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Understanding the Meaning of Khalifah fil ardhi in the Quran and Implications on Education

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What is the meaning of khalifah fit ardhi in the Quran? Who is he? Does he refer to humans in general or a particular human since holds the highest religious office? The Tafseer cleric interprets the khalifah fit ardhi as human in general, while the Sufi cleric interprets it as God's representative on earth. Likewise, other terms relating to this term in verse 30-34 verses of QS 2/Al-Baqarah are interpreted differently by them. The study aimed to understand the meaning of khalifah fil ardhi and other terms associated with it in the Qur'an and its implications for education. The research method is the simplified Tafsir Maudhu 'i, i.e "Thematic Digital Quran". This method seeks to understand the meaning of religion by taking messages of verses that have the same term and other terms associated with it. Based on "Thematic Digital Quran" the study found, the meaning of khalifah fil ardhi is Apostle, not human in general. When commanded to prostrate to the Apostle, all angels are willing to prostrate while the devil reluctant to prostrate because of arrogance. This finding contains pedagogical implications that the main meaning of faith to His angels is to emulate the angels who are willing to obey the Apostle, not to imitate the devil who refused to prostrate because of arrogance.
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Understanding the Meaning of
Khalifah fil ardhi
in the Quran and
Implications on Education
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1st UPI International Geography Seminar 2017 IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 145 (2018) 012121 doi :10.1088/1755-1315/145/1/012121
Understanding the Meaning of Khalifah fil ardhi in the Quran
and Implications on Education
M Rahmat* and Fahrudin
Department of General Education, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Jl. Dr.
Setiabudhi 229, Bandung 40154, Indonesia
*munawarrahmat.pai@upi.edu
Abstract. What is the meaning of khalifah fil ardhi in the Quran? Who is he? Does he refer to
humans in general or a particular human since holds the highest religious office? The Tafseer
cleric interprets the khalifah fil ardhi as human in general, while the Sufi cleric interprets it as
God's representative on earth. Likewise, other terms relating to this term in verse 30 -34 verses
of QS 2/Al-Baqarah are interpreted differently by them. The study aimed to understand the
meaning of khalifah fil ardhi and other terms associated with it in the Qur'an and its
implications for education. The research method is the simplified Tafsir Maudhu`i, i.e
"Thematic Digital Quran". This method seeks to understand the meaning of religion by taking
messages of verses that have the same term and other terms associated with it. Based on
"Thematic Digital Quran" the study found, the meaning of khalifah fil ardhi is Apostle, not
human in general. When commanded to prostrate to the Apostle, all angels are willing to
prostrate while the devil reluctant to prostrate because of arrogance. This finding contains
pedagogical implications that the main meaning of faith to His angels is to emulate the angels
who are willing to obey the Apostle, not to imitate the devil who refused to prostrate because
of arrogance.
1. Introduction
What is the meaning of khalifah fil ardhi in the Quran? Who is the khalifah fil ardhi? Does the
khalifah fil ardhi refer to man in general or to a particular human being who holds the highest religious
office? Tafseer and Sufi cleric differ on the meaning of khalifah fil ardhi. Tafseer cleric tend to
interpret khalifah fil ardhi as human in general [1, 2]. Human intent, here is Prophet Adam and his
grandchildren as earth's controllers, administrative God on earth [3-5]. It mentions, among them, there
are Prophets, Apostles, Guardians, Shiddiqin (people who witness the truth), pious people, and
worshipers; while Sufi cleric interpret that term as God's representative on earth [6].
The meaning of this Caliph more narrowed by the Islamism as Daulah Islamiyah (Islamic
Government), whereas they live in a plural state of the Republic of Indonesia [7]. These Islamism,
borrowing Arkoun's terms, have made the Quran inscribed (not the Qur'an from the Prophet's oral) to a
closed political state ideology, by contradicting believers/Moslems versus infidel/apostates, when it
should be open because of the ijtihadiyah nature. In the historical context, Daulah Islamiyah is
actually very varied [8]. This concept (Daulah Islamiyah) should be distinguished from the Divine
Daula (God's Government). The prophet Adam in the historical reality is a caliph who submits to the
Divine Shari'ah. This divine sovereignty continues until the following Prophets: Noah, Abraham,
Dawud, Sulayman, Isa, until Mohammed. That is what the majority of Muslims believe, where they
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have built what is called the divine deity [9]. Even Moslem educators, such as Qutb formulate the goal
of Islamic education in order to become a servant of Allah and His Chalif on the earth [10]. The
purpose of education, man as a servant of God who is given the task of worshiping Him and doing
well as God has done well to them [11]. As for His Chalif on earth because humans are given the
power and responsibility to prosper from the earth in accordance of the will of Allah which has been
declared at the beginning of human creation.
