 shows
a flowchart of the Bluetooth authorization process. While
much benefits can be said about the use of Bluetooth
technology, there are also some challenges. Some of which
include denial-of-of-service attacks, eavesdropping, man-in-
the-middle attacks, message alteration and so on.
Table 8: Wireless Network Security Requirements
Requirement
Explanation
Authenticity
This involves a measure that determines
whether a user is who he or she claims to be.
It is the right or privilege granted to a user to
have legitimate access to a system. This
process can be used to confirm the identity of
node in order to determine the real authorized
user [58].
Confidentiality/
Cryptography
This involves techniques employed to protect
the integrity of data or information. The data
is first coded with special algorithms that
render the data ‘useless’ to any interceptor
that does not have the decryption key.
Encrypted data intercepted on the way cannot
be deciphered unless it gets to whom it is
meant for and who probably has the key to
decrypt it. Such method is used in the
banking systems where electronic fund
transfer takes place on a routine basis. This
method has proven highly effective method
of securing data.
Integrity
This involves measures and techniques
adopted to guarantee the accuracy and
reliability of information transmitted over a
wireless network. Integrity of information
entails that information-source is without
falsification and modification by
unauthorized users [6, 58]. Hence, loss of
integrity is a situation where data in a
database system is corrupted by unauthorized
users. Integrity models aim to achieve three
major objectives: preventing unauthorized
users from modifying the data or programs;
preventing authorized users from making
improper or unauthorized changes to data;
and ensuring that data and programs are
consistent both internal and external.
Availability
This is the process of ensuring that data is
accessible to the authorized user at any time
of request. Loss of availability is a situation
where the data or the system or both can no
longer be accessed as a result of invasion by
unauthorised users. Three major challenges
to availability include: Denial-of-service
(DoS) as a result of deliberate attacks; Loss
of information due to some natural disasters
like fires, floods, storms etc., and Equipment
failure during normal use.
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Figure 5. Flowchart of Bluetooth Authorization
To ensure the confidentiality, integrity and availability of
information or data, a number of security mechanisms have
been proposed by the authors in [18], [22], [29], [38-39] and
[44], which include:
Changing the default SSID as regularly as possible.
The Service Set Identifier (SSID) is a unique identifier
usually attached to the header of packets relayed over
wireless networks, which acts as a password when a
mobile device tries to connect to a particular WLAN. It
is recommended that this identifier is changed regularly
as doing otherwise is a common security mistake often
committed by WLAN administrators. It is also advised
not to use a descriptive name for the SSID or the
Access Point.
Utilizing the Virtual Private Network (VPN). This is a
network technology which creates a secure connection
over a public network such as the internet or a private
network owned by a service provider. This is common
with large corporations, educational institutions, and
government agencies. A VPN is capable of connecting
multiple sites over a large distance similar to that of a
Wide Area Network (WAN). A VPN provides high
security for the wireless network implementation
without adding significant overhead to the users. A
VPN technology provides three levels of security
which includes Authentication, Encryption and Data
Integrity.
Changing the Default Passwords and IP Addresses
Using the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP).
This provides a centralized authentication and dynamic
key distribution.
Using the Lightweight Extensible Authentication
Protocol (LEAP). This was introduced by Cisco in the
year 2000 to provide additional security feature to
EAP, which includes secure key derivation, Dynamic
WEP keys, Re-authentication policies, and
Initialization Vector changes.
Access Point should be placed outside the firewall in
order to prevent a hacker from having access to the
network resources.
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 13, Number 8 (2018) pp. 5680-5692
© Research India Publications. http://www.ripublication.com
5689
Minimizing radio wave propagation in non-user areas
by ensuring that antennas are not positioned to give
coverage to areas outside their vicinities.
Use of smart cards, USB tokens and Software tokens
Use the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP). This
was designed to address the flaws associated with
WEP, and it implements a message integrity check.
The Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA and WPA2). These
security protocols were also developed to address the
deficiencies of WEP.
Secure Socket Layer (SSL). This security protocol was
developed for internet users. It is used by many website
designers for security. Normally, when an internet user
logs in on a website, the resulting page is SSL which
encrypts the data being transmitted to avoid being
intercepted by a third party. It is this security protocol
that keeps your name, address, credit card details
between you and your client.
ANALYSIS OF JAMMING ATTACKS ON WIRELESS
NETWORKS
Jammers are malicious wireless nodes planted by an attacker
to deliberately disrupt a legitimate wireless transmission.
