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Abstract

Background: Bamboo is a multipurpose plant known mostly for its industrial uses but is now being recognized as a potential source of bioactive compounds and natural antioxidants. All the parts of the bamboo plant such as rhizome, culm shaving, leaves, roots, shoots and seeds have clinical applications. Studies have revealed that bamboo is a rich source of antioxidants and regular consumption of bamboo-based products may reduce the risk of age-related chronic diseases including cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cancer and diabetes. Scope and approach: This review article reports a comprehensive insight concerning antioxidants and antioxidant properties of bamboo shoots and leaves and their prospects for utilization in the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals. Antioxidants are vital constituents in the food and pharmaceutical industry as they scavenge free radicals that cause deterioration of products during processing and storage. They also promote human health by neutralizing cell damage caused by free radicals. Key findings and conclusion: Antioxidants are known to confer health benefits such as prevention of cancer and degenerative diseases, slowing down the aging process and promotion of cardiovascular health. The main antioxidants in bamboo leaves and shoots are phenols, vitamin C & E and mineral elements such as selenium, copper, zinc, iron and manganese. At present, natural antioxidants are in great demand as synthetic antioxidants being used in food and pharmaceuticals may be deleterious to health. Hence, bamboo a fast growing plant with huge biomass can serve as an alternative for the production of natural antioxidants.

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... These exogenous antioxidants are derived both from natural sources such as anthocyanins, flavonoids, vitamins, and some mineral compounds as well as synthetic compounds such as butyl hydroxyanisole, butylhydroxytoluene, and gallates (Ahmed et al., 2015;Pisoschi and Negulescu, 2011;Mikail et al., 2016;Ahmed et al., 2019). The health benefits of antioxidants, particularly concerning free radicals, oxidative stress, and inflammation-related complications such as aging, atherosclerosis, arthritis, brain stroke, cancer, diabetes, immunological incompetence, neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and rheumatoid arthritis have been well reported in the literature with phenols and polyphenols being the target analytes in most cases (Ahmed et al., 2015;Pisoschi and Negulescu, 2011;Nirmala et al., 2018;Zamakshshari et al., 2021). These analytes may be detected by enzymes like tyrosinase or other phenol oxidases. ...
... According to the literature, free radicals, oxidative stress, and other genotoxic stressors are the main culprits for most chronic and neurodegenerative diseases, particularly aging (Ahmed et al., 2015;Ahmed et al., 2017;Pisoschi and Negulescu, 2011;Dzoyem and Eloff, 2015;El Assar et al., 2013;Ibrahim et al., 2017;Ibrahim et al., 2018a,b;Nirmala et al., 2018). Furthermore, the associations between ROS generation, inflammation, and disease progression are well established through the stimulation of cytokines release and activation of enzymes (such as lipoxygenases) from the various inflammatory cells (Dzoyem and Eloff, 2015;Yin et al., 2016). ...
... Nirmala et al., 2018) Apple pomace Rice in bioactive compounds with potential food and pharmaceutical applications(Barreira et al., 2019) Bacopa monnieri Neuroprotective effects; amelioration of cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration(Khan et al., 2015; Saini, Singh, & Sandhir, 2012) Pomegranate Antioxidant; antimicrobial, antihelminthic; immunity-boosting, anti-carcinogenic; antihyperlipidemic; and neuroprotective activities; synthesizing different nanoparticles(Karimi et al., 2017) Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) pod husk Antioxidant; anti-elastase; antityrosinase; antibacterial; and larvicidal activities; encapsulating agent and UVB sunscreen potential(Campos-Vega et al., 2018) Safranal from Crocus sativus Linn. (saffron flowers) Antioxidant; anti-elastase; anti-collagenase; anti-hyaluronidase; and sun protecting activities (Madan and Nanda, 2018) Orange pekoe grade black tea (Camellia sinensis L.). ...
Article
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Oxidative stress and inflammation mostly contribute to aging and age-related conditions including skin aging. The potential of natural products in the form of naturally-derived cosmetics, cosmeceuticals, and nutricosmetics have, however, not been fully harnessed. This review, thus, critically analyzes the potential roles of natural products in inflammation-related skin aging diseases due to the increasing consumers’ concerns and demands for efficacious, safe, natural, sustainable, and religiously permitted alternatives to synthetic products. The information and data were collated from various resources and literature databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, Wiley, Springer, Taylor and Francis, Scopus, Inflibnet, Google, and Google Scholar using relevant keywords and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). The role of green extraction solvents as promising alternatives is also elucidated. The potential enhancements of the bioavailability, stability, solubility and controlled release profile of the bioactives using different delivery systems are also presented. The current potential global market value, motivators, drivers, trends, challenges, halal, and other regulatory certifications for cosmeceuticals and nutricosmetics are equally discussed. The adoption of the suggested extractions and delivery systems would enhance the stability, bioavailability, and target delivery of the bioactives.
... pharmaceutical industries (Nirmala et al. 2011(Nirmala et al. , 2018Nirmala and Bisht 2017;Bajwa et al. 2015;Rawat et al. 2016;Saini et al. 2017;Chongtham and Bisht 2021). Bamboo leaves are being used for tea and alcoholic drinks, young and old culms, shavings, and the sap is being used for the formulation of various medicinal products, and young juvenile shoots of many species of bamboo have taken the status of health food and are being consumed as fresh, dried, paste, and fermented and in fortified forms (Chongtham and Bisht 2021). ...
... Recent studies revealed the potential of bamboo in food sector being rich in nutrition, presence of good quantity of bioactive compounds, and several health benefits that can prevent many chronic diseases that has led to increasing interest among researcher for its application in the food industry (Nirmala et al. 2011;Nirmala and Bisht 2017;Bajwa et al. 2015;Rawat et al. 2016;Saini et al. 2017). There have been recent reports in the food sectors for the uses of bamboo, such as shoots in bakery products (Santosh et al. 2018, leaf extract for treatment of ailments (Das 2019), source of natural bioactive compounds and antioxidants (Nirmala et al. 2018), dried bamboo culm for the physical characteristics and proximate composition of fortified products in relation to sugar and fat substitute formulation (Felisberto et al. 2019), and bamboo fiber for improving the sensory quality of food products (Silva et al. 2020). Phenol, phytosterol, and dietary fiber are extensively used in industrial purposes for their several health benefits; however, the enhancement of such bioactive compounds in fortified products is not studied in detail so far. ...
... Bamboo shoots are consumed in different forms (fresh, dried, fermented, powder, paste) and in different ways, like just boiled in Japan, stir-fry and soups in China and Korea, heavily spiced in Thailand, Indonesia and India, or pickled in Myanmar, Nepal and in many other South-East Asian countries (Table 17.1). The juvenile bamboo shoots are delicious as well as rich in nutrient components mainly proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, dietary fiber, and various bioactive compounds like phenols and phytosterols which exhibit a great potential of bamboo shoots as a food resource (Bhargava et al. 1996;Chen et al. 1999;Kumbhare and Bhargava 2007;Nirmala et al. 2007Nirmala et al. , 2008Nirmala et al. , 2018Satya et al. 2010;Choudhury et al. 2012). Bamboo shoots are quite rich in some dietary components like potassium, silica, selenium, manganese, dietary fiber, phenols, phytosterols, amino acids, and vitamin (Satya et al. 2010;Chongtham and Bisht 2021). ...
Chapter
Bamboo is an enduring plant blessed with a plethora of functional components that make it incredibly useful for the development of functional foods. It has served as food and medicine since ancient times. Bamboo-based products commercially available in the markets of different countries are canned and fermented shoots, pickle, shoot powder, bamboo juice and water, beverages, and bamboo shoot fortified food products. The bioactive compounds such as phenols, flavonoids, and phytosterols in bamboo shoot and leaves provide youthful feeling, athletic energy, and longevity to regular consumers. Recent studies have also shown that bamboo shoot is a good source of acetylcholine, which has preventive effects against Alzheimer’s disease. Bamboo salt, bamboo vinegar, bamboo extracts, and bamboo silica are some important bamboo-based pharmaceutical preparations that are now gaining importance. Although some chemical compounds in shoots are labeled as antinutrients, their role as potential healthy biochemical components for the prevention of several health problems has been scientifically elucidated. The importance of bamboo shoots linked to functional health-modulating functions are anti-oxidation, antidiabetic, anticancer, cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, and antihypertensive. Bamboo being rich in nutrients, antioxidants, and bioactive compounds has attracted significant research and commercial interest and is gaining popularity worldwide. This chapter discusses the nutrients and bioactive compounds in bamboo and their potential role in developing novel food and pharmaceutical products to improve health globally.
... pharmaceutical industries (Nirmala et al. 2011(Nirmala et al. , 2018Nirmala and Bisht 2017;Bajwa et al. 2015;Rawat et al. 2016;Saini et al. 2017;Chongtham and Bisht 2021). Bamboo leaves are being used for tea and alcoholic drinks, young and old culms, shavings, and the sap is being used for the formulation of various medicinal products, and young juvenile shoots of many species of bamboo have taken the status of health food and are being consumed as fresh, dried, paste, and fermented and in fortified forms (Chongtham and Bisht 2021). ...
... Recent studies revealed the potential of bamboo in food sector being rich in nutrition, presence of good quantity of bioactive compounds, and several health benefits that can prevent many chronic diseases that has led to increasing interest among researcher for its application in the food industry (Nirmala et al. 2011;Nirmala and Bisht 2017;Bajwa et al. 2015;Rawat et al. 2016;Saini et al. 2017). There have been recent reports in the food sectors for the uses of bamboo, such as shoots in bakery products (Santosh et al. 2018, leaf extract for treatment of ailments (Das 2019), source of natural bioactive compounds and antioxidants (Nirmala et al. 2018), dried bamboo culm for the physical characteristics and proximate composition of fortified products in relation to sugar and fat substitute formulation (Felisberto et al. 2019), and bamboo fiber for improving the sensory quality of food products (Silva et al. 2020). Phenol, phytosterol, and dietary fiber are extensively used in industrial purposes for their several health benefits; however, the enhancement of such bioactive compounds in fortified products is not studied in detail so far. ...
