Article

Defatting and Sonication Enhances Protein Extraction from Edible Insects

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Abstract

Edible insects are attracting growing interest as a sustainable source of protein for addition to processed meat and dairy products. The current study investigated the optimal method for protein extraction from mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor), cricket adults (Gryllus bimaculatus), and silkworm pupae (Bombyx mori), for use in further applications. After defatting with n-hexane for up to 48 h, sonication was applied for 1-20 min and the protein yield was measured. All samples showed a total residual fat percentage below 1.36%, and a 35% to 94% improvement in protein yield (%). In conclusion, defatting with n-hexane combined with sonication improves the protein yield from insect samples.

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... Once insect flours are obtained, they can be used directly as an ingredient in food formulations or in the production of insect protein concentrates or protein isolates. [14,24,32,[35][36][37][38] Several authors have reported methodologies for insect protein extraction aiming to generate protein concentrates and protein isolates (Table 1), which are similar to reported plant protein extraction methods. [42,47,48] Insect protein extraction begins with a drying and milling step to obtain flours, followed by a defatting step, then protein solubilization, mechanical separation of insoluble fractions, protein precipitation using the isoelectric point (pI) method and drying. ...
... [42,47,48] Insect protein extraction begins with a drying and milling step to obtain flours, followed by a defatting step, then protein solubilization, mechanical separation of insoluble fractions, protein precipitation using the isoelectric point (pI) method and drying. [14,24,25,32,35,37,38,41,49] Defatting insect flour is an important step towards achieving the highest protein extraction yield. It has been reported that non-defatted flours presented problems during processing. ...
... [32] Commonly used methods for insect flour defatting require the use of solvents; hexane is considered to be the first alternative due to its high fat removal capacity (>90%). [32,35,42,44] Green solvents have been used for insect lipid extraction, due to environmental safety and health issues associated with organic solvents. Zhao et al. (2016) reported that ethanol in a 5:1 ratio presented similar defatting efficiency compared to other solvents. ...
Article
Edible insects as an alternative protein source have gained consumers' attention, leading to new market possibilities. Several investigations have generated and characterized ingredients from insects and assessed their potential application in food, feed, and their biological potential. Insects are a rich source of protein, ranging from 30% to 65%. Insect derived ingredients show great potential to be added to food products. Protein isolates or concentrates, protein hydrolysates and peptides are obtained from edible insects using different methods. Insect protein techno-functional properties include water and oil-holding capacity, emulsifying, solubility and gelling properties. Depending on protein techno-functional properties, food applications can be designed to improve their development in the formulated food. Nowadays, several commercially available food and feed products are formulated including insect ingredients. However, research related to insect-derived peptides biological potential is limited. In-depth biological assays are needed to understand the potential health benefits of insects bioactive components. Potential future research could focus on the technological properties of insect proteins, oriented to the physicochemical interactions with food matrices, including sensory quality, texture and rheological properties of new food products.
... If insects are received in a lyophilized form, they should first be ground, and then transformed [26]. If they are received after microwave drying, they should be stored at −40 • C until processing [24]. When they are received frozen, either with liquid nitrogen or in a freezer, they should be stored between −18 and −22 • C, and then pretreated. ...
... The pretreatment can be freeze-drying followed by grinding or liquid nitrogen followed by grinding and freeze-drying. In all cases, the samples should be stored at a very low temperature until use [1,10,15,24,25,27,29]. Leni et al. (2019) [3] studied the effect of two killing methods on the browning and the quality of protein fraction of black soldier fly (BSF, H. Illucens) prepupae. ...
... Solvents used for lipid solvent extraction are mainly hexane (100%), ethanol (99.5%), or a mixture of hexane and isopropanol (ratio 3/2) [1,10,24,29,33,36]. This method ( Figure 3) consists of dissolving insect powder in the solvent 1:5 (w/v), and then stirring on a magnetic stirrer for 1 h. ...
Article
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The integration of insect-derived extracts in feed and food products has become a field of growing interest in recent years. In this review, we collect different studies carried out on edible insects’ transformation processes and focus on the various treatment operations, extraction technologies, and solvents used in different processing steps. We include an overview of current insights into the different steps of the transformation process: insect reception, killing methods, pretreatments, storage, delipidation, protein extraction, as well as chitin and chitosan extraction. Finally, we reflect on the most important future challenges of this sector.
... One way to eliminate the chitin is to extract the protein by pulverising the whole insect. The main methods used are alkaline extraction (ALK), isoelectric precipitation, and ultrasound (Choi et al., 2017a;Kim et al., 2019;Mishyna et al., 2019;Udomsil et al., 2019;Yi et al., 2013). Mishyna et al. (2019) extracted soluble protein from grasshoppers (Schistocerca gregaria) and bees (Apis mellifera) with a process of defatting and ultrasound-assisted ALK obtaining average yields of 56% from both insects. ...
... Mishyna et al. (2019) extracted soluble protein from grasshoppers (Schistocerca gregaria) and bees (Apis mellifera) with a process of defatting and ultrasound-assisted ALK obtaining average yields of 56% from both insects. Choi et al. (2017a) obtained yields from 35% to 94% in protein extraction with sonication from defatted mealworms (Tenebrio molitor), adult crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus), and silkworm pupae (Bombyx mori). The proposed methodologies for protein extraction from each insect are particular to each species and geographic region depending on the structure and functionality of the proteins . ...
... The dried SP was defatted according to the method described by Choi et al. (2017a) with some modifications. Hexane was used as solvent, in a sample-solvent-ratio of 1:10 (p/v). ...
Article
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The most abundant Orthoptera in Mexico is a small grasshopper (Sphenarium purpurascens) which is considered a food source with increased nutritional value due to its high protein content. Insect proteins have gained relevance because of their high potential as gelling, texturing, and extender agents in the food industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of substituting meat with a soluble protein extract from grasshopper obtained by alkalisation or alkalisation-piezoelectric ultrasound, on the techno-functional, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of cooked meat models (sausages). The soluble protein was extracted in NaHCO3 pH 8 and a piezoelectric ultrasound 5-mm sonotrode at 20 kHz with 99% amplitude. Different formulations with meat substitution: 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% were prepared and characterised for their rheological behaviour, emulsion stability, weight loss by cooking, total protein content, colour, and texture. Sensory evaluation was conducted with consumers using a test involving check-all-that-apply and overall liking. The alkalisation-piezoelectric ultrasound method improved the solubility and the techno-functional properties of the soluble grasshopper protein when applied in sausages at maximum levels of 10% meat substitution. The sensory evaluation indicated that the formulation with 5% meat substitution exhibited the same acceptability as the control sample. Given these results, the soluble protein treated with alkalisation and piezoelectric ultrasound could be used as an extender in meat products.
... Defatting of raw food materials and by-products using organic solvents is a frequent method for producing protein-enriched ingredients [12][13][14]. Hexane is the most frequently used solvent for the production of defatted insect meal and protein extracts [15][16][17] despite its environmental, economic and safety disadvantages [18]. These drawbacks have motivated the study of different extraction solvents (ethanol, methanol, etc.) [19,20], as well as Living mealworm larvae (T. ...
... The initial fat content of 28.5% was within the normal range of similar studies [16,19,35] and residual lipids in hexane-defatted fractions did not exceed 0.4%, which is comparable to the results obtained by Choi et al. (2017) for defatted T. molitor meals [16]. The low-fat content of NDSP (0.5%) indicates that the cold centrifugation step following aqueous solubilization of proteins allows lipid to be extracted as efficiently as the hexane-defatting step by the formation of an easily removable solid fat layer. ...
... The initial fat content of 28.5% was within the normal range of similar studies [16,19,35] and residual lipids in hexane-defatted fractions did not exceed 0.4%, which is comparable to the results obtained by Choi et al. (2017) for defatted T. molitor meals [16]. The low-fat content of NDSP (0.5%) indicates that the cold centrifugation step following aqueous solubilization of proteins allows lipid to be extracted as efficiently as the hexane-defatting step by the formation of an easily removable solid fat layer. ...
Article
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Inclusion of edible insects in human diets is increasingly promoted as a sustainable source of proteins with high nutritional value. While consumer acceptability remains the main challenge to their integration into Western food culture, the use of edible insects as meal and protein concentrate could decrease neophobia. The defatting of edible insects, mostly done with hexane, is the first step in producing protein ingredients. However, its impact on protein profiles and techno-functionality is still unclear. Consequently, this study compares the protein profiles of hexane-defatted and non-hexane-defatted yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) meals and protein extracts, and evaluates the impact of hexane on protein solubility and foaming properties. Results showed that profiles for major proteins were similar between hexane-defatted and non-defatted samples, however some specific content differences (e.g., hexamerin 2) were observed and characterized using proteomic tools. Protein solubility was markedly lower for T. molitor meals compared to protein extracts. A large increase in the foaming capacity was observed for defatted fractions, whereas foam stability decreased similarly in all fractions. Consequently, although the hexane-defatting step was largely studied to produce edible insect protein ingredients, it is necessary to precisely understand its impact on their techno-functional properties for the development of food formulations.
... Fats were removed from BL by using hexane as a solvent following the method described by Choi et al. (2017), with a slight modification. Briefly, the ratio of sample: solvent 1:5 (w/v) was mixed with continuous stirring for 3 h at 25 °C, with the solvent changed hourly, three times in total, and centrifuged in a refrigerated centrifuge (Allegra®x-12r, Beckman Coulter, Inc., Palo Alto, CA, USA) at 3,000 rpm for 20 min at 25 °C to separate the sediment. ...
... The F/BL protein recovery was 84%, which is slightly higher than reported yield of defatted Tenebrio molitor (83%) and Hermetia illucens (73%), in a two-step fat extraction with hexane (Bußler et al., 2016). Yield of defatted insect powder has previously been shown to be governed by several factors, including lipid content of the initial insect powder, defatting technique used, process conditions and solvent used (Bußler et al., 2016;Choi et al., 2017;Zhao et al., 2016). Some non-lipid components, particularly nitrogenous material, were coextracted with the defatting solvent, which consequently affected the protein content decreasing protein recovery (Efthymiopoulos et al., 2018). ...
... The previous reports showed that the protein content of Bombay locust ranged from 15-36% (on a wet basis), depending on the development stage, location, season, feed and gut content as well as insect powder preparation (Chatsuwan et al., 2018;Van Huis et al., 2013;Yhoung-aree, 2010). Choi et al. (2017) removed fat from mealworm, cricket and silkworm pupae, with more than 90% fat removed, which consequently improved their protein content, ranging from 62-74% on a dry basis. Hexane was also reported to be effectively used for fat extraction from Yellow mealworm with 96% fat removal (Purschke et al., 2016;Purschke et al., 2018). ...
Article
Impact of hexane defatting on physicochemical, oxidative stability and total volatile compounds of Bombay locust (Patanga succincta L.) powder ‘BL’ were studied. Defatted insect powder (F/BL) showed marked decrease in fat content (1.2%) with significantly (P≤0.05) higher protein content (78.7%), compared with those of BL (29.8% fat and 56.5% protein). Based on electrophoresis result, hexane defatting had no effect on peptide distribution of insect powders. F/BL had lower peroxide value with better oxidative stability (P≤0.05), while less variety of volatiles with more off-flavour compounds, particularly lipid oxidation and insect hormone odours, were observed from BL. F/BL was confirmed as an excellent source of amino acids and minerals. The physicochemical and sensory properties of F/BL fortified biscuit stick and the final products were determined. F/BL fortified biscuit stick showed a better acceptance, compared with those from BL at the same level used. Based on sensory characteristics, biscuit stick with 10% F/BL (F/BL-10) was selected and studied for its chemical composition and microstructure. F/BL-10 possessed more porous structure with higher protein and lower energy value, compared with those from 10% BL. Overall, defatted Bombay locusts could be an effective alternative protein source with excellent applicability to baked products, particularly biscuit stick.
