ResearchPDF Available

Abstract

When most of us think of calories, we think of how fattening a food is. In dietary terms, calories are the amount of energy that a food provides. If we consistently take in more energy than we need, we will gain weight. If we take in too little energy, we will lose weight, fat, and eventually muscle mass. The definition of a calorie is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram (g) of water through 1° Celsius. The type and amount of food we eat determine how many calories we consume. For many people on a weight-loss diet, the number of calories in a food is a deciding factor in choosing whether or not to eat it. How and when we eat can also make a difference, as the body uses energy differently throughout the day. Our body's energy use will depend on how active we are, how efficiently our body uses the energy, and our age. According to the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, women are likely to need between 1,600 and 2,400 calories a day, and men from 2,000 to 3,000. However, this depends on their age, size, height, lifestyle, overall health, and activity level. Fast facts on calorie intake and use • Recommended calorie intake depends on factors such as age, size, height, sex, lifestyle, and overall general health. • Recommended daily calorie intakes in the US are around 2,500 for men and 2,000 for women. • Eating a big breakfast could help with weight reduction and maintenance. • The brain uses around 20 percent of the energy used in the human body.
When most of us think of calories, we think of how fattening a food is. In dietary terms, calories
are the amount of energy that a food provides.
If we consistently take in more energy than we need, we will gain weight. If we take
in too little energy, we will lose weight, fat, and eventually muscle mass.
The definition of a calorie is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of
1 gram (g) of water through 1° Celsius.
The type and amount of food we eat determine how many calories we consume. For
many people on a weight-loss diet, the number of calories in a food is a deciding
factor in choosing whether or not to eat it.
How and when we eat can also make a difference, as the body uses energy differently
throughout the day. Our body's energy use will depend on how active we are, how
efficiently our body uses the energy, and our age.
According to the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, women are likely to
need between 1,600 and 2,400 calories a day, and men from 2,000 to 3,000. However,
this depends on their age, size, height, lifestyle, overall health, and activity level.
Fast facts on calorie intake and use
Recommended calorie intake depends on factors such as age, size, height, sex,
lifestyle, and overall general health.
Recommended daily calorie intakes in the US are around 2,500 for men and 2,000
for women.
Eating a big breakfast could help with weight reduction and maintenance.
The brain uses around 20 percent of the energy used in the human body.
Factors affecting ideal calorific intake include age, bone density, and muscle-fat
ratio.
A 500-calorie meal consisting of fruits and vegetables has more health benefits and
will keep you feeling full for longer than a 500-calorie snack of pop
Recommended intake
The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend a calorie intake
that ranges from 1,000 calories a day for an infant of 2 years to 3,200 for an active
male aged 16 to 18 years.
As people get older, their metabolic rate slows down.
This reduces their need for energy. From age 19 to 25 years, the recommended intake
for women is 2,000 calories a day, but after 51 years, this falls to 1,600.
Burning calories
For the human body to remain alive, it needs energy.
Around 20 percent of the energy we take in is used for brain metabolism. Most of the
rest is used in basal metabolism, the energy we need when in a resting state, for
functions such as blood circulation, digestion, and breathing.
In a cold environment, we need more energy to maintain a constant body temperature,
as our metabolism increases to produce more heat. In a warm environment, we need
less energy.
We also need mechanical energy for our skeletal muscles, to maintain posture and
move around.
Cellular respiration is the metabolic process by which cells get energy by reacting
oxygen with glucose to produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy.
How efficiently energy from respiration converts into physicalor mechanical
power depends on the type of food eaten, the type of physical energy, and whether
muscles are used aerobically or anaerobically.
In other words, we need calories to fuel bodily functions, such as breathing and
thinking, to maintain our posture, and to move around.
Tips
Here are some tips for burning energy and losing weight more effectively.
1. Eat breakfast: A protein and healthy fat breakfast can keep you full for longer and
help prevent snacking during the day.
2. Eat regular meals: This can help you burn calories more effectively and helps
prevent mindless snacking.
3. Remember your "five-a-day:" Fruits and vegetables can be a tasty snack and they
can bulk out your meals. They are high in nutrients and fiber and low in calories and
fat.
4. Eat slow-burning calories: High-fiber carbohydrates, such as legumes, and
healthy fats, such as avocado, take longer to release energy, so you will not get hungry
as quickly.
5. Exercise: This can help burn off extra calories, and it can make you feel good. A
brisk daily walk is easy for most people to do and costs nothing. Challenge yourself
with a pedometer. For people who use a wheelchair, there are exercises that can boost
heart health and strength.
6. Drink water: It is healthful, has no calories, and can fill you up. Avoid alcohol and
sodas as these can easily provide far too many calories. If you crave sweet drinks,
choose unsweetened fruit juices, or better still, get a juice maker.
