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On Faculty Supervision in Industry Projects



We are interested in determining the most effective way to deliver instruction through extended industry projects. The traditional approach involves a university supervisor that guides students through the project in a standard classroom environment. However, following the flipped classroom model, much of this guidance can be delivered online so that students can use the classroom time for collaboration and interaction with the industry partner. In this small pilot study, we compare two different delivery models for industry projects courses, focusing on student satisfaction and project success. Results are discussed, and we propose some general guidelines for the delivery of industry project courses. The main conclusion is that providing more learning materials online and allowing them more time to work as a team in flip-blended environment resulted in a much efficient delivery of projects.
On Faculty Supervision in Industry Projects
Michal Aibin
British Columbia Institute of Technology
Burnaby, BC
Aaron Hunter
British Columbia Institute of Technology
Burnaby, BC
We are interested in determining the most eective way to deliver
instruction through extended industry projects. The traditional
approach involves a university supervisor that guides students
through the project in a standard classroom environment. However,
following the ipped classroom model, much of this guidance can
be delivered online so that students can use the classroom time for
collaboration and interaction with the industry partner. In this small
pilot study, we compare two dierent delivery models for industry
projects courses, focusing on student satisfaction and project suc-
cess. Results are discussed, and we propose some general guidelines
for the delivery of industry project courses. The main conclusion is
that providing more learning materials online and allowing then
more time to work as a team in ip-blended environment resulted
in a much ecient delivery of projects.
ip-blended, project courses, industry sponsors, education, student
ACM Reference Format:
Michal Aibin and Aaron Hunter. 2018. On Faculty Supervision in Industry
Projects. In WCCCE ’18: 23rd Western Canadian Conference on Computing
Education, May 4–5, 2018, Victoria, BC, Canada. ACM, New York, NY, USA,
5 pages.
At many universities and colleges, industrial projects play an im-
portant role in the curriculum. We are interested in the following
question: to what extent must students be supervised or guided by
academic faculty in the completion of such projects. In this paper,
we look at two delivery models of industry project courses. One is a
traditional model involving substantial classroom time and explicit
involvement by faculty supervisors. The second model is inspired
by the ipped classroom approach, and it greatly reduces contact
hours with faculty during project completion. The two delivery
models are compared in terms of both student satisfaction and
client satisfaction.
The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. In the next
Section, we introduce related works and description of ip-blended
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classrooms and industry sponsored project courses, followed by
a study context. Next, we present the course design comparison.
Finally, we provide survey results on a client and students feed-
back, followed by a discussion and conclusion. To the best of our
knowledge, this is the rst study that compares ip-blended envi-
ronment with traditional guidance in industry sponsored project
type courses in post-secondary education.
2.1 Flipped Classrooms
The term ipping the classroom was rst used in [
], though the
fundamental idea was introduced much earlier [
]. Broadly, the
ipped classroom approach is a form of blended learning, where
class time is no longer used by instructors for talking and deliv-
ering material in the traditional way. Instead, students are given
learning materials to review outside of the classroom, which then
allows class time to be used for practice and demonstration with
the instructor acting as a mentor or guide.
Blended learning is intended to take advantage of the best fea-
tures of both online learning and face-to-face learning. By using
educational technology to deliver material outside the classroom,
the students should be able to learn the same things that previously
were delivered by lecture. This opens up the possibility of individual
interaction and collaboration with the instructor in the classroom.
It has been suggested that this framework can create to “meaning-
ful learning experiences,” that lead to deeper understanding of the
course material [11].
While the advantages of a ipped classroom have been discussed
in popular media and educational literature, there has been rela-
tively little empirical evidence that this approach leads to more
ecient or eective learning [
]. This is not to suggest that the
topic has not been the focus of research; there have been a variety of
case studies on the topic [
]. For example, ipped classrooms have
been explored in computer science [
], medicine [
], mathematics
], business [
], and history [
]. In each case, the results of the
study focus on lessons learned and advantages for a particular type
of class; general results are dicult to state conclusively.