... Ultrasound treatment is reported to affect the structural, physical and functional properties of proteins [18]. In addition, ultrasound has also been applied to insect species such as Tenebrio molitor, Gryllus bimaculatus and Bombyx morri during the protein extraction step, and the study showed that protein yield increased for all insect samples after ultrasound treatment [19]. ...
... Using ohmic heating as a pre-treatment on the insect flour (BSFL-OH), the yield of protein extraction reached 66.7 ± 0.1%, and using the combination of ohmic heating and ultrasound (BSFL-UOH), the protein content was equal to 66.2 ± 0.1%. A previous work using ultrasound was able to improve protein extraction from edible insects [19]. Therefore, herein we aimed to implement both techniques to optimize the protein extraction. ...
Article
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Citation: Queiroz, L.S.; Casanova, F.; Feyissa, A.H.; Jessen, F.; Ajalloueian, F.; Perrone, I.T.; de Carvalho, A.F.; Mohammadifar, M.A.; Jacobsen, C.; Yesiltas, B. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Low-Fat Fish Oil-in-Water Emulsions Stabilized with Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) Larvae Protein Concentrate. Foods 2021, 10, Abstract: The physical and oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions were investigated using black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) (Hermetia illucens) protein concentrate as an emulsifier. To improve the protein extraction and the techno-functionality, defatted BSFL powder was treated with ohmic heating (BSFL-OH) and a combination of ohmic heating and ultrasound (BSFL-UOH). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were performed in order to characterize the secondary structure and thermal stability of all protein concentrate samples. The interfacial properties were evaluated by the pendant drop technique. The lowest interfacial tension (12.95 mN/m) after 30 min was observed for BSFL-OH. Dynamic light scattering , ζ-potential and turbiscan stability index (TSI) were used to evaluate the physical stability of emulsions. BSFL-OH showed the smallest droplet size (0.68 µm) and the best emulsion stability (TSI = 8.89). The formation of primary and secondary volatile oxidation products and consumption of tocopherols were evaluated for all emulsions, revealing that OH and ultrasound treatment did not improve oxidative stability compared to the emulsion with untreated BSFL. The results revealed the promising application of BSFL proteins as emulsifiers and the ability of ohmic heating to improve the emulsifying properties of BSFL proteins.
... The use of aqueous extraction followed by fat partitioning across five insect species has shown a species-specific difference in protein yield (Yi et al., 2013). Furthermore, n-hexane-based defatting followed by sonication has been shown to improve the yield of extractable protein by 35-94% in mealworm larvae, adult crickets and silkworm pupae (Choi et al., 2017). Likewise, sample processing that commences with defatting followed by alkaline buffer extraction and sonication increases the protein yield up to 57.5% and 55.2% for grasshopper and honeybee, respectively (Mishyna et al., 2019). ...
... Protein extraction from insect tissues can be challenging due to the presence of significant amount of non-protein components. To overcome these challenges, a number of extraction protocols have been used in order to maximise the protein yield from processed or unprocessed insect samples and correlate protein concentration, identifications and/or their quantitative measurements with the extraction protocol (Choi et al., 2017;Hall et al., 2018;Srinroch et al., 2015;Yi et al., 2013). In this study, eight protein extraction buffer compositions were examined in terms of their capacity to yield protein and distinct peptide identifications, as well as broadly representing physicochemical and functional properties. ...
Article
Insects have been consumed by people for millennia and have recently been proposed as a complementary, sustainable source of protein to feed the world’s growing population. Insects and crustaceans both belong to the arthropod family. Crustacean (shellfish) allergies are common and potentially severe; hence, the cross-reactivity of the immune system with insect proteins is a potential health concern. Herein, LC-MS/MS was used to explore the proteome of whole, roasted whole and roasted powdered cricket products. Eight protein extraction protocols were compared using the total number of protein and distinct peptide identifications. Within these data, 20 putative allergens were identified, of which three were arginine kinase (AK) proteoforms. Subsequently, a multiple reaction monitoring MS assay was developed for the AK proteoforms and applied to a subset of extracts. This targeted assay demonstrated that allergen abundance / detectability varies according to the extraction method as well as the food processing method.
... Petcharat et al. 9 found that increased yield of protein extracted from frog skin could be obtained with UAP at higher amplitude and longer ultrasonication time. In addition, Choi, et al. 27 reported that UAP had an impact on alleviating protein extraction yield from Silkworm pupae where the highest yield was obtained with a 5 min ultrasonication time. Nevertheless, increasing of ultrasonication time to longer than 5 min did not significantly (p > 0.05) increase the extraction yield 27 . ...
... In addition, Choi, et al. 27 reported that UAP had an impact on alleviating protein extraction yield from Silkworm pupae where the highest yield was obtained with a 5 min ultrasonication time. Nevertheless, increasing of ultrasonication time to longer than 5 min did not significantly (p > 0.05) increase the extraction yield 27 . Our results confirm that UAP significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved protein recovery of BL (12.03-15.57%), ...
Article
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Impact of ultrasound-assisted process (UAP) on yield, functional properties, antioxidant properties and molecular characteristics of protein extracted from Bombay locusts (BL) ( Patanga succinta L.) was studied. Different conditions of UAP were implemented for different amplitudes (40–60%) and times (10–30 min) during aqueous extraction. Notably, UAP could enhance yield and protein recovery, compared with those from typical process (TP) (continuously stirred at 100 rpm at room temperature for 1 h). UAP conditions used governed the change of surface hydrophobicity and free α-amino content of BL. UAP could improve solubility of BL, especially at pH levels higher than 2. UAP had no significant ( p > 0.05) detrimental effects on foaming capacity and stability of BL. Nevertheless, UAP, particularly at 50–60% amplitudes, affected the emulsion activity and stability of BL. UAP provided BL with high radical scavenging activities and good electron donating ability, especially that from 60% amplitude for 20 min (UAP-60/20). UAP-60/20 showed the impact on change of isoelectric point and molecular characteristic monitored by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) of BL, compared to those from TP. In addition, BL was also an excellent source of both essential and nonessential amino acids. Therefore, UAP potentially enhanced BL extraction efficiency, resulting the BL with good functional and antioxidative properties.
... The insect powder was defatted according to the method described by Choi et al. (2017) [15]. In brief, 100 g of the insect powder were respectively dispersed in 500 mL of each solvent (99.5% ethanol, 97% 1-hexene, or 99.5% acetone; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) with stirring at 25 °C for 2 h. ...
... The insect powder was defatted according to the method described by Choi et al. (2017) [15]. In brief, 100 g of the insect powder were respectively dispersed in 500 mL of each solvent (99.5% ethanol, 97% 1-hexene, or 99.5% acetone; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) with stirring at 25 °C for 2 h. ...
Article
Full-text available
Edible insects have received global attention as an alternative protein-rich food. However, their structural characteristics make them difficult to digest. To overcome this obstacle, we assessed the techno-functional properties of three protein concentrates from the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Freeze-dried G. bimaculatus powder was defatted using ethanol, hexene, or acetone as solvents, and the techno-functional properties (protein solubility, water and oil holding capacity, foaming properties, emulsion capacity, and gel formation) of the protein concentrates were determined. Freeze-dried G. bimaculatus powder comprised approximately 17.3% crude fat and 51.3% crude protein based on dry weight. Ethanol was the most effective solvent for reducing the fat content (from 17.30% to 0.73%) and increasing the protein content (from 51.3% to 62.5%) of the concentrate. Techno-functionality properties drastically differed according to the defatting solvent used and foaming properties were most affected. Thus, the techno-functional and whole properties must be considered for proper application of edible insects to achieve global food sustainability.
... To promote the utilization of the species and increase insect-based food acceptance, various methods of protein extraction have been investigated. Lipid extraction is often applied not only to isolate lipids for further possible exploitation but also to enhance protein extraction leading to a more concentrated material with improved techno-functional properties and characteristics (Choi, Wong, & Auh, 2017). ...
... Another method that enhances protein extraction from edible insects is sonication. In the work of Choi, Wong, and Auh (2017), defatting was followed by sonication for 1-20 min and the protein yield increased reaching 35% (15 min sonication). ...
Article
Background The very recently released EFSA's scientific opinion on the safety of dried (whole or ground) Tenebrio molitor larvae (yellow mealworm) considering their uses in various food products and the following approval by The Standing Committee on Plants, Animals, Food and Feed, brought T. molitor into the spotlight. This is EFSA's first opinion on edible insects as a novel food pursuant to Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. Scope and approach This review aims to summarize existing information regarding the features that may corroborate the sustainability and increase the acceptability of T. molitor larvae as food ingredient. Towards this end, aspects related to rearing and farming conditions, nutrient content and technological approaches for the recovery of protein and lipid fractions are addressed. Special emphasis was posed on their protein techno-functional properties and the development of new T. molitor larva-based food products. Key findings and conclusions The larvae of yellow mealworm are considered among the most promising alternatives to address the predicted deficiency of conventional food protein. Owing to their notable protein, lipid, vitamin, and mineral content, they could serve as future ingredients for industrial purposes (e.g. substitutes of traditional animal sources) bringing environmental and economic advantages. Several methods of T. molitor larvae protein extraction have been studied leading to different characteristics of the final protein preparations. Compared to conventional protein sources the protein fraction of T. molitor has not been much investigated with respect to its physicochemical and techno-functional properties, the knowledge of which is essential to allow their effective inclusion in food formulations.
... Because of the hydrophobic nature of lipids, protein-lipid interactions limit protein solubility (Azagoh et al., 2016;Lam, Can Karaca, Tyler, & Nickerson, 2018). This phenomenon is well documented for legumes, pulses and seeds (Choi, Wong, & Auh, 2017;Lam et al., 2018). For example, Teh, Bekhit, Carne, and Birch (2013) successfully increased the protein content of hemp, flax and canola oilseed cakes from 35% to 52-55% by defatting with hexane using a Soxhlet apparatus (Teh et al., 2013). ...
... For example, Teh, Bekhit, Carne, and Birch (2013) successfully increased the protein content of hemp, flax and canola oilseed cakes from 35% to 52-55% by defatting with hexane using a Soxhlet apparatus (Teh et al., 2013). Although less well documented, the defatting step also improved insect protein yield at the laboratory scale (Choi et al., 2017). For example, the hexane defatting step allowed Buβler et al. (2016) to increase the protein content of both Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens from 57.8 ± 1.2% to 64.6 ± 0.3% and 34.7 ± 0.2% to 44.9 ± 1.4, respectively (Buβler et al., 2016). ...