... Bamboo shoots are consumed in different forms (fresh, dried, fermented, powder, paste) and in different ways, like just boiled in Japan, stir-fry and soups in China and Korea, heavily spiced in Thailand, Indonesia and India, or pickled in Myanmar, Nepal and in many other South-East Asian countries (Table 17.1). The juvenile bamboo shoots are delicious as well as rich in nutrient components mainly proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, dietary fiber, and various bioactive compounds like phenols and phytosterols which exhibit a great potential of bamboo shoots as a food resource (Bhargava et al. 1996;Chen et al. 1999;Kumbhare and Bhargava 2007;Nirmala et al. 2007Nirmala et al. , 2008Nirmala et al. , 2018Satya et al. 2010;Choudhury et al. 2012). Bamboo shoots are quite rich in some dietary components like potassium, silica, selenium, manganese, dietary fiber, phenols, phytosterols, amino acids, and vitamin (Satya et al. 2010;Chongtham and Bisht 2021). ...
... 'Tabasheer' (or 'Banslochan'/'bamboo manna') has been used since ancient times as a cooling tonic and aphrodisiac and for asthma, cough and other debilitating diseases (Nirmala, 2018). ...
... The sap of bamboo shoots has been found to contain hydrocyanic acid, leading to antiseptic and larvicidal properties for the cooling and healing of cuts (Sun et al., 2021). Further, bamboo shoots are used to ease labour and expel placenta by inducing uterine contractions (Nirmala et al., 2018). A poultice of the shoots is often used for cleaning wounds and healing infections (Sun et al., 2021). ...
... Bamboo slows down the ageing process and promotes cardiovascular health. The main antioxidants in bamboo leaves and shoots are phenols, vitamins C and E and mineral elements such as selenium, copper, zinc, iron and manganese (Nirmala et al., 2018). Even bamboo food, especially those derived from bamboo shoots, has many health benefits. ...
Technical Report
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Understanding the ecosystem services from bamboo forests can increase awareness of their importance to policymakers and local communities. This report reviews existing literature and case studies to provide a clear understanding of the different dimensions of bamboo forest ecosystem services, and the ways in which they can be harnessed.
... Nowadays, natural antioxidant compounds' demand is huge, which synthetic antioxidants have been widely used in food and pharmaceutical industry and are likely harmful to health (1). The key roles of antioxidants are to improve cardiovascular health, inhibit the proliferation of cancerous tumours, delay the progression of brain ageing, and reduce the potential damage of neurodegenerative sicknesses (2). ...
... Bamboo is found worldwidely, and its leaves are applied to medicinal and culinary roles in China (6). Different parts of bamboo, such as leaves and shoots, have enormous therapeutic potential capacities, and might provide a natural and eco-friendly method in protecting health in a sustainable method, although bamboo has been rarely studied for its antioxidant capacity (1). Accumulating evidence suggests that bamboo leaf extract (BLE) consists of active substances, for instance bamboo leaf flavonoids (BLF), polyphenols, and polysaccharides, among which BLFs are the major active components (4). ...
... Optimum precursor/product ions, retention time and their corresponding collision energy values, and concentrations for seven flavonoids in BLF.1 ...
Article
Full-text available
The consumption of bamboo leaf flavonoids (BLFs) as novel dietary antioxidants has increased owing to their beneficial biological and pharmacological functions. This study assessed the in vivo effects of BLFs on antioxidant capacity, as well as caecal microbiota, serum metabolome, and health status. The Gallus gallus domesticus model and the oral administration approach were used with four treatment groups (basal diet, basal diet with 20 mg bacitracin/kg, basal diet with 50 mg BLF/kg, and basal diet with 250 mg BLF/kg). Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis indicated that vitexin, fumaric acid, orientin, isoorientin, and p -coumaric acid were the predominant BLF components. From days 1 to 21, BLF increased the average daily gain and decreased the feed:gain of broilers. Moreover, BLF enhanced the serum antioxidant capacity and immune responses. Further, 16S rRNA sequencing showed that BLF modulated the caecal microbial community structure, which was dominated by Betaproteobacteriales, Erysipelatoclostridium , Parasutterella , Lewinella , Lactobacillus , and Candidatus Stoquefichus in BLF broilers. Among the 22 identified serum metabolites in BLF broilers, sphinganine, indole-3-acetaldehyde retinol, choline, 4-methylthio-2-oxobutanoic acid, and L -phenylalanine were recognised as biomarkers. In summary, BLFs appeared to modulate the caecal microbiome, alter the serum metabolome, and indirectly improve antioxidant capacity and health status.
... Since antioxidants can reduce oxidative damage induced by radiation, exploring potent and nontoxic radioprotectors has led to an increasing interest in various plant species and their phytochemicals (Hazra et al., 2010;Johnke et al., 2014;Kuruba and Gollapalli, 2018;Srivastava et al., 2014). Various Bamboo plant species are known for their medicinal properties as they have been widely used in Chinese and Japanese medicine to treat a broad spectrum of disorders and health conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, cancer, detoxification, fever, edema, cardiac disorders, urinary dysfunction, respiratory diseases and eczema (Chongtham et al., 2018;Panee, 2015). Antioxidant of Bamboo (AOB), listed as a novel food additive in China, is a standardized preparation of BLE produced from Phyllostachys nigra var. ...
... Antioxidant of Bamboo (AOB), listed as a novel food additive in China, is a standardized preparation of BLE produced from Phyllostachys nigra var. hnonis and has been reported to have strong antioxidative properties (Chongtham et al., 2018). ...
... These species are also listed among the bamboo species recognized by the National Mission on Bamboo Application (NMBA) of the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India. Furthermore, several animal studies have shown anti-bacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer and anti-ulcerative effects of various bamboo species (Chongtham et al., 2018). Thus, medicinal use of bamboo species have been reported as an alternative medicine in China and India. ...
Article
Introduction Bamboo species are a rich source of antioxidative phytochemicals, hence can be studied for radioprotective efficacy. This study aims to determine the antioxidant activity and radioprotective effects of leaf extracts from four Indian bamboo species, Phyllostachys parvifolia, Bambusa arundinacea, Bambusa vulgaris and Dendrocalamus strictus, against γ-radiation. Methods Antioxidant activity of bamboo leaf extract (BLE) was estimated by various assay such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, Hydrogen peroxide assay, Nitric oxide radical scavenging assay and Lipid peroxidation. Normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes were cultured with four concentrations of hydroalcoholic BLE (3,5,7 and 9 µg/ml) from the bamboo species for 30 mins prior to γ-radiation of 4 Gy or 6 Gy doses. Following this Chromosome Aberration (CA) assay and Dicentric Analysis (DCA) was performed to assess the degree of protection against radiation induced cytogenetic damage by the extracts. Results The results indicate that all the BLE exerted potent antioxidant activity and the highest antioxidant activity was exhibited by BA and DC species. The CA and DCA assay indicated a significant reduction in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in the cultures pre-treated with the extracts and 9 µg/ml showed the lowest genetic damage as well as least frequency of dicentric chromosomes. Conclusion BLE can be a good source of natural antioxidants. Administration of BLE prior to radiation exposure provided considerable protection in terms of reduction of in vitro radiation induced cytogenetic damage. This study also forms a basis for further analysis of the possible mode of action of the extract.
... Bamboo has been described as a great supply of nutrients, minerals, amino acids, and dietary fiber. These contain phenolic compounds which contribute to their significant antioxidant potential [3][4][5][6][7][8]. However, the scientific study on the chemical composition and potential application of Bambusa beecheyana species is still very limited. ...
... This trend can be seen in these extracts: BBER, BBMR, BBES, BBMS, and BBMU40 showed a potent DPPH scavenging activity with IC 50 values of 95.93 ± 0.02 µg/mL, 63.32 ± 0.04 µg/mL, 87.12 ± 0.03 µg/mL, 40.43 ± 0.02 µg/mL, and 45.01 ± 0.03 µg/mL, respectively. However, secondary metabolites such as vitamin C and E and traces of mineral elements such as selenium, copper, zinc, manganese, and iron also contributed to the antioxidant activity of bamboo extract [3]. Table 5 shows the comparison of TPC, TFC, and DPPH scavenging activity of Bambusa beecheyana and various species of bamboo. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, many studies focus on the potential of bamboo as a source of bioactive compounds and natural antioxidants for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and food sources. This study is a pioneering effort to determine the total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and free radical scavenging activity, as well as the phenolic identification and quantification of Bambusa beecheyana. The study was conducted by using ethanol, methanol, and water for solvent extraction by applying cold maceration, Soxhlet, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction techniques. The results showed that Soxhlet and ultrasonic-assisted Bambusa beecheyana culm extracts had an increase in the extract’s dry yield (1.13–8.81%) but a constant p-coumaric acid (4) content (0.00035 mg/g) as compared to the extracts from the cold maceration. The ultrasonic-assisted extraction method required only a small amount (250 mL) of solvent to extract the bamboo culms. A significant amount of total phenolics (107.65 ± 0.01 mg GAE/g) and flavonoids (43.89 ± 0.05 mg QE/g) were found in the Soxhlet methanol culm extract. The extract also possessed the most potent antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 40.43 µg/mL as compared to the positive control, ascorbic acid. The UHPLC–ESI–MS/MS analysis was carried out on the Soxhlet methanol extract, ultrasonic-assisted extract at 40 min, and cold methanol extract. The analysis resulted in the putative identification of a total of five phenolics containing cinnamic acid derivatives. The two cinnamic acid derivatives, p-coumaric acid (4) and 4-methoxycinnamic acid (5), were then used as markers to quantify the concentration of both compounds in all the extracts. Both compounds were not found in the water extracts. These results revealed that the extract from Soxhlet methanol of Bambusa beecheyana could be a potential botanical source of natural antioxidants. This study provides an important chemical composition database for further preclinical research on Bambusa beecheyana.
