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The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

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... Procedures and writing are formal and confined to the exactness required from the properties measured in the natural world. When results vary from the expected pattern the anomaly is investigated (Kuhn 1996). If at some point the anomaly provides a better explanation than the initial theory or concept, it becomes dominant or at least a viable alternative. ...
... Positivism and associated mathematical models are now the dominant paradigm in JA and many peer advertising and marketing journals (Chang 2017). Research becomes a problem-solving endeavor valuing the best explanation to the matter at hand (Reynolds 2016;Kuhn 1996). Emulation of the natural science model with exactness implied by quantification and modeling is part of a broader trend in the social science areas of linguistics, sociology, psychology, political science, and communication (Harari 2015). ...
... While no study has been conducted to update those findings, even a casual inspection of JA contents indicates that theory and its organizing principles for how things work prevail. As frequently noted elsewhere, theory as it relates to science and social science is problem solving; by its very nature it is practical (Lewin 1951;Carey 1979;Reynolds 2016;Kuhn 1996;Hayes and Krugman 2019). ...
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ABSTRACT Viewed through three meta-positions, the works published in the Journal of Advertising (JA)are primarily in the middle ground of the social sciences with a strong drift to quantitative measures and a transmission-influence approach. JA has made a meaningful effort to encourage other approaches. The rise of the communication scientist has played an important role in furthering the field and theory. Explanation and heuristic value are discussed with respect to JA’s contents. A distinct call is made to value level of explanation and heuristic contribution when evaluating the quality of articles. Finally, JA is highly valued within universities and in the public policy arena.
... The potential role of non-scientific influences in the production of COVID knowledge 'Normal science' (Kuhn, 1962) assumes that different explanations and answers to facts of scientific interest normally emerge, which have the opportunity to be resolved in conventional scientific debate. This occurs within a plausible theoretical paradigm, taking for granted the willingness of the parties to debate with openness and respect. ...
... In 'The Structure of Scientific Revolutions', Thomas Kuhn (1962) showed that knowledge does not accumulate progressively in a peaceful and consensual dynamic. Rather it implies the rise and consolidation of a paradigm, which acts as a master-theory that unifies a field, a common sense that harbours multiple minor theories during its period of hegemony. ...
... Rather it implies the rise and consolidation of a paradigm, which acts as a master-theory that unifies a field, a common sense that harbours multiple minor theories during its period of hegemony. That period can last decades, and ends when the paradigm fails to explain phenomena that another 'aspiring' paradigm succeeds to explain (Kuhn, 1962). Are the main gaps in the science of COVID the result of inadequacies of its dominant paradigm? ...
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The COVID-19 health crisis has so far involved enormous consequences in human pain, suffering and death. While biomedical science responded early, its response has been marked by several controversies between what appeared to be mainstream perspectives, and diverse alternative views; far from leading to productive debate, controversies often preceded polarisation and, allegedly, exclusion and even censorship of alternative views, followed by the pretense of scientific consensus. This paper describes and discusses the main controversies in the production of COVID biomedical knowledge and derived control measures, to establish if alternative positions are also legitimate from a 'normal science' perspective (rather than comparing them for superiority); explores potential non-scientific explanations of the alleged exclusion of certain views; and analyzes ethical issues implied. The operation of non-scientific factors in scientific and regulatory processes (e.g. various forms of subtle corruption) has been documented in the past; the intervention of such influences in the mishandling of controversies (i.e. on early management, non-pharmacological prevention and vaccination) cannot be ruled out and deserves further investigation. Some of these controversies, increasingly visible in the public domain, also involve ethical challenges that need urgent attention. Polarisation, censorship and dogma are foreign to true science and must be left behind.
... People operating at this level of consciousness are able to merge critical thought and action to bring about change in their worlds (Kitchenham, 2008). This final stage of consciousness clearly influenced Mezirow's transformative learning through the concepts of disorienting dilemma, critical reflection, critical self-reflection on assumptions, and critical discourse (Kitchenham, 2008;Mezirow, 1991) During a 1-year stint at the Center for Advanced Studies in the Behavioral Sciences, Kuhn was struck at the differences and disagreements between the methods of natural and social science research (Kuhn, 1962). Kuhn (1962) developed the concept of paradigms and described them as "universally recognized scientific achievements that for a time, provide model problems and solutions to a community of practitioners" (p. ...
... This final stage of consciousness clearly influenced Mezirow's transformative learning through the concepts of disorienting dilemma, critical reflection, critical self-reflection on assumptions, and critical discourse (Kitchenham, 2008;Mezirow, 1991) During a 1-year stint at the Center for Advanced Studies in the Behavioral Sciences, Kuhn was struck at the differences and disagreements between the methods of natural and social science research (Kuhn, 1962). Kuhn (1962) developed the concept of paradigms and described them as "universally recognized scientific achievements that for a time, provide model problems and solutions to a community of practitioners" (p. viii). ...
... viii). Two essential elements about paradigms observed by Kuhn in his investigation of other researchers are that the research achievement must be sufficiently unprecedented to draw other researchers away from their work to the new study and that there are sufficient problems to be resolved by practitioners (Kuhn, 1962). ...
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This qualitative narrative analysis used interviews with rural senior emergency medical services (EMS) leaders in the Midwest to investigate how they developed their leadership skillset in the absence of formal development. The study culled the experiences of the EMS leaders from the beginning of their career to the present day because research shows that leadership is a lifelong endeavor (Liu et al., 2021). The experiential learning theory advanced by David Kolb (2015) was the theoretical framework used to guide this research. The main research questions that guided this study are: What are the experiences of senior rural EMS leaders that formed their current leadership abilities? and Based on their developmental experiences, what competencies do senior rural EMS leaders say that future EMS leaders need to learn? The findings indicate that experience-driven leadership was the primary means of development for these rural EMS chiefs. Additionally, the chiefs suggested that having strong clinical leadership, communication, and networking skills are competencies that the next generation of leaders should develop before taking on an organizational leadership position. The main implication of this study is that experiences are a more significant driving force in the development of leadership skills than leader development programs. This indicates that models like Kolb’s experiential learning theory are important for guiding the development experiences of the leader–learner.
... These philosophical arguments have highlighted the fact that scientific theories are historically replaceable. Skepticism concerning the status of our current scientific theories draws especially on Kuhn (1962), who popularized a contrast of normal science with revolutionary science via a historical narrative of paradigm shifts. Scientific theories are turned over and over (and over) to be replaced by novel frameworks based on epistemic and socially induced developments. ...
... • the puzzle metaphor (the analogy of scientific activities with puzzle solving also appeared in Kuhn (1962)) 12 : "scientists are patiently putting the pieces of a puzzle together to reveal some grand scheme or another" • the onion (used, for instance, by Feynman (2005)): "science is busy unraveling things the way you unravel the peels of an onion. So peel by peel, you take away the layers of the onion to get at some fundamental kernel of truth" • the iceberg (in Firestein 2013): the idea "that we only see the tip of the iceberg, but underneath is where most of the iceberg is hidden" ...
... In this context, interactions between twentieth-century epistemological and sociological programs have been of mutual benefit, so much so that sharp boundaries between these two fields became scrutinized and, sometimes, rejected (Longino 1990;Solomon 2007). Many influential works in the history of the philosophy of science have aimed to integrate historical developments and social data into their frameworks, such as Kuhn (1962), Lakatos (1968, Laudan (1978). (Kuhn in his later works also promoted an evolutionary model of scientific growth (Wray 2011). ...
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Can we use light switches and, at the same time, believe in myths? This question resonates with ongoing disputes about the authority of science versus non-scientific ways of thinking. Recently, concerns regarding an overreach of scientific authority in human culture renewed momentum to pseudoscientific ideas originating in anti-science sentiments. This chapter sets out to rethink the currently prevailing image of science in light of its role as a facilitator of cognitive evolution to counter these potentially harmful conjectures. My argument unfolds in three steps. It first touches on the specific role of science in human cultural development. Drawing on ideas by Bultmann of the Marburg school, I suggest distinguishing between cosmological and existentialist questions in our engagement with the world. This distinction forms the backdrop against which we can understand the current popularization and rise of speculative metaphysics. Second, I examine a specific example: the recent revival of panpsychism as an example of an increasing conflation of existentialist with cosmological questions. Of particular concern in this context is that current support for panpsychism is fueled by a science-skepticism that draws on arguments from the philosophy of science. In a third step, this chapter warns that these arguments used to back science-skepticism build on a misleading image of science, which portrays science as an unchanging cognitive practice with varying knowledge outputs. However, I contend that science is not principally in the business of accumulating facts; rather, it is a cognitive activity in the pursuit of more sophisticated questions for understanding the world. Such shift in the image of science results in a change of its explanatory target by focusing on cognitive participation in its processes instead of centering analysis on its products like knowledge and technologies. Linking to recent theories of cultural evolution in cognitive science, analysis of science is best framed via the evolutionary development of cognitive gadgets or mental mechanisms through cultural transmission. Such a revised image of science then offers new avenues of collaboration with the humanities in the twenty-first century.