Article
Over the past decade, the potential of edible insects as a novel ingredient in high value-added products has been investigated to find alternatives to conventional protein sources that are expensive, over-exploited and harmful to the environment. This review assesses the state of insects as an alternative protein source from production to consumption. More specifically, this review details the conventional procedures related to the production of insect flours as well as insect-derived ingredients such as protein concentrates and isolates. As a source of alternative protein in food ingredient formulations, the available data on the functionalities of edible insect ingredients is also examined and compared to conventional animal- and plant-based protein sources. Finally, the major challenges facing entomophagy in the mainstream food industry are explored. This review highlights the fact that insect proteins can serve as functional ingredients in food preparation. However, additional comparative studies are required to assess the functionality of various insect proteins compared to conventional proteins, regardless of processing method. To be incorporated into large scale industries, more research is needed to optimize processing methods to obtain the best compromise between cost-effectiveness, functionality, tastiness and sustainability, while ensuring consumer safety.
... Received 23 December 2019; Received in revised form 4 February 2020; Accepted 4 February 2020 methods for defatting by applying solvents, such as petroleum ether, or mechanical pressure. These processes can further increase IM protein content through generation of different combinations of free amino acids (AAs) and decrease the excess of undesired fat (Choi et al., 2017). Hermetia illucens and Tenebrio molitor larvae meal (HI and TM, respectively) are currently the most frequently IMs used for animal feed, because they are easy to breed and feed, and have the capacity to recycle nutrients from manure and organic wastes into biomass (Varelas, 2019). ...
... HId and TMd had higher protein content than HI and TM, suggesting that the defatting process used by each producer might have segregated fat, enhancing protein content, as already reported by Teh et al. (2013) and Choi et al. (2017). The similar fat contents between HI and HId can be partly explained by their distinct origin, under probable distinct rearing conditions and processing technologies. ...
Article
Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of five commercially available insect larvae meals, H. illucens (HI and HId), T. molitor (TM and TMd) and a locust meal (LM), obtained from different producers, were assessed in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles. Each experimental diet was obtained by replacing 20% of a commercial-based diet used as reference (DREF), with 1% of chromic oxide added, by a test ingredient. Each diet was fed to quadruplicate groups of fish (initial weight: 33 ± 1 g) and, after an acclimatization period, daily collection of faeces was performed during 12 days. Dry matter ADC was highest in TM (85%) and lowest in LM (40%). Protein ADC was high in TMd (93%); intermediate in HId and TM (87 and 89%, respectively); and moderate in LM and HI (74 and 76%, respectively). Overall, the ingredient with highest digestible total essential amino acids (EAAs) content was TMd, followed by TM which was higher than HId; HI had a moderate amount of digestible EAAs, and LM had the lowest values. Fat ADC was highest for HId, TMd and TM (93%–95%). Energy and phosphorus ADC were highest in TMd (84% and 91%, respectively) and lowest in LM (53% and 27%, respectively). In conclusion, the high protein level, high protein digestibility and high amount of digestible EAAs of TM and TMd (> 89%) suggests that Tenebrio molitor larvae meals are the most promising protein sources tested for European sea bass, with potential to replace fishmeal without impairing nutrient digestibility.
... Due to a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the lipid fraction of crickets (Rumpold & Schluter, 2013;Zielińska et al., 2015), which are prone to lipid oxidation and the formation of off-flavors (Donnelly & Robinson, 1995), defatting seems to be a promising strategy to improve their palatability and taste as suggested by (Sánchez-Muros, Barroso, & de Haro, 2016). Most studies concerning fractionation of insects have focused on protein extraction (Choi, Wong, & Auh, 2017;Zhao, Vazquez-Gutierrez, Johansson, Landberg, & Langton, 2016) with recent studies focusing on the enzymatic hydrolysis of the protein fraction (Nongonierma, Lamoureux, & Table 5 Proximate composition (g/100 g DM ± s.d.) of bars formulated without (control) and with whole ground and defatted Acheta domesticus and Gryllodes sigillatus. a,b,c,dhomogeneous groups in accordance with the Tukey's test, within each component (p < 0.050). ...
... Five organic solvents were tested to extract the fat of both cricket species, ethanol being chosen as it exhibited the highest ether extract and the lowest total lipids content after defatting (Table 4). Although hexane is the most frequently used solvent in insect defatting (Choi et al., 2017), it has also been reported that ethanol has a similar efficiency (Zhao et al., 2016) with Tenebrio molitor. Furthermore, this solvent has been used in defatting food products for human consumption (Kwiatkowski & Cheryan, 2002) and is considered a biobased solvent that presents low toxicity and minimal health risks and environmental impact (Cascant et al., 2017). ...
Article
Highlights • Ethanol allowed the greatest lipid extraction on cricket species. • A CATA ballot was built yielding a good description of insect protein bars. • Defatting improved liking and acceptance of cereal bars incorporating crickets. • Sensory profile of insect protein bars was improved by defatting of crickets. • Lipid fraction may be responsible for crickets' negative sensory attributes. Insects are a novel food source with high nutritional value. However, acceptance of insects as food is low in Western countries and it is necessary to improve their sensory appeal. In this context, the effect of defatting was evaluated as a tool to improve consumers' acceptance, overall liking and sensory properties of foods incorporating edible crickets. Therefore, the nutritional content of two cricket species was analyzed, and the evaluation of the organic solvent which allowed for the best lipid extraction was performed. In addition, whole and defatted ground crickets were included in cereal and dry fruit bars to evaluate their sensory properties and consumers’ acceptance. Both cricket species had a high protein content and were valuable sources of minerals. Ethanol was the best solvent to defat the cricket species and the inclusion of defatted crickets in cereal bars had a positive effect on its sensory evaluations. The products incorporating whole ground crickets were associated with negative sensory descriptors and low liking and acceptance scores. The results suggest that the characteristic flavor of crickets seems to be associated with their lipid content, but it is unknown which components of the lipid fraction are responsible for their flavor.
... The high lipid content in the original cricket powder necessitates lipid removal procedure. Our proximate composition analysis data for crude fat prior to lipid extraction was 20.86% which is comparable to the findings of (Choi, Wong, & Auh, 2017) as well as (Ghosh, Lee, Jung, & Meyer-Rochow, 2017). Lipid extraction was carried out separately using two solvents for comparison, either hexane or ethanol. ...
Article
The aim of the study is to analyze optimum extraction methodologies for lipid extraction and isolation of proteins from whole spray dried cricket powder. From a nutritional standpoint insect have significant protein content ranging from 20 to 75%. Fat content variability ranges from 8 to 50%. Considering the nutritional facts, extraction of lipids and proteins can provide an alternative protein source to the food industry. Studies on insects as a protein source are still limited. Hence, considering crickets as an alternate protein source can help improve both nutrition and food security. In this research, proximate analysis of commercially available whole finely milled spray dried whole cricket powder was studied and contains 63.43% protein, 20.86% fat, 4.65% ash, 7.56% carbohydrates, 3.50% moisture and 472 kcal/100g. Due to the high-fat content present in the powder, was carried out using either hexane or ethanol, reducing the fat content from 20.86% to 9.27%. Extraction of proteins was carried out using either sodium hydroxide or ascorbic acid. The method of lipid extraction using ethanol followed by protein extraction using ascorbic acid provided an increase in the protein content. In conclusion, we were able to increase the protein content of a commercially available insect-based food ingredient while reducing its fat content substantially, thus offering an improved alternative protein source to the food industry.
... Conversion of organic refuse into protein sources by saprophages such as insects seems an environmentally friendly procedure. Currently, insects are being identified as a new protein sources (JIN et al., 2016;CHOI et al., 2017;YOO et al., 2019), particularly because they are potentially able to valorise organic waste such as fruits, cereals, vegetables, and fermented straw (LI et al., 2013;BOVERA et al., 2018). Insects can be an interesting source of protein, especially for poultry as it is a part of their natural feed (BOVERA et al., 2015;MARONO et al., 2017;SECCI et al., 2018). ...
... To overcome this perception, edible insects can be processed by several methods, including grinding and extraction, to mask their appearance when added to food. As insects are generally considered to be rich in fat, protein extraction often involves defatting using organic solvents [10]. Although these processing methods can improve the sensory qualities or functional properties, including flavor, color, and taste of edible insects, protein digestibility can be decreased due to protein denaturation or aggregation during processing [11]. ...
Article
Herein, the in vitro protein digestibility of lyophilized Protaetia brevitarsis larvae flour with and without defatting using 70% ethanol was compared with beef loin. Proximate analysis showed that the defatted larvae contained the highest protein content (p < 0.05). The viable counts of total aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli, and coliform bacteria decreased significantly after defatting the larval samples with 70% ethanol (p < 0.05). Measurement of α-amino group content and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed higher amounts of low molecular weight proteins in the larvae compared to beef loin (p < 0.05). After in vitro digestion, the degree of protein hydrolysis of the digesta was higher for both larvae samples compared to beef loin (p < 0.05). No change was observed in the in vitro larval protein digestibility after defatting. These results highlight the excellent protein digestibility of P. brevitarsis larvae with high protein content. Defatting insect flour with 70% ethanol could enhance microbial safety while maintaining excellent protein digestibility.
... However, it is difficult to grow these insects on an industrial scale because the consumption of edible insects is avoided owing to the aversion to their appearance . Several studies have focused on the appearance of edible insects and their transformation into a ground form or extract to avoid negative perceptions (Choi et al., 2017;Kim, Yong, Chun, et al., 2020;Mishyna et al., 2020). Kim et al. (2019) examined the technical functionality of edible insects to assess foaming ability, foaming capacity, emulsion stability, and emulsion capacity. ...
Article
We investigated the thermal stability and rheological properties of heat-induced gels prepared using edible insect proteins originating from various edible insect species: Tenebrio molitor L., Protaetia brevitarsis larvae, and Allomyrina dichotoma larvae. The protein solubility and pH of the heat-induced gel prepared from A. dichotoma exhibited the highest value (P < 0.05) among all samples. The redness and yellowness (P < 0.05); water holding capacity (P < 0.05); and springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness (P < 0.05) of the heat-induced gel from P. brevitarsis showed the highest values. The apparent viscosity of the gel from P. brevitarsis was higher than that of the other samples (P < 0.05). The storage modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G″) of the gel from T. molitor were lower than those of the gel from P. brevitarsis and A. dichotoma. Compared to the edible insect proteins obtained from T. molitor, those from P. brevitarsis and A. dichotoma were more heat stable, with a more complex structure, and showed various peak temperatures. P. brevitarsis and T. molitor gels displayed the highest and lowest emulsion capacity, respectively (P < 0.05). Thus, the gels from P. brevitarsis and A. dichotoma proteins exhibited excellent processing functionalities as heat-induced gels.
... The Dumas method was used to calculate protein yield and protein content in insect samples using the NDA 701 Dumas Nitrogen Analyzer. They used Agilent 1100 HPLC with Eclipse AAA column for analysis of amino acid composition in insect samples [28] . "Building up a hunger for edible insects won't be simple in light of the fact that huge number of us have a fear of insects throughout our life", said Dr Lesnik. ...