... Bamboo is recently recognized as a potential source of natural antioxidants and bioactive components (Nirmala et al. 2018). Orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, homovitexin, and tricin can be isolated from various parts of bamboo. ...
... Orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, homovitexin, and tricin can be isolated from various parts of bamboo. Several groups of phenolic compounds like protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acids, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechins, and p-coumaric acid are present in the bamboo leaves and shoots (Nirmala et al. 2018;Luo et al. 2015). Fig. 13.1 describes the structural identification of various flavonoids and phenolic compounds present in various parts of bamboo such as leaves and shoots, reproduced with copyright from Bamboo: A rich source of natural antioxidants and its applications in the food and pharmaceutical industry Trends in Food Science It is mostly rich in phenolic compounds, phenolic acids, etc. Various essential oils extracted from different spices have also been confirmed to be exceptional bases of natural antioxidant compounds. ...
Chapter
Reactive oxygen species are produced due to the numerous abiotic stresses in human, animal, and plant cells. These highly reactive species damage the protein and lipid structures as well as DNA and carbohydrates present in the living cells. In current years, boundless attention has been engrossed on exploitation of natural antioxidants in daily food products. A variety of plant resources like spices, fruits, herbs, and vegetables and animal proteins from fish, egg, etc. are recognized to be natural resources of bioactive materials which have antioxidant activities. Due to the organic value and economic influence, the attention of extraction of natural antioxidants from crops spices, various foods, and food by-products has been increased significantly. Extensive researches have been performed to evaluate organic substances from natural sources. To develop the fresh food products, successful studies have been reported to use antioxidative additives in food and beverages. Moreover, to describe the antioxidant activities, these natural bioactive additives have positive properties on the human cells with recognized health aids.
... Worldwide, bamboos stand out due to the multipurpose profile, ensuring several socioeconomic and environmental benefits. Among its various applications, cellulose is obtained for paper production (Rao and Rao 1990;Guan et al. 2019) and tissue (Alvarez et al. 2020); in construction (Hong et al. 2019;Fatimah et al. 2019;Sun et al. 2020), which includes the production of cement materials (Moraes et al. 2019;Rodier et al. 2019); biomass supply for fuel production (Yuan et al. 2018;Marafon et al. 2019), production of water pipelines (Shi et al. 2019); furniture manufacturing (Chang et al. 2018;Fatimah et al. 2019), crafts (Singh et al. 2013;Chang et al. 2018;Fatimah et al. 2019); food supply (Felisberto et al. 2017;Chang et al. 2018;Nirmala et al. 2018;Thapa et al. 2019); drug production; and medicinal applications (Singh et al. 2013;Nirmala et al. 2018). ...
... Worldwide, bamboos stand out due to the multipurpose profile, ensuring several socioeconomic and environmental benefits. Among its various applications, cellulose is obtained for paper production (Rao and Rao 1990;Guan et al. 2019) and tissue (Alvarez et al. 2020); in construction (Hong et al. 2019;Fatimah et al. 2019;Sun et al. 2020), which includes the production of cement materials (Moraes et al. 2019;Rodier et al. 2019); biomass supply for fuel production (Yuan et al. 2018;Marafon et al. 2019), production of water pipelines (Shi et al. 2019); furniture manufacturing (Chang et al. 2018;Fatimah et al. 2019), crafts (Singh et al. 2013;Chang et al. 2018;Fatimah et al. 2019); food supply (Felisberto et al. 2017;Chang et al. 2018;Nirmala et al. 2018;Thapa et al. 2019); drug production; and medicinal applications (Singh et al. 2013;Nirmala et al. 2018). ...
Chapter
Bamboos have peculiar reproductive characteristics, such as irregular flowering, low seed viability, and monocarpic nature, which make it difficult to introduce characteristics of interest by classical breeding. In addition, conventional breeding methods are considered inefficient when aiming at mass production. In this sense, biotechnological tools, such as protoplast culture, somatic hybridization, somatic embryogenesis, and genetic transformation, in addition to vegetative propagation, are configured as important alternative methods to subsidize programs of genetic improvement of bamboo and boost mass-scale production of interest varieties and superior genotypes. However, for the application of the aforementioned techniques, the establishment and the ability to control the multiplication of cell suspensions, with a high growth rate and with interest characteristics, seem to be of fundamental importance. Although the direction of research for the establishment of cell suspensions in bamboo has been reported since the 1980s, currently there are relatively few advances obtained, with limited work on the number of species used. In this sense, this chapter compiles the available works on the establishment of cell suspensions in bamboo, with emphasis on the two species of Guadua, G. magna, and G. aff. chaparensis, and describes a pioneering and detailed methodology of easy application for the establishment and maintenance of cell suspensions with embryogenic potential.
... Bamboo leaves and shoots are known for their nutritional properties. Researchers have reviewed the properties of bamboo leaves, and shoots (Nirmala et al. 2018). Various new products, including bamboo-based nuggets, crackers, chutneys, candies, chips, and buns, attract consumer's attention. ...
... Scientific investigations have demonstrated the efficacy of various bamboo parts in treating chronic and cardiovascular diseases. Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, diabetes, and cancer can be cured using bamboo leaves, shoots, and other parts (Nirmala et al. 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Bamboo biomass is known for its low cost, abundance, fast growth rate, low weight-to-height ratio, and load-bearing abilities, making it an attractive alternative to materials such as wood, metal, steel, and plastic for multiple applications. Bamboo is traditionally used in handicrafts, food, building, construction, pulp, and paper. The production of energy and green adsorbents with unique properties are a few emerging applications of bamboo. Porous structured, bamboo-based charcoal allows the separation of solute from solvent and can be used to detoxify the air, water, and soil. The surface functional groups can be enhanced during thermal processing, yielding activated carbon products and serving greenhouse gas capturing applications. Nanoparticle particles (Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 and silver) coated bamboo charcoal has shown microwave and Infrared energy shielding effects. Bamboo-based charcoal also has exceptional medicinal values, is an efficient drug-delivery agent, and has tremendous potential for small and medium enterprises. Bamboo charcoal is also investigated as a toxin adsorber and hence a blood purifier. This review also considers the potential and challenges in using bamboo and its products for many applications that can contribute to a renewable society.
... Bamboo is recently recognized as a potential source of natural antioxidants and bioactive components (Nirmala et al. 2018). Orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, homovitexin, and tricin can be isolated from various parts of bamboo. ...
... Orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, homovitexin, and tricin can be isolated from various parts of bamboo. Several groups of phenolic compounds like protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acids, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechins, and p-coumaric acid are present in the bamboo leaves and shoots (Nirmala et al. 2018;Luo et al. 2015). Fig. 13.1 describes the structural identification of various flavonoids and phenolic compounds present in various parts of bamboo such as leaves and shoots, reproduced with copyright from Bamboo: A rich source of natural antioxidants and its applications in the food and pharmaceutical industry Trends in Food Science It is mostly rich in phenolic compounds, phenolic acids, etc. Various essential oils extracted from different spices have also been confirmed to be exceptional bases of natural antioxidant compounds. ...
... Total amino acid content of shoots of different bamboo species ranges from 3.01g (Dendrocalamus brandisii) to 3.98 g/100g, fresh weight (Bambusa bambos). Bamboo shoots contain arginine and tyrosine as the major amino acids that otherwise is a minor component in common fruits and vegetables [22,23] . Bamboo shoots are also a rich source of proteins, which are very important for the growth and development, and also required for the maintenance of all biological functions of the body. ...
Article
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Although appreciable advancements have been made in food processing and preservation technology; world is still struggling to provide food, health and nutrition security to large part of the population. Simultaneously, agriculture is also facing countless challenges, such as scarcity of water, decline in the size of land and adverse impact of climate change. Presently, global food security is mainly dependent on wheat, rice and maize. Meanwhile, there are hundreds of lesser known species also called underutilized species including bamboo with known economic value can play a key role in promoting food security and health. Bamboo is a fast-growing plant and can grow on degraded and marginal lands. Bamboo shoot, being nutritionally extremely rich has proved good potential for food and nutritional security and health for local communities. Freshly harvested bamboo shoot is a good source of proteins, fiber, minerals, vitamins and amino acids. Several value-added products have been prepared using fresh or fermented shoots of different bamboo species and these products occupy a significant position in the 21st century.
... Bamboo is a key source of non-wood forest products, and bamboo plantations and forests have been continuously increasing in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions (Huang et al., 2016;Cheng et al., 2021;Li et al., 2021a). Bamboo shoots are healthy food due to the multiple health benefits including anticancer activity and digestion improvement (He et al., 2016;Nirmala et al., 2018). Globally, 2.5 billion people are economically associated with bamboo plantations, and the value of bamboo production is about $2.5 billion per year (Peng et al., 2013). ...
