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Potency of Leaf Extracts of Cocor Bebek (Kalanchoe pinnata) as Hair-Growth Promoting Agent

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  • Lampung Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology

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Plant extracts of cocor bebek, Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers., containing various types of bioactive compound expected to have cosmetic benefits, however studies on its uses in haircare is lacking. Current study is a part of our effort in extending seeks of plant species growing in Indonesia that are potent to be use as hairgrowth promoting agents. Four healthy, adult, male New Zealand rabbits, aged 4-5 months, weighing 1.5 kg – 2 kg were used as test animals. The dorsal aspect of each rabbit were shaved and divided into six areas, with a size of 2 cm x 2 cm each. Each area of shaved skin were then administered with CMC gel containing substances set for treatment namely: CMC gel without cocor bebek extract (as negative control), 2% minoxidil (as positive control), and leaf extracts of cocor bebek of four levels of concentration i.e. 25% (v/v), 50% (v/v), 75% (v/v) and 100% (v/v) respectively. Topical administration of extract was done twice a day (morning and afternoon), for 21 days. Hair length was assessed using calliper on day 7, 14 and 21 by taking randomly 10 hairs from each treatment area, while the hair mass was measured using microbalance on day 22 by harvesting all hairs on each treatment area. The result showed CMC gel containing leaf extracts of K. pinnata remarkably increased hairs length of rabbits in a concentration-related manner. At the highest concentration, the effects even surpassed minoxidil. However, no treatment found to affect hair mass of the animals. It is inferred that plant extract of cocor bebek is potential to be use as a hair growth promoting agent.
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Scholars Academic Journal of Biosciences (SAJB) ISSN 2347-9515 (Print)
Abbreviated Key Title: Sch. Acad. J. Biosci. ISSN 2321-6883 (Online)
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Potency of Leaf Extracts of Cocor Bebek (Kalanchoe pinnata) as Hair-Growth
Promoting Agent
Mohammad Kanedi*, Martha Lulus Lande, Nuning Nurcahyani, Yulianty, Indah Yusni
Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, University of Lampung, Bandar Lampung, Indonesia
Original Research Article
*Corresponding author
Mohammad Kanedi
Article History
Received: 08.02.2018
Accepted: 21.02.2018
Published:30.04.2018
DOI:
10.21276/sajb.2018.6.4.5
Abstract: Plant extracts of cocor bebek, Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers., containing
various types of bioactive compound expected to have cosmetic benefits, however
studies on its uses in haircare is lacking. Current study is a part of our effort in
extending seeks of plant species growing in Indonesia that are potent to be use as hair-
growth promoting agents. Four healthy, adult, male New Zealand rabbits, aged 4-5
months, weighing 1.5 kg 2 kg were used as test animals. The dorsal aspect of each
rabbit were shaved and divided into six areas, with a size of 2 cm x 2 cm each. Each
area of shaved skin were then administered with CMC gel containing substances set for
treatment namely: CMC gel without cocor bebek extract (as negative control), 2%
minoxidil (as positive control), and leaf extracts of cocor bebek of four levels of
concentration i.e. 25% (v/v), 50% (v/v), 75% (v/v) and 100% (v/v) respectively.
Topical administration of extract was done twice a day (morning and afternoon), for 21
days. Hair length was assessed using calliper on day 7, 14 and 21 by taking randomly
10 hairs from each treatment area, while the hair mass was measured using
microbalance on day 22 by harvesting all hairs on each treatment area. The result
showed CMC gel containing leaf extracts of K. pinnata remarkably increased hairs
length of rabbits in a concentration-related manner. At the highest concentration, the
effects even surpassed minoxidil. However, no treatment found to affect hair mass of
the animals. It is inferred that plant extract of cocor bebek is potential to be use as a hair
growth promoting agent.
Keywords: cocor bebek, Kalanchoe pinnata, hair-growth promotion, anti hair loss,
minoxidil.