... In an attempt to explore the evolution of marketing practice and thought, it is fundamental to ensure scholarly clarity of the meaning of paradigm shift. Kuhn (1962), the American physicist and philosopher introduced the notion of paradigm as the set of concepts and practices that define a scientific discipline at any particular period of time. For the purpose of this article, there are three fundamental issues related to paradigm which are insightful to explore the evolution of marketing practice and thought (Kuhn, 1962). ...
... Kuhn (1962), the American physicist and philosopher introduced the notion of paradigm as the set of concepts and practices that define a scientific discipline at any particular period of time. For the purpose of this article, there are three fundamental issues related to paradigm which are insightful to explore the evolution of marketing practice and thought (Kuhn, 1962). First, paradigm is about what members of a certain scientific community have in common and embrace techniques, ideas, concepts, theories and shared values (Kuhn, 1962). ...
... For the purpose of this article, there are three fundamental issues related to paradigm which are insightful to explore the evolution of marketing practice and thought (Kuhn, 1962). First, paradigm is about what members of a certain scientific community have in common and embrace techniques, ideas, concepts, theories and shared values (Kuhn, 1962). Secondly, the dominant paradigm define what members of a discipline believe is possible and rational to do, giving scholars and practitioners a clear set of tools to approach certain problems at a particular time (Kuhn, 1962). ...
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With resource scarcity and increasing competition, entrepreneurs are struggling to find an entrepreneurial way of marketing for their enterprises to survive and grow. While the evolution of marketing practice and thought informs them about the past paradigm shifts, it is less insightful on the contemporary or future paradigm of marketing needed to survive in the volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous environment. The objective of this article is to critically understand the shifts in marketing thought and marketing practice and ultimately propose the birth of a new paradigm of marketing. The article is valuable as it provides an integrative perspective of the various shifts in marketing thought and practice in the past, but also illuminates the nature, approaches and core elements of entrepreneurial marketing as a potential future paradigm of marketing. Without the phenomenon of entrepreneurial marketing, the extant notion of the evolution of marketing thought and practice is incomplete but also not contemporary.
... Traditionally, research methods are often associated with specific methodological approaches and philosophical assumptions (Kuhn, 1962;Johnson & Onwuegbuzie, 2004;Nastasi et al., 2010;Creswell, 2015). These philosophical assumptions inform the choice of theories that guide research (Creswell, 2013). ...
... Traditionally, these two broad schools of knowledge; positivism, and interpretivism, are often perceived as incompatible because they belong to two different and contrasting research paradigms based around the subjectivity and objectivity of knowledge (see Figure 3.1). This philosophical disagreement among the researchers caused the paradigm war in the 1980s (Kuhn, 1962;Guba & Lincoln, 1994;Morgan, 2007;Alise & Teddlie, 2010;Munoz-Najar Galvez et al., 2019). MMR is an adaptation to bridge incompatible research paradigms by advocating the use of a mix of research methods to build upon the best of the research methods irrespective of their epistemological origins (Johnson & Onwuegbuzie, 2004;Feilzer, 2009;Alise & Teddlie, 2010;Biesta, 2010;Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2010;Creswell, 2015). ...
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This study focused on a little known traditional water management system, known as suranga, historically used by marginalised agricultural communities in the remote foothills of the Western Ghats in India to evaluate the resilience and sustainability of the suranga system. A hill irrigation analytical framework was used to provide a pragmatic epistemology. The research methodology was interdisciplinary, incorporating mixed methods taken from both the physical and social sciences to answer five research questions about suranga linked to their history, distribution, design principles, operational characteristics, governance, and organisation. Results suggest that suranga originate from the early 20th century. A field survey, supported by in-depth interviews of suranga users (n=173), found 700 suranga mainly distributed in fourteen villages in the Dakshin Kannada and Kasaragod districts. Data from previous studies, including this study, suggest there are a minimum of ~3000 suranga in the region as a whole. Suranga were defined as a groundwater collection gallery filtration tunnel system sourced from perched aquifers. Key strengths of the system were found to be the basic design principles, flexible excavation approaches, adaptability, clear use boundaries, relatively low construction and maintenance costs, self-regulated discharge, private ownership and management, and ease of access. Weaknesses of the system were a laborious and risky excavation process, limited water yield, non-collaboration, the absence of governance, and low earnings for suranga workers. Suranga were also found to be vulnerable to pollution, forest cover loss, and the impacts of climate change. However, suranga have contributed to a resilient and sustainable community in the past when the population, water demands, and the size of the irrigated area were low, and farm choices were limited. Currently, the suranga system may soon be unable to meet increased water demands because of population increase, intensification and reorientation of agriculture, alternative borewell technology and improved socioeconomic conditions. However, Suranga do retain some humanitarian relevance to farmers in the study area having improved the quality of life for many low-income families, but new emerging endogenous and exogenous pressures may make them vulnerable to changes in the future that cause the collapse of the system unless further adaptation occurs.
... Doubt, debate and disagreement are central to any scientific development. Falsifying hypotheses (Popper, 1934(Popper, /1959 and shifting paradigms (Kuhn, 2012) are two of many models of how theories, experiments and observations shape understanding. However, ecology also has a history of locked-in debates, in which positions become entrenched and progress towards a consolidated consensus is hindered or even prevented by reduction in effective discourse and synthesis. ...
... Phases of theory development: Scientific dynamics have been described by many philosophers, the most famous being Kuhn's cycles of scientific revolution (Kuhn, 2012) including the phases of normal science, science drift, crisis and revolution and the resulting paradigm change. Graham & Dayton (2002) and Paine (2002) both question to what degree a current paradigm can be said to exist for ecology and thus, if paradigm revolutions are actually occurring in our discipline. ...
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While environmental science, and ecology in particular, is working to provide better understanding to base sustainable decisions on, the way scientific understanding is developed can at times be detrimental to this cause. Locked‐in debates are often unnecessarily polarised and can compromise any common goals of the opposing camps. The present paper is inspired by a resolved debate from an unrelated field of psychology where Nobel laureate David Kahneman and Garry Klein turned what seemed to be a locked‐in debate into a constructive process for their fields. The present paper is also motivated by previous discourses regarding the role of thresholds in natural systems for management and governance, but its scope of analysis targets the scientific process within complex social‐ecological systems in general. We identified four features of environmental science that appear to predispose for locked‐in debates: (1) The strongly context‐dependent behaviour of ecological systems. (2) The dominant role of single hypothesis testing. (3) The high prominence given to theory demonstration compared investigation. (4) The effect of urgent demands to inform and steer policy. This fertile ground is further cultivated by human psychological aspects as well as the structure of funding and publication systems. The ecological discipline is prone to locked in debates that hamper theory development and reduce it efficiency in influencing policy development. We outline the mechanisms behind these locked in debates and discuss possible ways to prevent these.
... Doubt, debate and disagreement are central to any scientific development. Falsifying hypotheses (Popper, 1934(Popper, /1959 and shifting paradigms (Kuhn, 2012) are two of many models of how theories, experiments and observations shape understanding. However, ecology also has a history of locked-in debates, in which positions become entrenched and progress towards a consolidated consensus is hindered or even prevented by reduction in effective discourse and synthesis. ...
... Phases of theory development: Scientific dynamics have been described by many philosophers, the most famous being Kuhn's cycles of scientific revolution (Kuhn, 2012) including the phases of normal science, science drift, crisis and revolution and the resulting paradigm change. Graham & Dayton (2002) and Paine (2002) both question to what degree a current paradigm can be said to exist for ecology and thus, if paradigm revolutions are actually occurring in our discipline. ...
Article
While environmental science, and ecology in particular, is working to provide better understanding to base sustainable decisions on, the way scientific understanding is developed can at times be detrimental to this cause. Locked-in debates are often unnecessarily polarized and can compromise any common goals of the opposing camps. The present paper is inspired by a resolved debate from an unrelated field of psychology where Nobel laureate David Kahneman and Garry Klein turned what seemed to be a locked-in debate into a constructive process for their fields. The present paper is also motivated by previous discourses regarding the role of thresholds in natural systems for management and governance, but its scope of analysis targets the scientific process within complex social-ecological systems in general. We identified five features of environmental science that appear to predispose for locked-in debates: 1) The strongly context dependent behaviour of ecological systems. 2) The dominant role of single hypothesis testing. 3) The high prominence given to theory demonstration compared investigation. 4) The effect of urgent demands to inform and steer policy. This fertile ground is further cultivated by human psychological aspects as well as the structure of funding and publication systems.