Article
Understanding the impacts of plant age on bamboo growth, soil nutrient and functional microorganism can assist in the development of management practices to maximize the benefits of nutrients and functional endophytic and soil microbes in moso bamboo plantations. In this study, moso bamboos of different ages (0.5, 2.5, 4.5 and 6.5 years) were selected. The above-ground biomass, soil properties and endophytic microbes of above-ground tissue and stump root of different age bamboos were quantified, and their interactive relationships were also examined. There were negligible differences in the heights and above-ground fresh biomass among the bamboo plants of different ages, but net nitrogen (N) mineralization and potential nitrification rates of soils were significantly affected by the bamboo ages. The soil nprA gene abundances decreased with the bamboo ages, and soil AOB amoA gene abundances of the 0.5-yr bamboo were significantly higher than those of the other older plants. Average soil urease activities of the 2.5-yr, 4.5-yr and 6.5-yr bamboos were 81.4%, 81.1% and 88.2% lower than those of the 0.5-yr bamboo, respectively. Bacterial diversity indices and richness estimators in the soils were significantly higher than those in the above-ground tissues. Endophytic microbial community structures were more sensitive to the bamboo ages than the soil counterparts, and endophytic microbial community diversities and structures in the above-ground tissues were significantly changed with the bamboo ages. Bacterial and fungal community structures in the above-ground tissues were significantly different from those in the soils. Bamboo ages significantly affected the N transformations in the soils and endophytic community structures, but niche differentiations among the above-ground tissue, stump root and soil outweighed the plant ages in shaping the whole microbial communities of plant-soil system.
... In addition, several parts of bamboo plants, including their roots, shoots, and culms, have been used in medicinal applications for thousands of years. For example, Chyawanprash, a well-known Indian health tonic prepared from bamboo, has been noted for its anti-stress and anti-ageing properties [84], and bamboo leaves have also found use in traditional Chinese medicines, such as in the preparation of lotions for particular eye conditions [85]. The report of Freeman-Mitford in 1896, in which he referred to the bamboo as a servant-of-all-work [79], noted that certain bamboo species can grow as high as 40-50 feet in height. ...
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Nature is a master engineer. From the bones of the tiniest bird to the sophisticated bioproduction of a spider’s web, the works of nature are an enigma to the scientific mind. In the fields of physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics, studying, understanding, and harnessing the intricacies of nature’s designs for the benefit of mankind is the bedrock of science and technology. One such exceptionally engineered natural material is the bamboo plant. This ancient vegetation has, over dozens of generations, reinvented itself as a legendary, resilient, ubiquitous, and impressive bioresource that is not just sustainable, but also ecologically and cheaply cultivatable, and invaluable for soil erosion control, while holding the enormous potential to be transmuted into various useful chemicals and materials. With the increasing concerns and obligations in rethinking the future of the environment, sequestration of carbon dioxide, reduction in timber usage, and preservation of already depleted non-renewable resources, it has become vital for environmentalists, governments, scientists, and other stakeholders to identify alternatives to fossil-based chemicals and their derivable materials that are sustainable without compromising efficiency. By coalescing engineering-, chemical-, and materials science-based approaches, including results from over 100 reports, we demonstrate that the bamboo plant presents enormous opportunities for sustainable chemicals and materials. In addition, we highlight the current challenges involving the optimization of bamboo-based technologies and provide recommendations for future studies.
... For Millennia, Bamboos have been utilized in traditional Asian medicine, particularly in China and India. [115][116] In folk medicine, all parts of this plant are used. Cough, fever, leprosy, hypertension, lung inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, arteriosclerosis, osteoarthritis, and osteoporosis are all treated with the leaves. ...
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Plants are considered a great source of various herbal medicines in the treatment of certain diseases and ailments. There is a growing interest in the utilization of indigenous medicinal plants as the source for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) due to the significant contribution of plant-based materials to the pharmaceutical field. Bambusoideae is a large grass family of Poaceae, comprising approximately 119 genera and 1482 described species. About 70% of the bamboo forests are covered throughout Asia. This study aims to provide an informative review of the ethnobotanical significance and traditional knowledge of medicinal plants belonging to the Bambusoideae. This review comprises informative data on medicinal plants, their uses, and parts used by indigenous people and native communities in Asian regions. In line with this review, bamboo has made significant contributions to the ethnobotanical field, specifically as therapeutics for specific diseases. Ethnobotanical data has also made a successful contribution to the CAM. Therefore, the present review on ethnobotany and traditional knowledge of bamboo is expected to have many benefits and could be a good starting point for future work in the pharmaceutical field, both locally and internationally.
... One of the most important properties of vitamin C is its antioxidant activity which helps to prevent certain diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, age-related muscular degeneration and cataract. Antioxidant activity of vitamin C in bamboo has been elucidated by Nirmala et al., (2018) . In the present study ( Table 1 ), the vitamin C content was 1.87 mg/100g in the unprocessed shoot (US) which decreased significantly (P < 0.05) after processing with 1.34 mg/100g and 0.94 mg/100g in the boiled shoot (BS) and soaked shoot (SS) respectively. ...
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With growing health consciousness, food fortification has gained immense importance globally and there is a growing demand to produce and monitor the standard of fortified food to ensure that a fortified product contains an adequate amount of nutrients and bioactive compounds. Food fortification using natural sources of antioxidants and bioactive compounds are of great interest in recent years. Bamboo shoot is known for being a rich source of antioxidants and bioactive compounds with several health benefits. The current study is aimed at preparing and evaluating the functional properties of bamboo shoot fortified crispy salted snacks commonly known as namkeen. It was observed that the antioxidant activity of bamboo shoot fortified namkeen (2100.95 μg/ml, IC50 of DPPH) was significantly improved as compared to the control (2828.24 μg/ml, IC50 of DPPH). The results also revealed a significant increase in dietary fiber, phenol (0.20 g/100g) and phytosterol content (0.22 g/100g) in all fortified snacks. Sensory attribute was maximum in namkeen fortified with 20-minute boiled shoots. Thus, bamboo shoots have enormous potential of being used as a fortificant and could play an important role in enhancing the health-promoting properties and palatability of fortified products.
... There is a growing awareness in the last few years for the natural plant-based diets (Satija et al., 2017) notably important for human health (Nirmala et al., 2018). It is believed that two-thirds of the plant species have medicinal value, and virtually all of these have antioxidant potential in certain amounts (Brainina et al., 2019;Hassan et al., 2017). ...
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Daucus carota L. ssp. major (DCM) plant is widely used in traditional medicine to treat some types of cancer and various diseases. Therefore, we evaluated the biological activities of this plant to define its effects against prostate cancer (PCa), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), oxidation, and diabetes mellitus (DM) as well as identified its phenolic composition. To determine the anti-cancer properties of the plant extract, we treated PCa cells with the extract at a concentration range of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 mg/ml. Significant results were obtained against the PC3 cells compared to normal PNT1a prostate epithelial cells. As a result of precise measurements at the millimolar level, it was observed that the plant extract showed an effective inhibition (IC50) against glutathione S-transferase (GST; 12.84 mM), acetyl cholinesterase (AChE; 15.07 mM), and α-Gly (11.75 mM) enzymes when compared with standard inhibitors. Antioxidant activities of DCM methanol extract were determined via two well-known in vitro techniques. The extracts showed antioxidant activities against the DPPH and ABTS⁺. The LC-ESI-MS/MS was used to determine the phenolic compounds of methanol extract from DCM. Chlorogenic acid (2,089.096 µg/g), shikimic acid (193.14 µg/g), and coumarin (113.604 µg/g) were characterized as major phenolic compounds. In addition, the interactions of chlorogenic acid, chrysin, coumarin, and shikimic acid with the used three enzymes have been calculated using molecular docking simulation. Practical applications Plant natural phenolic compounds have protective effects such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticarcinogen, and enzyme inhibitory. Therefore, it has an important place in the food and pharmaceutical industry. The present study aims to reveal the enzyme inhibitory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties of the Daucus carota ssp. Major (DCM) plant extract. Significant results were obtained against the PC3 cells compared to normal PNT1a prostate epithelial cells. DCM extract demonstrated considerable antioxidant activity and inhibitory potential on used metabolic enzymes. These biological effects are thought to have a relationship with rich chemical composition.
... Straw from grain production, such as barley and wheat, can also be processed to extract oligosaccharides to be used as prebiotic additives into other food matrices (Huang et al., 2017;Alvarez et al., 2020). While young bamboo shoots have been commonly used in various Asian cuisines, older bamboo leaves can also act as a source of polyphenolic antioxidants, which can be used to fortify food with bioactive compounds (Ni et al., 2012;Nirmala et al., 2018). ...
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While the world population is steadily increasing, the capacity of Earth to renew its resources is continuously declining. Consequently, the bioresources required for food production are diminishing and new approaches are needed to feed the current and future global population. In the last decades, scientists have developed novel strategies to reduce food loss and waste, improve food production and find new ingredients, design and build new food structures, and introduce digitalization in the food system. In this work, we provide a general overview on circular economy, alternative technologies for food production such as cellular agriculture, and new sources of ingredients like microalgae, insects, and wood-derived fibers. We present a summary of the whole process of food design using creative problem-solving that fosters food innovation, and digitalization in the food sector such as artificial intelligence, augmented and virtual reality, and blockchain technology. Finally, we briefly discuss the effect of COVID-19 on the food system. This review has been written for a broad audience, covering a wide spectrum and giving insights on the most recent advances in the food science and technology area, presenting examples from both academic and industrial sides, in terms of concepts, technologies, and tools which will possibly help the world to achieve food security in the next 30 years.
... Due to its sustainability, extraordinary growth rate, accessibility, light weight, high mechanical strength, and good toupghness, it has been widely used as structural materials and bio-composites for industrial applications [1,2]. Bamboo is also considered to be an important source of biofuels and biochemical production [3]. Many excellent properties of bamboo stem are governed by the properties of the cell wall, which can be described in terms of the sub microstructure of cell wall and the localization of cell wall components of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. ...