Rather than focusing on an abstract notion of “eectiveness,
researchers have also focuses on issues of related to students’ per-
ception of the ipped classroom. For example, it has been proposed
that the ipped classroom may lead to increased motivation for
students [
]. It has also been argued that the benets may not
be uniform. Specically, it has been shown that some students are
more prone to accept the ipped environment while others will tend
to resist [
]. It has been suggested that this dierence in students
preferences is more easily addressed by implementing a ipped
approach throughout an entire course, rather than just for isolated
WCCCE ’18, May 4–5, 2018, Victoria, BC, Canada Michal Aibin and Aaron Hunter
aspects. It is worth noting that these studies on student attitudes
and preferences tend to be based on direct student feedback.
2.2 Industry Sponsored Projects Courses
Project-based learning refers to the style of instruction in which stu-
dents are given large, practical projects to work on and explore over
a period of weeks or months. It has been suggested that this oers
greater learning opportunities as students are able to put sustained
thought into a single problem, identifying and solving key aspects of
the problem in an authentic setting [
]. At the post-secondary level,
one natural way to implement project based learning is through
project courses where students work for an entire semester on a
single project. In applied technology programs, the authenticity
of the project is improved if it is suggested by an industry partner.
In this paper, we use the term industry projects course to refer to
a semester-long project that students undertake in collaboration
with a sponsor from industry.
Flipped classrooms and project-based learning are both well
studied concepts in the education literature. However, it is not
entirely obvious how best to proceed when we combine the two. In
other words, when students are acclimated to a ipped environment,
how does this impact the delivery of project courses? To what extent
does a teacher need to provide explicit “instruction” while guiding
students through the project?
2.3 Study Context
The British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT) is a polytech-
nic institution in Greater Vancouver, oering a variety of diploma,
bachelor’s and masters degree options. In Computing, students can
choose between two distinct programs. The Computer Systems
Technology (CST) diploma is focused on software development,
with an emphasis on programming. The Computer Information
Technology (CIT) diploma is focused on Information Technology,
with an emphasis on technology management and conguration.
The technical content of the CST and CIT diplomas is dierent,
and so too is the delivery model. While the CST diploma is delivered
in a standard classroom environment, the CIT diploma recently
converted the entire curriculum to blended delivery. As such, every
course in the program includes an online component to be com-
pleted prior to the face-to-face meetings. The actual classrooms
have even be renovated to encourage collaboration, by grouping
students in clusters with individual screens around the edge of the
room. There is no “front” of the room, because the classes do not
include traditional lectures. CIT diploma holds its classes in newly
renovated Downtown Campus (DTC), whereas CST program is
located in the main, Burnaby Campus (BBY).
Almost all of the courses in the two diplomas are dierent, with
a lone exception. Both programs include an Industry Sponsored
Project course, in which students work in groups to solve a problem
for an industry partner. The goal of this course is to give students
experience working on a practical problem, managing client ex-
pectations, and collaborating as a team. The delivery of the course
is dierent in each program, in keeping with the distinct deliv-
ery models. The purpose of this paper is to compare the deliver
of the course in both formats, in order to identify strengths and
As noted previously, general conclusions about ipped classrooms
can be hard derive based on individual case studies. For this reason,
our study focuses exclusively on the delivery of Industry Project
courses. Such courses are common in a polytechnic environment,
but little work has been done demonstrating how they should be
best delivered.
Our student proceeds in three steps. First, through discussions
with the Faculty leaders for the Industry Sponsored Projects, we
simply describe how each project course is delivered. This is a qual-
itative description, emphasizing the dierences between the two
courses. Second, we look at recent project results from the perspec-
tive of the clients. This involves examining any failed projects, and
also looking at explicit client feedback on their experience. Finally,
we create a survey to collect student opinions on the courses.
This is a preliminary study, aiming to identify any key dierences
between the courses that could be explored in greater detail in a
future project.
4.1 Computer Systems Technology
The CST project course is a 15 week course that allows students to
work with an industrial partner to develop a solution to a practical
problem. Students are put in groups of 4. The course has a lead
instructor, as well as a set of faculty supervisors. Each student group
is assigned a faculty supervisor, and they are given a project from
a pool of projects that have been requested from external, industry
Each group has 4 scheduled meetings per week, each of which
is roughly one hour:
Team meeting:
Includes only student team members (no
faculty members present).
Class meeting:
This is a one hour class attended by all
students. The class is delivered in the lecture-style, by the
lead instructor.
Supervisor meeting:
Includes student team members, along
with their assigned faculty supervisor.
Client meeting:
Includes student team members, along
with industry client (no faculty members present).