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According to the World Organization World Meter, the current world population is 7.8 billion by March 2020, and if this rate continues, it will reach 9 billion by 2050. Expansion of the human population leads to hunger and malnutrition and puts more pressure on the agro-ecosystem. We must find alternative ways sources of food to feed our growing population because our traditional resources are inefficient to feed the population with all nutritional values. New resources should eco-friendly and full of nutrition. Edible insects can be one choice for feeding the growing population, and insects have always been a part of human history. We can find symbols and insects in many books, events, and ceremonies throughout the world. Researchers now focus on insects as our "food of the future", as our food resources become scarce and scarce in most parts of the world, especially in developing countries. Over 2 billion people worldwide have included over 1,900 species of insects in their diet plan because insects are good and cheap sources of proteins, vitamins, fats, minerals, all essential amino acids, antioxidants, and prebiotic fibers. But, though, there is the unpopularity of insects as food because of unawareness of its nutritional values and social and cultural fear. Report of the Department of Agriculture of the United States highlights one of the primary reasons for the non-acceptance of insects as our food and report say insects need to free from pathogens, poisons, hints of pesticides, allergens, microbes. Now researchers all over the world are looking up for a safe way to farm insects and use as novel food sources for the growing population and finding alternative ways to use insects' products in many other industries. Introduction Have you heard the word "Entomophagy" before? Entomophagy is a combination of Greek and Latin words, where "entomon", mean "insect", and "phagus", as "feeding on". Although many of us never heard this word in their life before yet growing number of researchers and people propose that it will welcome a positive effect on war the globe is battling against food scarcity and malnutrition [1]. Edible insects can be an answer for hunger and malnutrition for some developed and under developing countries, for example, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and a lot more countries of Africa and Europe mainland. Eatable bugs can be showcased as "Future Food" [9]. As indicated by the Food and Agriculture Organizations of the United Nations, there are more than 1900 known types of edible insects that consistently eaten by more than 2 billion individuals over the world yet most of them are in tropical nations, for example, Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Most basic consumable insects are honey
... The choice of a suitable drying method can be crucial for the sensory attributes of insects, as effects of drying have been demonstrated on plant foods, e.g., browning during thermal processing, loss of aroma compounds or textural effects (Guiné, 2018). Defatting, alkaline extraction and sonication enrich protein content and improve the functional properties of edible insect species (Choi, Wong, & Auh, 2017;Mishyna, Martinez, Chen, & Benjamin, 2018;Zhao, Vazquez-Gutierrez, Johansson, Landberg, & Langton, 2016). Defatting of raw powder of grasshopper and honeybee brood led to a lighter color and lower browning index (Mishyna et al., 2018), while solubilization of proteins at pH 8-11 may cause browning that can be prevented by sodium bisulfite (Yi, Van Boekel, & Lakemond, 2016). ...
Article
Background Edible insects are considered a new alternative sustainable source of proteins that exhibits higher feed-conversion efficiency and has a less negative environmental impact, compared to conventional animal-derived protein sources. Highly nutritional edible insects may help solve issues of global malnutrition and food insecurity, while byproducts have the potential for practical application in the food industry, agriculture, and medicine. Despite these numerous benefits, negative attitudes toward insects as food exist in societies where it is not part of their culture to consume insects, raising barriers to the wider introduction of edible insects in the diet on a regular basis. Scope and approach In this review, we discuss the sensory characteristics, such as flavor and texture, of edible insect and insect-based foods, their contribution to consumers’ attitudes toward edible insects, and approaches to alter the quality of sensory attributes—from insect farming and processing to novel product formulation and taste education. Key findings and conclusions Sensory and visual characteristics of edible insects, and availability of information on their origin and safety, are important factors in consumer appeal and their willingness to try eating insects in the future. Flavor and texture of edible insects depend largely on the insect species, its development stage, and the way it is processed. Recent findings on insect production, processing, and formulation of insect-based foods, as well as ways to increase familiarity with edible insects, demonstrate the potential to enhance the acceptability of insects as a novel food.
... Lipids were removed and proteins extracted from insects via a method outlined previously [21]. The insect samples were first defatted using food-grade n-hexane to increase the protein yield. ...
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A comparative characterization of proteins from three edible insects—Tenebrio molitor (mealworm) larvae, Gryllus bimaculatus (cricket), and Bombyx mori (silkworm) pupae—was performed in this study. Proteins were extracted from edible insects and their hydrolysates were prepared through enzymatic hydrolysis with commercial enzymes (Flavourzyme: 12%; Alcalase: 3%). Solubility was significantly higher following enzymatic hydrolysis, while foamability was lower compared to those of the protein control. Angiotensin-converting enzyme was significantly inhibited after enzymatic hydrolysis, especially following Alcalase treatment, with IC50 values of 0.047, 0.066, and 0.065 mg/mL for G. bimaculatus, T. molitor larvae, and B. mori pupae, respectively. Moreover, the Alcalase-treated group of B. mori pupae and the T. molitor larvae group treated with a mixture of enzymes showed the effective inhibition of α-glucosidase activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of the insect hydrolysates was assessed via nitric oxide production from macrophages, and B. mori pupae samples exhibited significant activity regardless of the method of hydrolysis. These results indicate the functional properties of protein and hydrolysates from three species of edible insects, which may be useful in their future exploitation.
... Insect-based treatment of food waste is being increasingly recognized as an environmentally friendly method for recycling resources, and it also has the advantage of low installation costs. Additionally, such insects can be an excellent protein source through a certain procedure of extraction [8,9]. However, it is very important to maintain suitable conditions, such as feed components, adequate temperature, humidity, and acidity for the insects to survive and thrive [10]. ...
Article
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Food waste accounts for a substantial portion of the organic waste generated at an increasing rate worldwide. Organic waste, including food waste, is largely subjected to landfill disposal, incineration, and anaerobic digestion; however, more sustainable methods are needed for treating it. Treatment of organic waste using black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae is an environmentally safe and cost-efficient method that has been attracting increasing attention worldwide. Black soldier fly decomposes various types of organic waste and converts them into high-value biomasses such as oils and proteins. This review introduces the trends in research related to the treatment of organic waste by black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae (BSFL) and their bioconversion efficiencies in Asian countries. Perspectives on the growth of BSFL during waste treatment operation and optimal rearing conditions are provided. The trends in studies related to the application of BSFL as biofuel and animal feed are also discussed. Such use of BSFL would be beneficial in Asia, especially in countries where the technology for processing organic waste is not readily available. This review may provide further directions of investigations including culture techniques for industrial scale applications of BSFL in food waste treatment and resource production in Asian countries.
... Among three extraction techniques,alkaline and aqueous protein extraction beholds less efficiency than pH-shift extraction of defatted larvae flour in terms of structural conformation and high extraction yield (Santhosh et al. 2019). The combined potential application of n-hexane and Sonication assisted technique for isolation of protein from Bombyx mori of 94%, G. bimaculatus of 37% and Tenebrio molitor of 35% (Choi, Wong, and Auh 2017). ...
Article
Edible insects (EI) are also becoming as a part of the diet due to their nutritional value and health benefits in many regions of the world. These EI are inexhaustible sources accessible by garnering from the wild with high feed conversion efficiency. Appreciating the budding of EI in justifiable food production, enlightening food security and biodiversity conversion, is promising a sufficient supply of the insect resource for future food to the world. These insects are processed to develop new products, improve organoleptic and nutritional parameters as well as the extension of shelf life. In this review, we discuss the edible insect characteristics, the potential application of EI in food industry, processing, pretreatments, drying, extraction of edible compounds like protein, lipid and chitin various food products formulation, safety regulation. Availability of broad nutritional spectrum of EI includes protein, mono and poly unsaturaturated fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins, amino aids and minerals has been used as an ingredient in development of various forms of food products such as flours in the form of whole insect powder, protein isolate, canned products, extruded products, hard candies, spreads, liquor infusion, cookies and other products.
... In many countries, especially Africa, Asia, and Latin America, the local process mealworms into food products or ingredients included in their daily food as an alternative source of protein [1]. There is also research on separating protein from the mealworm as a pure ingredient for food purposes [15][16][17][18][19]. Research works are done to increase the protein concentration by expelling fat and chitin from mealworm [17], reduce agglomeration of extracted mealworm protein powder during the pulverization process [18], and most importantly, the societal acceptance of consuming the extracted protein by incorporating in food rather than consuming the whole insect [15,20]. ...
Article
The physical and chemical properties of mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) oil were studied. Mealworm powder has a high oil content of 37.54 ± 0.78% with a high free fatty acid (FFA) content of 10.84 ± 0.005%. The primary fatty acids of mealworm oil were oleic acid (30.37%), linoleic acid (25.07%) and palmitic acid (19.54%). The mealworm oil decomposed almost completely after 470 °C. An optimization study of acid-catalyzed esterification using response surface methodology (RSM) was conducted to reduce the high level of FFA content to a range below 1% to be suitably used for biodiesel production via alkali-catalyzed transesterification. The optimum parameters were 5.8% w/w sulfuric acid as catalyst, 24:1 methanol to oil ratio, 174 min reaction time at a temperature of 74 °C. The methyl esters conversion obtained using these optimum condition parameters was 92.74 ± 0.92% indicating FFA content was successfully lowered to less than 1%, which is favorable for alkali-catalyzed transesterification to take place and convert the triglycerides in the oil into biodiesel. The pretreated oil is then converted to biodiesel and the properties were found to meet the ASTM D6751 standards.
... 25 This makes it challenging for mild solvents to destroy the complex and compact chemical bonds between chitin and protein. 26 The covalent bonds between melanin and chitin also pose additional difficulty for removing the enmeshed proteins and minerals and separating them from chitin without destroying chitin. 27 The conventional method of producing chitin from crustacean shells and insect exoskeletons involves decalcification by hydrochloric acid followed by deproteinization by sodium hydroxide at high temperatures for several hours. ...
Article
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Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens), an insect known for feeding on waste biomass and converting it into useful nutrients such as proteins, lipids, and chitin, has been reared on insect farms on a large scale. In this study, chitin was isolated from the exoskeleton of the black soldier fly using different extraction protocols, such as chemical solvents, enzyme-assisted fractionation, and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. The levels of effectiveness of the recovery of the chitin fraction using different extraction methods were then evaluated by determining the physicochemical properties of the extracted insect chitin using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and X-ray diffraction. The results show that the use of eco-friendly acids and solvents such as lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol as well as bacterial proteases holds promise for the defatting, demineralization, and deproteinization of the exoskeleton to yield good quality chitin, albeit with impurities.
... The defatting process was usually conducted by using organic solvents such as n-hexane and ethanol [92,93] to remove the oil from the seeds, prior to extraction using water or saline solution. This step was usually taken for seeds that have high oil content which could hinder the contact between water and solid surface [94]. ...
Article
Utilisation of natural coagulants in water and wastewater treatment has gained a considerable amount of interest in recent years. This is possible due to its advantages such as being renewable, being affordable at a relatively low cost, producing biodegradable sludge with less sludge generation. However, there are some drawbacks in the utilisation of natural coagulant, namely its long settling time and increase of organic content when a crude plant extract is used. To surmount these obstacles, a combination of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP) with natural coagulant (i.e. magnetic natural coagulant) is introduced to enhance the coagulation performance. The purpose of this review is to provide extensive discussions on the recent progress of magnetic natural coagulant, especially over the last ten years. Most of the recent studies used protein extract from legumes as an active coagulating agent in the magnetic natural coagulant preparation with two different approaches. The dispersion approach used crude extract functionalised with IONP, while the adsorption approach immobilised protein on the surface of unmodified or modified IONP. In both approaches, protein acts as an active coagulating agent with a charge neutralisation mechanism. Due to the presence of IONP, the settling time is greatly reduced under the presence of external magnetic force, typically from 60-90 min to 5-30 min, while maintaining a good coagulation performance in various types of water-wastewater. Future studies of other coagulant preparation methods, applications to other active coagulating agents, and efforts to increase the coagulation efficiency are needed prior to its pilot-commercial scale application.