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Bamboo is a natural fibre reinforced composite with excellent performance which is, to a certain extent, an alternative to the shortage of wood resources. The heterogeneous distribution and molecular structure of lignin is one of the factors that determines its performance, and it is the key and most difficult component in the basic research into the chemistry of bamboo and in bamboo processing and utilization. In this study, the distribution of lignin components and lignin content in micro-morphological regions were measured in semi-quantitative level by age and radial location by means of visible-light microspectrophotometry (VLMS) coupled with the Wiesner and Maule reaction. There as guaiacyl lignin and syringyl lignin in the cell wall of the fibre. Lignin content of the secondary cell wall and cell corner increased at about 10 days, reached a maximum at 1 year, and then decreased gradually. From 17 days to 4 years, the lignin content of the secondary cell wall in the outer part of bamboo is higher than that in the middle part (which is, in turn, higher than that in the inner part of the bamboo). VLSM results of the micro-morphological regions showed that bamboo lignification developed by aging. Guaiacyl and syringl lignin units can be found in the cell wall of the fibre, parenchyma, and vessel. There was a difference in lignin content among different ages, different radial location, and different micro-morphological regions of the cell wall. The fibre walls were rich in guaiacyl lignin in the early stage of lignification and rich in syringyl units in the later stage of lignification. The guaiacyl and syringyl lignin deposition of bamboo green was earlier than that of the middle part of bamboo culm, and that of the middle part of bamboo culm was earlier than that of bamboo yellow. The single molecule lignin content of the thin layer is higher than that of thick layers, while the primary wall is higher than the secondary cell wall, showing that lignin deposition is consistent with the rules of cell wall formation. The obtained cytological information is helpful to understand the origin of the anisotropic, physical, mechanical, chemical, and machining properties of bamboo.
... It has excessive growth in the tropical and subtropical regions and is commonly known as a green gold and versatile resource. From the past few decades, bamboo has gained widespread attention regarding the environmental and economic aspects owing to its rapid development, small succession, and excellent mechanical strength compared with other plants (Fang et al. 2018;Mili et al. 2021).Bamboo has multifunctional abilities recognized as a powerful resource for bioactive and natural antioxidant compounds (Nirmala et al. 2018). As the demand increases, bamboo is now considered the essential source for biofuel and biochemical production due to its faster growth, easy propagation, and richness in polysaccharides (Huang et al. 2016). ...
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Bamboo, commonly known as green gold, has various advantages like its quick proliferation, requires no irrigation, replanting is not necessary, can be grown without fertilizers, and can be easily harvested in 3–5 years. The primary chemical constituents of bamboo consist of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose. Its better properties and easy availability attract researchers and scientists globally to extract lignin from bamboo. Lignin has various unique characteristics, including biocompatibility, antioxidant, antimicrobial, redox activity, etc. Thus, it has opened a new field of research and development, having a laser-sharp focus on the lignin-derived advanced bio- and nanomaterials. This review highlights a detailed and comprehensive description of bamboo and lignin and discusses the successful utilization of bamboo for extracting lignin. Various researchers using different bamboo species to extract lignin are summarized. Mainly the culms of bamboo species like Neosinocalamus affinis, Bambusa rigida, Dendrocalamus brandisii, Pleioblastus amarus, Dendrocalamus sinicus, Gigantochloa scortechinii, Gigantochloa levis, and Phyllostachys edulis, were exploited to extract lignin. This review focused on the various chemical technologies used for lignin extraction like hydrothermal pretreatment processes, biochar-catalytic degradation, soda pulping extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction. A separate section is emphasized for materials perspective status and future work, which helps in featuring all the possible fields in which bamboo lignin widened the research paths. Thus, the review enables the global reader to ignite a deep sense of knowledge to create bamboo and lignin-based research innovation.
... 4 These species and most of the other edible bamboo species contain high amounts of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins 2,3,5 as well as essential amino acids (i.e., tyrosine and lysine), and minerals (i.e., selenium and potassium) at higher levels compared to other fruits and vegetables. 2 They accumulate a broad range of specialized metabolites, such as organic acids, phenols, and phytosterols that possess potent antioxidant properties and beneficial effects on lipid profiles and serum cholesterol. 2,5,6 However, bamboo shoots also contain high levels of the potentially toxic cyanogenic glycoside taxiphyllin, which needs to be removed or reduced to a very low concentration before human consumption. 2,7 The toxicity of cyanogenic glycosides is due to their ability to be hydrolyzed to produce cyanide as an end product. ...
... The plant kingdom is a rich source of health-promoting compounds especially as natural antioxidants [34]. Several studies have accentuated on the high antioxidant capacity of plants, their derivatives such as EOs and isolated compounds in the recent years, thus highlighting their usefulness in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, food and beverage industries, especially as some synthetic antioxidants such as BHA and BHT are now suspected to be potentially harmful to human health [35][36][37][38][39]. ...
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In this study, the essential oils (EOs) obtained from three endemic Prangos species from Turkey (P. heyniae, P. meliocarpoides var. meliocarpoides, and P. uechtritzii) were studied for their chemical composition and biological activities. β-Bisabolenal (12.2%) and caryophyllene oxide (7.9%) were the principal components of P. heyniae EO, while P. meliocarpoides EO contained sabinene (16.7%) and p-cymene (13.2%), and P. uechtritzii EO contained p-cymene (24.6%) and caryophyllene oxide (19.6%), as the most abundant components. With regard to their antioxidant activity, all the EOs were found to possess free radical scavenging potential demonstrated in both DPPH and ABTS assays (0.43–1.74 mg TE/g and 24.18–92.99 mg TE/g, respectively). Additionally, while no inhibitory activity was displayed by P. meliocarpoides and P. uechtritzii EOs against both cholinesterases (acetyl- and butyryl-cholinesterases). Moreover, all the EOs were found to act as inhibitors of tyrosinase (46.34–69.56 mg KAE/g). Molecular docking revealed elemol and α-bisabolol to have the most effective binding affinity with tyrosinase and amylase. Altogether, this study unveiled some interesting biological activities of these EOs, especially as natural antioxidants and tyrosinase inhibitors and hence offers stimulating prospects of them in the development of anti-hyperpigmentation topical formulations.
... The primary antioxidants found in bamboo shoots and leaves are vitamins C and E, phenols, and mineral elements like copper, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc. Natural antioxidants are in great demand now because synthetic antioxidants found in food and medications may harm ones health [108]. The young bamboo culm flour had a low ash content (3 g 100 g −1 ), moisture content (10 g 100 g −1 ), protein, lipids, and, and the carb profile of the flour differed significantly in terms of sugar starch and total fiber. ...
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Increasing population, industrialization, and economic growth cause several adverse impacts on the existing environment and living being. Therefore, rising pollutants load and their mitigation strategies, as well as achieving energy requirements while reducing reliance on fossil fuels are the key areas, which needs significant consideration for sustainable environment. Since India has considerable biomass resources, bioenergy is a significant part of the country's energy policy. However, the selection of feedstock is a crucial step in bioenergy production that could produce raw material without compromising food reserve along with the sustainable environment. Higher growth capacity of bamboo species makes them a suitable lignocellulosic substrate for the production of high-value greener products such as fuels, chemicals, and biomaterials as well as an appropriate candidate for eco-restoration of degraded land. In that context, the current review discusses the multidimensional applications of bamboo species in India. The bioenergy potency of bamboo and probability of aligning its production, cultivation, and operation with economic and social development agendas are also addressed, making it an exceptional crop in India. Additionally, its fast growth, perennial root systems, and capability to restore degraded land make it an essential part of ecological restoration. Furthermore, this review explores additional benefits of bamboo plantation on the environment, economy, and society along with future research prospects. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Bamboo sprouts have huge potential to be used as a crucial health food due to their vitamins, amino acids, minerals, fibre, carbohydrates, and low fat content, making them one of the most widely accepted nutrient-rich food products (Nirmala et al. 2018). As a result, bamboo food items such as sweets, chutney, chukh, and crackers have been developed (Sood et al. 2013;Chauhan et al. 2016) for direct consumption for the society. ...
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A number of chemical and non-chemical preservation techniques were assumed to protect plant bioactive phenolics and essential nutrients. As a result, the influence of widely used preservation procedures by manufacturers, such as brining, freezing, and chemical (potassium metabisulfite), on Dendrocalamus hamiltonii bamboo sprouts was investigated. Freshly cut D. hamiltonii sprouts were kept for 6 months in brine solution (sodium chloride 16% w/v), deep freeze at − 20 °C, and potassium metabisulfite (KMS) solution (200 ppm). KMS maintained protein and mineral content when compared to brine and freezing (magnesium and zinc). KMS, on the other hand, also maintained higher phenolics (13.93 g GAE/mg) than brine (3.89 g GAE/g) and freezing (10.74 g GAE/g). Whereas, freezing (2.23 g QE/g) protects more flavonoids than brine and KMS solutions in terms of flavonoid content. Higher phenolic levels in D. hamiltonii sprouts preserved in KMS have been correlated to efficient antioxidant activity against the DPPH free radical agent. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) gradient approach revealed more phenolic compounds in KMS preserve sprouts, and chlorogenic acid seems to be detectable in all preserve conditions. Finally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated that freezing produced strong deformation in interior vascular tissues of D. hamiltonii sprouts, whereas brine and KMS solutions maintained overall structural integrity.
... The partial replacement of wheat flour by bamboo shoot flour in bakery products provides an increase in nutritional quality due to the total amounts of vitamins (C and E) and minerals, such as selenium, copper, zinc, iron and manganese (Nirmala et al., 2018), in addition to maintaining the technological properties of different products, such as crunchiness, it also enables an increase in fiber content and a reduction in sugar and fat content (Felisberto et al., 2019a). Despite the color change after cooking, the partial replacement of Triticum durum semolina with Bambusa tuldoides fiber and young culm floor showed desirable technological characteristics of texture and weight gain, with low solids losses and good sensorial acceptance, above all, in the condition with 1.75% of bamboo fiber and 3.5% young bamboo culm fiber (Ferreira et al., 2022). ...
