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ULTRASOUND BIOMICROSCOPIC ASSESSMENT OF ANGLES BEFORE AND AFTER LASER PERIPHERAL IRIDOTOMY IN PRIMARY ANGLE CLOSURE AND PRIMARY ANGLE CLOSURE GLAUCOMA PATIENTS

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To compare visual acuity and intraocular pressure outcomes 3 years after treatment of acute angle closure glaucoma (AACG) by operative peripheral iridectomy (PI) or Nd:YAG laser iridotomy (YAG PI). A prospective study of consecutive patients presenting to one ophthalmology department with uniocular AACG during a 2 year period. Following informed consent patients were randomised to bilateral PI or bilateral YAG PI. Three years after treatment the mean Snellen visual acuity converted to logMAR scores of the two groups was compared using the unpaired Student's t test. The number of patients with normal intraocular pressure with no further treatment in each group was compared using the chi 2 test with Yates's correction. 21 patients underwent bilateral PI and 27 bilateral YAG PI. Three years after treatment visual acuity was 0.30 (SD 0.28) log MAR units for PI eyes and 0.57 (0.67) logMAR units for YAG PI eyes (p = 0.08, NS). 15 (70.4%) PI eyes and 19 (71.8%) YAG PI eyes had an intraocular pressure less than 21 mm Hg with no further treatment (NS). There was no significant difference in visual acuity or intraocular pressure control 3 years after treatment of AACG with PI or YAG PI.
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To prospectively evaluate by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and gonioscopy the anterior chamber angle widening following laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in eyes with early chronic primary angle closure glaucoma (CACG). A total of 55 eyes of 55 patients with CACG presenting with less than 180 degrees peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS) were enrolled in the study. Angles were assessed by gonioscopy (Shaffer's grading) and UBM, before and 4 weeks after LPI. The angle opening distance at 250 and 500 microm from the scleral spur (AOD 250 and AOD 500) was computed. Results were analysed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. In the quadrant with LPI, the mean gonioscopy grade increased significantly from 0.45 to 1.45 (P<0.001) and the mean AOD 250 and AOD 500 increased from 38.5+/-25.9 to 83.5+/-48.4 microm (P<0.001) and 110.2+/-80.9 to 170.6+/-83.4 microm (P<0.001), respectively. The angles widened significantly in the opposite quadrant on UBM (AOD 250: 48.8+/-31.5-82.7+/-43.9 microm, P<0.001; AOD 500:117.2+/-65.5-172.2+/-81.7 microm; P<0.001), but the median gonioscopy grade remained unchanged. LPI significantly widened the anterior chamber angle in the quadrant with LPI and the quadrant furthest away in patients of CACG with established glaucomatous damage. This change was much better appreciated by the UBM than gonioscopy.
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Abstract The aim was to elucidate whether goniodysgenesis is more frequently observed in elderly patients with glaucoma, and furthermore, which signs of goniodysgenesis are of importance and most unanimously detected. Thus, 3 examiners evaluated 21 glaucoma patients and 19 non-glaucoma patients in a masked fashion. None of the patients had a First-degree heredity. Gonioscopy, slit-lamp examination and measurements of the corneal and pupillary diameter were performed, in all 26 variables. Significantly (P < 0.05) more frequent in glaucoma were an increased corneal diameter, scleral overriding, hypoplasia of the pupillary seam, abnormal Schwalbe's line and an opaque pretrabecular membrane (one examiner). Less frequent were a peripupillary yellow pigment ring and pigment stars on the lens. Inter-observer variation was small regarding e.g. corneal diameter but rather large regarding e.g. the pretrabecular membrane.