7. Eat more fiber: Fiber, found in fruits, vegetables, and wholegrains, can help you
feel full and encourage healthy digestion.
8. Check the label: Some items have hidden fats or sugars. "Ten percent less fat,"
might not actually mean very much less fat, and it does not necessarily mean that you
can eat more of it or that it is really more healthful. If you are counting calories, the
label will help you keep track.
9. Use smaller plates: Research indicates that portion sizes have increased over the
last 3 decades, and this may contribute to obesity. Using a smaller plate encourages
smaller portions.
10. Slow down: Eat slowly and rest between courses or extra servings, as it can take
20 to 30 minutes for your body to realize it feels full.
11. Make a shopping list: Plan a week of healthful meals and snacks, list the
ingredients you need, and when you go grocery shopping, stick to it.
12. A little of what you fancy: Banning foods can lead to cravings and bingeing.
Spoil yourself occasionally with a favorite treat, but in smaller amounts.
13. Get enough sleep: Sleep loss affects the metabolism, and it has been linked to
weight gain.
14. Avoid eating 2 hours before bed: Eating within 2 hours of sleeping can interfere
with sleep quality and promote weight gain.
Activities
Here are some examples of activities and the calories they can help you burn in 30
minutes. The estimates are for a person weighing 125 pounds.
Activity
Calories burned
Lifting weights
90
Aqua aerobics
120
Walking at 4.5 miles an hour
150
General swimming
180
Running at 6 miles an hour
300
Computer work
41
Sleeping
19
Food choice
Keeping calorie intake within certain limits will not ensure a healthful diet, as
different foods have different effects on the body.
After consuming carbohydrates (carbs), insulin levels will rise significantly more
compared with eating fats or protein. Some carbs in particular get into the
bloodstream in the form of sugar, or glucose, much faster than others.
Refined flour is a fast carb, while legumes are slower. Slow-release carbs are better
for body weightcontrol and overall health than fast carbs.
A 500-calorie meal of fish or meat, salad, and some olive oil, followed by fruit, is
more healthful and will stave off hunger for longer than a 500-calorie snack of
popcorn with butter or toffee.
Daily needs
To work out how many calories you need, you need to know your basal metabolic rate
and an activity factor.
Basal metabolic rate
One useful way of estimating BMR is the Mifflin-St. Jeor equation:
Men: 10 x weight (kg) + 6.25 x height (cm) 5 x age (y) + 5
Women: 10 x weight (kg) + 6.25 x height (cm) 5 x age (y) 161
To calculate your BMR automatically, follow this link and enter your details into the
calculator.
Activity factor
After calculating the BMR, multiply the result with an activity factor:
Sedentary lifestyle: If you do very little or no exercise at all, your daily calorie
requirement is BMR x 1.2.
Slightly active lifestyle: If you do light exercise between one and three times a
week, your daily calorie requirement is BMR x 1.375.
Moderately active lifestyle: If you do moderate exercise three to five times a week,
your daily calorie requirement is BMR x 1.55.
Active lifestyle: If you do intensive exercise six to seven times per week, your daily
calorie requirement is BMR x 1.725.
Very active lifestyle: If you do very intensive exercise twice a day, with extra heavy
workouts, your daily calorie requirement is BMR x 1.9.
This will give a rough idea of the daily calorie intake you need to keep your body
weight where it is.
The result is still not perfect, as the equation does not take into account the ratio of
muscle to fat. A very muscular person needs more calories, even when resting.
Ideal body weight
As with calories requirements, an ideal body weight depends on several factors,
including age, sex, bone density, muscle-fat ratio, and height.
There are different ways of assessing an ideal weight.
Body mass index (BMI)
Body mass index (BMI) is one way of working out what a person should weigh. If
you know your height and weight, you can use this calculator to find out your BMI.
BMI
Definition
Below 18.5
Underweight
18.5 to 24.9
Normal weight
25-29.9
Overweight
30 or above
Obesity
However, it does not take into account muscle mass.
Imagine a top athlete who weighs 200 pounds, or 91 kilograms (kg) and is 6 feet, or 1
metre (m) and 83 centimeters (cm) tall. They may have the same BMI as an inactive
person of the same height. The athlete is not overweight, but the inactive person quite
possibly is.
Waist-hip ratio
Researchers have found that many people whose waist circumference is less than half
their height have a longer life expectancy.
People with a smaller waist to height size have been found to have a lower risk
of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and other health conditions that are related
to obesity.
An adult male who is 6 feet (183 cm) tall should have a waist that does not exceed 36
inches (91 cm).
An adult female who is 5 feet 4 inches (163 cm) tall should have a waist that does not
exceed 32 inches (81 cm).
To measure the waist, measure half-way between the lower rib and the pelvic bone at
the hip.
This measurement may be more accurate than BMI at determining a healthy weight.