INTRODUCTION
It cannot be denied that for most people, either
men or women, hair disorders especially hair loss or
baldness is something that is very disturbing. That is
why many people are willing to spend a lot of money to
care for and maintain the beauty of their hair [1]. So far,
the standard drugs that have been proven to be most
effective in preventing hair loss are minoxidil and
finasteride [2]. However the side effects of these drugs
were known to limit their pharmacological benefits
hence it is a necessity to replace this synthetic drug with
that of botanical ingredient [3]. Currently, there are
already dozens of herbs / plants from South Asia that
indicated to have anti-hair loss effects, such as Emblica
officinalis (Euphorbiaceae), Centella asiatica
(Umbelliferae), Eclipta alba Linn. (Asteraceae), Cocos
nucifera Linn (Palmae), Eucalyptus globulus
(Myrtaceae), Lawsonia inermis (Lythraceae),
Azadirachta indica (Melliaceae), Hibiscus rosa sinensis
(Malvaceae), Nardostachys jatamansi (Valerianaceae),
Trigonella foenum graecum (Leguminoseae), Juniperus
virginiana, Rosmarinus officinale Linn.(Labiatae),
Acacia concinna (Mimosaceae), Prunus dulcis
(Rosaceae), Ginko biloba (Ginkgoaceae), Santalum
album (Santalaceae), Sesamum indicum (Pedaliaceae),
Cassia angustifolia (Leguminoceae), Citrus limonum
(Rutaceae), Rosa damascena (Rosaceae), Salvia
officinalis Linn.(Labiatae), Arnica montana (Apiaceae),
Simmondsia chinensis (Simmondiaceae), Trigonella
foenum-graecum L (Fabaceae), and Ocimum sanctum
(Labiatae) [4].
Research reports from Indonesia revealed that
in addition to dozens of plant species above, anti-hair
loss activities also shown by pisang kepok (Musa
balbisiana) and suruhan (Peperomia pellucida). Topical
gel containing corm extract of M. balbisiana as well as
plant extract of P. pellucida were proven to increase
hair length and mass in rabbits [5, 6]. Among thousands
of plant found in Indonesia, cocor bebek, Kalanchoe
pinnata (Lam.) Pers. (Synonyms: Bryophyllum
calycinum, Bryophyllum pinnatum), is one species that
has long been known in folk medicine system in many
tropical and subtropical countries. Medicinal values of
this plant include wound-healing, antioxidant,
anticancerous, antiproliferative, antimicrobial, antiviral,
antiprotozoal, antileishmanial, anthelmentic,
insecticidal, anti-allergic, analgesic, antinociceptive,
Biology
Mohammad Kanedi et al., Sch. Acad. J. Biosci., Apr 2018; 6(4): 330-334
Available online at http://saspublisher.com/sajb/ 331
anti-oedematogenic, anti-inflammatory, muscle-
relaxant, antipyretic, anticonvulsant, antidepressant,
sedative, antilithiatic, hepatoprotective,
gastroprotective, antidiabetic, nephroprotective,
haemoprotective, antihistamine, antihypertensive and
immunosuppressant [7].
Phytochemical analysis of plant extracts of K.
pinnata revealed that this succulent plant containing
various types of bioactive compound expected to have
anti hair loss activity, such as malic acid, sitosterols and
saponins [8]. However, until now there has been no
research that reveals the influence of cocor bebek plant
ingredients on hair care remedies. Current study is a
part of our effort in extending seeks of plant species
growing in Indonesia that are potent to be use as hair-
growth promoting agents.
METHODS
Plant Sample and Extraction
Plant leaf samples of cocor bebek, Kalanchoe
pinnata (Lam.) Pers., were collected from suburb of
Bandar Lampung, the capital city of Lampung province,
Indonesia. For taxonomic verification, the plant samples
were brought to the Botany Laboratory, Faculty of
Mathematics and Sciences, University of Lampung,
Indonesia. The fresh leaves were washed with aquadest,
air dried, sliced into small pieces, and then soaked in
96% ethanol for 24 hours. After being macerated for
four times, the macerate evaporated using rotary
evaporator under low pressure until brownish-viscous
extracts formed.
Animals and Experimental Design
Test animals used in the study were four
healthy, adult, male New Zealand rabbits, aged 4-5
months, weighing 1.5 kg 2 kg. During a week of
acclimatization and throghout the experiment all rabbits
were caged individually in a room with natural light
cycle, in a temperature range of 25 oC 30 oC, and fed
with natural diet and water ad libitum.
To make rabbits ready for treatment the dorsal
aspects of the animals were divided into six topical
administration areas, with a size of 2 cm x 2 cm each.
The hairs on each area were shaved using a razor. These
areas were then marked imaginatively according to the
concentration of extract applied namely: K-, K+, E1,
E2, E3 and E4. Area K- and K+ are the shaved skin
treated consecutively with CMC gel without cocor
bebek extract (as negative control) and 2% minoxidil
(as positive control). Area E1, E2, E3 and E4 are the
shaved skin administered with gel containing K. pinnata
extracts of 25% (v/v), 50% (v/v), 75% (v/v) and 100%
(v/v) respectively.