... In addition, the use of high energy ultrasound has an effect on the particle size, microstructure, secondary structure, and tertiary conformation of proteins (Higuera- Barraza et al., 2016). Ultrasound has also been applied to some insect species such as Tenebrio molitor, Gryllus bimaculatus and Bombyx morri for improved protein extraction (Choi et al., 2017). A previous study investigated the influence of ultrasound treatment in the control of silk fibroin gelation. ...
Article
H. illucens, black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) is one of the sustainable sources of protein. However, the research on the functionality of BSFL proteins is limited and need to be explored to increase consumer acceptance. The aim of this study is to create a gel system from BSFL protein and evaluate the impact of ultrasound treatment at different exposure time (5, 15, 30 min) on the physicochemical properties of BSFL protein. The highest values for surface hydrophobicity, size, ζ-potential were obtained after 15 min of ultrasound treatment and the same was found for the elastic modulus. Finally, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) along with image analysis revealed the lowest pore size after 15 min of treatment. The high protein content of BSFL protein extract and its promising gel system herein created, are important features to be considered for further development of insect-based food.
... Food waste treatment based on insects has been recognized increasingly as an environmentally friendly way to recycle resources and have the advantage of low installation costs. Furthermore, by a particular extraction procedure, insects can be an excellent source of protein (Choi et al., 2017;Lee et al., 2019). However, it was vital to keep conditions suitable for insects to survive and thrive as feed components, adequate temperatures, moisture, and acidity (Yoon et al., 2020). ...
Article
Food waste and leftovers were common materials that were currently used as bio-compost or soil conditioners upon decomposition. Food waste was a source of food that has declined nutritional value and is not deemed favorable for human consumption. Leftovers were defined as uneaten edible remains of a meal. Biodegradation of these components contributes to many macronutrients, including carbon (C), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in the compost, which makes it a suitable growing condition for plants. In this study, the main sources of research data were one hundred thirty-one scientific articles relating to food waste treatment methods and the growth quality of plants over the last few years. This review was the consensus of the role and characteristics of food waste and leftovers as fertilizers. Moreover, the paper briefly discusses the different composting methods for these materials and their corresponding effects on the growth quality of plants.
... The protein is found in the pellets and supernatant. It is also found that defatting the insect residue beforehand and carrying out sonication enhances the protein extraction yield by a large margin [95]. Hence, it is advisable to carry out these procedures if the protein is the main subject of extraction. ...
Article
Background Throughout the world, food wastage issues continue to plague almost every country. Multiple ideas and solutions have been conceived and are continuously being tested by scientists and government bodies to mitigate food waste management issues. Black Soldier Fly (BSF) rearing is an up-and-coming commodity because of its versatility and multi-function purposes in various fields, such as food waste management, animal feed industry and bioactive compounds industry. Methods This work looks at setting up an automated smart farming system to rear BSF, with the help of implementing the Internet-of-Things (IoT) into the monitoring system. It also entails a guide on a possible design of a home-based Black-Soldier-Fly smart farm, where the Internet-of-Things components such as sensors, relays, and mobile applications are showcased. Finally, the prospects and challenges that arise with Black-Soldier-Fly smart farming can be identified and discussed. Significant findings Important growth factors such as temperature, light and pH can be monitored remotely by Internet-of-Things technology. Through IoT implementation, the farm can be remotely controlled and growth parameters can be adjusted with ease. Hence, this would lead to the efficient production of BSF larvae for processing food waste or conversion to bioactive compounds.
... For European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), the digestibility of insects meal larvae (whole and defatted) was evaluated: Hermitia illucens (HW and HID), Tenebrio molitor (TMW and TMD) and grasshopper meal (GM) (Basto et al. 2020). According to the authors, the defaturing process provides an increase in protein content, as already reported by Teh et al. (2013) and Choi et al. (2017). Due to the high digestibility of protein (> 89%) and the high amount of digestible essential amino acids, it is suggested that T. molitor meal are the most promising protein sources for European sea bass, with the potential to replace fish meal (Basto et al., 2020). ...
Article
The creation of aquatic organisms it is constantly growing and with this comes the need to meet this demand with the increased production of inputs such as feed for aquaculture. Fish nutrition is mainly characterized by the use of fish meal and oil for the manufacture of rations for their food. Soybean bran is the second most used ingredient as a source of protein in the production of feed for aquaculture. However, these ingredients compete with other feed segments, increasing cost or reducing market availability. Therefore, alternative sources of protein must be studied and developed to meet this demand. In this sense, insects present themselves as sources of high quality protein, in addition to fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. Although there is a problem with large-scale production to meet the demand of the feed market, the ease of breeding certain species of insects is capable of making this reality possible. Thus, insects can be a likely alternative protein source in fish feed, replacing conventional sources. This review aims to evaluate the inclusion of mealworm in the fish diet, in terms of performance and discuss the results obtained.
... However, processing of insect lipids and proteins may facilitate this matter, but investigations are still ongoing to identify the optimum conditions for protein and oil separation (Choi et al. 2017). ...
Article
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Farming insects has recently emerged as a new source of protein and lipid production. To date, research has mostly focused on food applications of insects. Focusing on nonfood potential of oil and proteins of insects, high-throughput studies of insect lipids and proteins are needed. We performed proteomics and lipidomics investigation on black soldier fly (Hermitia illucens) and blow fly (Lucilia sericata) larvae to investigate new potential and applications. We used mass spectrometry for proteomics and lipidomics analysis of control and treated larvae. Treatment was performed by incubation with a biological decomposer. We provide the list of all fatty acids with their concentration in control and treated larvae. This result showed high levels of lauric acid in black soldier fly, which could even increase after biological decomposition. Proteomics analysis showed the presence of proteins like collagen of cosmetic interest, and proteins with antimicrobial properties such as phenoloxidases and enzymatic activities, such as amylase and trypsin. Insects harbor high potential for nonfood usage as additives, antimicrobial effects, and even pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. These data open avenues for future research in pharmacological and cosmetic approaches to find new molecules of interests.
... The fine powder increases surface area, promoting better protein-solvent contact in the subsequent extraction steps. Some authors have used a defatting step to improve insect protein yield at the laboratory scale (Choi, Wong, & Auh, 2017). An increase in the protein content of both Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens from 58 ± 1.2 % to 65 ± 0.3 % and 35 ± 0.2 % to 45 ± 1.4, respectively, was observed when insect flour was defatted in hexane (Bußler, Rumpold, Jander, Rawel, & Schlüter, 2016). ...
Article
For many centuries, animal proteins have been used as the conventional food proteins in the food industry to produce a variety of food products due to their functional properties that range from gelation, water holding and binding capacity, foaming ability and stability, solubility, and emulsification. However, the production of proteins from animal sources does come at a cost due to its impact on the environment. Thus, the search for potential replacers for animal proteins that are sustainable, cheaper, and environmentally friendly has resulted in the exploration and the incorporation of alternative proteins in different food product formulations. Even though studies have been carried out to investigate the functional properties of several alternative protein sources, there are technological, sensorial, and nutritional challenges that still need to be overcome in order to make alternative protein sources a more feasible exchange for animal-based proteins. Additionally, the impact of processing on the functional and structural characteristics of alternative proteins in addition to the health impact still need to be understood. Therefore, this review discusses alternative protein sources that have been researched and documented as potential substitutes for animal-based protein sources. The extraction, characterisation, functional properties, and the nutritional quality of alternative proteins in comparison to the conventional animal-based protein sources will also be discussed. Additionally, this review aims to highlight opportunities and challenges of incorporating alternative proteins in food processing and manufacturing.
... Ultrasound, PEF, HHP and CAPP can also have an impact on protein extraction from defatted insect meal ( Figure 5, pathway C). For example Choi et al. (2017) observed an enhanced protein extraction yield on B. mori, T. molitor and G. bimaculatus treated when ultrasound was used, while Mishyna et al. (2019) observed that ultrasound assisted extraction can enhance solubility, coagulability and foaming stability of S. gregaria protein extracts, while the same treatment has been responsible for reduction in solubility and coagulability in A. mellifera extracts. Ultrasound sonication improve the protein extraction yield Method used for protein extraction alter the molecular characteristics of protein, determining a changing on its hydrophobicity. ...
Article
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The processing of insects is paramount to deliver safe and high quality raw materials, ingredients and products for large-scale food and feed applications. Depending upon the nature of the initial material and the desired end product, the processing pathways vary and may include several unit operations currently already used in food and feed processing. Insect processing pathways can involve harvesting, pre-processing, decontamination, further processing, packaging and storage. Several traditional and industrial decontamination methods have been proposed for edible insects, which include smoking, drying, blanching/boiling, marination, cooking, steaming, toasting and their combinations. Further processing steps are employed to produce insect meal, insect flour or extracted insect fractions. Each operation will have a different impact on the chemical and microbiological properties of the final product. Novel food processing technologies (e.g. high pressure processing, pulsed electric field, ultrasound and cold plasma) have shown potential to modify, complement or replace the conventional processing steps in insect processing. These technologies have been tested for microbial decontamination, enzyme inactivation, drying and extraction. Further, these are considered to be environmentally friendly and may be implemented for versatile applications to improve the processing efficiency, safety and quality of insect based products. Future research focuses in insect processing are development of efficient, environmentally friendly and low-cost processes; waste minimisation and incorporation of by-products/co-products.
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The osteogenic differentiation of stem cells is profoundly affected by their microenvironmental conditions. The differentiation behavior of stem cells can be tuned by changing the niche environments. The proteins or peptides that are derived by living organisms facilitate the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells. Here, we have evaluated the osteoinductive and antioxidative potential of the Protaetia brevitarsis seulensis insect-derived protein for human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). The amino acid contents in the isolated protein were determined by an amino acid analyzer. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to analyze the extract's functional groups and surface morphology. The extracted protein exhibited 51.08% β-sheet conformation. No adverse effects were observed in extract-treated cells, indicating their biocompatibility. The protein isolate showed an excellent antioxidative property. Besides this, an enhancement in the hBMSCs' mineralization has been observed in the presence of treated protein isolates. Notably, osteogenic marker genes and proteins were effectively expressed in the treated cells. These results indicated that the P. brevitarsis-derived protein isolate can be used as a potential antioxidative biomaterial for bone tissue engineering applications.
Article
Insects represent a rich source of protein and a more sustainable alternative to conventional animal sources. Insect proteins are diverse in amino acid composition, structure, physicochemical and functional properties. Processing treatments cause changes in properties of insect proteins and protein-enriched fractions of varying purity, affecting their techno-functional properties and the possible application range. This review discusses recent findings on the effect of processing techniques on the techno-functionality of insect protein fractions including solubility, foaming, emulsifying, and gelling properties. It is demonstrated that a treatment type and its intensity alter physicochemical and functional properties to different degrees. The review also shows the potential for the production of insect-derived food ingredients with tailored functional properties using the diversity of available processing methods.