However, it is limited as it does not properly measure an individual's total body fat
percentage, or muscle-to-fat ratio.
References
Appendix 2. Estimated calorie needs per day, by age, sex, and physical activity level. (2015).
Retrieved from https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/appendix-2/
Benton, D. (2015, June 7). Portion size: What we know and what we need to know. Critical Reviews
in Food Science and Nutrition, 55(7), 988-1004. Retrieved
from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4337741/
BMR calculator. (n.d). Retrieved from http://www.myfitnesspal.com/tools/bmr-calculator
Calculate your body mass index. (n.d.). Retrieved
from https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/educational/lose_wt/BMI/bmicalc.htm
Calories burned in 30 minutes for people of three different weights. (2017, March 17). Retrieved
from https://www.health.harvard.edu/diet-and-weight-loss/calories-burned-in-30-minutes-of-leisure-
and-routine-activities
European Society of Endocrinology. (2017, May 22). Sleep loss affects your waistline [Press
release]. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/05/170522081109.htm
Fitness advice for wheelchair users. (2016, June 28). Retrieved
from https://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/Disability/Pages/fitness-for-wheelchair-users.aspx
Sharp, D. E., Sobal, J., & Wansink, B. (2014, September 16). Using plate mapping to examine
portion size and plate composition for large and small divided plates. Eating Behavior, 15(4), 658-
663. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4441217/
12 tips to help you lose weight on the 12-week plan. (2016, December 5). Retrieved
from https://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/weight-loss-guide/Pages/successful-diet-tips.aspx
... Aside from other health claims and nutritional content, calorie information comprises of related information that display the amount of energy in kilocalories (kcal) available within food and drinks. It is clarified by Ismail (2018) that if we constantly ingest extra energy than we required, one will suffer weight expansion; meanwhile if less energy is being consumed, fat, weight, and eventually muscle mass can be lost. ...
... Respectively, everyone has a different need of energy as the usage of energy would vary depending on several factors such as age, size, height, sex, lifestyle, and overall general health (Ismail, 2018). With more people engaging themselves in eating out-of-home meals, they tend to underestimate the calorie content of meals, especially large meals (Rettner, 2013). ...
... Someone necessity to lose weight should be reduce calories intake (Poobalan et al., 2008). • It should be far from snacks than are high in fat and carbohydrate, eating fresh fruit and vegetable instead of it (Ismail, 2018). • Can be prevent cancer by eating fruit and vegetable at least five portion or 400g daily (American Heart Association, 2015). ...
... • Sleep: Everyone should be have a healthy sleep because obesity positively related with lack of sleep. • Declined sleep duration especially for children and adolescents leads to development overweight and obesity (Ismail, 2018;Hanlon et al., 2019). • Junk foods should be avoided that are high in calories in a small amount of food. ...
Article
When a person overweight and obese, it means he is near from many health problems that are causes to more morbidity and mortality. So, there are a lot of risks factors for overweight and obesity, some of it can change such as lifestyle and environment and other cannot be changed such as age, gender and family history. The primary objective of this research is to determine the risks factors for overweight and obesity and linked to health problems. Then, brief explain some of common disease those are strong relationship with obesity and it will be mentioned some way to management weight and prevention weight gain. Example for the diseases that are related with obesity are: Cancer, diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, gallbladder disease, osteoarthritis and sleep apnea. As it has been reviewed in many researches, obesity have strong association with an increased risk of many of diseases and causes of mortality. In spite of the considerable effects of obesity, losing weight and management the healthy weight can reduce the risks significantly.
... The calorie intake requirements vary according to age, nature of metabolism, physical activity etc. Generally, the recommended daily calorie intake is 2000 calories a day for a woman and 2500 calories for a man (Ismail, 2018). On the basis of the amount of food consumed by the respondents and their family members per capita calorie intake was measured. ...
Article
Full-text available
Asset's possession and food consumption level of tribal people in Bangladesh express their socioeconomic status. The study was conducted to analyze the socioeconomic characteristics, measure the livelihood assets, and determine the calorie intake level of the sample households. Primary data were collected through field survey using an interview schedule from 60 tribal households. Tabular analysis and capital asset pentagon from DFID livelihood framework were used for data analysis. Household consumption data were converted to per person per day calorie intake level. The major findings of the study were that about 41.67% of the respondents were being 15-29 years of age, 30% respondents' education was in the secondary level, average family size was 5.81, 40% of the respondents were occupied with agriculture as their primary occupation, average annual income and expenditure were Tk. 258560 (US$3015.28) and Tk. 242373.50 (US$2826.51), respectively. The livelihood assets were moderate. About 83.34% of the respondents belonged to the poor category and rest 16.67% of the respondents belonged to non-poor category. About 98.33% and 96.67% respondents suggested that, if job opportunity increases and ensure proper education; then their socioeconomic improvement will be faster. So, government and other organizations need to come forward to create more employment opportunity and education facilities for improving their livelihood pattern and food security status.