Extract Administrations and Observation
To make ingredients ready to be given
topically to the test animals, the ethanolic leaf extracts
of K. pinnata were suspended in distilled water at
concentrations set for treatment, i.e. 25, 50, 75 and
100% respectively, up to a final volume of 20 ml. Into
the suspension is then added CMC (carboxymethyl
cellulose) little by little while stirring evenly until the
gel mixture is formed. Topical administration of extract
was done by smearing each shaved skin with 0.1g of the
gel, twice a day (morning and afternoon), for 21 days.
On day 7, 14, and 21 from each treated area was taken
randomly 10 hairs and the length of each hair was
measured using caliper. On day 22 all hairs in the
treated area were taken and assessed using a digital
microbalance.
Statistical Analysis
The data were described as mean ± standard
deviation (SD). One-way ANOVA and Least
Significant Diference (LSD) test were used to
determine the statistical differences between values of
experimental and control groups and the p-values <
0.05 is considered significant.
RESULTS
The descriptive and analytical data indicating
the effects of six different treatments on rabbit hairs
growth on day 7, 14 and 21 after daily topical
administration were consecutively shown in Table 1, 2
and 3. The one-way ANOVA statistics that were
applied for the data resulted in the F-values of 34.494,
18.921, and 27.894 with the P-values of 0.0048,
0.00205, and 0.00081 respectively. The LSD test on the
mean values between treatments for the data in Table 1,
2 and 3 suggest that CMC gel containing leaf extracts of
K. pinnata remarkably increased hairs length of rabbits
in a concentration-related manner. At the highest
concentration, the effects even surpassed minoxidil, the
positive control treatment.
Mohammad Kanedi et al., Sch. Acad. J. Biosci., Apr 2018; 6(4): 330-334
Available online at http://saspublisher.com/sajb/ 332
Table-1: Hair length of rabbits on day 7 after daily topical administration of leaf extracts of cocor bebek
(Kalanchoe pinnata)
Treatment
Hair lenght of rabbits (mm)
Mean ± SD
1
3
4
K-
2.29
2.00
4.49
2.963±1.115a
E1
4.67
4.07
6.22
4.671±1.102b
E2
4.82
4.80
6.41
5.091±0.903b
E3
5.73
5.31
6.66
5.806±0.591c
E4
6.89
5.72
6.98
6.609±0.595d
K+
5.73
5.65
6.88
6.095±0.560c
K- (negative control) is shaved skin treated with CMC gel without plant extracts; K+ (positive control) is shaved area
given 2% minoxidil; whereas E1, E2, E3 and E4 are the shaved skin treated with CMC gel containing suruhan extracts
25%, 50%, 75% and 100% respectively. Mean±SD values followed by different superscripts are significantly different at
α =0.05.
Table-2: Hair length of rabbits on day 14 after daily topical administration of leaf extracts of cocor bebek
(Kalanchoe pinnata)
Treatment
Hair lenght of rabbits (mm)
Mean ± SD
1
2
3
4
K-
4.37
5.15
5.86
8.83
6.049±1.948a
E1
6.09
6.19
6.93
11.43
7.660±2.541b
E2
7.18
6.16
7.11
11.86
8.078±2.564b
E3
9.71
9.66
9.42
11.97
10.190±1.193c
E4
10.55
10.78
9.61
11.83
10.689±0.910d
K+
9.84
9.71
9.80
12.63
10.496±1.424cd
K- (negative control) is shaved skin treated with CMC gel without plant extracts; K+ (positive control) is shaved area
given 2% minoxidil; whereas E1, E2, E3 and E4 are the shaved skin treated with CMC gel containing suruhan extracts
25%, 50%, 75% and 100% respectively. Mean±SD values followed by different superscripts are significantly different at
α =0.05.
Table-3: Hair length of rabbits on day 21 after daily topical administration of leaf extracts of cocor bebek
(Kalanchoe pinnata)
Treatment
Hair lenght of rabbits (mm)
Mean ± SD
1
2
3
4
K-
7.55
7.02
8.57
13.94
9.268±3.178a
E1
9.23
9.01
9.81
14.35
10.600±2.523b
E2
13.01
9.31
11.75
14.72
12.198±2.278c
E3
13.48
12.91
12.97
15.31
13.666±1.126d
E4
15.22
14.31
13.43
16.39
14.834±1.266f
K+
13.87
13.76
13.01
16.05
14.169±1.308e
K- (negative control) is shaved skin treated with CMC gel without plant extracts; K+ (positive control) is shaved area
given 2% minoxidil; whereas E1, E2, E3 and E4 are the shaved skin treated with CMC gel containing suruhan extracts
25%, 50%, 75% and 100% respectively. Mean±SD values followed by different superscripts are significantly different at
α =0.05.