It is worth clarifying the role of lead instructor and the faculty
supervisor. The lead instructor actually delivers course content
to the students, primarily focused on project management and
client interaction. The team supervisor does not deliver general
material in this manner. Instead, they help ensure that the project
is the appropriate level of diculty, and they help the students by
answering both technical and non-technical questions at the team
In terms of evaluation, the students hand in status reports and
meeting minutes to the lead instructor every week. There are four
larger checkpoints involving specic documents that are graded.
At the end of the term, BCIT organizes the "expo" with student
projects, so every faculty and sponsor can see the nal outcome.
On Faculty Supervision in Industry Projects WCCCE ’18, May 4–5, 2018, Victoria, BC, Canada
4.2 Computer Information Technology
The CIT project course is also a 15 week course with groups of
4 students. The deliverables and learning outcomes are the same,
thus we can directly compare the performance of various groups
of students.
There are several dierences between CIT and CST project
courses. Let’s rst focus on the course design. There’s only one lead
instructor, and there’s no faculty supervisors. The job of the lead
instructor is to receive feedback from both - students and sponsors -
and post online materials to help students successfully complete the
project. It is worth noting that there are no lectures in CIT program
in this course. Students work more independently, but also with
greater responsibility. The lead instructor is kind of a scrum master
for the projects.
Each group has the following scheduled:
Team meeting:
Includes only student team members (no
faculty members present). The group is scheduled to work
on ISSP projects for a one and a half of the day (8 + 4 hours).
They also don’t have other classes on these two days.
Class meeting:
This is a two hours review class attended
by all students to collect the feedback on projects by the lead
instructor - it happens every second week.
Client meeting:
Includes student team members, along
with industry client (no faculty members present) - at least
one hour a week.
As we can observe there is no direct team supervision. Instead,
students are scheduled to work more together as a team, in the same
location as other groups. It also helps to exchange the knowledge
between the groups.
In terms of evaluation, the students meet during the class meet-
ing and they have 3 larger checkpoints, where the feedback from
sponsor is collected and incorporated by the lead instructor. The
same as in CIT, course ends with nal project presentations, open
to everyone.
5.1 Client Feedback
In both courses, clients were given a feedback form at the comple-
tion of the course. The following questions were given, and the
clients were asked to give a numeric score from 1 (very unsatised)
to 5 (highly satised).
Q1 Delivery/Hand-o:
The students have delivered their work
to me and I have everything I expected including any docu-
mentation or other artifacts that were specied.
Q2 Installation:
The project has been installed on site or is
live on-line. In the case where this was not possible or not
expected the work has never-the-less been delivered in a
timely and organized manner for my review and acceptance
Q3 Documentation:
The students have shown me clearly how
to install and use the work and left me with appropriate
installation documentation. If the work is incomplete they
have shown exactly what is there and documented existing
work so that others can pick up and complete the work.
Q4 Testing/evaluation:
The team has tested/evaluated the work
thoroughly and I have had a few days to look it over and test
it myself. I found only a few minor problems when doing
the acceptance testing.
Q5 Overall:
I am happy with the work and eort of the students.
I am happy with the way the students have dealt with me,
the company and their work.
We collected forms from the clients participating in the Fall semester
of 2017. There were 16 student groups in CST program and 9 groups
in CIT program.
The basic descriptive results from the survey are included in
Table 1.
Table 1: CST Client Feedback
Question Mean Mode
1 4.2 5
2 4.4 5
3 4.3 5
4 4.2 5
5 4.4 5
The results suggest that clients were happy overall. The mode
value here indicates that the most common response was complete
satisfaction with the project. In the written responses to qualitative
questions, the vast majority of clients also included comments
praising the students for their excellent work.
The mean is slightly lower than the mode due to two groups that
were less successful. Each of these groups received a 2 (out of 5) for
the overall score, because they did not complete the project to the
satisfaction of the client. One of the groups appears simply to have
failed to do enough work. The other group encountered problems
early, and they did not ask for help. As a result, the project was not
successful, despite the fact that the early problems could have been
The CIT client feedback is included in Table 2.