... Se queremos "ultrapassar" as resistências e defendemos um processo pedagógico personalizado, para formar um Homem criativo, autónomo, com capacidade de adaptação e de tomar decisões em situações críticas,… o objetivo fundamental talvez possa passar por aumentar a compreensão daquilo que o rodeia e isso poderá ser otimizado ao instar uma mudança na perceção e na avaliação de dados familiares, no sentido que lhe foi dado por Kuhn (1962) ao nível da mudança de paradigma. ...
... Nos vários âmbitos do processo pedagógico e com especial ênfase na investigação que lhe deve servir de suporte, convém ainda não esquecer que abandonar o paradigma é deixar de praticar a ciência que este define (Kuhn, 1962), pelo que não basta utilizar "dados científicos" em oposição à "Achologia", é necessário que esses dados deixem de estar impregnados de um positivismo que teve o seu tempo, mas que hoje já não consegue dar respostas rentáveis a processos dinâmicos que exigem intervenções funcionais. ...
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A adoção de um estilo de vida ativo e sustentável pode ser potenciada se existir a consciência daquilo que efetivamente se faz ou deveria fazer. A utilização de meios tecnológicos que permitem uma monitorização dos processos pode assumir um papel importante nessa consciencialização. Com o Projeto “Educação Física nas Escolas da RAM – Compreender, Intervir, Transformar” criamos condições para uma abordagem transdisciplinar potenciando intervenções pedagógicas que promovem, de forma lúdica, a adoção de estilos de vida ativos e sustentáveis. Através da utilização de smartphones, smartwatchs, pedómetros, etc. que permitem registar de forma integrada, por exemplo, a atividade física, os hábitos alimentares e a respetiva pegada ecológica, tem sido possível desenvolver um processo pedagógico que potencia o espírito crítico e a tomada de decisão consciente perante os desafios a que se tem de dar resposta. The technological support for the adoption of an active and sustainable lifestyle The adoption of an active and sustainable lifestyle can be enhanced if there is awareness of what is actually done or should be done. The use of technological resources in the monitoring process can play an important role in this awareness. With the Project “Physical Education in Schools from RAM - Understanding, Intervening, Transforming” we created the conditions for a transdisciplinary approach, enhancing pedagogical interventions that promote, in a playful way, the adoption of active and sustainable lifestyles. Through the use of smartphones, smartwatches, pedometers, etc. in order to record and integrate information, for example, physical activity, eating habits, and their ecological footprint, it has been possible to develop a pedagogical process that enhances critical thinking and conscious decision-making, facing present challenges.
... Absent cure, a series of "phenotypes" for "future research" was proposed [6]. In summary, OAB as defined and practised fulfils criteria for a failed system as described in "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions" [15]. In 45 years, it has provided no pathogenesis or cure for urge incontinence, frequency, nocturia, conditions which severely impact quality of life. ...
... The analysis to date indicates the OAB/DO system, as defined and practised, conforms with Kuhn's descriptions of a failed system [15]; DO fails criteria for a diagnostic test; both OAB and DO lead nowhere as regards patient care. Meanwhile, OAB problems continue to increase with age [7]: "OAB" affects over 45% of women aged 65 and older [8], is associated with falls, hip fractures, anxiety/ depression, social isolation, reduction in quality of life and economic burden of over $14 billion per annum in older women [8]. ...
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Thesis and aims In 45 years, the definitions and practice of the urodynamically based overactive bladder (OAB)/detrusor overactivity (DO) system have failed to adequately address pathogenesis and cure of urinary urge incontinence, frequency and nocturia. Methods We analysed the OAB syndrome with reference to the Integral Theory paradigm’s (ITS) binary feedback system, where OAB in the female is viewed as a prematurely activated, but otherwise normal micturition caused mainly, but not entirely, by ligament damage/laxity. The ITS Clinical Assessment Pathway which details the relationships between structural damage (prolapse), ligaments and dysfunction (symptoms) is introduced. Results The ITS was able to “better explain” OAB pathophysiology in anatomical terms with reference to the binary model. The phasic patterns diagnostic of “detrusor overactivity” are explained as a struggle for control by the closure and micturition reflexes. The exponentially determined relationship between urethral diameter and flow explains why obstructive patterns occur, why they do not and why urine may leak with no recorded pressure. Mechanically supporting ligaments (“simulated operations”) during urodynamic testing can improve low urethral pressure, negative pressure during coughing with SUI and diminish urge sensation or even DO patterns, transforming urodynamics from non-predictive test to accurate predictor of continence surgery results. High cure rates for OAB by daycare repair of damaged ligaments is a definitive test of the binary system’s validity. Conclusion Conceptual progression of OAB to the Integral Theory paradigms’s prematurely activated micturition validates OAB component symptoms as a syndrome, explains pathogenesis, and unlocks a new way of understanding, diagnosing, treating and researching OAB.
... In other words, it is what is communally experienced and held as true at a given point in time -a temporal reality shared by many. A paradigm (Kuhn, 1962) is a form of intersubjective sensemaking governing scientific practices which correlates with intersubjective perspectives on the world and society. Which in turn, as narrative studies have revealed, are perspectives intertwined with different forms of narratives in society. ...
... This suggests, to me, ways in which design research and practice can contribute the general development of sustainability and beyond. This is reinforced by the correlation I see between schemas and Thomas Kuhn's (1962) notion of paradigms in that they both are cognitive structures that express as well as form core aspects of how we see and act in the world. These can further be correlated to the framing and reframing processes in 'reflective practice ' that Donald Schön (1984) identified in his studies of design processes, as the very idea of a 'frame' (originating in artificial intelligence and adopted widely in other fields) was based on the idea of schema and paradigms (Paton & Dorst, 2010). ...
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This study aims to understand and develop a designerly interpretation of the growing call to move beyond (conventional) sustainability that emerged in the late 1990’s. It does so through a theoretical and practical exploration of the implications of regenerative design principles for placemaking. As a testing ground for this mode of working, it explores publicly shared spaces that treat waste as a resource. More specifically: placemaking practices that try to make sense of, and adjust, people’s relationship to waste-making practices. Public space and waste management are generally considered to be on the opposite ends of the spectrum of what is to be seen and unseen in the built landscape. But as we move towards more regenerative modes of waste management, where waste is treated as a resource, human interaction with the conversion of waste into a resource becomes ever more present in societies and built environments. It is therefore relevant to investigate how spatial design can contribute to developing and supporting a culture and system of reuse. This design inquiry develops design theory, practices and places that communicate regenerative ways of relating humans, nonhumans, societies and ecosystems to each other through ecosociospatiality. It explores ways to foster a regenerative society through embodied encounters with spatial practices and places that foster such a mindset. It does so through pondering, experiencing and generating these types of places. It also does so by considering their implications for design thinking and spatial practices beyond conventional sustainability, i.e. the regenerative spatial practices and design thinking involved in regenerative placemaking and spatial design. The study identifies ecosociospatial forms and practices where waste-resource relationships are involved in spatial narrativity. It delineates the nonmodern ecosociotechnic ontology and approach that characterizes regenerative (design) thinking and practice, as well as its intersecting scales of application. It also suggests the implications of these for regenerative spatial poetics and in advancing discourses and enactments of sustainability through emotive forces and effective actions. The study does so by testing and developing research methodologies that fit into what could be considered a prospective method assemblage for design-oriented performative research.
... After the replication, the results may indicate that parts of a theory can be considered true, but these parts are now included in a new or refined theory (Popper, 1959(Popper, , 1963. Similarly, in accordance with the epistemology of pluralism and coexisting scientific paradigms (Kellert et al., 2006;Kuhn, 1962), multiple theories can be considered true, but a theory on its own must be consistent to be considered true within its paradigm (Kuhn, 1962). Furthermore, believing that objective truth is 7 Note that, ideally, a theory is considered true until a counterevidence (e.g., truth replication) leads to the development of an improved theory that is considered to be true. ...
... After the replication, the results may indicate that parts of a theory can be considered true, but these parts are now included in a new or refined theory (Popper, 1959(Popper, , 1963. Similarly, in accordance with the epistemology of pluralism and coexisting scientific paradigms (Kellert et al., 2006;Kuhn, 1962), multiple theories can be considered true, but a theory on its own must be consistent to be considered true within its paradigm (Kuhn, 1962). Furthermore, believing that objective truth is 7 Note that, ideally, a theory is considered true until a counterevidence (e.g., truth replication) leads to the development of an improved theory that is considered to be true. ...
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The replication of existing research studies and theories is considered a foundational pillar of knowledge accumulation and an important instrument of discourse across research disciplines. Although replication has a long tradition in natural and behavioral science research, the design science research (DSR) community has yet to adopt it, especially the replication of design theories (DTs). However, it is unclear how the DSR community could (or even would) benefit from the replication of DTs. Similarly, the goal of DTs to obtain utility instead of truth raises questions regarding the transferability of replication into the domain of DSR. Against this background, in this work, we reflect on the function, outcome, and impact of replications to understand whether the replication of DTs is possible and necessary. We propose that replication can be an important catalyst for reuse and knowledge accumulation in DSR because it provides evidence on the boundaries of a DT. Specifically, replication can increase or decrease the level of confidence and projectability associated with a DT.