Although leaf extracts of cocor bebek
significantly affects hair length of rabbits, but the
topical administration of the gel does not effective
enough to increase hair mass of the test animals.
Statistical analysis results, as shown in Table 4, clearly
show an F-value of 1.664 with P =0.30019. These data
suggest that CMC gel containing leaves extract of cocor
bebek cause less effect on the hair mass in rabbits.
Mohammad Kanedi et al., Sch. Acad. J. Biosci., Apr 2018; 6(4): 330-334
Available online at http://saspublisher.com/sajb/ 333
Table-4: Hair mass of rabbits on day 22 after daily topical treatment with leaf extracts of cocor bebek (Kalanchoe
pinnata)
Treatment
Hair mass of rabbits (mg)
Mean ± SD
1
2
3
4
K-
0.24
0.14
0.68
1.16
0.553±0.468
E1
0.25
0.13
0.75
1.22
0.587±0.500
E2
0.46
0.12
0.76
1.26
0.652±0.484
E3
0.43
0.32
0.79
1.31
0.712±0.450
E4
0.54
0.32
0.83
1.41
0.776±0.473
K+
0.37
0.31
0.86
1.38
0.730±0.496
K- (negative control) is shaved skin treated with CMC gel without plant extracts; K+ (positive control) is shaved area
given 2% minoxidil; whereas E1, E2, E3 and E4 are the shaved skin treated with CMC gel containing suruhan extracts
25%, 50%, 75% and 100% respectively. Mean±SD values followed by different superscripts are significantly different at
α =0.05.
DISCUSSION
The findings of this study confirm the
greatness of cocor bebek, Kalanchoe pinnata, as a plant
with many medical uses. The medical benefits of this
plant are undoubtedly because these plants are rich in
bioactive compounds including alkaloids, triterpenes,
glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, bufadienolides, lipids
and organic acids, glut-5(6)- and 3-one, taraxerone, 3β-
friedelanol, β-amyrin-3-acetate, and β-sitosterol [10 -
11]. Flavonoid fraction of K. Pinnata contains
quercetrin and quercetin 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-
(1→2)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, these two compounds
showed a high gastroprotective effect [12]. Based on an
in vivo and in vitro studies that managed to reveal the
antidiabetic action of K. pinnata extract, Patil et al.,
[13] suspected that this plant contains substance similar
to the currently used drug glibenclamide [13]. Other
compounds extrated from this plant, that is expected to
be a key role in the healthcare are campesterol and
5,6,7,8,4' pentahydroxy flavanone due to their
antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities [14].
Among the above chemicals, compounds
belong to flavonoid group were found to have broad
application in cosmetic industry [15]. One characteristic
of the flavonoid that supports its usefulness in the
cosmetic industry is easy to penetrate the skin tissue
[16]. Plant extracts of Chrysanthemum zawadskii var.
latilobum (Asteraceae) and Polygonum multiflorum
Thunb. (Polygonaceae) have also reported to show anti
hair loss activity [17]. Phytochemical analysis of these
two plant also found flavonoids as a significant
bioactive component [18, 19].
The most common type of hair loss both in
men and women is androgenetic alopecia (AGA). AGA
is believed associated with the abnormality of
androgens such as testosterone (T) and its derivative
dihydrotestosterone (DHT). However, recently, authors
have argued against the use of the term AGA in women,
as the role of androgens in female pattern hair loss is
debatable [20]. Beyond the debate on the cause of the
androgenetic-related hair loss between male and female,
researches on seeking the effective medicine for
promoting hair growth either in vitro or in vivo using
animal models still continues. Among the result of the
studies suggested that hair loss can be prevented by
eating foods rich in biotin and cystein or using certain
topical plant extracts or herbal oils [21-23]. Overall,
from a variety of literature review, Semwal et al. (2011)
stated there are dozens of substances suspected effect
on hair growth, including saponin, alkaloids, ecliptine,
wedelic acid, luteolin, triterpine, glycosides, β-
sitosterol, hentriacontanol, vitamin A, vitamin C, iron
calcium oxalic, malic acid, α pinene, β pinene, fatty
acid, sterol compounds, polyphenols, steroids, volatile
oil and essential oil [24].
CONCLUSION
Although it does not give a clear effect on hair
mass, but the leaves extract of cocor bebek, Kalanchoe
pinnata (Lam.) Pers., significantly improves the hair
length of rabbits. Therefor it is inferred that plant
extract of cocor bebek is potential to be use as a hair
growth promoting agent.
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... At the highest concentration, promoting activity of leaf gel extract of Kalanchoe pinnata surpassed minoxidil. [22] 10 Hibiscus tiliaciusL and Tamarindus indica L. ...
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