Table 2: CIT Client Feedback
Question Mean Mode
1 4.8 5
2 4.7 5
3 4.8 5
4 4.6 5
5 4.9 5
As we can observe the results are very good. What is more
important all groups delivered the projects in time with complete
scope that was requested by a client. It is also worth noting that
one project was carried over from the CST Winter 2017 semester
(before the Fall 2017), as it was unsuccessful there. When the project
was done by a group of CIT students, it was completed successfully
with a 5/5 sponsor satisfaction rating.
WCCCE ’18, May 4–5, 2018, Victoria, BC, Canada Michal Aibin and Aaron Hunter
5.2 Student Feedback
We also collected feedback from the students. The following ques-
tions were asked, using the online, anonymous survey:
Q1 In reference to a faculty supervisor vs the sponsor con-
tact, what ratio of contact would you prefer in the ISSP
(scale 1-5, where 1 is only the faculty supervision
and 5 is only the sponsor contact)
Q2 What do you feel your engagement level was?
(scale 1-5, where 1 is low, 5 is high)
Q3 Would you choose to work for the company you col-
laborated with on the ISSP project?
(yes - 2/no - 0/maybe - 1)
Results are available in Tables 3 and 4, for CST and CIT programs,
Table 3: CST Student Feedback
Question Mean Mode
1 3.4 3
2 3.1 3
3 0.6 0
Table 4: CIT Student Feedback
Question Mean Mode
1 3.6 4
2 3.8 4
3 1.2 2
Although the dierences in the collected feedback are too small
to be signicant, there are some general patterns in the data. First,
students from both programs tend to request more contact with
a client than faculty supervision. The reported engagement level
by CIT students was slightly higher as well. The most interesting
dierence may have been question 3. The most common response
from CIT students was that they would accept a job oer from
their client, whereas CST students more commonly would not. All
of the projects delivered in the course were focusing on software
6.1 Client Feedback Comparison
As this is just a small pilot study, the amount of client feedback
available is quite small. Moreover, the client feedback scores in
Tables 1 and 2 are very similar. However, overall, the scores are
slightly higher for the students in the CIT program.
The major dierence between the delivery models is that the CST
students have weekly meetings with a faculty supervisor, whereas
the CIT students do not have such a meeting. In the preliminary re-
sults here, this extra time with the supervisor is actually correlating
with lower client feedback.
There are many possible explanations for this dierence. Al-
though students from both programs are supposed to meet with
their clients at least once a week, anecdotal evidence suggests that
some of the CST groups were meeting less often. If this is indeed
the case, it could explain the dierence in client feedback. The more
signicant question is then the following: why would the students
in the (traditional) delivery model reduce client meetings? Several
possible explanations can be proposed:
Meeting fatigue
: The need for supervisor meetings on a
weekly basis may contribute to a reduction in client meet-
Physical location
: The CIT program is delivered at the
downtown campus, closer to many client oces.
Course schedules
: The CIT program has one day speci-
cally used for Industry Sponsored Project Courses, which
makes scheduling of the meetings easier.
There are certainly other possibilities as well. Of course, a larger
study is required to draw denite conclusions.
It is also worth noting that there is a possible pedagogical ex-
planation for the dierence in client feedback that is not related to
the number of hours spent with clients. The faculty supervisors for
projects often have educational goals in mind for the students that
are independent of client success. For example, faculty supervisors
are more interested in students learning best practices for software
development in general, rather than simply pleasing the current
6.2 Student Feedback Comparison
One important aspect of the student feedback is the common per-
spective with respect to the balance of client and supervisor super-
vision. It seems that all of the students prefer more contact with the
client. This is actually the desired goal of the CIT program, where
supervisor meetings have been removed to focus more on direct
client interaction.
It is also interesting to consider why the CIT students felt more
inclined to take a job with the client in the future. One explana-
tion for this result is simply the fact that they may have worked
more closely with their client throughout the project, leading to
a more positive relationship. This is also a common characteris-
tic for Agile (Scrum [
]) project delivery, in contrast to more
structured requirements gathering at the beginning of the course
(Waterfall [
]). As such, the information passed on in faculty meet-
ings may sometimes run counter to client desires. This would be
positive. Moreover, the studies shown that the iterative approach
can lead to less mistakes, thus, more successful project delivery [
However, there is also the possibility that this dierence is ac-
tually due to competing messages that the student receive from
the faculty supervisor. A faculty supervisor may suggest solutions
and approaches that the client does not like, and in some cases the
faculty supervisor may even question that value of the project or
company. As a result, it is not surprising that students with regu-
larly faculty supervisor meetings may not align as closely with the
client. It is not completely clear if this is positive or negative; one
may need to revisit the goals of the project course.