... My brief account here glosses over a number of important subtleties that matter a great deal in practice, such as how exactly one goes about defining hypotheses, gathering data, and computing probability distributions. This arguably constitutes the bulk of puzzle-solving activity that Kuhn (1970) regards as central to "normal science". There is no simple recipe for any of these crucial steps, however a handful of valuable heuristics are known to work well in a variety of settings. ...
... While the importance of the problem is widely acknowledged, the jury is still out on proposed solutions. Feyerabend (1975) famously argues that the ideal structure of scientific discovery is neither a logical sequence of conjectures and refutations (Popper, 1959) nor an orderly cycle of rising and falling paradigms (Kuhn, 1970), but rather a marketplace-a teeming bazaar in which theories multiply, combine, and clash in a protean struggle for supremacy. If Feyerabend's epistemological anarchism represents a scientific ideal, then IML may be in a sort of golden era. ...
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As machine learning has gradually entered into ever more sectors of public and private life, there has been a growing demand for algorithmic explainability. How can we make the predictions of complex statistical models more intelligible to end users? A subdiscipline of computer science known as interpretable machine learning (IML) has emerged to address this urgent question. Numerous influential methods have been proposed, from local linear approximations to rule lists and counterfactuals. In this article, I highlight three conceptual challenges that are largely overlooked by authors in this area. I argue that the vast majority of IML algorithms are plagued by (1) ambiguity with respect to their true target; (2) a disregard for error rates and severe testing; and (3) an emphasis on product over process. Each point is developed at length, drawing on relevant debates in epistemology and philosophy of science. Examples and counterexamples from IML are considered, demonstrating how failure to acknowledge these problems can result in counterintuitive and potentially misleading explanations. Without greater care for the conceptual foundations of IML, future work in this area is doomed to repeat the same mistakes.
... The goal of this paper is to reconstruct the centennial TSI variation back to 1700 based on the available TSI space measurements and the revised SN, in agreement with the insights from [18]. This new centennial TSI reconstruction is a paradigm shift [22] compared to the long-held belief based on [12] that there was a significant increase in the TSI, and hence solar climate change forcing, from the Maunder Minimum to the present. In Section 2, we review the available TSI space measurements and TSI regression models reproducing the sunspot darkening and facular brightening from observations of the solar surface magnetic field. ...
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Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) quantifies the solar energy received by the Earth and therefore is of direct relevance for a possible solar influence on climate change on Earth. We analyse the TSI space measurements from 1991 to 2021, and we derive a regression model that reproduces the measured daily TSI variations with a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 0.17 W/m2. The daily TSI regression model uses the MgII core to wing ratio as a facular brightening proxy and the Photometric Sunspot Index (PSI) as a measure of sunspot darkening. We reconstruct the annual mean TSI backwards to 1700 based on the Sunspot Number (SN), calibrated on the space measurements with an RMSE of 0.086 W/m2. The analysis of the 11 year running mean TSI reconstruction confirms the existence of a 105 year Gleissberg cycle. The TSI level of the current grand minimum is only about 0.15 W/m2 higher than the TSI level of the grand minimum in the beginning of the 18th century.
... In addition to the humanist ideal, those with a stable academic identity trajectory also communicated another set of features describing the proper academic, which we label the leader. These features included intellectual aptitude, talent, and a high level of creativity seen as a precondition to an individual's potential to significantly expand extant disciplinary knowledge and, in the maximalist variant, to shift the very paradigm of scientific work (Kuhn, 1962). A leader academic has original perspectives, formulates their own research programs, and builds teams around them. ...
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The study focuses on academic career attrition in the context of neoliberal academia and science policies emphasizing the need for excellence and social responsibility in academic production. The goal is to understand the relation between the development of academic identity and attrition among those who have left the academic path up to five years after PhD completion, with acknowledgement of the effect that academic identity has on academic career ambitions. Based on 28 narrative interviews with former academics from various research fields, we identified four trajectories of academic identity development (one of stable academic identity and three of lost academic identity), four narratives of attrition (disillusionment, a search for new purpose, refusal to sacrifice personal life and academic inadequacy) that explain these trajectories, and three ideals of “proper academic” (humanist, leader, absolute academic) that are reflected in these narratives. We conclude that the academic environment creates an academic identity paradox in which not only the loss of or obstacles to developing an academic identity but also its strength and stability can weaken academic career ambitions and contribute to attrition because of the need to perform only excellent academic work. The paradox seems to relate to the high-performance culture of neoliberal academia and to the specific gender aspects of the STEM field because it appeared to function differently in regard to discipline and gender. We show that neoliberal academia, despite the ideals of current science policies, loses academics caring for these ideals in STEM fields, especially women.
... Seeking to escape both the rigid Kuhnian paradigmatic (Kuhn 1970) disciplinary framework of systematized reality (Fuller and Jandrić 2019), as well as the problematic circular ontology of scientism (Feser 2014: 11-12), transdisciplinarity thought has been positioned as a platform for disciplinary instrumentalization, which may yield the resolution of real-world problems (Gibbs 2017: 49;McGregor 2017:11;Fuller and Jandrić 2019). While Gibbs (2021) expressly avoids providing a definition of transdisciplinarity within his article, his previous works have outlined that in order to solve complex real-world problems, 'transdisciplinary thought' requires a transcendence of disciplinary hegemony, within a transdisciplinary praxis which 'defines problems away from their context, within a wider engagement of dialogue … without recourse to a single theoretical paradigm' (Gibbs 2017: 48-49). ...
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Response to ‘The Struggling Towards a Transdisciplinary Metaphysics’(Gibbs 2021)
... We could now expand this list to include (among others): Elgin (2007), Pritchard (2008), Kvanvig (2009), Gardiner (2012); and Mizrahi (2012). 3 For examples not covered in detail here, see de Regt (2015Regt ( , 2016 and Wilkenfeld (2017Wilkenfeld ( , 2019. 4 While antirealist notions of SP are available, most notably the functionalist-internalist accounts of Kuhn (1962Kuhn ( , 1991 and Laudan (1977Laudan ( , 1981Laudan ( , 1984, interest in them has waned in recent years; Shan (2019) is a notable exception. 5 The connection between truth and progress is most famously highlighted in Putnam's (1975) 'no miracles' argument, a more contemporary interpretation of which can be found in Lipton (2003). ...
Article
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Contemporary debate surrounding the nature of scientific progress has focused upon the precise role played by justification, with two realist accounts having dominated proceedings. Recently, however, a third realist account has been put forward, one which offers no role for justification at all. According to Finnur Dellsén’s (Stud Hist Philos Sci Part A 56:72–83, 2016) noetic account, science progresses when understanding increases, that is, when scientists grasp how to correctly explain or predict more aspects of the world that they could before. In this paper, we argue that the noetic account is severely undermotivated. Dellsén provides three examples intended to show that understanding can increase absent the justification required for true belief to constitute knowledge. However, we demonstrate that a lack of clarity in each case allows for two contrasting interpretations, neither of which serves its intended purpose. On the first, the agent involved lacks both knowledge and understanding; and, on the second, the agent involved successfully gains both knowledge and understanding. While neither interpretation supports Dellsén’s claim that understanding can be prised apart from knowledge, we argue that, in general, agents in such cases ought to be attributed neither knowledge nor understanding. Given that the separability of knowledge and understanding is a necessary component of the noetic account, we conclude that there is little support for the idea that science progresses through increasing understanding rather than the accumulation of knowledge.
... Partly, we argue that many of these topics and concepts are presented in isolation, as if they stand apart neutrally and naturally, rather than being embedded and entangled within complex human, natural, sociopolitical, and historical interactions and systems within science and technology studies. Kuhn (1962) writes that too often history presents science as an enterprise that is about a scientific method, "exemplified by observations, laws and theories" (p. 1). Frequently, this simplified notion of science is replicated in discourses about the interrelationship of science and technology. ...
Article
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In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, which has resulted in the rapid emergence of vaccines, the dual benefits of both science and technology have been lauded, while dominant, deficit-based narratives of vaccine hesitancy and mistrust in science and medicine by the general public, particularly minoritized populations, run rampant. In this paper, we argue for a counternarrative, where instead of erroneously positioning communities of color as the problem, the problem is reframed to consider what the scientific, technological, and science education communities need to do to become more trustworthy and transgress the persistent shortcomings related to racism and injustice. Specifically, in this position paper, we (a) discuss the interactions of science, technology, and society from the perspective of the nature of technology; (b) engage an understanding of how bias, access, and racism operate in and at the intersection of science, technology, and technological systems; (c) discuss implications of these ideas in science education; and finally (d) pose recommendations to counter alienation and racism with an emphasis on a sixth dimension, equitable, social justice criticality, for science-technology education. In conclusion, we make recommendations by centering a more equitable, social justice criticality of science and technology.