Article
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The food industry has been looking for alternatives to add fiber and other nutritional properties to products. The aim of this article was to investigate the potential of products formulated from young-aged bamboo culms and shoots for human consumption. This is an integrative review article, built from the study of scientific articles available in the databases of the CAPES Journal Portal, using the following descriptors 'bamboo shoot', 'young bamboo culm', 'food industry', 'flour', 'biscuits', 'cookies', and 'nuggets', both used in combinations, in the period between 2015 and 2022. Eight scientific papers were selected, a study for each year of the period of interest, which describe the use of young bamboo culms and shoots in fiber, flour and starch-based food products. It is noticed that in recent years the use of young bamboo culms and shoots has aroused the interest of the scientific community, mainly due to its high nutritional value, antioxidant capacity, good sensory acceptance, reduced fat and sugar content, stimulating the emergence of the market consumer. For the present moment, the use of young bamboo culms and shoots in culinary preparations is sufficiently tested and adds nutritional value to bakery and pastry formulations and to animal products such as dairy and meat products.
... Consequently, the incorporation of complex carbohydrates (like dietary fibers) in meat and processed meats has been introduced by food scientists as an approach to amend the nutritional quality and technological properties of the products (5). Among different dietary fibers regularly incorporated into foods to enhance the functional and technological properties of the products, orange fiber (OF), carrot fiber (CF), wheat fiber (WF), and bamboo fiber (BF) are valued fibers that could add some beneficial properties to different food products (5)(6)(7)(8). However, they are obtained from different sources, and their physicochemical and technological properties are different. ...
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Background: The incorporation of dietary fibers in meat and processed meats has been introduced as an approach to amend the nutritional quality and technological properties of the products. Objectives: This study explores the effects of four dietary fibers, including orange fiber (OF), wheat fiber (WF), bamboo fiber (BF), and carrot fiber (CF), on shelf life of emulsion-type cooked sausages. Methods: Microbiological and sensory analyses were performed to evaluate the shelf life of the treated products during 60 days of storage under refrigeration condition (4°C). Results: The results showed that all tested fibers improved the shelf life of the samples. The microbiological examinations revealed that while all the fibers could hinder the growth of spoilage bacteria, OF sample with the mesophilic, psychrotrophic, and lactic acid bacteria counts of 5.95, 4.78, and 5.27 log10 colony-forming unit per gram (CFU/g), respectively showed the highest microbiological quality at the end of the storage. Taste, odor, and overall acceptability of the samples were not significantly affected by the fibers, and texture was the sole sensory attribute that improved in the dietary fiber incorporated products, especially in the OF sample. Conclusions: According to our results, among the various fibers, OF is recommended to the meat industry to extend the shelf life of cooked sausages.
... The main active components of bamboo leaf flavonoids (BLF) isolated from bamboo leaves are four carbon glycoside flavonoids, namely orientin, isoorientin, vitexin and isovitexin (Supplementary Figure S1) [1]. Studies have shown that BLF have a variety of biological effects such as antioxidant, lipid-lowering, antiradiation, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-aging, and have a broad application prospect in functional foods and cosmetics [2][3][4][5][6][7]. However, similar to other flavonoids, BLF have a darker color, are difficult to be absorbed, and are sensitive to factors such as light, oxygen and high temperature, which limit their applications. ...
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The use of bamboo leaf flavonoids (BLF) as functional food and cosmetic ingredients is limited by low bioavailability and difficulty in being absorbed by the intestine or skin. The aim of this study was to prepare BLF-loaded alginate-chitosan coated nanoliposomes (AL-CH-BLF-Lip) to overcome these challenges. The nanocarriers were characterized by dynamic light scattering, high performance liquid chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The biological activity was analyzed by in vitro antioxidant activity, transdermal absorption, cytotoxicity and AAPH induced HaCaT cell senescence model. The results showed that the size of nanocarriers ranged from 152.13 to 228.90 nm and had a low polydispersity index (0.25–0.36). Chitosan (CH) and alginate (AL) were successfully coated on BLF-loaded nanoliposomes (BLF-Lip), the encapsulation efficiency of BLF-Lip, BLF-loaded chitosan coated nanoliposomes (CH-BLF-Lip) and AL-CH-BLF-Lip were 71.31%, 78.77% and 82.74%, respectively. In addition, BLF-Lip, CH-BLF-Lip and AL-CH-BLF-Lip showed better in vitro release and free radical scavenging ability compared with naked BLF. In particular, the skin permeability of BLF-Lip, CH-BLF-Lip, and AL-CH-BLF-Lip increased 2.1, 2.4 and 2.9 times after 24 h, respectively. Furthermore, the use of nanoliposomes could significantly improve the anti-senescence activity of BLF (p < 0.01). Conclusively, alginate-chitosan coated nanoliposomes are promising delivery systems for BLF that can be used in functional foods and cosmetics.
... Bamboo, as a renewable and environmentally friendly resource with a history of thousands of years, has been considered very pop-ular around the world for its nutritious, pharmaceutical, textile, and construction applications [1][2][3][4][5]. In the construction business, especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions, bamboo culms play an important role in the industry. ...
Article
Due to its reliability, strength, and ease of access, bamboo has become an attractive material for engineering applications. However, heterogeneous properties and durability issues still hinder the widespread use of bamboo as a building material. Thermo-mechanical treatment is a method to decrease the heterogeneity of bamboo culms and enhance mechanical properties and durability, but it may negatively impact dimensional stability. The objective of this study was to achieve the minimum spring back, water absorption, and thickness swelling for densified bamboo. Accordingly, the behavior of bamboo samples subjected to different thermo-mechanical (TM) treatments using a two-step analysis was investigated. In the first step, the optimum TM treatment for achieving the highest critical densification degree (DD) without shear failure was determined. In the second step, the three key elements of dimensional stability were studied for this optimum case. According to the first step results, the maximum achievable DD in which no shear failure happens and the texture is not disturbed is about 43.6%, and it can be obtained at 200°C with a compression rate of 2 mm/min. X-ray densitometry analysis confirmed that DD of around 50% achieved the highest value of density, 1.30 g.cm À3. The results of step 2 revealed that the lowest values of spring back, water absorption, and thickness swelling, 4.72%, 23.80%, and 17.70% respectively, for densified bamboo occur when the densification process is conducted at 200°C and adopting a compression rate of 6.7 mm/min. In conclusion, by manipulating and optimizing process parameters, the dimensional stability and final quality of densified bamboo can be improved, opening new opportunities for this class of material. 50 days of free access: https://authors.elsevier.com/c/1dDxp3O1E1MpYA
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This study aimed to investigate the effects of roasting temperature and time on aldehyde formation derived from lipid oxidation in scallop, and the deterrent effect of natural antioxidants extracted from bamboo leaves (AOB). Results showed that roasting process significantly increased the peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), p-Anisidine value (p-AV), and total oxidation (TOTOX) in scallop lipids. Besides, 16 different aldehydes in scallop lipids were detected using an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method. Among them, the content of hexanal, pentanal, nonanal, trans, trans-2,4-octadienal, and 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal increased in a time- and temperature-dependent manner during the roasting process. After roasting at 210 °C for 40 min, their content increased by 1.23, 0.81, 1.44, 0.59, and 2.12 folds compared with the unroasted group, respectively. However, pretreatment with AOB effectively prevented aldehyde formation in roasted scallops by reducing the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and scavenging free radicals.
Article
By simultaneously regulating the photoluminescence of alloy Au/Ag nanoclusters (NCs) and thiamine (VB1) through MnO2 nanosheets (MnO2 NS), a novel ratiometric fluorescent probe (RF-probe) was established for sensitively and selectively monitoring proanthocyanidins (PAs). The introduction of Ag (I) ions could enhance significantly the quantum yields (QYs, 11.1%) of AuNCs based on the synthetic method of UVI (UV irradiation) combined with MWH (microwave heating). MnO2 NS could quench the fluorescence (FL) of Au/AgNCs mainly coming from Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), while it could act as a nanozyme catalyst for directly catalyzing the oxidation of VB1 to produce highly fluorescent oxVB1. In the presence of PAs, MnO2 was reduced to Mn²⁺, which caused that its quenching capacity and oxidase-like activity were vanished, thus the FL of oxVB1 and Au/AgNCs was reduced and recovered. The concentration of PAs could be monitored by the RF-probe with a linear range of 0.27-22.4 μmol·L⁻¹ and corresponding limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were calculated to be 75.9 and 250.5 nmol·L⁻¹. Furthermore, the RF-probe was successfully used for the determination of PAs in mineral water, PAs additive and PAs capsule with satisfactory results compared to the standard HPLC method.
Article
Bamboo shoot (Phyllostachys pubescens) is mainly cultivated in China and Japan. It represents a reservoir of micro and macronutrients and contains a high amount of proteins, essential amino acids, phenolic acids, sterols, and fibers. Thank to these compounds, several beneficial health effects have been attributed to the bamboo shoot. This review is aimed at discussing a collection of research papers on Bamboo shoot in pharmaceutical and food fields. A particular focus is addressed to the chemical profile, the different biological activities, the different uses, the traditional recipes, the methods of conservation and the treatments of the shoot. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of a comprehensive review that is focused exclusively on the applications of the shoot of bamboo Phyllostachys pubescens in different fields.
Article
The function of chitosan film was reinforced by ZnO nanoparticles and antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB) for food packaging application. The results of structural characterization indicated the good compatibility among chitosan, ZnO nanoparticles and AOB. The chitosan film had the best mechanical strength and the highest light transmittance. The addition of AOB remarkably reduced the UV light transmittance and significantly enhanced the antioxidant activity of the films. Meanwhile, AOB and ZnO nanoparticles synergistically enhanced the antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus. Our results suggested that the chitosan/ZnO/AOB films could be applied as potential active packaging materials in food industry to extend the shelf-life of packaged food.