The question is whether the meaning of the khalifah fil ardhi so precise? Likewise, other terms
relating to the term of khalifah fil ardhi in verse 30-34 of QS 2/Al-Baqarah, such as the meaning of al-
asma`a kullaha (the names to all things) in the phrase " And He taught Adam al-asma`a kullaha; and
the meaning of usjudu in the phrase usjudu li adama fasajadu illa iblis ("Bow down to Adam" and
they bowed down. Not so Iblis.) Interpreted differently by Tafseer and Sufi cleric. What is the
meaning of khalifah fil ardhi and other terms related to it based on the method/approach of "Thematic
Digital Quran"? The study aims to understand the meaning of khalifah fil ardhi and other terms
associated with it in the Qur'an based on the method/approach of "Thematic Digital Quran" and its
implications for education.
2. Methods
The Quran is understood by the Tafseer cleric by using two methods, bil-ma`tsur or bil-manqul and
bil-ro`yi. The commentary on bil-ma`tsur is the Prophet's explanation of a religious term in the Qur'an.
This interpretation is the most correct. However, unfortunately very little. The Tafsir cleric then
expanded the tafsir bil-ma`tsur Shahabi (the Prophet's companions explanation). The bil-manqul
interpretation as a method of interpretation by taking references to the Qur'an, the hadith, and quotes
of Shahabi and Tabi`in (disciples of the Prophet's Companions) [12, 13]. But the Shahabi and Tabi`in
keep doing ijtihad (explaining The Quran with reason). They are ijtihad as compulsion because the
Prophet has died. But tafsir bil-ma`tsur Shahabi contains weakness [14]. Four weaknesses of this
interpretation: first, there are many narrations inserted by Jews and Christians with the aim of
corrupting Islam; second, found infiltration by streams that are considered distorted; thirdly, the
mixing of true stories with the weak; and fourthly, there are many unanswered reports of Isra’iliyat
(Jews and Christians). Finally, the Tafseer cleric developed the bil-ro’yi tafseer by making mutually
agreed rules [13, 15]. This method of interpretation can only be implemented by the Tafseer cleric.
This study uses the method/approach of "Thematic Digital Quran," a kind of maudhu`i (thematic)
method developed by Al-Qarafi [16]. Although this method is easier but still tight. Al-Qarafi sets out
three standards for interpreting religious terms in the Qur'an, namely that the meaning for a term must
be: (1) in accordance with the linguistic sense of the community tradition from the time of the Prophet
Muhammad; (2) in accordance with the language semantics; and (3) seeking to find meaning that is
believed to be in accordance with God's will. For general students, this difficulty can be overcome by
using The Translation of The Quran in Digital Quran version 3.1. [17]. As for the terms that need to
use the method/approach of "Thematic Digital Quran" these are primarily religious subjects (issues of
faith and worship). The steps of implementation of this method/approach as follows:
Click the Digital Quran version 3.1 folder [18]
Click the LOVE file (green color)
Find the desired terms, can Arabic or Indonesian (Latin alphabet). For example, the term khalifah.
How, click search (Arabic), then write the khalifah by clicking the letters kho (خ), lam (ل), ya (ي),
fa (ف), and ta marbuthoh (ة). You will appear on screen (below) term khalifah ( ي ﻒ ة خ = 2 ;
clicks also translation of The Quran by: Click search (Ind/Eng), then type khalifah, it will appear
on screen (under) term khalifah = 5 items. The term khalifah (as well as other terms) in Indonesia
is more because it is a direct translation of the term of khalifah, as well as its derivatives (khola`if
and istakhlafa).
To summarize the meaning to a term to remember: (1) The Qur'an is a straightforward religious
book, "the guidance of entering the Last Day safely and happily, not speaking to the world; and
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(2) it is sometimes necessary to review the preceding verses or later; and sometimes also needs to
be examined also other terms that can further reinforce the meaning of a term.
3. Results and Discussion
The term khalifah with all its seriates consists of 6 verses. With the help of the implementation table of
the method/ approach of "Thematic Digital Quran," the term khalifah fil ardhi has the following
meaning. We recommend that the text of the Qur'anic verse and its translation be all cited. However,
for general students may be cited translation only.
Table 1. The meaning of khalifah fil ardhi based on “Thematic Digital Quran” method/approach
No.
QS ...
verse ...
Message paragraph
Tentative
conclusions
1
2:30
1. The Lord delivered His
plan to the angels, who
will always make "one"
Khalifah fil ardhi;
2. Angels raised objections
to why the caliph is from
among humans;
3. The reason, people
always make damage
and spill blood;
4. The angel suggested that
the caliph (one) from
among the angels, God
knew what angels do not
know.