... In the light of this assertion, Ferris (2010) argues that there no single scientific knowledge that is perfect. Ferris draws his argument from Kuhn's (1970) book entitled, The structure of scientific revolutions, in which he depicts science as consisting of long, relatively docile periods of normalcy punctuated by spasms of revolutionary change. These changes Kuhn calls paradigm shifts, are similar to Darwin's (2011) theory of natural selection. ...
Book
The intent behind the Book is to raise and disseminate awareness about upcoming research areas, issues and success stories, Such activity will affect the teaching learning process in a positive manner, as the academia will get acquaint with recent trends in the domain of Engineering, Social Science, Management, Basic Science. This book will provide a common platform, where academia, delegates from industry, and nominees from various Government and Private Universities and Institutions can put their views on Research trends across various fields as well as deliberate upon futuristic approaches along with major bottlenecks. The deliberations will not only encompass all avenues of Engineering, Social Science, Management, Basic Science, but also through a spotlight on the positive and inadvertent impact of modern technologies on society. We are attempting for Most Chapters in Single Book for India Book of Records. We are applying it to ‘Wonder Book of Records’, with 21 Editors and more than 250+ Authors and Co- Authors.
... The terms transformative research (TR), scientific breakthroughs, or disruptive research (National Academies, 2019), refer to research that shifts or disrupts established scientific paradigms, involving discoveries that can revolutionize existing fields, create new subfields, cause paradigm shifts (Kuhn, 1962), lead to radically new technologies and provide pathways to new frontiers (Trevors et al., 2012;Huang et al., 2013;National Academies, 2019;Du et al., 2020). Distinguishing early markers of potential TR has been an important task and a hot research topic in the areas of science of science and science policy (Chubin, 1994;Chen et al., 2009;Huang, Hsu & Lerman, 2013;Ioannidis et al., 2020). ...
Article
In this contribution, we conduct a multi-angular analysis of the interdisciplinarity of Nobel Prize winning research compared to non-Nobel Prize winning articles, based on a large data set. Here interdisciplinarity is measured by the diversity of references, using two true diversity indicators. Articles mentioned by the Nobel Prize committee in Physiology or Medicine (in short: NP articles) awarded during the period from 1900 to 2016 are the focus of our research. These articles are compared with those in a dataset of articles that do not include a Nobel Prize winner among their authors. Moreover, these non-NPs articles were not only published in the same year and in the same research field as the NP ones but were also dealing with the same research topic (such articles are referred to as non-NP articles). The results suggest that the topic-related knowledge included in Nobel Prize winning work is higher than that in non-NPs, hence with lower interdisciplinarity than the latter. Our findings provide useful clues to better understand the characteristics of transformative research, here represented by key publications by Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine, and their pattern of knowledge integration.
... Scientific revolution describes the next stage after knowledge generation as growth, which includes rapid and stable growth periods (Kuhn, 1962a(Kuhn, , 1962b. Kuhn explains that the rapid growth period is the formation of a new scientific paradigm. ...
Article
Knowledge evolution offers a road map for understanding knowledge creation, knowledge transfer, and performance in everyday work. Understanding the knowledge evolution of a research field is crucial for researchers, policymakers, and stakeholders. Further, paper keywords are considered efficient knowledge components to depict the knowledge structure of a research field by examining relationships between keywords. However, multiple relationships between keywords provided by papers are rarely used to explore knowledge evolution. Three relationships were applied: a direct co-occurrence relationship, indirect relationship by keyword pair citation, and same author trace, providing temporal and sequential knowledge evolution. The direct co-occurrence relationship is constructed by keyword co-occurrence pair and acts as the temporal structure of knowledge pairs. The indirect relationship is constructed by a keyword pair-based citation relationship, meaning the citation relationship between keyword co-occurrence pairs, acting as the sequential structure of knowledge pairs. Additionally, the same author trace represents an indirect relationship that a keyword pair provided by the same author in a different paper. Thus, knowledge evolution could be mined quantitatively from a different perspective. Therefore, we present an empirical study of the informetrics field with five evolution stages: knowledge generation, growth, obsolescence, transfer, and intergrowth. The results indicate that knowledge evolution is not a continuous trend but alternating growth and obsolescence. During evolution, knowledge pairs stimulate each other’s growth, and some knowledge pairs transfer to others, demonstrating a small step toward knowledge change. According to the indirect keyword relationship paired with the same author trace, creators and followers of knowledge evolution are different.
... In the broadest terms, I espouse a post-structuralist approach to knowledge production, in the tradition of postmodern, critical, feminist theorists, and science and technology studies (Bourdieu, 1977;Clifford & Marcus, 1986;Denzin, 2009;Fleck, 1979;Foucault, 1980Foucault, , 1990Haraway, 2008;Jaggar, 2008;Kuhn, 1970;Laqueur, 1990). Knowledge production is embedded in and reproduces relations of power, as dominant discourses become naturalized (Foucault, 1980(Foucault, , 1990, and this has allowed dominant narratives to overshadow marginalized voices (Ellis et al., 2011, Spivak, 1988TallBear, 2013). ...
Thesis
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This dissertation examines occupational health protocols used to prevent the transmission of STIs and HIV in porn production, both those imposed by governmental health agencies and those developed by porn performers themselves. There is much disagreement over what protocols are best for the industry. Using critical interpretive medical anthropology from a sex worker rights perspective, this research asks what is at stake in these disputes over appropriate porn health practice. Qualitative data was collected through 40 interviews with 36 porn workers, in-person and digital fieldwork across several sites, textual analysis of relevant media and documents, and auto-ethnography as a porn performer. I trace how government and lobby groups have routinely discounted porn performers’ testimony about what would make their working conditions safe and comfortable, and the many ways that the porn industry has responded. In doing so, I make three primary arguments: First, porn workers have been ignored in conversations around the management of their occupational health. This is an example of epistemic injustice—the state of being wronged in one’s capacity to know and be known. Second, this marginalization puts pressure on the porn industry to focus on securing legitimacy among mainstream healthcare critics—what I call the Responsibility Defense. When pushed to focus on respectability, the occupational health solutions produced by the porn industry reinforce rather than challenge status quo sexual health practice, which can lead to exclusionary, discriminatory, and ableist occupational health protocols, like the exclusion of HIV+ performers. On the other hand, when porn performers manage health and safety on their own terms, they offer compelling alternatives that trouble and expand key concepts—like autonomy, community, and consent—that form the heart of public and occupational health praxis. Third, this demonstrates how important it is for public health and health policy makers to centre epistemically marginalized subjects—not just to ensure that policies meet the needs of those they are meant to support, but also to ensure that we benefit from the rich and unique contributions of all social members.
... Melzack and Casey wrote "[t]heories of pain, like all scientific theories, evolve as result of the accumulation of new facts as well as leaps of the imagination". 6,84 Translational research helps us make sense of the accumulation of knowledge, but translational scholarship needs more imagination. A decade ago, a commentary calling for renewed investment in basic science noted that "[t]ranslators need something to translate". ...
Article
Pain is undesirable, whether it is a symptom of mild or severe illness or instead indicates disorder in the nervous system's ability to perceive and process sensory information. Nonetheless, pain is part of the body's ability to defend itself and promote its own survival-this is its fundamental evolutionary function. This normal expression of pain is not limited to what is considered useful because it alerts us to the initiation of illness. It also applies to pain that continues when illness or noxious stimuli persist. However, the parameters of what is here termed functional pain are not fully understood and are seldom explicitly the focus of research. This paper posits that failure to appreciate the functional role of pain in research has had significant unintended consequences and may be contributing to inconsistent research findings. To that end, the paper describes the misclassification issue at the core of chronic pain research-whether a given pain reflects functional or pathological processes-and discusses research areas where reconsidering the functional role of pain may lead to advancements.
... The term paradigm originated from the Greek word paradeigma which means pattern and the word was first used by Kuhn (1962) to refer to a shared conceptual framework which provided a community of scientists with a convenient model for the examination of problems and the search for solutions. Kuhn (1977) describes a paradigm as an integrated cluster of substantive concepts, variables and problems attached to corresponding methodological approaches and tools, adding that the term refers to a research culture characterised by a set of beliefs, values and assumptions that a community of researchers holds in common regarding the nature and conduct of research (Kuhn, 1977). ...