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Naturally-derived proteins or peptides are promising biopolymers for tissue engineering applications owing to their health-promoting activity. Herein, we extracted proteins (~90%) from two-spotted cricket ( Gryllus bimaculatus ) and evaluated their osteoinductive potential in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) under in vitro conditions. The extracted protein isolate was analyzed for the amino acid composition and the mass distribution of the constituent peptide fraction. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to determine the presence of biologically significant functional groups. The cricket protein isolate (CPI) exhibited characteristic protein peaks in the FTIR spectrum. Notably, an enhanced cell viability was observed in the presence of the extracted proteins, showing their biocompatibility. The CPI also exhibited antioxidant properties in a concentrationdependent manner. More significant mineralization was observed in the CPI-treated cells than in the control, suggesting their osteoinductive potential. The upregulation of the osteogenic marker genes ( Runx2 , ALP , OCN , and BSP ) in CPI treated media compared with the control supports their osteoinductive nature. Therefore, cricket-derived protein isolates could be used as functional protein isolate for tissue engineering applications, especially for bone regeneration.
Article
A large amount of by products are generated during the silk processing, the most abundant of which are silkworm pupae. In general, efforts have been made to use these by-products for different applications such as biogas, fertilizer, human food products, medicines and pupa oil production. In this work a novel application of protein extracted from silkworm pupae was proposed for the coloration of silk fabrics within the context of the circular economy. In particular, for the first time a hydrolysis process at 170 °C for 1 h using only superheated water was performed to extract proteins from silkworm pupae and as a novelty, the same proteins were used to dye silk fabrics. Various parameters such as temperature, time, pH, dyeing time and temperature, protein hydrolysate concentration, mordant type (copper sulfate and ferrous sulfate) and mordanting step (pre-meta-post) were studied and the higher color strength was obtained at pH 3.8, 90 °C, for 60 min dyeing time using 30% o.w.f. protein hydrolysate, 50% o.w.f meta-mordanting. It was demonstrated that the extracted proteins can actually dye, but the color is more intense in the presence of the mordant which plays an anchoring role by formation of complex between protein hydrolysate and silk fabric. Dyed fabrics in the presence of mordant show washing and rubbing fastness from good to excellent, and light fastness from fair to good.
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Chitin, a biopolymer present in fungi and arthropods, is a compound of interest for various applications, such as in the agricultural and medical fields. With the recently growing interest in the development of insect farming, the availability of chitin-containing residual streams, particularly the molting skins (exuviae), is expected to increase in the near future. For application purposes, accurate quantification of chitin in these insect sources is essential. Previous studies on chitin extraction and quantification often overlooked the purity of the extracted chitin, making the outcomes inconsistent and prone to overestimation. The present study aims to determine chitin content in the exuviae of three insect species mass-reared worldwide: black soldier fly (BSF), mealworm, and house cricket. Chitin was chemically extracted using acid and alkali treatments to remove minerals and proteins. The purity of extracted chitin was evaluated by hydrolyzing the chitin into glucosamine, followed by quantitative determination of the latter using two liquid chromatography methods: electrochemical detection (ECD) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Both methods proved accurate and precise, without the need for labor-intensive derivatization steps. Pearson's correlation and Bland-Altman plots showed that the glucosamine determination results obtained by the two methods were comparable, and there is no consistent bias of one approach vs. the other. The chitin content in extracted residues ranged between 7.9 and 18.5%, with the highest amount found in BSF puparium. In summary, the study demonstrated that (1) the residual streams of the insect farming industry have a great potential for utilization as an alternative chitin source, and (2) both LC-ECD and LC-MS/MS are reliable for the quantitative determination of glucosamine in insect chitin.
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Coagulation and flocculation are commonly used in water and wastewater treatment. Inorganic coagulant such as alum (Al2(SO4)3), ferrous sulphate (FeSO4), and polyaluminium chloride (PAC) are commonly used. These coagulants are known for its effectiveness and simple operation procedure. However, there are some drawbacks such as reduction in pH, potential negative health effect when the treated water is consumed, and large sludge volume. To overcome these problems, utilization of natural coagulants has been proposed. Based on its active coagulating agent, natural coagulant could be divided as polyphenolic, polysaccharides, and protein. Protein from beans and seeds is commonly used as the source of active coagulating agent, due to its effectiveness, availability, and relatively simple pretreatment is needed. Usually the protein is extracted by using 0.5-1 M NaCl solution as globulin is the major protein fraction in beans.The extracted protein could act as cationic polymer to neutralize negatively charged colloids through adsorption-charge neutralization mechanism. Extracted protein could work effectively to treat turbid and waste water with lower cost compared to alum. However, most of existing studies are still focused on small – pilot scale utilization thus further explorations are still needed.
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Background The edible insect Tenebrio molitor (T. molitor) is a promising food source alternative since it is easily cultivated and its nutritional composition includes high added-value molecules, in particular proteins and lipids. Regarding minerals, iron and zinc contents are higher than chicken, pork, and cow. T. molitor proteins are composed of all the essential amino acids such as valine, leucine, lysine, and also saturated, polyunsaturated, and monosaturated fatty acids. In addition, peptides from T. molitor showed good Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, effective in stabilizing blood pressure. Oleic and linoleic acids of T. molitor larvae were analyzed as inhibitors of BACE1 (β-secretase) for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. However, T. molitor biomass has been poorly studied and applied in the biorefinery concept, especially exploring green extraction methods, such as ultrasound-assisted, supercritical fluid, pressurized liquid, and microwave-assisted extraction. Scope and approach This review correlates scientific data and trends between T. molitor and biorefinery approach, and the technologies adopted for the extraction, using unconventional methods, and recovery of products with high added value and their wide application possibilities. Key findings and conclusions T. molitor biomass is composed of functional proteins with hepatoprotective, antithrombotic, antioxidant properties. It is also a lipid source rich in oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acids. Some biorefinery proposals - sequential extraction eco-friendly processes - are suggested, such as the supercritical fluid extraction for oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acids, followed by protein recovery to bioactive peptide production.
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The burgeoning global population growth has raised concerns regarding the expected increase in the demand for food, which could be partially tackled by identifying novel food sources. To this end, edible insects have recently attracted research interest. Several technologies for utilizing edible insect-derived proteins have been introduced; however, research into their functional utilization is insufficient. Herein, we reviewed the relevant literature on the importance of insects as food sources, extraction of edible insects, the nutritional value of insects, biological activities of components, and their applications in food industries. We summarized the studies primarily focused on the functional utilization of edible insects, suggesting that for successful incorporation and growth of edible insects in food and pharmaceutical industries, strategies to improve the extraction methods are required to explore the biological activity of edible insects. Furthermore, the awareness of edible insects with a focus on their allergens warrants consideration.
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Nowadays, it is urgent to produce in larger quantities and more sustainably to reduce the gap between food supply and demand. In a circular bioeconomy vision, insects receive great attention as a sustainable alternative to satisfy food and nutritional needs. Among all insects, Tenebrio molitor (TM) is the first insect approved by the European Food Safety Authority as a novel food in specific conditions and uses, testifying its growing relevance and potential. This review holistically presents the possible role of TM in the sustainable and circular solution to the growing needs for food and nutrients. We analyze all high value‐added products obtained from TM (powders and extracts, oils and fatty acids, proteins and peptides, and chitin and chitosan), their recovery processes (evaluating the best ones in technical and environmental terms), their nutritional and economical values, and their biological effects. Safety aspects are also mentioned. TM potential is undoubted, but some aspects still need to be discussed, including the health effects of substances and microorganisms in its body, the optimal production conditions (that affect product quality and safety), and TM capacity to convert by‐products into new products. Environmental, economic, social, and market feasibility studies are also required to analyze the new value chains. Finally, to unlock the enormous potential of edible insects as a source of nutritious and sustainable food, it will be necessary to overcome the cultural, psychological, and regulatory barriers still present in Western countries.
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The nutritional potential of five preferred insect species used as food and feed in Korea, Allomyrina dichotoma (Coleoptera: Dynastidae), Protaetia brevitarsis (Coleoptera: Cetoniidae), Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), Teleogryllus emma (Orthoptera: Gryllidae), and Gryllus bimaculatus (Ortoptera: Gryllidae), was accessed. Most of these species contained high protein contents with low variation (53.2 to 58.3%) except for P. brevitarsis, whose protein tally amounted to 44.2%. Fat contents of the insects varied widely (11.9 to 34.5%). G. bimaculatus was found to contain the least amount of fat, but highest amount of protein including essential amino acids. T. molitor contained the highest amount of fat (34.5%), suggesting a possible future role as a commercial source of oil. A total of 17 amino acids (8 essential, 1 conditional essential and 8 non-essential) as well as 26 fatty acids (12 SFA, 6 MUFA and 8 PUFA) were determined. Except for methionine all other essential amino acids satisfied the protein level recommended by FAO/WHO/UNU (2007). The MUFA proportion was highest in the beetle larvae, but PUFA contents were maximal in the cricket adults. Compared with conventional animal meats and chicken eggs, especially the crickets that we examined seem superior from a nutritional perspective as they contain higher amounts of protein, iron, zinc and magnesium and possess fats with fewer SFAs but more PUFAs (with the exception of A. dichotoma). Systematic farming of these insects could be one sustainable alternative to vertebrate animal food with less environmental pressures.
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Unit operations to enhance protein extraction within the food industry are vital to improve current processes, especially for cost reductions and sustainability. Here a study of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) from soy slurry and okara produced at pilot-scale and further processed using a lab or pilot-scale probe system is presented. Confocal imaging and particle size measurements were used to study the physical effects of UAE on these soy processing materials. Ultrasound at pilot-scale was infeasible for soy slurry, in contrast to lab-scale. UAE from okara solution significantly increased protein yield by 4.2% at pilot-scale (p < 0.05). Okara solution flow rate and okara concentration also significantly improved the protein extraction yield. During lab-scale sonication of okara solution, a greater energy intensity resulted in a higher yield of up to 40% after 15 min treatment. Considering total extraction yields at pilot-scale during soybase production, ultrasound is not considered viable for industrial processing.
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A protocol for extraction of yellow mealworm larvae proteins was established, conditions were evaluated and the resulting protein extract was characterised. The freeze-dried yellow mealworm larvae contained around 33% fat, 51% crude protein and 43% true protein on a dry matter basis. The true protein content of the protein extract was about 75%, with an extraction rate of 70% under optimised extraction conditions using 0.25 M NaOH, a NaOH solution:ethanol defatted worm ratio of 15:1 mL/g, 40°C for 1 h and extraction twice. The protein extract was a good source of essential amino acids. The lowest protein solubility in distilled water solution was found between pH 4 and 5, and increased with either increasing or decreasing pH. Lower solubility was observed in 0.5 M NaCl solution compared with distilled water. The rheological tests indicated that temperature, sample concentration, addition of salt and enzyme, incubation time and pH alterations influenced the elastic modulus of yellow mealworm protein extract (YMPE). These results demonstrate that the functional properties of YMPE can be modified for different food applications.
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The nutritional value of insect protein is evaluated not only in amino acid composition, but also in protein digestibility. The general amino acid composition of Tenebrio molitor has been reported before, but limited knowledge is available on its digestibility. The objective of this study was to investigate in vitro protein digestibility of whole T. molitor larvae, a water-soluble fraction (supernatant) and water-insoluble fractions (pellet and residue), and to identify which proteins were present in the fractions studied. The digestibility of the supernatant fraction (~80 %) was much higher than that of pellet (~50 %) and residue (~24 %) after in vitro gastroduodenal digestion as was determined using the o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) method. More proteins were digested after pepsin/pancreatin digestion than after only pepsin digestion. The most abundant proteins in the supernatant were hemolymph protein (~12 kDa), alpha-amylase (~50 kDa, a putative allergen), and muscle proteins (e.g. actin 30–50 kDa) in the pellet fraction as determined from LC–MS/MS and SDS-PAGE. In conclusion, the proteins in the soluble fraction that contained hemolymph proteins were more easily digestible than the insoluble, muscle protein-containing fractions.