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To compare the efficacy and safety of laser peripheral iridotomy with or without laser peripheral iridoplasty in the treatment of eyes with synechial primary angle-closure or primary angle-closure glaucoma. Randomized, controlled clinical trial. Consecutive patients older than 40 years with synechial primary angle-closure or primary angle closure glaucoma were recruited. Eligible patients were randomized to 1 of 2 treatment options, iridotomy or iridotomy plus iridoplasty, and were followed up for 1 year. Main outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP), peripheral anterior synechiae, corneal endothelial cell count, and complications. Seventy-seven eyes (77 patients) were randomized to the iridotomy group, and 81 eyes (81 patients) were randomized to the iridotomy plus iridoplasty group. Sixty-one patients (79.2%) in the iridotomy and 65 patients (80.2%) from the iridotomy plus iridoplasty groups completed 1 year of follow-up. There were no significant differences between the groups in the baseline data. IOP was reduced from 24.66 +/- 13.76 mm Hg to 19.03 +/- 6.21 mm Hg in the iridotomy group (P < .001) and from 27.96 +/- 13.06 mm Hg to 20.45 +/- 7.26 mm Hg in the iridotomy plus iridoplasty group (P < .001). Extent of peripheral anterior synechiae was decreased by 1 more clock-hour after iridoplasty compared with that after iridotomy in the iridotomy plus iridoplasty group (P < .001). There was no significant difference in IOP, medications, need for surgery, or visual function between groups at the 1-year visit. In eyes with synechial primary angle-closure or primary angle-closure glaucoma, both iridotomy alone or combined with iridoplasty provide a significant and equivalent reduction in IOP. There is also a possible reduction in peripheral anterior synechiae, more so in the iridoplasty group.
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Laser peripheral iridectomies were performed on both eyes of 38 patients with acute or chronic primary angle-closure glaucoma or with narrow angles capable of closure. The right eye was treated with the neodymium YAG laser (Nd:YAG) and the left eye with the argon laser. Patients were followed for a minimum of eight months. The mean number of applications to produce iris penetration was six with the Nd:YAG laser and 73 with the argon laser. Visual acuity, postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP), corneal changes, and pigment dispersion were similar in the two groups. Microhyphema was more prevalent in the Nd:YAG iridectomy group. Pupillary distortion, iritis, and late failure of patency were more frequent in the argon laser group. Nd:YAG laser iridectomies require fewer applications and produce less inflammation. This controlled study demonstrates that when properly and carefully performed, the Nd:YAG laser is at least as effective and appears to be as safe as the argon laser for performing peripheral iridectomies.
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To assess the immediate effect of laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) and mechanisms of angle closure in a population-based study of primary angle closure (PAC) suspects. Prospective interventional study. People identified as PAC suspects aged 50 to 79 years from a population-based survey in Guangzhou, China. Laser peripheral iridotomy was performed in 1 randomly selected eye. Examinations were carried out before and 2 weeks after the intervention. Intraocular pressure (IOP), ultrasound biometry, optical pachymetry, and gonioscopy. A total of 72 people with bilateral suspected PAC participated in the study. Mean IOP decreased by 3 mmHg (P<0.001), but axial anterior chamber depth did not change significantly (P = 0.784) after LPI. Median limbal anterior chamber depth increased from 15% to 25% of peripheral corneal thickness (P<0.001, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Median iridotrabecular angle width increased from 0 degrees to 10 degrees in the superior quadrant and from 10 degrees to 30 degrees in the inferior quadrant (P<0.001). Nevertheless, 14 eyes (19.4%) still had 3 or more quadrants in which the posterior (usually pigmented) trabecular meshwork could not be seen after laser iridotomy. This study confirms that LPI results in a significant increase in the angle width in Chinese people with narrow angles. However, one fifth of eyes had residual angle closure after LPI. Although this report confirms that iridotomy widens the anterior chamber angle in most PAC suspects, long-term prospective studies with a larger sample size are required to determine if the risks of PAC glaucoma and other related pathologic sequelae are reduced after prophylactic LPI and to investigate the risk-to-benefit ratio before recommending widespread use of prophylactic LPI in this population.
Laser iridectomy: a controlled study comparing argon and neodymium: YAG
  • M R Moster
  • L W Schwartz
  • G L Spaeth
  • Moster
A masked slit-lamp and gonioscopy study
  • B Svedbergh
  • A Alm
  • B Amér
  • Svedbergh