Thesis
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Poetry is the most basic and profuse form of emotive expression in Africa. The African manifests feelings through an outburst of song or poem when he loves and when he hates, when he works and when he plays, when he is in peace and when he fights, when the child is born and when death takes its toll. Poetry should be understood as a part of ongoing sets of aesthetic traditions, acts of distinction, and values. These are recognizable genres of expression (in either the ways they actively align, reject, or refigure received traditions of use).This study is an analysis of thematic distribution and poetic features in isiZulu performance poetry and also seeks to explore its socio-linguistic impact in the society. An ethnographic methodological approach was employed in this study. Data collection involved use of interviews, voice recordings and observations of the performance sessions. This is informed by two complimentary theories that served as the theoretical framework. Firstly Bourne (2001) and Tolstoy’s (2001) expressive theory of arts was used as a background theory to provide benchmarks to the understanding of the main aim and appreciation of performance poetry. Secondly, the study used Hyme’s (1981) ethnopoetic theory, where ethnopoetics is concerned with composition in the course of performance. Ethnopoetics is the study of the ways that narratives are structured into “lines” and are thus poetic (Hymes, 1981). The findings demonstrate that most of the poems studied in this research dwelt much on the theme of love but without necessarily ignoring other issues such as women and child abuse, corruption and many other social ills. The researcher also discovered that isiZulu contemporary poetry employs unique linguistic elements in its expression of the diverse thematic issues. Code-mixing or code-switching and borrowing seem to be getting more attention in the composition of performance poems.
... (Dreyfus and Rainbow's views reported in Lather, 1991, 10) The "truth" lie outside African paradigms (and Africa pays for it exorbitantly in foreign currencies in form of references, books and consultants). Divergent findings are blamed on unapproved research methodologies such as those in IKS or face paradigm revolutions as perceived by Kuhn (1962), if one is powerful enough, and from the developed countries. ...
Conference Paper
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The education Black Africans receive is imported and the research they do is to test and validate foreign understandings that rarely commit to the African Indigenous Knowledge Systems. I have studied subjects that do not appear in my culture, and so had to emigrate to find work suitable to my studies. My mind thus became peripatetic being all along confronted by discourses that challenge my origins. Possibly, other Black Africans have endured similar challenges. So, there seems to be a valid disquiet about research in Black Africa. Some possible spaces to transform discourses to accommodate Black African paradigms are proposed.
... By doing so, it might bring overlap and connection to often mutually exclusive fields. Moreover, the "unifying" idea is to draw attention to and criticize what Thomas Kuhn called normal science (Kuhn, 2021). The taken for granted Cartesian scientific paradigm of physical activity and health separated mind and body, the individual from the environment, the sense of moving from social life. ...
Article
This article offers a governing, trans-disciplinary theory for understanding physical activity in humans. The Unifying Theory of Physical Activity involves three aspects. First, it frames physical activity as an essential human act resulting from inherent urges: to feel, to explore, to transform and to connect. These urges prelude and compel people's involvement in physical activity and contribute to the meanings and purposes that sustain life and growth. Second, we argue the act of physical activity is made of three conditions. Physical activity possesses a potentiality, and it is distinct and integrated. Third, at the external level, there are social, political, and situated forces that interplay with the urges and shape human experience in/of physical activity. We offer conclusions about how this theory can inform research, policy, and practice about physical education, physical activity and health promotion.
... Cognitive and social psychologists have, in the last 50 years, produced a significant body of work explaining how human beings confidently and tenaciously favour an (apparently) unwarranted hypothesis, termed "hypothesis preservation" or "confirmation bias" (Klayman, 1995;Nickerson, 1998). "Confirmation bias" is a motivational bias that may have numerous definitions including i) the tendency to test hypotheses and search for what is expected/known, also defined as positive hypothesis testing (Klayman and Ha, 1987); or ii) an inclination to retain, or a disinclination to abandon, a currently favoured hypothesis (Klayman, 1995) or paradigm, sensu Kuhn (1962). In both cases, this bias may be conscious but is more often subconscious and a consequence of social or peer pressure or contextual components. ...
Article
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In the original plate-tectonic centric framework for Earth evolution as proposed in the 1960s, the term ‘subduction’ was initially applied to the down thrusting of oceanic lithosphere below a continental or oceanic upper plate, delineated by a Wadati-Benioff zone of earthquake foci. Over time, the use of the term has broadened and its meaning weakened by its application to the diversity of mechanisms accommodating lithospheric convergence, foundering and recycling. This has led to complex and sterile debates regarding the tectonic processes in orogens, the initiation of (modern) plate tectonics, or the tectonic regime on other planets, hampering a clear and concise discussion of those problems. We discuss three instances where the use of the ill-defined term “subduction” or even “proto-subduction”, through biases and polysemism, has hampered scientific discourse, namely (i) the Cenozoic subduction of the Western Tethys leading to the formation of the European Alps; (ii) the initiation of (modern) “subduction” in the (eo)Archean; and, (iii) lithospheric recycling on Venus. We highlight that Benioff-type subduction is only one of a spectrum of mechanisms that have operated through time (Archean to present) for the foundering and recycling of lithosphere into the mantle. We propose a framework that summarizes the various end-member modes of foundering by focussing on two parameters (i) the type of lithosphere being foundered into the mantle and (ii) the mechanical driver of the foundering process, which might predominantly control convergence and recycling.
... Although cultural transmissionin which one individual acquires elements of culture from another-is observed in many species, cultural evolution is much rarer (and perhaps, unique to our species). By evolution, we mean change that is cumulative (later innovations build on earlier ones), adaptive (new innovations yield some benefit for their bearers), and open-ended (the space of possible innovations is unbounded, since each innovation can give rise to spin-offs). 2 Formal theories and models of cultural evolution must be able to accommodate discontinuities, because they permeate all branches of culture, including art, science, and technology, as well as economic and political systems (Kuhn, 1962;Wilson, 1973;Bar-Yosef, 1998). They present a formidable challenge for models of cultural evolution, which often have built-in assumptions about how new innovations build on established knowledge (Lewis and Laland, 2012;Montrey and Shultz, 2020). ...
Article
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This paper uses autocatalytic networks to model discontinuous cultural transitions involving cross-domain transfer, using as an illustrative example, artworks inspired by the oldest-known uncontested example of figurative art: the carving of the Hohlenstein-Stadel Löwenmensch, or lion-human. Autocatalytic networks provide a general modeling setting in which nodes are not just passive transmitters of activation; they actively galvanize, or “catalyze” the synthesis of novel (“foodset-derived”) nodes from existing ones (the “foodset.”) This makes them uniquely suited to model how new structure grows out of earlier structure, i.e., cumulative, generative network growth. They have been used to model the origin and early evolution of biological life, and the emergence of cognitive structures capable of undergoing cultural evolution. We conducted a study in which six individual creators and one group generated music, prose, poetry, and visual art inspired by the Hohlenstein-Stadel Löwenmensch, and answered questions about the process. The data revealed four through-lines by which they expressed the Löwenmensch in an alternative art form: (1) lion-human hybrid, (2) subtracting from the whole to reveal the form within, (3) deterioration, and (4) waiting to be found with a story to tell. Autocatalytic networks were used to model how these four spontaneously derived through-lines form a cultural lineage from Löwenmensch to artist to audience. We used the resulting data from three creators to model the cross-domain transfer from inspirational source (sculpted figurine) to creative product (music, poetry, prose, visual art). These four spontaneously-generated threads of cultural continuity formed the backbone of this Löwenmensch-inspired cultural lineage, enabling culture to evolve even in the face of discontinuity at the level conventional categories or domains. We know of no other theory of cultural evolution that accommodates cross-domain transfer or other forms of discontinuity. The approach paves the way for a broad scientific framework for the origins of evolutionary processes.
... PER researchers have subsequently identified student difficulties in quantum mechanics classes particularly relevant to QIS education [10,[13][14][15][16][17][18][19]. Marshman and Singh [20] contextualize student difficulties in quantum mechanics by noting that students enter quantum mechanics courses with different backgrounds and levels of preparation, and that the process of learning quantum mechanics requires a Kuhnian [21] "paradigm shift" away from the 'realist' worldview of classical mechanics that often takes place in an incomplete or piecemeal fashion, an analysis that likely carries over to the context of the QIS classroom. Recent work from our group has built upon these foundations to study student reasoning in quantum computing contexts specifically [22]. ...
Preprint
Interdisciplinary introduction to quantum information science (QIS) courses are proliferating at universities across the US, but the experiences of instructors in these courses have remained largely unexplored in the discipline-based education research (DBER) communities. Here, we address this gap by reporting on the findings of a survey of instructors teaching introduction to QIS courses at institutions across the US, primarily at the undergraduate or hybrid undergraduate/graduate level, as well as follow-up focus interviews with six individual instructors. Key themes from this analysis include challenges and opportunities associated with the diversity of instructor and student backgrounds, student difficulties with the mathematical formalism (especially though not exclusively with linear algebra), and the need for better textbooks and curricular materials.