Jammers can be classified into four models, namely constant
jammer, random jammer, reactive jammer and deceptive
jammer. The major intent behind jamming attack is to disrupt
wireless transmission and completely block the channel,
thereby preventing the intended receiver from getting the
message. Jamming attacks are carried out by transmitting an
unwanted radio frequency (RF) signal in wireless channel.
Fig.7 shows a summary of analysis of the various jamming
attacks in terms of ‘jamming effectiveness’ and ‘complexity.’
Figure 6. A summary of analysis of Jamming Attacks
From Fig. 6, we observe that in terms of jamming
effectiveness, constant jammer, reactive jammer and
deceptive jammer are designated “High”, while random
jammer can be said to be “Adjustable.” In terms of
complexity, both constant jammer and random jammer are
“Low”, reactive jammer is “Moderate” and deceptive jammer
is “High”. Constant jammer does not wait for the channel to
become idle but continuously emit RF signals, and packets are
transmitted randomly to the channel. A number of anti-
jamming techniques have been proposed. Some of which
include but not limited to channel hopping, using bit error rate
(BER), trigger nodes identification, frequency hopping, direct
sequence spread spectrum (DSSS), etc. Details of jamming
attacks and their anti-jamming (prevention) techniques can be
found in the works of the authors [59] [63].
CONCLUSION
In this paper, the authors have x-rayed a comprehensive
overview of wireless communications networks, the
associated security vulnerabilities and control mechanisms
aimed at protecting the integrity, confidentiality, availability
and authenticity of users of wireless networks against
attackers. We also discussed a variety of wireless attacks
encountered at different interconnected protocol layers and a
number of factors contributing to call-drops and network
congestion. We further presented a range of security-control
mechanisms as prescribed by IEEE 802.11B. Finally, we
presented an analysis of jamming attacks and their anti-
jamming techniques.
In all, we make bold to say that the security of wireless
networks is all encompassing! While it may be difficult to
totally eradicate all vulnerabilities associated with wireless
networking, it is rather easier to achieve an overall level of
security, if a systematic method is adopted in the assessment
and management of risks. It therefore behoves on WLAN
users to constantly guard against potential risks by exploiting
the suggested actions detailed in this paper. However, a
notable best practice of securing wireless network is to have
adequate knowledge of security, accurate implementation and
sustained maintenance.
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This practically-oriented, all-inclusive guide covers all the major enabling techniques for current and next-generation cellular communications and wireless networking systems. Technologies covered include CDMA, OFDM, UWB, turbo and LDPC coding, smart antennas, wireless ad hoc and sensor networks, MIMO, and cognitive radios, providing readers with everything they need to master wireless systems design in a single volume. Uniquely, a detailed introduction to the properties, design, and selection of RF subsystems and antennas is provided, giving readers a clear overview of the whole wireless system. It is also the first textbook to include a complete introduction to speech coders and video coders used in wireless systems. Richly illustrated with over 400 figures, and with a unique emphasis on practical and state-of-the-art techniques in system design, rather than on the mathematical foundations, this book is ideal for graduate students and researchers in wireless communications, as well as for wireless and telecom engineers.
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This paper is motivated to examine the security vulnerabilities and threats imposed by the inherent open nature of wireless communications and to devise efficient defense mechanisms for improving the wireless network security. We first summarize the security requirements of wireless networks, including their authenticity, confidentiality, integrity and availability issues. Next, a comprehensive overview of security attacks encountered in wireless networks is presented in view of the network protocol architecture, where the potential security threats are discussed at each protocol layer. We also provide a survey of the existing security protocols and algorithms that are adopted in the existing wireless network standards, such as the Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, WiMAX, and the long-term evolution (LTE) systems. Then, we discuss the state-of-the-art in physical-layer security, which is an emerging technique of securing the open communications environment against eavesdropping attacks at the physical layer. Several physical-layer security techniques are reviewed and compared, including information-theoretic security, artificial noise aided security, security-oriented beamforming, diversity assisted security, and physical-layer key generation approaches. Additionally, since a jammer emitting radio signals can readily interfere with the legitimate wireless users, we introduce the family of various jamming attacks and their counter-measures, including the constant jammer, intermittent jammer, reactive jammer, adaptive jammer and intelligent jammer. Finally, some technical challenges which remain unresolved at the time of writing are summarized and the future trends in wireless security are discussed.