Chapter
Bamboo (family: Poaceae) is a cash crop, and due to its economic benefit, this gift of nature is considered as “green gold.” This widely distributed plant group is facing concern regarding its conservation due to its continually increasing demand. The successful conservation of plant species lies in proper identification and characterization. In the case of bamboo, as the flowering cycle is long, the identification and taxonomical classification is dependent on mainly its vegetative features like culm and culm-sheath characters. Due to its inappropriate flowering cycle as well as widespread polyploidization of the genome, the taxonomy of bamboo is highly unstable. The molecular techniques in taxonomic classification have been employed since its discovery as it is not influenced by external factors. Molecular taxonomy can resolve many discrepancies regarding the classification and identification of genotypes which are long-standing and could not be solved based on phenotypic characters. Molecular descriptors such as hybridization-based marker like restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based markers like random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR), simple sequence repeat (SSR), sequence characterized amplified regions (SCARs), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) or sequence-based marker like single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), diversity array technology (DArT), etc. are used to evaluate the genetic diversity as well as for accurate identification of the bamboo species. The present study will elaborate on the utility of different molecular markers for identification and taxonomic classification in bamboos.
Article
Allophylus edulis (A. St.-Hil., A. Juss. & Cambess.) Radlk. (Sapindaceae) is an edible plant from the South American biodiversity that is a potential source of bioactive compounds. The mineral content and antioxidant activity of Allophylus edulis leaves were investigated, as well as the composition and the antioxidant activity of the essential oil. The mineral content was determined by ICP - OES and the antioxidant assays were assessed by ABTS, DPPH and FRAP. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Calcium, potassium, phosphorus, sulfur and magnesium were the main minerals found in A. edulis leaves. Of the toxic metals that were present, a low level of aluminum was detected. The essential oil of A. edulis has E-nerolidol as major compound and both, the leaves and the essential oil isolated from the leaves have antioxidant potential. These findings could provide a framework for developing new food and non-food products with A. edulis leaves.
Chapter
Bamboos comprise more than 1600 species distributed throughout the world, according to recent updates. They are used for a wide range of applications such as utensils, charcoal, cellulose extraction, and hybrid microfibers. Bamboos also have an important ecological role in their environment of origin. Therefore, it is critical to recognize, catalogue, and investigate the genetic resources available for the distinct species. Establishing traits of economic value and their heritability is an important step toward breeding programs. Due to the limited sexual reproduction and their natural ability for vegetative propagation, several techniques have been developed for the propagation of genotypes of interest. We provide a brief panorama of methods used for clonal propagation of bamboo species, such as culm-cuttings and culm-layering. In vitro strategies that have been optimized for bamboo propagation is also described. Finally, we outline the significance and application of molecular markers into the management of bamboos. As components of natural communities and as sustainable alternatives for large-scale economic applications, with the advantage of fast growth and high biomass production, conservation and breeding of bamboos certainly must be given attention for future endeavors.
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Sasa borealis (Hack.) Makino & Shibata or broad-leaf bamboo is famous for its richness of bioactive natural products and its uses in traditional medicine for its anti-inflammatory, diuretic, and antipyretic properties and preventive effects against hypertension, arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of S. borealis hot water extract (SBH) and its effects in ameliorating hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress, using an African green monkey kidney epithelial cell line (Vero). Known polyphenols in SBH were quantified by HPLC analysis. SBH indicated a dose-dependent increase for reducing power, ABTS+ (IC50 = 96.44 ± 0.61 µg/mL) and DPPH (IC50 = 125.78 ± 4.41 µg/mL) radical scavenging activities. SBH markedly reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the Vero cells and increased the protective effects against H2O2-induced oxidative stress by reducing apoptosis. Other than the direct involvement in neutralizing ROS, metabolites in SBH were also found to induce NRF2-mediated production of antioxidant enzymes, HO-1, and NQO1. These findings imply that S. borealis hot water extract can be utilized to create nutraceutical and functional foods that can help to relieve the effects of oxidative stress in both acute and chronic kidney injury.
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Underutilized wild plants are important sources of nutrition and medicine since ancient times and have contributed to food security, enriching diet diversity and preventing malnutrition. These plants have been used in ancient Chinese and Indian medicine such as Ayurvedic, Unani and Sidhi to treat various ailments. Ladakh, the cold-desert of India, is home to many such wild underutilized plants which have played a crucial role in supplementing diet to the indigenous people. Phytochemical investigation of these plants have revealed the presence of essential nutrients and bioactive compounds like vitamins, minerals, rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, capparisine, caftaric acid, chicoric acid, salidrosides, rosavins, emodin and anthraquinones that are responsible for their pharmacological activities like antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antinociceptive response, antiageing, antiinflammatory, neuroprotective and cardioprotective. Moreover, fortification of staple food with these plants have ability to improve the micronutrients and bioactive constituents. Identification of these compounds using a metabolomic approach could enable development of safer and affordable novel drugs. These underutilized plants, though having tremendous potential for commercial exploitation, still remain largely ignored. The paper highlights some of the underutilized plants of Ladakh and their potentials as food and nutraceuticals and future commercial exploitation for nutritional security and good health.
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Flavonoids have attracted considerable attention due to their health benefits. This study aimed to investigate the flavonoid profiles and antioxidant activity of Paeonia lactiflora petal flavonoid extract (PPF). The UHPLC-ESI-Q-Exactive HF MS/MS method was established for characterization, and 21 predominant flavonoid compounds were tentatively identified in PPF. Among them, isoscutellarein-7-(6'-acetylallosyl-(1->2)-glucoside) and scutellarin methylester were discovered in PPF for the first time. Pretreatment with PPF significantly reduced H2O2-induced cell damage, ROS accumulation, and malondialdehyde content and increased the activity of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px in buffalo rat liver 3A (BRL3A) cells. Moreover, the expression of nuclear Factor E2-related factor (Nrf2) was upregulated by PPF, whose expression trend was consistent with that of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1). These findings suggested that herbaceous peony flavonoids can be used as a natural bioactive agent to prevent oxidative stress.
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The chemical constituents of the nonpolar fractions of the bamboo shoot skin Phyllostachys heterocycla were extensively studied. The phytochemical study was divided into two parts: the first deals with isolation of the chemical constituents using different chromatographic techniques that resulted in isolation of four compounds. The chemical structures of the pure isolated compounds were elucidated using different spectroscopic data. The second part deals with identification of the rest of the constituents using the GC technique. Additionally, both crude extract and the pure isolated compounds were investigated for cytotoxic activity. One of the isolated compounds; namely glyceryl 1-monopalmitate showed highly promising effect against the MCF-7 cells with (IC50 = 19.78 µM) compared to 5-FU (26.98 µM), and it remarkably stimulated apoptotic breast cancer cell death with 31.6-fold (16.13% compared to 0.51 for the control) at pre-G1 and G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest and blocked the progression of MCF-7 cells. Moreover, the identified compounds especially 1 were found to have high binding affinity towards both TPK and VEGFR-2 through the molecular docking studies which highlight its mode of action. • Highlights • Chemical profiling of Phyllostachys heterocycla bark nonpolar extract was fully identified. • Glyceryl 1-monopalmitate showed highly promising effect against the MCF-7 cells with (IC50 = 19.78 µM) compared to 5-FU (26.98 µM). • Glyceryl 1-monopalmitate significantly stimulated apoptotic breast cancer cell death with 31.6-fold by arresting cell cycle at G2/M and preG1 phases. • Molecular docking simulation showed good binding affinities towards TPK and VEGFR-2 proteins. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma
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Phenols and phytosterols have tremendous impact on the health care system and may provide medical health benefits including the prevention or treatment of diseases and physiological disorders. The health benefits of the juvenile bamboo shoots are attributed to the presence of these bioactive compounds. Modern research has revealed that bamboo shoots play specific pharmacological effects in human health as anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, antioxidants, antibacterial, antifungal, hepato-protective, neuroprotective and antiaging. Fresh bamboo shoots are delicious, crispy and healthy, with high phenolic and phytosterol content. However, processing procedures, such as soaking, boiling and drying may affect the levels of these bioactive compounds and subsequent overall health related activities. Here, the effects of various processing methods like soaking, boiling and drying were examined on the content of phenols and phytosterols in the shoots of four bamboo species. It was observed that different processing methods had significant effects on phenolic and phytosterols content in the bamboo shoots.
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Production the healthy and desirable products is the most essential tasks of food producing industries. Therefore, the food industry engineers by using the new techniques and new food sources to improve the quality and nutritional characteristics of food, change the food formulation while maintaining the desirable sensory characteristics. Fish nuggets is a product with low fiber content and high in fat, because of its preparation process (frying). So, investigating the feasibility of improving the fiber content and reducing the fat content of fish nuggets by using the appropriate resources is one of the essential tasks of meat and fish industry researchers. In this study we sought to evaluate different statistical methods and choice of appropriate analysis of variance to assess the effect of bamboo fiber and combine it with animal collagen on the physical and chemical characteristics and sensory Nags Tilapia fish are. So that we can properly and appropriately assess the effects of these additives on food. In this study, we sought to evaluate different statistical methods and select the appropriate analysis of variance to assess the effect of bamboo fiber and its combine with animal collagen on the physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of Nags Tilapia fish. So that we can measure the effects of these additives on food properly and appropriately.
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North-East India is endowed with abundance of natural resources and bamboo is one such resource. The region is rich in diversity as well as stock of bamboo, not only in India but by extension in the entire South-East Asian region. Bamboo is a way of life and culture in the region and used for almost all purposes like surgical blades for cutting the umbilical cord of new born babies to food and medicines. Bamboo was wood for all types of construction; it was a material for making all types of household utensils, agricultural and fishing implements to fuel for cooking and warming up the homes. One extensive use of bamboo in this region is the usage of young shoots as food. Young bamboo shoots of almost all species are eaten in various forms in the region and people have developed their own techniques and methods of preserving and processing of bamboo shoots for long term usage as well. They are also aware about the nutritional value of the young bamboo shoots which has now been substantiated by scientific studies. Bamboo being a promising natural resource, the contemporary usage of bamboo shoots shall help in the socio-economic and food security of the region and accordingly people are trying to use bamboo in various new and innovative ways for the well being, good health and prosperity.