... This allows for a sufficient intake of dietary carbohydrates to meet an individual's caloric needs (Vorster et al., 2013). Women need about 1600-2400 (7-10 kJ) calories a day whilst men require 2000 (8 kJ) to 3000 (12 kJ) calories depending on various body and lifestyle factors (Ismail, 2018). The World Health Organization (WHO) and FAO also suggested that about 50% of the dietary energy should be provided by carbohydrates (Mann et al., 2007). ...
Article
Noodles are a popular starchy food among youth and children. However, they are not nutritionally adequate as a single meal. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of Amaranthus leaf powder (ALP) addition on the nutritional composition, physical quality and consumer acceptability of instant noodles. Instant noodle samples were developed by partially substituting wheat flour used in a common noodle recipe with 1, 2 and 3% (w/w) of ALP. The samples were analyzed for nutritional composition using AOAC methods. Physical quality was evaluated in terms of color (CIELAB color values) and texture (g cutting force). Consumer acceptability was evaluated by 60 panelists using a 9-point hedonic scale. Increasing ALP from 0% to 3% had a non-significant effect on the total glycemic carbohydrate, protein, fiber and mineral contents of the noodles. However, the fat content significantly increased (from 1.55% to 4.57%) with the inclusion of ALP, leading to a higher energy value. ALP-fortified noodle samples were significantly softer in texture (271.39 g) than standard noodles (control) (609.08 g), and a significantly greener color was observed with ALP addition. All noodle samples were as acceptable as the control, which suggests that ALP could be used to improve the nutritional value of instant noodles.
Article
One of the processed milk products is Ultra Taro UHT milk. The aim of this research was to analyze Ultra Taro UHT milk’s importance level of attributes and combinations of the attributes which are preferred based on consumer preferences. This study was quantitative correlational using a questionnaire with a full profile presentation method. The study was conducted for one month, with 60 respondents determined by the purposive sampling method. Data was processed using the conjoint method. In this research, 4 product attributes were used, there are flavor with 3 levels, volume with 3 levels, fat content with 2 levels, and type of packaging with 2 levels. The results showed the level of importance value, attribute flavor with a relative value of 34.44%, volume and packaging types have similar relative value of 27.79%, and fat content with a relative value of 9.97%. The combination of attributes favored by consumers was the fifth stimuli with a total use value of 3.8283 consisting of taro balanced milk flavor attributes, 200 ml volume contents, low fat, and tetra pack packaging types. The results of the conjoint have significant correlation with the opinion of respondents with a positive Kendall Tau correlation value of 0.889.
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT There is increasing evidence that the portion sizes of many foods have increased and in a laboratory at least this increases the amount eaten. The conclusions are, however, limited by the complexity of the phenomenon. There is a need to consider meals freely chosen over a prolonged period when a range of foods of different energy densities are available. A range of factors will influence the size of the portion size chosen: amongst others packaging, labeling, advertising and the unit size rather than portion size of the food item. The way portion size interacts with the multitude of factors that determine food intake needs to be established. In particular the role portion size on energy intake should be examined as many confounding variables exist and we must be clear that it is portion size that is the major problem. If the approach is to make a practical contribution then methods of changing portion sizes will need to be developed. This may prove to be a problem in a free market, as it is to be expected that customers will resist the introduction of smaller portion sizes, given that value for money is an important motivator.
Article
Does the size of a plate influence the serving of all items equally, or does it influence the serving of some foods – such as meat versus vegetables – differently? To examine this question, we used the new method of plate mapping, where people drew a meal on a paper plate to examine sensitivity to small versus large three-compartment divided plates in portion size and meal composition in a sample of 109 university students. The total drawn meal area was 37% bigger on large plates than small plates, which showed that the portion of plate coverage did not differ by plate size. Men and women drew bigger vegetable portions and men drew bigger meat portions on large plates when compared to small plates. These results suggest that men and women are differentially sensitive to plate size for overall meal size and for meal composition. Implications for decreasing portion size and improving meal balance are that plate size may influence portion size and change the proportions of foods served.
Calories burned in 30 minutes for people of three different weights
  • D Benton
Benton, D. (2015, June 7). Portion size: What we know and what we need to know. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 55(7), 988-1004. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4337741/ BMR calculator. (n.d). Retrieved from http://www.myfitnesspal.com/tools/bmr-calculator Calculate your body mass index. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/educational/lose_wt/BMI/bmicalc.htm Calories burned in 30 minutes for people of three different weights. (2017, March 17). Retrieved from https://www.health.harvard.edu/diet-and-weight-loss/calories-burned-in-30-minutes-of-leisureand-routine-activities