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In this paper we examine the impact of GSM on the economies of the rural dwellers in Nigeria, specifically, on job creation, time management, reduction in crime rate and their general income flow. Our study adopted a descriptive survey research design and data was collected using a questionnaire administered to one thousand respondents randomly selected from ten rural communities in Oyo state, Nigeria. Findings generally indicate that GSM has considerable impact on the rural economy, job opportunity, rural dwellers time management, and drastic reduction of crime rate. It was concluded that GSM is an emerging communication industry in Africa, with Nigeria rated as one of the fastest growing market in this field of communication. However, the impact on the rural dwellers is still marginally poor. Hence, focus should be shifted to the utilization of the GSM for the development of rural economies in Africa, Nigeria inclusive.
Book
Design and Performance of 3G Wireless Networks and Wireless LANs is for wireless communication system engineers, network engineers, professionals, and researchers. Network architectures of UMTS, CDMA2000 systems, and how major network elements within the 3G networks can be designed, are described. In addition, the authors describe how end-to-end performance for voice and data services can be determined. They also provide guidelines on how radio access networks and core networks can be engineered. Of equal importance, is inclusion of explanations of various wireless LAN standards (IEEE 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11e) and how voice and data services can be offered in the wireless LAN systems. Additional highlights include: * Overview of core principles of wireless communications (e.g., FDMA, TDMA, CDMA), airlink capacity analysis, and evaluation. * Traffic model descriptions and illustrations for circuit-switched and packet-switched services. * In-depth coverage of how base station and radio network controller can be designed to meet capacity requirements. * Discussion of unique design issues in 3G networks, innovative solutions, and possible new 3G features. This material also provides capacity engineering guidelines for 3G networks and wireless LANs. Review exercises are provided at the end of each chapter to facilitate teaching and self study. © 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Advances in wireless telecommunications technology are converging with Internet technology to foster new generations of applications and services. Presently, the United States and other countries are moving to third-generation (3G) and fourth-generation (4G) mobile telephony. A related trend is the growth in use of Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity) and WiMAX (an industry designation for a type of broadband standard). Wi-Fi uses local wireless networks for high-speed (broadband) mobile access to the Internet. WiMAX uses broadband wireless to link fixed points and also supports mobile devices. From the perspective of spectrum management, a significant difference in the technologies is that 3G, 4G, and WiMAX services operate on designated, licensed frequencies, while Wi-Fi shares unlicenced spectrum with other uses. Policy issues before Congress include the competitive impact on commercial wireless carriers when municipalities offer wireless broadband services, promoting the development of broadband wireless access, and assuring the availability of appropriate spectrum for both licensed and unlicensed applications..
Conference Paper
This article describes an authentication protocol based on pairings for a wireless sensor network considering the execution cost. The proposed protocol provides a node authentication process based on identity, as well as a message authentication process using keyed hash functions. The evaluation of the protocol's execution cost is focused on message authentication operations in order to provide a notion of the network power consumption intensive message exchange between authenticated nodes.
Conference Paper
Wireless technology has been gaining rapid popularity for some years. Adaptation of a standard depends on the ease of use and level of security it provides. In this case, contrast between wireless usage and security standards show that the security is not keeping up with the growth paste of end userpsilas usage. Current wireless technologies in use allow hackers to monitor and even change the integrity of transmitted data. Lack of rigid security standards has caused companies to invest millions on securing their wireless networks. There are three major types of security standards in wireless. In our previous paper which was presented in ICFCC2009 Conference in Kuala Lumpur and published by IEEE Computer Society, we explained the structure of WEP as a first wireless security standard and discussed all its versions, problems and improvements. Now, we try to explain all of WPA versions and problems with the best solutions and finally make a comparison between WEP and WPA. Then we are in the next phase which is to explain the structure of last standard (WPA2) and we hope that we will publish a complete comparison among wireless security techniques in the near future and recommend a new proposal as a new protocol.
Article
In the last couple of years we have witnessed a silent revolution in computing and in our daily lifestyle. Computing and electronics have gone mobile without us changing our security approach. Moreover, thanks to the new communication standards, mostly wireless, each piece of equipment is usually able to communicate with each other device. So how can we balance security with mobile communicating, sometimes even embedded, devices?
Article
From the Publisher:Mobile and Personal Communication Services and Systems provides a broad systems overview combined with carefully selected technical details for a clear understanding of the basic technology, architecture, and applications associated with mobile communications. In this book's discussion of mobile telephone, data, and multimedia services, Raj Pandya - international expert in emerging mobile networks and standards - guides telecommunications professionals and students through the past, present, and future of mobile and personal communication systems. He explains how the evolution toward next generation systems will shape tomorrow's mobile communications industry.