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Young shoots of some bamboo species require precooking processing to remove antinutrients to make them palatable and safe for consumption; however some nutrient elements are also removed during the process. This study was conducted to select appropriate precook processing treatments that retain nutrients with maximum release of antinutrients. Different durations of boiling (10, 20 and 30 minutes) and soaking (6, 12 and 24 hours) as precooking methods, were studied on the antinutritional, nutritional, phytochemical and organoleptic characteristics on shoots of three species of Dendrocalamus namely, D. giganteus, D. latiflorus and D. sikkimensis. These precooking processes affected shoots variously. Nutrients viz carbohydrate, amino acid, protein, fat, ash, vitamin E and vitamin C showed a decrease in processed shoots as compared to the fresh shoots, whereas an increase in starch (2.52%-27.61%) and moisture (0.09%-4.91%) was observed after boiling. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and total phenolic content reduced significantly (p<0.05) with all the processing treatments; acid detergent fiber (ADF) increased (13.25%-26.88%) after boiling and decreased (1.20%-2.33%) after soaking and the phytosterol increased (2.54%-5.67%) after all treatments in all the three species. Antinutrients (cyanogenic glycosides) were reduced by 75.76% - 96.10% after boiling and 51.71% - 86.59% after soaking treatments. Contemplating overall antinutritional, nutritional, phytochemical and organoleptic characteristics, 20 minutes boiling and 12 hours soaking treatments were found to be the most appropriate and time efficient preparatory method of shoots for safe consumption. Current optimized treatments for shoot processing can be utilized in preparation of traditional and contemporary gastronomies as well as in pharmaceutical industries and for fortification of various food items.
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: Bamboo shoot, a neglected and less known traditional delicacy is gaining popularity for health promoting properties; generally consumed fresh but requires processing to remove acridity, improve palatability and for long term preservation, however processing affects the nutrient and phytochemical composition. In this study, fresh, processed (boiled, soaked and fermented) and six months stored shoots of Bambusa balcooa and B. bambos were analysed for macro and micromineral elements by using wavelength dispersion X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Results depicted the presence of eight macrominerals (P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cl, Na, Si) and five micromineral elements (Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Ni). Envisioning all treatments, boiling and six months storage reduced significantly (p<0.05) nearly all macromineral elements while minimally the micromineral elements. Soaking was apropos relatively as it retained maximum content of K (64-87%), P (80-95%), Mg (83-86%) and increased Ca, Na and S while unaltering Zn and Cu content. With fermentation, micromineral elements were better retained or negligible change was observed.
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Bamboo has a vital importance in the lives of the native tribes and is extensively grown in varied climatic zones. It is a valuable and renewable natural resource. India is one of the richest countries in terms of bamboo resources with about 136 species. In this review, we tried to collect and systematically arrange all the available important literature on nutritional importance of bamboo with special emphasis on the traditional foods and future processing avenues. New bamboo culms that come out of the ground, called shoots are usually used in Asian cookery in various ways (raw, canned, boiled, marinated, fermented, frozen and liquid). Bamboo provides moisture (89.3 %), low fat (0.41 g/100g), high dietary fibre (3.90 %), and mineral content (1.03 %). It is also a good source of thiamine, niacin, vitamin A, vitamin B6, and vitamin E. However, they contain a potentially toxic glycoside of α-hydroxynitrile, called taxiphyllin. Trade potential of bamboo is not fully exploited, though it has the prospective to ensure livelihood security, in both rural and urban areas. As it is a seasonal product and delicate in nature, processing and preservation of bamboo products are the important steps to make bamboo accessible in developing countries. Nutraceutical potential of bamboo shoot is also explored in this review. © 2017, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All Rights Reserved.
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Nutritionists are classically concerned with the associations between nutrients and diets and nutrition and health outcomes. Understanding these associations is important. Insufficient and poor quality food, especially during pregnancy and in early childhood is a major contributor to the high burden of undernutrition: globally, 159 million children younger than 5 years are stunted (too short for their age), 50 million children globally are wasted (dangerously thin), and more than 3 million children die every year from causes associated with undernutrition. Simultaneously, nutrition-related chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer are major contributors to the global burden of disease. Ambitious goals have been set by the international community to eliminate malnutrition in all its forms, and 2016 saw the start of a UN Decade of Action on Nutrition designed to reinvigorate national and international efforts for nutrition.
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Purpose: To isolate and identify chemical components of Phyllostachys prominens (Poaceae) leaf extracts, and measure their antioxidant activities. Methods: Ethanol extracts of P. prominens leaves were subjected to different chromatographic methods: macroporous resin column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, and semi-preparative, reversed-phase (RP) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Plant extract components were identified by ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV), mass spectrometry (MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assay was used to measure the radical scavenging activity of the compounds. Results: We isolated fourteen compounds including six flavonoids, two lignans, two phenolic glycosides, a phenolic acid, a phenylpropanoid, a monoterpene glycoside, and amarusine from the leaves of Phyllostachys prominens. The DPPH assay showed that eleven compounds (compounds 1, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14) exhibited radical scavenging activity. (The half maximal inhibitory concentration ranged from 33.52 to 100.58 μg/mL). The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of compounds 1, 4, 6 and 7 were 33.52, 40.61, 47.10, and 35.84 μg/mL respectively, while the IC50 of the positive control, butylated hydroxytoluene, was 46.32 μg/mL. Conclusion: Fourteen compounds have been successfully all isolated from Phyllostachys prominens for the first time. Eleven of the compounds have radical scavenging activity. © Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. All rights reserved.
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Bamboo shoots are highly nutritious but difficult to preserve even under low temperature since they are sensitive to chilling. In the present research, bamboo shoots were exposed to UV-C light (4.1 kJ/m2) prior to 56 days storage at 1 °C to evaluate the potential of UV-C treatment on alleviating chilling injury (CI) of bamboo shoots under cold storage. CI incidence and physiological and biochemical characteristics associated with CI were determined during storage. The results showed that UV-C treatment apparently inhibited the development of CI and resulted lower EI and MDA content than that of the control. Further investigation demonstrated that UV-C treatment increased activities of CAT, APX, GR and DPPH scavenging activity of bamboo shoots, which greatly contribute to alleviating CI. The increases in both O2− production rate and H2O2 content of UV-C-treated bamboo shoots were significantly delayed, PAL activity was increased which contributed to enhancing accumulation of TP, and endogenous proline synthesis was promoted, which resulted from the increased activity of P5CS and decreased PDH activity. The results above suggest that the improved antioxidative defense system and enhanced proline accumulation is the underlying mechanism that UV-C treatment enhanced chilling tolerance in bamboo shoots. © 2015, Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.
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Quality of bamboo shoots gets deteriorate rapidly during storage and transportation due to enzymatic browning and microbial attack. Therefore, effect of blanching temperature (75, 85 and 95 ° C) and time (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min) on different physic-chemical properties of bamboo shoot cubes were assessed. Blanching time and temperature have significantly influenced the nutrients like protein, carbohydrate and reducing sugar contents. The highest changed in values of protein, carbohydrate and reducing sugar were reported from 3.42 to 2.24, 4.08 to 2.25, 1.33 to 0.87 g/ 100 g, respectively. The influence was less on ash and crude fiber. Retention of ascorbic acid, total phenolics and antioxidants were higher in 75 ° C and/or short time blanching (5-10 min) which were gradually reduced at 85 and 95 ° C and/or long time blanching (20-30 min). The higher blanching temperature decreases in lightness value and long time blanching deteriorate the texture of bamboo shoot. Low temperature short time blanching was shown to result in better product quality with respect to physical properties besides nutrient retention.
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Bamboo is a multi-utility plant being used as a building material, for industrial purposes, as a food source and a versatile raw material for various products. In recent times, it is gaining importance for its health benefits and is emerging as a potential ingredient for modern functional foods and nutraceuticals. The leaves possess antioxidant properties due to the presence of phenolic compounds and have been used for enhancing immunity, preventing degenerative diseases and also in the food industry. The young shoots in addition to being used as a vegetable in the conventional form in various cuisines are now being used as an ingredient in functional foods. The shoots have anti-hypertensive, anti-tumour and anti-oxidant properties and have also been proven to possess cholesterol-lowering activity. Bamboo salt is used as a medicinal food in many Asian countries and provides a wide range of health benefits and has attracted many pharmaceutical scientists worldwide. Thus, bamboo is an ideal plant and has great promise for the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmoceutical and the food industry.
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Adding dietary fiber in milk pudding is of great significance in improving the nutritional value of a variety of products as well as human health. However, only a few reports on the influence of dietary fiber on the rheological behavior and textural properties of milk pudding are available. Therefore, in this paper, the milk pudding was used as raw material to study the changes in rheological behavior, textural properties, and microstructure of the pudding after adding bamboo shoot diatery fiber (BSDF) at different concentration. Results showed that the BSDF/milk pudding compound system is a typical pseudoplastic fluid with yield stress. With the addition of 2 g BSDF/100 g, the yield stress and consistency coefficient values were the highest, whereas the fluid index showed the smallest value. The hardness, viscosity, and gumminess increased until 2 g/100 g concentration and they decreased with further addition of BSDF, whereas cohesiveness demonstrated the opposite behavior. Meanwhile, the microstructure of the compound system revealed that BSDF increases the aggregation of particles and the cohesiveness between BSDF and the milk pudding and made the microstructure more compact. However, when the concentration was over 2 g/100 g, the gel structure of milk pudding was damaged, resulting in flocculation.