Khalifah fil ardhi has
a high position. This
position is only
worthy of being
carried by people who
always praise God and
sanctify Him; Not
worthy of being
carried by people who
like to make damage
and sprinkle blood.
Therefore, the angels
objected to why God
would call his caliph a
human being. It
should be an angel.
However, God asserts.
He knew what the
angels do not know.
2
6:165
1. God has made the
Khalifah fil ardhi.
2. God elevates some
degree of man over
the other half; as for
the purpose of a test of
faith.
God has made man his
choice as Caliph on
earth.
3
7:129
1. Followers of the
Prophet Moses felt the
suffering of the
oppressed Pharaoh
either before or after
the coming of Prophet
Moses.
2. The prophet Moses
prayed "May Allah
destroys your enemies
To remove the
suffering of his people
Moses prayed "May
Allah destroys your
enemies and makes
you Caliph on earth.
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and makes you
khalifah fil ardhi."
4
27:62
1. Allah is the one who
permits the prayer and
the removal of distress
2. Allah is also the one
who makes someone as
khalifah fil ardhi
Allah is the one who
makes a person as the
Caliph on earth, as
Allah prefers the
prayer of those who
pray to Him.
5
35:39
1. Allah has made the
Caliphs on earth.
2. The heathen is the one
who harms himself.
Allah has made the
Caliphs on earth. As
for those who
disbelieve (reject His
caliph) then their
disbelief only adds to
the wrath of God.
6
38:26
1. God made the Prophet
David as khalifah fil
ardhi
2. The Prophet David was
commanded by God to
make a just decision
3. Prophet David is
forbidden to follow the
passions, for it will
lead him astray from
the way of Allah.
Prophet David as
khalifah fil ardhi
From 6 verses about the term khalifah fil ardhi in the above table, the most obvious and detailed
verse explaining the meaning to this term is QS 2/Al-Baqarah verses 30-34. These verses describe
three interrelated terms, namely the khalifah fil ardhi, angels, and iblis (demons). The meaning of
khalifah fil ardhi becomes clear and gambling by examining the term's angels and demons. Verse 30 is
clear: (1) God will always appoint a person as His Chalif from the human race; (2) the angels argue
the character of the khalifah fil ardhi should always celebrate praising God and sanctifying Him; (3)
the angels watch, not predict (because this verse uses continuous tenses), that human nature is bad.
Thus the Prophet Adam was not the first man but the first Prophet/Apostle. From verse 30 and the
following verses will be found the most appropriate meaning for the khalifah fil ardhi is Apostle; (4)
the angels propose that one of them be made khalifah fil ardhi, because angels have a good character;
and (5) the Lord asserts that He knows what the angels do not know. This sentence implies: (a) it is
true that the character of the khalifah fil ardhi should be good. However, not quite well, the khalifah fil
ardhi must master the science of religion as shirothol mustaqim (straight path), as described in verses
31-34; (b) khalifah fil ardhi in the sense of Apostle must be adhered to and imitated by humans, jinns,
and angels. Man can be seen by angels, jinn, and humans (so that his commandments and his example
can be understood and seen by angels, jinns, and humans); while angels can only be seen by angels
again, cannot be seen by man; and (c) because the angel has a good character in the future there is one
of the angels whom God made the Apostle, the Messenger to raise a man to be the Prophet and the
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Apostle, the angel Gabriel. Thus the khalifah fil ardhi interpreted by human in general, as the views of
some commentators [1, 2], especially interpreted Daulah Islamiyah, as the Islamism view is not
appropriate [7-9].