On Faculty Supervision in Industry Projects WCCCE ’18, May 4–5, 2018, Victoria, BC, Canada
6.3 How to Build a Better Industry Project
In this section, we provide some speculative conclusions from our
study. We start again with the caveat that this is just a preliminary
study with limited data. Nevertheless, it provides motivation for a
larger study as well as a reformulation of the way we view project
First, it is worth noting that the results presented here focus
on client satisfaction and student satisfaction. These are certainly
both important, but the pedagogical goals of the course should
still take precedence. When students take a project course, we
would like them to learn about problem solving in an authentic
setting. Although we want to produce successful projects, it is
more important that the students learn something about teamwork,
project management, and (sometimes) software development.
Two questions are raised by our study:
How much direct faculty supervision is appropriate for an
industry sponsored project course?
(2) How many faculty supervisors should be involved?
Our results suggest that, if we focus on client and student satis-
faction, then we really are not losing anything by dropping direct
faculty supervision meetings from the course. In fact, arguably,
both faculty and students seem more satised when we do not
have these additional meetings. We have not directly discussed the
second question thus far, but it is important as well. In both the
CST and CIT project courses, there is a lead instructor that delivers
classroom material. However, in the CST delivery model, there is an
additional faculty member that directly supervises student teams.
So the CST students essentially are receiving guidance from two
dierent faculty members on the same project.
When developing a project course, we need to determine the
learning outcomes at the outset. Some of these learning outcomes
will be “academic” outcomes that must be delivered by a faculty
member, while some will be practical outcomes related to project
success. Our results suggest that the academic outcomes may in
fact be delivered through a ip-blended model. In other words,
the course instructor can prepare suitable material to be delivered
online and through occasional classroom meetings. If this material is
delivered eectively through a single voice, then one can revisit the
role of the faculty supervisors. Our preliminary results suggest that
it is unclear how this additional level of supervision is beneting
the clients or students.
In this paper, we have set out to examine the role of faculty super-
vision in industry sponsored project courses. Two dierent project
courses have been considered, one in which students are directly
supervised by a faculty member and one in which they are not. Of
course, in both cases, there is a course instructor that guides the
delivery and evaluation of the course material. The dierence is
whether or not regular meetings are required with an additional
faculty member to keep the students on track.
This is really a pilot study to determine if this issue is worth
further study. Our preliminary results suggest that this is indeed the
case, based on client and student feedback results. We acknowledge
that the factors impacting these results are complex; it is hard to de-
termine exactly what role the delivery model has played. Moreover,
it is not necessarily clear that client and student satisfaction are the
key issues at stack. However, these industry sponsored projects play
an important role in the education of computing students at many
post-secondary institutions. It is therefore important to examine
the delivery of such courses, in order to ensure students are getting
as much as possible from the opportunity.
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... Em um ambienteágil,é esperado que as equipes trabalhem juntas a todo momento, exercitem a reflexão sobre o seu trabalho todos os dias e, se possível, mantenham o cliente sempre por perto [Kizaki et al. 2014]. As abordagens de ABP são normalmente executadas dentro de unidades letivas de um semestre [Aibin and Hunter 2018, Marques et al. 2018, Llopis and Guerrero 2018, Mahnič 2017, Mahnič 2015, Pariata and Montaño 2014, Rick et al. 2012, Kilamo et al. 2012, Schefer-Wenzl and Miladinovic 2017, Intayoad 2014, embora essa não seja uma regra geral. Existem casos em que a unidade de ABPé executada em um tempo inferior a um semestre [Cadenas et al. 2014, Yuen 2015, e outras em que ela dura mais de um semestre letivo [Ilkan et al. 2010, Kizaki et al. 2014, Foster et al. 2018, Martinez-Arias and Sarria M. 2013, Abler et al. 2011. ...
... Na abordagem apresentada por Kilamo et al. [Kilamo et al. 2012], as horas em sala de aula são bem definidas, sendo a primeira delas para discutir algum tópico específico do conteúdo teórico da disciplina e aúltima para discussão relacionadaàs contribuições feitas pelos alunos ao projeto durante a semana. Aibin e Hunter [Aibin and Hunter 2018] também descrevem uma possível divisão de tempo que pode ser feita para uma abordagem ABP, embora nem todas as horas sejam dedicadasàs reuniões de sala de aula. Neste trabalho,é mencionado duas aplicações de ABP que possuem tempo reservado para reunião do time de alunos, encontros de sala de aula e encontro com o cliente. ...