... During CaFe, we launched a reflection about specialisation, fragmentation of knowledge fields and difficulties in communicating across their boundaries. According to Kuhn (1962), different disciplines convey different ontologies and these can influence our vision and relationships with society and Nature. Science does indeed offer a powerful narration, but it has revealed its limits and cannot offer by itself answers to the complexity and uncertainty of our times (Waltner-Toews et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Starting from reflections on crises in science and society (Benessia and Funtowicz, 2013; Guimaraes Pereira and Funtowicz, 2015; Benessia et al., 2016) and on the role and responsibility of researchers in a context where calls for a greater public engagement in the process of knowledge building have increased (Owen et al., 2012 Davies, 2014), this editorial describes the experience, called "Cammino of Feudozzo" (CaFe), conceived and carried out within the framework of the Italian Long-Term Ecological Research network (LTER-Italy). CaFe is strictly connected with the informal and itinerant sci-ence communication initiative called "Cammini LTER", a series of trails (Cammini in Italian) followed since 2015 by LTER researchers, of which it maintains the name and the main vision. In particular, the researchers aimed at critically reflecting on whether and how different ways of understanding and describing the natural environment can have a constructive effect on their work and facilitate and reinforce their dialogue with society. We present the theoretical background and themes discussed during CaFe, with the aim of fostering debate among researchers from different disciplines and exploring other forms of description, knowledge, and interpretation of the natural world (e.g., artistic-aesthetic, philosophical, mythical). In this way, we introduce the special issue of Visions for Sustainability "Scientists moving between differ-ent narratives towards an ecological vision", which is dedicated to the per-spectives proposed by the participants in the CaFe experience.
... However, the switch from a medical to a political strategy in fighting the coronavirus outbreak cannot be based on medical facts, since these facts are and always were within the range of previous viral outbreaks such as the Asian flu in the mid-1950s and the Hong Kong flu in the late 1960s. Furthermore, we know from the history and sociology of science in particular since the seminal work of Thomas Kuhn (1962) that there is no sudden paradigm shift in science. There always is a discussion, if not a fight within science in which one group may eventually gain the upper hand and replace one paradigm with another one. ...
Article
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The paper points out the relevance of Popper’s seminal work on The open society and its enemies for the current situation of the handling of the corona crisis. It shows how studies that were employed to justify coercive policies committed two well-known mistakes that were pointed out notably by Popper: (i) they promoted as actual predictions model simulations that set initial parameters in such a way that pessimistic outcomes are produced; (ii) they applied methods of natural science to social science without paying heed to the fact that humans spontaneously adapt their behaviour to new information they receive. The paper then argues, following Popper, that there is no knowledge that enables social engineering with the aim of realizing one particular value such as health protection. The paper concludes with a suggestion how to deal with negative externalities that is based on human freedom.
... If you plan to perform your calculation without using QFT in this way, then you had better be able to say what your plan is. Kuhn (1962) famously argued that scientific theories are replaced not because clear experiments falsify them, but through the slow build-up of 'anomalies' in our extant theories -theoretical or empirical problems in the theory. Confronted with an anomaly, practicing scientists do not simply abandon an otherwise-successful theory; they note the anomaly and work around it. ...
Article
I provide a conceptually-focused presentation of ‘low-energy quantum gravity’ (LEQG), the effective quantum field theory obtained from general relativity and which provides a well-defined theory of quantum gravity at energies well below the Planck scale. I emphasize the extent to which some such theory is required by the abundant observational evidence in astrophysics and cosmology for situations which require a simultaneous treatment of quantum-mechanical and gravitational effects, contra the often-heard claim that all observed phenomena can be accounted for either by classical gravity or by non-gravitational quantum mechanics, and I give a detailed account of the way in which a treatment of the theory as fluctuations on a classical background emerges as an approximation to the underlying theory rather than being put in by hand. I discuss the search for a Planck-scale quantum-gravity theory from the perspective of LEQG and give an introduction to the Cosmological Constant problem as it arises within LEQG.
... On a more operational level, the community of practice approach introduced by Lave and Wenger [212] defines these communities as marked by mutual engagement, a joint enterprise, and a shared repertoire of knowledge and culture [213]. Modes and modalities of the genesis and transformation of scientific insights and "paradigms" [214] are a core topic of the philosophy of science [215,216] and especially in digital humanities numerous articles has investigated their epistemic modes (e.g., [217][218][219]). To investigate an epistemic culture and modes of research for 3D technologies in the humanities, we employed literature reviews as a low standardized method to gain an overview on a specific topic [220,221] in combination with expert opinions gained via group discussions. ...
Article
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Digital 3D modelling and visualization technologies have been widely applied to support research in the humanities since the 1980s. Since technological backgrounds, project opportunities, and methodological considerations for application are widely discussed in the literature, one of the next tasks is to validate these techniques within a wider scientific community and establish them in the culture of academic disciplines. This article resulted from a postdoctoral thesis and is intended to provide a comprehensive overview on the use of digital 3D technologies in the humanities with regards to (1) scenarios, user communities, and epistemic challenges; (2) technologies, UX design, and workflows; and (3) framework conditions as legislation, infrastructures, and teaching programs. Although the results are of relevance for 3D modelling in all humanities disciplines, the focus of our studies is on modelling of past architectural and cultural landscape objects via interpretative 3D reconstruction methods.
... I work from a view of science as a component of modernization and the political movements that have emerged and converged to challenge its authority (Beck 1992;Evans 2018;Giddens 1991;Luhmann 2018;McCright and Dunlap 2010;Merton 1938). Science and technology scholars have long argued that science is inherently political, with scientific activities representing the interests of powerful social actors (Frickel and Moore 2006;Jasanoff 2004;Kuhn 1962;Latour and Woolgar 2013). But not until recently has the politicization of science meant partisan. ...
Article
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Nowhere is the partisan politicization of science more pronounced than on the subject of climate change, with Republican and Democratic voters divided on whether climate change exists and how to address it. Existing research tends to explain the partisan climate gap through a process of manufactured doubt, with a network of corporate and conservative organizations using their considerable resources to spread denial about climate science among conservative and Republican voters. I argue that this explanation is incomplete and inconsistent with recent sociological research on scientific conflicts. I explore an alternative hypothesis for the partisan climate gap: distrust in science. I apply a Kitagawa-Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis to a large non-probability sample of Democrats and Republicans (n = 1808) to examine the relative contributions of climate science denial and scientific distrust to the partisan climate gap. Results show that lower levels of trust in science among Republicans explain a larger amount of the partisan climate gap than does climate science denial, though the magnitude of the difference in relative contribution varies by specific policy. These findings suggest that understanding the partisan climate gap requires extending our view beyond the climate change countermovement and toward a broader examination of the anti-scientific dimensions of the US conservative movement. I conclude by discussing how focusing on distrust, in conjunction with science denial, can enrich the study of climate change and science communication.
Article
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In recent years, both cardiology and cardiovascular surgery have witnessed an era of consistently evolving changes which have dramatically transformed the course and management of cardiovascular disease. The innovations initially involved the management of coronary disease, followed by aortic valve stenosis and mitral valve disease, with the progressive evolution and support of percutaneous procedures and transcatheter valve therapy. In this context, bioengineering has followed a similar evolutionary pathway since its inception as being a science applicable to pathological processes that progressively adapts to new evidence. The grounds of knowledge shared by medicine and bioengineering are providing newer and higher-performing devices ; this positive trajectory should be clear to current practitioners and trainees to foster the scientific debate. We are confident that bioengineering will have a role as an ideal partner in the improvement of new transcatheter platforms for structural heart diseases, even in cardiac surgery, besides the widely established advances in the cardiological scenario. Similarly, a crucial role will be played by the use of artificial intelligence in diagnostic imaging and procedural planning. Therefore, computational biomodeling of the heart structure using finite element analysis (FEA) studies can be considered a pivotal method of predicting the complications often associated with the use of new devices, thereby allowing safer procedures for the future. Studies that address the concerns about bulky calcifications characterizing valve stenosis or pathoanatomic phenomena of mitral annular disjunction should be a priority for
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מבטים: כתב עת לתרבות חזותית מבטים הוא שנתון אקדמי שפיט בשפה העברית הרואה אור מטעם המחלקה לאמנויות באוניברסיטת בן -גוריון בנגב. כתב העת המתפרסם בפורמט מקוון (Open-Access) נועד לספק במה לפרסום מאמרים מקוריים בתחומי האמנות והתרבות החזותית, מכל תקופה, נושא, או מדיה. בנוסף כולל כתב העת מדור ביקורת תערוכות ומדור ביקורת ספרי עיון. ISSN: 2710-480X https://in.bgu.ac.il/humsos/art/Pages/mabatim.aspx
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Prudent predators catch sufficient prey to sustain their populations but not as much as to undermine their populations’ survival. The idea that predators evolve to be prudent has been dismissed in the 1970s, but the arguments invoked then are untenable in the light of modern evolution theory. The evolution of prudent predation has repeatedly been demonstrated in two‐species predator–prey metacommunity models. However, the vigorous population fluctuations that these models predict are not widely observed. Here we show that in complex model food webs prudent predation evolves as a result of consumer‐mediated (‘apparent’) competitive exclusion of resources, which disadvantages aggressive consumers and does not generate such fluctuations. We make testable predictions for empirical signatures of this mechanism and its outcomes. Then we discuss how these predictions are borne out across freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Demonstrating explanatory power of evolved prudent predation well beyond the question of predator–prey coexistence, the predicted signatures explain unexpected declines of invasive alien species, the shape of stock–recruitment relations of fish, and the clearance rates of pelagic consumers across the latitudinal gradient and 15 orders of magnitude in body mass. Specific research to further test this theory is proposed. The authors propose a new theory explaining how predators can evolve to catch sufficient prey to sustain their populations but not as much as to undermine their populations’ survival. The key mechanism is consumer‐mediated ("apparent'") competitive exclusion of resources, which disadvantages aggressive predators in the metacommunity context by leaving them vulnerable to sudden extirpation in local communities. Testable empirical signatures of this mechanism and its outcomes include known but hitherto unexplained phenomena in fisheries science, invasion ecology, and the study of allometric scaling laws.