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There is a serious worldwide nutrition problem due to good quality protein deficiency affecting low income people. Insects are a good alternative, their consumption is all over the world, therefore is important, to improve production and preservation techniques, to market them for available to all population. Insect research has been conducted for more than twenty years, with species from Mexico and other countries of Africa, Asia, Australia and America. Species of 107 edible insects have been studied for their nutritional value and bioavailability. Proximal analysis of five land and aquatic species of insects were performed according AOAC (2000) methods. Results were in this order, grasshoppers, Sphenarium purpurascens Ch protein 71.50%; fat 5.75%; minerals 2.5%; fibre 3.89%; soluble carbohydrates 16.36%. Chicatana ant, Atta Mexicana B protein 66.00%; fat 24.02%; minerals 3.00%; fibre 2.06%; soluble carbohydrates 4.92%. Maguey grub, Aegiale hespheriaris K protein 30.88%; fat 58.55%; minerals 2.29%; fibre 0.12%; soluble carbohydrates 8.16%. Escamol ant eggs, Liometopum apiculatum H protein 40.90%; fat 33.96%; minerals 7.58%; fibre 1.3%; soluble carbohydrates 16.26%. Ahuahutle mosquito eggs are a mixture of Krizousacorixia azteca J and other species, protein 53.60%; fat 4.33%; ash 21.00%; fibre 3.00%; soluble carbohydrates 18.07%. Insects have a good nutritional value and are high in protein with all essential amino acids. Promoting cultivation and preservation techniques will be a good source of income for people who grow these insects not only for their consumption but for commercialization at urban cities.
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The methods of oil aqueous extraction process (AEP) assisted by enzymes are, over the last 50 years, an alternative designed to replace traditional methods of extraction using organic solvents. To extract the oil using an AEP, the use of specific enzymes, able to hydrolyze some or all components of seeds, can significantly increase the yields of extraction. Hydrolyzing the different constituents of cell walls (cellulose, hemicellulose, pectins, proteins, etc.), enzymes are able to enhance the liberation of the oil. A number of physico-chemical parameters must also be considered for the better expression of the enzymatic mixture, while maintaining the quality of oils and meals. This article presents the various factors influencing the release of oil in aqueous media and the main results obtained by this process on various substrates.
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Abstract In view of future expected industrial bio-fractionation of insects, we investigated the influence of extraction methods on chemical characteristics of insect lipids. Lipids from Tenebrio molitor, Alphitobius diaperinus, Acheta domesticus and Blaptica dubia, reared in the Netherlands, were extracted by two industrial extraction processes (aqueous and Soxhlet) and one laboratory method (Folch extraction). Chemical characterization in terms of fatty acid composition (GC-FID), triacylglycerol profile (GC) and lipid classes (TLC) was performed on all the extracted lipids. The major findings on lipid chemical characterization were the following: (1) T. molitor had the highest lipid content around 13%; (2) the highest yield was obtained using Folch extraction, and the lowest yield using the aqueous method (from 19 to 60% related to the lipid recovery of Folch extraction); (3) ω-3 fatty acids, which are related to health benefits, were most abundant in lipids from aqueous extraction, while ω-6 fatty acids were most abundant in Folch extractions, except for B. dubia; (4) lipids from Folch and Soxhlet extractions contained free fatty acids and partial glycerides, which were absent in aqueous extractions; (5) triacylglycerol distribution is similar among insect species, with high levels of ECN 50–54 and low amounts of ECN 36–38. In conclusion, aqueous extraction gave the lowest lipid yield, but provided a lipid extract low in ω-6/ω-3 ratio and with less polar lipids than Soxhlet and Folch extractions. These characteristics are desirable in edible lipids. This is the first time that the triacylglycerol profile of insect lipids is reported. It is also the first time that C18:1 and C18:2 are reported as separated isomers and that trans isomers of C16:1 and C18:1 are reported in insect lipids.
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Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) process enhancement for food and allied industries are reported in this review. This includes herbal, oil, protein and bioactives from plant and animal materials (e.g. polyphenolics, anthocyanins, aromatic compounds, polysaccharides and functional compounds) with increased yield of extracted components, increased rate of extraction, achieving reduction in extraction time and higher processing throughput. Ultrasound can enhance existing extraction processes and enable new commercial extraction opportunities and processes. New UAE processing approaches have been proposed, including, (a) the potential for modification of plant cell material to provide improved bioavailability of micro-nutrients while retaining the natural-like quality, (b) simultaneous extraction and encapsulation, (c) quenching of the radical sonochemistry especially in aqueous systems to avoid degradation of bioactives and (d) potential use of the radical sonochemistry to achieve targeted hydroxylation of polyphenolics and carotenoids to increase bioactivity.
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Determination of the proximate, nutritionally valuable minerals and anti-nutrient compositions in larvae of Cirina forda (W) showed that they contained high levels of protein, (55.50%+/-1.20%) with ash, moisture, fat, and carbohydrate levels being (10.26%+/-0.01%), (10.85%+/-0.38%), (4.68%+/-0.01%) and (18.70%+/-0.84%) respectively. Fibre was not detected. Protein solubility was higher in alkaline media than in acidic media while the isoelectric points were pH 4, 6 and 9 indicating that C. forda may be useful in food formulations involving foods like meat products. Phosphorus had the highest value of (215.54+/-0.21) mg/100 g while manganese had the lowest value of (1.14+/-0.10) mg/100 g. Copper, Co, Pb, Cr and Ni were not available. Water absorption capacity was (300%+/-0.15%), oil absorption capacity was (358.44%+/-0.21%) and foaming stability was (3%+/-0.00%). The results of anti-nutritional analysis revealed that oxalate and phytic acid contents were (4.11+/-0.05) mg/100 g and (1.02+/-0.00) mg/100 g respectively and that these values fell within nutritionally accepted values. Tannin was not detected in C. forda. C. forda, a rich source of animal nutrients, usable in human diets and animal feeds formulations.
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Recently, the benefits of entomophagy have been widely discussed. Due to western cultures’ reluctance, entomophagy practices are leaning more towards incorporating insects into food products. In this study, whole crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus) were hydrolyzed with alcalase at 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0% (w/w) for 30, 60, and 90 minutes. Degree of hydrolysis (DH), amino acid composition, solubility, emulsion and foaming properties were evaluated. Hydrolysis produced peptides with 26-52% DH compared to the control containing no enzyme (5% DH). Protein solubility of hydrolysates improved (p < 0.05) over a range of pH’s, exhibiting > 30% soluble protein at pH 3 and 7 and 50-90% at alkaline pH, compared with the control. Emulsion activity index ranged from 7-32 m²/g, while foamability ranged from 100-155% for all hydrolysates. These improved functional properties demonstrate the potential to develop cricket protein hydrolysates as a source of functional alternative protein in food ingredient formulations.
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The objective of this study was to determine the effects of adding pre-treated mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor) and silkworm pupae (Bombyx mori) flours on nutritional, physicochemical and textural properties of emulsion sausages. Whole freeze-dried insects were sequentially ground, defatted, and acid-hydrolyzed. Control sausage was formulated with 60% lean pork, 20% ice and 20% back fat, and insect treatments were prepared with replacement of 10% lean pork by each pre-treated insect flour. Defatting and/or acid hydrolysis significantly increased the protein content of two insect flours, but acid hydrolysis slightly decreased protein solubility (P = 0.002). The addition of pre-treated insect flours had no impact on protein solubility of emulsion sausages, but increased cooking yield and hardness in a similar extent, regardless of pre-treating methods and insect types (P > 0.05). Our results suggest that through separation processing, mealworm larvae and silkworm pupae can be further optimized as a novel protein ingredient for emulsified meat products.
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In the present study, the effect of silkworm pupae peptide on acidification, water‐holding capacity (WHC), textural properties, sensory characteristics, angiotensin I‐converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, and the amino acid composition of fermented milk products was studied. The addition of peptide enhanced acidification, thus reducing the fermentation time. Furthermore, addition of > 0.7% peptide significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the WHC of the samples, while a further increase in the peptide concentration decreased the WHC. Textural analysis showed that the sample containing 0.5% peptide had the highest firmness (856.36 ± 11.76 g) and consistency (2947.66 ± 11.97 gs). Addition of 0.5% peptide also enhanced ACE inhibitory activity and amino acid content. In conclusion, silkworm pupae peptide enhanced the acidification and textural properties of yogurt, but produced a peculiar flavor in yogurt at concentrations of >0.3%. Therefore, further studies are necessary to optimize the flavor of yogurt containing silkworm pupae peptide. Practical Applications The demand for dairy products containing bioactive peptides is high because their intake can fulfill the nutritional requirement. In this study, the effect of silkworm pupae peptide on the qualities of dairy products was studied. Addition silkworm pupae peptide could enhance acidification and reduce the fermentation time. Addition of 0.5% silkworm pupae peptide could enhanced ACE inhibitory activity and amino acid content. Although addition of silkworm pupae peptide had beneficial effects on the firmness, consistency, and cohesiveness of yogurt, it reduced the overall flavor. The results are useful for the yogurt industry in improving production efficiency and product quality.
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In view of industrial fractionation processes for edible insects, supercritical CO2 extraction of Tenebrio molitor larval oil was studied. The influence of extraction parameters on defatting of larvae was investigated using a full factorial design. Furthermore, the effect of operating conditions on extraction kinetics, fatty acid composition, and acidity of mealworm oil was evaluated. Pressure, time, and their interaction showed the most significant effects on defatting. Maximal defatting (95%) was achieved at 400/250 bar, 45°C, and 105 min. Extraction kinetics revealed that incrementing pressure increased the solubility of mealworm oil in SC–CO2 enabling faster extraction. Extracted oils contained 72% unsaturated fatty acids, and oleic acid accounted for 42% of total FAME. Oil composition and acidity were found to be affected by extraction parameters showing the highest amount of low molecular and free fatty acids after slow extraction at 250 bar and 65°C. Use of selective extraction conditions enabled simple time‐dependent fractionation and deacidification yielding fractions with tailored fatty acid profiles or facilitating subsequent refining processes, respectively. Defatting performance and oil composition were not substantially different when using hexane as a solvent in comparison to SC–CO2. Mealworm larvae can be effectively defatted using SC–CO2 at high pressure and moderate temperature, yielding two valuable fractions: oil‐ and protein‐rich residue. Practical applications: Mealworm larvae are promising candidates for the inclusion of edible insects in the western food and feed industry due to modest breeding demands, existing rearing knowledge, and high contents of protein and fat. The development of fractionation processes for the production of standardized insect bulk materials and incorporation in feed or food in analogy to soy and other plant raw materials rich in fat and protein will help gain industrial applicability and enhance consumer acceptance. Depending on the processing approach, a defatting step is crucial prior to protein extraction. The results of this study indicate that SC–CO2 extraction is suitable for achieving a high yield of solvent‐free oil and a protein‐enriched, solvent‐free residue at low extraction temperatures. Both fractions can be further refined and purified in order to achieve valuable intermediates for food and feed applications. The SC–CO2 extraction of mealworms yielded highly unsaturated oil and a defatted residue containing protein and chitin. The operating parameters clearly affected the defatting performance and the extraction rate.