... Um modelo bastante comum para instanciações de ABṔ e o Scrum [Rupakheti et al. 2018, Aibin and Hunter 2018, Llopis and Guerrero 2018, Mahnič 2015, Mahnič 2017, Olszewska et al. 2017, Yuen 2015, Kizaki et al. 2014, Fagerholm et al. 2018. O Scrumé capaz de prover controle sobre o progresso do projeto e de garantir um ritmo constante de desenvolvimento. ...
... Making authentic software, that is one of the premise of authentic type of learning, such as software engineering constructive model, involves multiple factors, within which it is possible to find educational support for students, proper assembly of a software engineering process, and the time available for the execution of this unit. According to the literature the Scrum methodology used with PBL has a great number of reports, leading to the adoption that its use can help to guarantee the authenticity of a project (Rupakheti et al. 2018;Aibin and Hunter 2018;Llopis and Guerrero 2018;Mahnič 2015Mahnič , 2017Olszewska et al. 2017;Yuen 2015;Kizaki et al. 2014;Fagerholm et al. 2018). Table 1 presents the percentage of use of the Scrum methodology with PBL in relation to other software development methodologies reported in the primary studies identified during the execution of systematic literature review. ...
... The work of Rupakheti et al. (2018) reports on one of its applications as being of several students working on a single complex project through the use of a strategy of team leaders and distributed development, which is also mentioned by other authors (Kizaki et al. 2014;Cadenas et al. 2014;Olszewska et al. 2017;Kilamo et al. 2012). These works gave insights on how to structure a PBL unit that produces software more complex than those produced by small groups of students, as in most other cases (Ilkan et al. 2010;Cadenas et al. 2014;Foster et al. 2018;Aibin and Hunter 2018;Detmer et al. 2010;Intayoad 2014;Pham et al. 2018;Pariata and Montao 2014;Olszewska et al. 2017;Mahnič 2017;Yuen 2015). However, although this way of conducting a PBL can address the problem of complex software development for a learner unit, no studies were found that use methods focused on the creative processes of a user-centered development that takes into account the user experience as a requirement of authenticity in these software artifacts. ...
... However, even in these cases, some kind of formal education is required for students involved in PBL units and this teaching will not always be possible to be performed in the classroom. Because of this, in some PBL applications there is the escalation of more than one teacher (Cadenas et al. 2014) and even a team of non-teaching monitors to assist in the teaching task of the students (Abler Kizaki et al. 2014;Aibin and Hunter 2018) and accompany them in the development of their projects. This helps to maintain the quality of the final artifacts of these projects, making them more authentic (Marques et al. 2018). ...
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The application of content only through lectures in an expository format may not be sufficient for the teaching of software engineering in this new era. Creating software products that take the user experience (UX) into account as an essential requirement in the software development process is a necessary activity for all information technology (IT) professionals looking to build quality products. Currently, there are few initiatives that address the insertion of innovative techniques in the curriculum of undergraduate IT courses during the training of students. Design sprint (DS) in conjunction with project-based learning (PBL) provides an effective method to achieve the quality of software products when using UX techniques and creativity. One of the key features of PBL is the ability to generate artifacts with your application to solve real and non-trivial problems. This paper presents a systematic literature review (SLR) to investigate the hypothesis that joining the DS concepts with PBL identifies the user experience as one of the main attributes of quality and authenticity to be achieved in the software development projects. The objective of the SLR is to analyze how the PBL units that produce authentic software are executed. Furthermore, two case studies are reported that explore how DS behaves in a reduced number of classes when it is desired to generate a functional prototype that will be developed in a PBL unit. As a result of the SLR, it has been identified that Scrum is the software development process most used in PBL units that generate authentic software. The identified works report that the students are usually divided into groups of 2-5 people during the activities and the monitors play an important role in the quality of the software produced. The result of the case study indicates that the limited time for PBL conduction was a complicating factor in this adaptation and that students feel that their own learning and participation are positive in DS-based classes, as well as that DS provides insights that may be useful in a PBL context.