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The paper considers essence of economic mechanism. The object and subject of the article is the theoretical and methodological foundations of organizational and economic mechanisms for managing the activities of enterprises. Separately considered such components of the economic mechanism, as the economic, institutional, organizational and economic mechanisms. As the economic mechanism proposed defined as the combination, the system ele�ments impact on the economic interests of economic entities, which takes into account the peculiarities of its external and internal environment. As the organizational and economic mechanism of management proposed defined as the combination of administrative actions aimed for the organization interaction between elements of the system in order to achieve their economic interests taking into account features of external and internal environment. Keywords: economic mechanism of management; economic mechanism; organizational mechanism; organiza�tional and economic mechanism.
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The epistemological debate about radical skepticism has focused on whether our beliefs in apparently obvious claims, such as the claim that we have hands, amount to knowledge. Arguably, however, our concept of knowledge is only one of many knowledge‐like concepts that there are. If this is correct, it follows that even if our beliefs satisfy our concept of knowledge, there are many other relevantly similar concepts that they fail to satisfy. And this might give us pause. After all, we might wonder: What is so great about the concept of knowledge that we happen to have? Might it be more important, epistemically speaking, to investigate whether our beliefs satisfy some other relevantly similar concept instead? And how should questions such as these even be understood? This paper discusses the epistemological significance of these issues. In particular, a novel skeptical stance called ‘meta‐skepticism’ is introduced, which is a kind of skepticism about the idea that some knowledge‐like concepts are epistemically more important than others. It suggested that it is unclear whether this form of skepticism can be avoided.
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This study is a comparative analysis of the communication practice and theory of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi and Mao Tse Tung during the period in which they were the major leaders of the national liberation movements in India and China. In broadest terms, the problem dealt with is how they succeeded in communicating with hundreds of millions of illiterate peasants without the use of such modern means of communication as radio and television. If they had not solved the problem of communication, they would have been would-be leaders with very few followers and their movements would have been doomed to failure. The major method is that of content analysis in the context of the broader patterns of historical change in the countries involved. The first step, therefore, is a panoramic summary of the socio-economic and political situations in India and China during the period between World Wars I and II, the growth of the Indian and Chinese movements for independence from foreign control, and the detailed phases of national struggle during the critical war-time years of 1942 through 1944. The next step is a detailed content analysis of the major themes in almost all the recorded messages of Gandhi and Mao in the 1942-44 period. The quantitative analysis shows that, despite many differences with respect to other themes, the various themes relating to leadership style, received the greatest amount of attention from both. The qualitative analysis shows that, despite important differences, both Gandhi and Mao discussed leadership in terms that dealt not only specifically with channels of communication but also with goal values as alternatives to the perceived conditions of crisis, two broader themes that helped establish a sense of communality and understanding between the leaders and the led. The next step pulls together the communication theories of both Mao and Gandhi, a presentation based not only on the content analysis for the 1942-44 period but also on explicit statements over a longer period and tacit premises which are inferred from more general statements. It is suggested that the operational doctrines of both Gandhi and Mao have important implications for communication theory and that the more specific communication of each is a version of what, in Mao's terminology, has been called "the mass line." Finally, conclusions are reached concerning the multi-modal, multi-directional communication behavior of both Gandhi and Mao and their emphasis on the necessity that the communicator identify himself with the needs and even the life-styles of the recipients. These conclusions, it is suggested, have possible implications for future research on the vital connection between communication and development and particularly on the possibility of non-charismatic leadership in so-called "developing" countries.
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Within analytic philosophy, the existence of collective knowledge has been motivated by means of two apparently distinct, and in direct competition with one another, theoretical approaches: (i) the commitment model and (ii) the distributed model. This paper agues, however, that to fully account for collaborative knowledge —i.e., a special kind of collective knowledge—both models are required. In other words, there is at least one kind of collective knowledge, the account of which requires treating the two models not as competitors but as complementary to each other. If that’s correct, not only can we gain a deeper understanding of the specifics surrounding collaborative knowledge but also a clearer picture of the broader debate surrounding collective knowledge.
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According to Matthew Lipman, one of the founders of the Philosophy for Children (P4C) programme, critical thinking improves reasonableness and the exercise of good judgement, both of which Lipman takes to be necessary to sustaining a democratic society. Against his view, I argue that although critical thinking can be done well or badly, it does not necessarily lead to the exercise of good judgement given that the value of judgements is not purely a matter of mere algorithmic calculation or instrumental means/end reasoning. The fact that Lipman's critical thinking approach does not justify the values that guide the community of inquiry may potentially lead to epistemic injustice within the community. One way to avoid this threat is to justify the programme's meta‐philosophical assumptions by articulating and seeking to justify its epistemological foundations. I discuss different attempts to do this, arguing that none of the epistemological foundations offered can support P4C's basic assumption that critical thinking entails good judgement (where this is conceived of as a constitutively normative ability that meets the standards of ‘practical wisdom’ or moral virtue). Given these inconsistencies and lacunae, I offer a new perspective on how the process of inquiry could be conceived. Developing ideas outlined by Gilbert Ryle and Ludwig Wittgenstein, I argue that the process of inquiry may be valuable if conceived of as conceptual analysis that aims at perspicuous representations.
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Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has grown exponentially within the cardiology and cardiac surgical spheres. It has now become a routine approach for treating aortic stenosis. Several uncertainties have been raised about TAVI in comparison to conventional surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). The primary concerns are with regards to the longevity of the valves. Several factors have been identified that may predict poor outcomes following TAVI. These include the lesser-used finite element analysis (FEA) to quantify the properties of calcifications that affect TAVI valves. This can also be used in conjunction with other integrated software to ascertain the functionality of these valves. Other imaging modalities are now widely available such as Multi-detector Row Computed Tomography (MDCT) which can accurately size the aortic valve annulus. This may help reduce the incidence of paravalvular leaks and regurgitation which may necessitate further intervention. Structural valve degeneration (SVD) remains a key factor with varying results from current studies. The true incidence of SVD in TAVI compared to SAVR remains unclear with the lack of long-term data. It is now widely accepted that both are part of the armamentarium and are not mutually exclusive. Decision-making for the appropriate intervention should be made via shared decision-making involving the heart team.
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A presente pesquisa bibliográfica e exploratória, objetiva criar uma versão para o acrônimo STEM frente às demandas da educação brasileira. Assim, conceituamos: Ciência como o método da construção do conhecimento científico; Tecnologia como instrumentação para resolver problemas, envolvendo a inovação, informação e comunicação; Engenharia como processo de resolução de problemas, alicerçado no planejamento, design, construção e execução e; Matemática como linguagem para interpretar o mundo, utilizando-se da modelagem matemática. Como estratégia à integração das áreas, temos as Comunidades de Prática. Inferimos a relevância da Educação STEM, visto sua adaptabilidade aos diferentes contextos e sua relação com os preceitos da educação do Brasil.
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The research methodology is a historically determined continuous process of awareness and improvement of the path to the creation of new knowledge. The aim of the study is an attempt to develop a research program of the methodology. The object of analysis is the scientific-cognitive methodology, and the subject of analysis is its program regime. An approach to understanding the main points in the scientific methodology and the research program has been adopted, the synthesis of which is upgraded into a system of value statements that construct a solid core, buffer zone, heuristic forces, progressive and degenerative problem shifting, positioned separately for theoretical and practice-applied aspect of the subject. This allows the assessment of a number of traits of the state and guidelines for the future development of the cognitive scientific methodology, presented as a rationally reconstructed program product. Key words: research methodology, cognitive scientific methodology, scientific and research program, solid core, buffer zone, forms of heuristic displacement, competing programs, evolutionary synergetic paradigm of methodology.
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