Verse 31 explains, Prophet Adam (as the first Chalif/Apostle) was taught by God al-asma`a
kullaha (true religious knowledge). The commentators quote Ibn Abbas and Ibn Mas'ud on the
meaning of al-asma`a kullaha, i.e the names for all things, both large and small. Ibn Abbas added that
Allah taught Adam the names to all things, including the names of the containers and whips, to the
large bowls and tools for milking, among others in Tafsir Ibn Mas'ud [3], Tafsir Ibn Kathir [5], Tafsir
Ath-Thabari [19], and Tafsir Fi Zhilalil Quran [20]. The meaning of al-asma`a kullaha is the names of
Allah and the science of the Caliphate, which Allah taught by inspiration either gradually or
simultaneously [21]. Humans have a number of potentials and make it happen in real life. It is an
endless process, an unending miracle [2]. If it is associated with the altitude of the khalifah fil ardhi in
verse 30, the explanation of Al-Maraghi is more correct. However, it must be associated with the
duties of the Caliphate in the apostolic sense, not the Caliphate in the sense of a world leader. That is,
Prophet Adam (also the Prophets and Apostles after him) is always taught al-asma`a kullaha, the
science of the straight path to God. The accuracy of this meaning with regard to the angels is
apparently not knowing al-asma`a kullaha this (verses 32-33). The 34th verse, the angels are
commanded to bow to Adam (Prophet Adam as Caliph, not Adam as human). Of course, the more
proper meaning of prostration is prostration in the sense of obedience, not prostration in the sense of
worship. That is, the angels are commanded to obey the Apostle. All angels bows down. However, the
devil refuses to prostrate because he is arrogant and feels better (than khalifah fil ardhi/Apostle). There
are four other verses similar to QS 2/Al-Baqarah verse 34, namely QS 7/Al-A`raf verse 11, QS 17/Al-
Isra verse 61, QS 18/Al-Kahfi verse 50, and QS 20/Thaha verse 116 [18].
4. Conclusions
From the study of the term khalifah fil ardhi associated with the angelic and devil terms in QS 2/Al-
Baqarah verses 30-34 and other verses it can be concluded that khalifah fil ardhi is Apostle, not human
in general. When ordered to prostrate to khalifah fil ardhi all angels willing to prostrate. The meaning
of prostration here is not worship but obeys the Apostle. The devil refuses to prostrate. He is arrogant
and feels better than khalifah fil ardhi/Apostle. QS 2/Al-Baqarah verses 30-34 contains pedagogical
implications regarding the need to imitate the angels who are willing to prostrate to the Apostle.
Believers need to learn from the submissive attitude of the angels towards the Apostle. Whatever God
commanded through His messengers the angels always obeyed never denied or reluctantly. Angels
always worship God, praise God, and perform duties. They never get bored in worshiping God and do
immoral. It is these attitudes that the faithful need to imitate.
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... This meaning is wrong. By using the Qur`an's digital thematic method, the true meaning of this second pillar of faith is to emulate angels who are willing to obey His Messenger [5]. The question is, how to teach this aqidah correctly with a pleasant method? ...
... temporarily to interpret it using the social hermeneutics approach [9]. To develop teaching materials (about the Quranic story) used the thematic digital Quran approach as done by Rahmat and Fahrudin when developing the meaning of the Khalifah fil ardhi [5]. Yahya and Rahmat when developing the meaning of taqwa (fear to Allah) [10], also Rahmat and Yahya when developing the meaning of Mu`min (believe in God) and kafir (infidel) [11]. ...
... Muslims, in particular, must strive to adhere to and advance God's will by establishing a society that reflects human dignity and justice. Rahmat and Fahrudin (2018) explained that Prophet Adam AS and his grandchildren act as earth's controllers, and it was also mentioned that among them, there are Prophets, Apostles, Guardians, Siddiqin (people who witness the truth), pious people, and worshipers; these people act as God's representative on earth. "I will create a vicegerent on earth." ...
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... Muslims, in particular, must strive to adhere to and advance God's will by establishing a society that reflects human dignity and justice. Rahmat and Fahrudin (2018) explained that Prophet Adam AS and his grandchildren act as earth's controllers, and it was also mentioned that among them, there are Prophets, Apostles, Guardians, Siddiqin (people who witness the truth), pious people, and worshipers; these people act as God's representative on earth. "I will create a vicegerent on earth." ...
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... The fourth column, message of verse, just write the operational sentence from the verse translation; and the fifth column, temporary conclusions, is just a sentence that is easier to understand from the verse message. It draw the (general) conclusions about the meaning of patients from all temporary conclusions [13]. ...
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... The fourth column, message of verse, just write the operational sentence from the verse translation and the fifth column, temporary conclusions, is just a sentence that is easier to understand from the verse message. It draws the (general) conclusions about the meaning of patients from all temporary conclusions [6]. ...
Abdurrahman bin and Ishaq Alu Syaikh
  • Abdullah Bin
  • Muhammad Bin
Utopia Khilāfah Islāmiyyah: Studi Tafsir Politik Mohammed Arkoun Jurnal THEOLOGIA (Fakultas Ushuluddin dan Humaniora UIN Walisongo Semarang
  • Muhammad Muqtada
  • Rikza
Sistem Pendidikan Islam. Bandung: PT Al-Ma`arif
  • Muhammad Quthb
Quthb, Muhammad (1990). Sistem Pendidikan Islam. Bandung: PT Al-Ma`arif.
Implementasi Metode/pendekatan Al-Quran Digital secara Tematik untuk Memahami Makna Beriman kepada Para Malaikat
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