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The functional properties of soluble nano-sized soy protein aggregates produced by pH treatment followed by ultrasonication (US) were investigated. Commercial soy protein isolate (SPI) was subjected to pH treatment under acidic (pH 2–4) or alkaline (pH 9–12) conditions followed by US before neutralizing to pH 7. The pH treatment at pH 12 followed by sonication for 5 min (pH12 + US5) was the most effective in reducing the sizes and turbidity of soluble protein aggregates, enhancing protein solubility and surface hydrophobicity, and modifying protein subunits. The pH12 + US5 treated SPI increased protein solubility from 1.49% for the control to 82.73%, producing soluble protein aggregates with average size of 22 nm. SPI nanoemulsions prepared using pH12 + US5 treated protein and canola oil had particle sizes in the range of 70–117 nm. Nanoemulsions and nanocomplexes (no oil) prepared with the SPI nano-aggregates provided good protection of vitamin D3 against UV exposure (180 min), with retention of 73.5 and 70.7%, respectively, compared to 5.2% in the control. This new treatment may offer an effective method to modify the functional properties of commercial SPI for use as building blocks for preparing nanoparticles and nano-structures to protect and deliver bioactive compounds.
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Edible insects, a traditional food all over the world, are highly nutritious with high fat, protein and mineral contents depending on the species and thus represent a noteworthy alternative food and feed source and a potential substitute e. g. for fishmeal in feed formulae. Research is required to develop and automatize cost-effective, energy-efficient and microbially safe rearing, harvest and post harvest processing technologies as well as sanitation procedures to ensure food and feed safety and produce safe insect products at a reasonable price on an industrial scale especially in comparison to meat products. In addition, consumer acceptance needs to be established. Potential and challenges along the production chain of insects for food and feed are discussed based on published data and future research needs are derived from recent literature.Industrial relevance textWith the increasing demand in alternative protein sources world-wide, insects represent an innovative food and feed source rich in high quality protein as well as other beneficial nutritional ingredients such as fat, minerals and vitamins. Despite traditional knowledge about insects and their harvest in the wild, for the industrial mass production of safe insects and insect products for consumption and for processing into food and feed, the development of rearing, harvest as well as post-harvest technologies is required.
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The goal of this contribution was to determine the impact of HIUS on the thermal aggregation, gelation, foaming and emulsifying properties of egg white (EW) proteins.EW solutions were sonicated for 20 min using an ultrasonic processor Vibra Cell Sonics, model VCX 750 (frequency: 20 kHz; amplitude: 20%). The following properties were determined: particle size distribution by light scattering, the dynamics of gelation upon time and temperature (70, 75, 80 and 85 °C), surface hydrophobicity, concentration of sulfhydryl (SH) groups, denaturation temperatures (Tpeak), bulk viscosity, foaming by a whipping method and emulsifying properties by the use of a vertical scan analyzer and droplet size determinations. In order to study aggregation, EW solutions were heated in a dry bath at 70, 75, 80 and 85 °C for different periods of time from 0 to 30 min and analyzed by static light scattering and confocal laser scanning microscopy.Surface hydrophobicity increased after sonication, but total SH content was not affected. The apparent viscosity decreased, which seemed to affect the stability of foams prepared with sonicated protein. Emulsions from sonicated samples resulted more stable to creaming and flocculation. The gelation temperature of EW did not vary substantially after sonication as well as the gelation properties studied. The rate of formation of aggregates upon heating was accelerated by sonication. This fact could be attributed to the increase in hydrophobicity of the protein. Thus, HIUS could allow improving some functional properties of EW.
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Eri silkworm (Samia ricinii) is a traditional source of food in northeast India, where it is grown primarily for silk and food uses. Nutrient analysis showed that the proximate composition of eri silkworm prepupae and pupae grown on either castor or tapioca were comparable and it was a good source of protein (16 g%), fat (8 g%) and minerals. The amino acid scores of eri prepupae and pupae protein were 99 and 100, respectively, with leucine as the limiting amino acid in both cases. Net protein utilisation (NPU) of prepupae and pupae was 41 as compared to 62 in casein. Protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) was 86. The high protein content in the defatted eri silkworm meal (75%) with 44% total essential amino acids makes it an ideal candidate for preparing protein concentrate isolates with enhanced protein quality that can be used in animal nutrition.Highlights► Eri silkworm is a good source of protein (16 g%), fat (8 g%) and minerals. ► Amino acid score of eri silkworm was 99 with leucine as the limiting amino acid. ► Net protein utilisation (NPU) of eri silkworm was 41 with PDCAAS of 86. ► Defatted eri silkworm meal is an ideal candidate for preparing protein concentrate.
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In this study, the effects of alcohol defatting using ethanol, methanol, and non-alcoholic aqueous extraction methods on the yield, purity, and functionality of soy protein isolates were investigated. Soy protein extraction conditions were also modified (heat and mild acidic treatment before protein alkaline extraction, heat isoelectric precipitation, and non-neutral resolubilization of proteins), and the effects on the isolate properties were evaluated. Results showed that ethanol and aqueous extraction were potential alternatives to hexane. The soy protein isolates (SPI) obtained from these samples had protein contents of more than 90% and 84%, respectively, with functional properties comparable to those of SPI prepared from hexane defatted meal. Major differences were a decrease in the emulsifying activity properties of the SPIs resulting from the alternative defatting techniques, with, however, improved emulsion stability and foaming properties for the aqueous extracted SPIs. A marked decrease in the fat-holding capacity of the SPI made from methanol defatted meal was also noted. Modifying the protein isolation procedure also greatly influenced the functional properties of soy protein isolates. The results of the present investigation demonstrate that soy processing conditions can be modified to obtain soy proteins ingredients with specific functional properties.
Article
In this work, ultrasound-assisted dynamic extraction (UADE) is proposed. The dynamic approach allows go-and-backward circulation of solvent through the sample subjected to the action of ultrasound. The extraction efficiency of hexane, isopropanol, a hexane–isopropanol mixture as well as the comparison between static extraction and flow-through extraction with or without ultrasound were evaluated. The effects of ultrasonic power, extraction temperature, time and extractant flow rate on the yield of oil from chickpea were also investigated. Results showed that solvent type significantly influenced extraction efficiency, the combination of hexane and isopropanol obtained the highest oil yield. Dynamic system and ultrasonication dramatically enhanced the extraction of oil. Moreover, results indicated that 20 min was sufficient for UADE with lower cost to obtain higher extraction yields (10.45% and 2.06% higher) than those by 4 h conventional solvent extraction (CSE) and 30 min ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for oil. Gas chromatography analysis of chickpea oil indicated that the oil was enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids and few changes in fatty acid composition occurred in ultrasonicated oil.
Article
This research focused on the use of high-power ultrasound prior to soy protein extraction to simultaneously enhance protein and sugar release in the extract. Defatted soy flakes dispersed in water were sonicated for 15, 30, 60 and 120 s using a bench-scale ultrasound unit. The ultrasonic amplitudes used were: 0, 21, 42, 63 and 84 μmpp (peak-to-peak). The respective power densities were 0.30, 0.87, 1.53 and 2.56 W/ml. Scanning electron micrographs of sonicated samples showed the structural disruption of soy flakes. The particle size decreased nearly 10-fold following ultrasonic treatment at high amplitudes. Sonication at high amplitude for 120 s gave the highest increase in total sugar released (50%) and protein yield (46%) when compared with non-sonicated samples (control). Ultrasonic pretreatment was also carried out with and without cooling for temperature moderation. The heat generated during sonication had no significant effect on protein and sugar release from defatted soy flakes. The use of ultrasound can significantly improve protein yield and reduce the overall cost of producing soy protein from flakes.
Article
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ultrasound treatment on physical properties of soy proteins. For this purpose, soy protein isolates (SPI) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) were treated with ultrasound 20 kHz probe and ultrasound baths (40 and 500 kHz) system. In this study ultrasound treatment affected significant changes in texture of model systems prepared with soy protein concentrates, that gelled during ultrasound treatment with probe 20 and 40 kHz bath for 15 min. Model system prepared with SPI creamed during ultrasound treatment with probe 20 kHz for 15 min. Treatment with 20 kHz probe ultrasound lead to significant changes in conductivity, increased solubility for SPC, significantly increased specific surface area that is of interest in food texture and increased values of emulsion activity index. Weight mean diameter and volume–surface average diameter decreased significantly for all samples and all treatments. Flowing behaviour of SPI and SPC model systems has been greater influenced by ultrasound treatment. There was no improvement in foaming and emulsifying properties of soy protein model systems after 500 kHz bath treatment.
Article
A variety of invertebrates are commonly fed to insectivorous animals by both zoos and hobbyists, but information as to the nutrient composition of most commercially raised species is limited. Adult house crickets, house cricket nymphs (Acheta domesticus), superworms (Zophobas morio larvae), giant mealworm larvae, mealworm larvae and adult mealworms (Tenebrio molitor), waxworm larvae (Galleria mellonella), and silkworm larvae (Bombyx mori) were analyzed for moisture, crude protein, crude fat, ash, acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), minerals, amino acids, fatty acids, and vitamins. Earthworms (Lumbricus terresstris) were analyzed for moisture, crude protein, crude fat, ash, ADF, NDF, minerals, amino acids, and vitamins A and D3. Proximate analyses were variable, with wide ranges found for moisture (57.9–83.6%), crude protein (9.3–23.7%), crude fat (1.6–24.9%), ADF (0.1–7.4%), NDF (0.0–11.5%), and ash (0.6–1.2%). Energy content ranged from a low of 674 kcal/kg for silkworms to 2,741 kcal/kg for waxworms.Using an amino acid scoring pattern for rats, the first limiting amino acid for all invertebrates tested was the total sulfur amino acid methionine+cystine. Deficiencies by nutrient (% of samples deficient vs. NRC requirements for rats on a dry matter (DM) basis) were as follows: calcium (100%), vitamin D3 (100%), vitamin A (89%), vitamin B12 (75%), thiamin (63%), vitamin E (50%), iodine (44%), manganese (22%), methionine-cystine (22%), and sodium (11%). Deficiencies by invertebrate species (number of nutrients deficient vs. the NRC requirements for rats on a DM basis) were as follows: waxworms (9), superworms (8), giant mealworm larvae (7), adult mealworms (6), mealworm larvae (5), adult house crickets (4), house cricket nymphs (4), silkworms (4), and earthworms (4). These data provide a basis for determining nutrient intake of captive insectivores, and will aid in the development of gut-loading diets to provide captive insectivorous animals with appropriate levels of necessary nutrients.
In: Comparative quantification of health risks
  • S M Fishman
  • L E Caulfield
  • M De Onis
  • M Blossner
  • A A Hyder
  • L Mullany
  • R E Black
Fishman, S. M., Caulfield, L. E., de Onis, M., Blossner, M., Hyder, A. A., Mullany, L., and Black, R. E. (2002) Childhood and maternal undernutrition. In: Comparative quantification of health risks. Ezzati, M., A. D. Lopez, A. Rodgers, and C. J. L. Murray, (eds), World Health Organization, Switzerland, pp. 39-161.