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Flipped classroom approaches remove the traditional transmissive lecture and replace it with active in-class tasks and pre-/post-class work. Despite the popularity of these approaches in the media, Google search, and casual hallway chats, there is very little evidence of effectiveness or consistency in understanding what a flipped classroom actually is. Although the flipped terminology is new, some of the approaches being labelled ‘flipped’ are actually much older. In this paper, we provide a catch-all definition for the flipped classroom, and attempt to retrofit it with a pedagogical rationale, which we articulate through six testable propositions. These propositions provide a potential agenda for research about flipped approaches and form the structure of our investigation. We construct a theoretical argument that flipped approaches might improve student motivation and help manage cognitive load. We conclude with a call for more specific types of research into the effectiveness of the flipped classroom approach.
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Ever since the agile manifesto was created in 2001, the research community has devoted a great deal of attention to agile software development. This article examines publications and citations to illustrate how the research on agile has progressed in the 10 years following the articulation of the manifesto. Specifically, we delineate the conceptual structure underlying agile scholarship by performing an analysis of authors who have made notable contributions to the field. Further, we summarize prior research and introduce contributions in this special issue on agile software development. We conclude by discussing directions for future research and urging agile researchers to embrace a theory-based approach in their scholarship.
Project-based learning is a comprehensive approach to classroom teaching and learning that is designed to engage students in investigation of authentic problems. In this article, we present an argument for why projects have the potential to help people learn; indicate factors in project design that affect motivation and thought; examine difficulties that students and teachers may encounter with projects; and describe how technology can support students and teachers as they work on projects, so that motivation and thought are sustained.
The flipped classroom seeks to remove didactic instruction from the classroom and deliver it via electronic videos outside of the classroom, leaving contact time free for more interactive and engaging teaching and learning activities. This paper has two distinct aims: (1) to conduct a literature review of published UK-based ‘flipped classroom’ studies and (2) to contribute to this field of study. The paper will show that there have been many published scholarly pieces on the flipped classroom in countries such as the USA, detailing flipped studies in both compulsory schooling and higher education. However, at the time of writing there have been no published papers concerning an implementation of the flipped classroom in the UK further education sector. In order to contribute to this gap in the field, the findings from a small-scale flipped classroom project based in a further education college will be presented and discussed. The study was conducted in the 2012/13 academic year whilst the author was undertaking initial teacher training. This case study yielded significant benefits to learners through adopting this approach. In addition to charting the effects of a flipped classroom upon attainment and engagement, the paper will discuss the often under-represented staff experience of flipping the classroom. © 2015 Association for Research in Post-Compulsory Education (ARPCE).
Flipped classrooms are an instructional technology trend mostly incorporated in higher education settings, with growing prominence in high school and middle school (Tucker in Leveraging the power of technology to create student-centered classrooms. Corwin, Thousand Oaks, 2012). Flipped classrooms are meant to effectively combine traditional and online education by utilizing both in and out-of-class time. Despite positively reported implications of the flipped classroom instructional strategy, there is a deep shortage of literature and data that demonstrate advantages for student learning outcomes. The purpose of this preliminary study with directions for future investigations was to examine flipped classroom instruction versus a traditional classroom; specifically, an instructional video versus traditional textbook instruction to assess accuracy and mental effort at three levels of mathematical complexity. College-level nursing students who require mathematical mastery were used as a pilot test group in anticipation that this experience could be translated for larger data sets of variable age groups. Results indicated that accuracy increased and mental effort decreased with flipped instruction. Using Sweller’s cognitive load theory and Mayer’s cognitive theory of multimedia learning as theoretical frameworks, this study lends insight into designing effective instruction for learning environments that could benefit from a flipped classroom framework.
Abstract Flipping the classroom centres on the delivery of print, audio or video based material prior to a lecture or class session. The class session is then dedicated to more active learning processes with application of knowledge through problem solving or case based scenarios. The rationale behind this approach is that teachers can spend their face-to-face time supporting students in deeper learning processes. In this paper we provide a background literature review on the flipped classroom along with a three step approach to flipping the classroom comprising implementing, enacting and evaluating this form of pedagogy. Our three step approach is based on actual experience of delivering a flipped classroom at the University of Hong Kong. This initiative was evaluated with positive results. We hope our experience will be transferable to other medical institutions.