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Abstract

As populations live longer, healthier lives in countries like Australia the growing population of older people is increasing the strains on social security and pension systems. Yet many seniors are healthy and want to remain active during the later years in life. Whilst there is significant research on seniors, ageing and the employment of mature-aged people there is scant research on seniors creating jobs as opposed to seeking jobs as employees. This is the first empirical research specifically on senior entrepreneurship in Australia. Seniors often have the skills, financial resources and time available to contribute to economic activity, which leads to the growing prevalence of senior entrepreneurship. Senior entrepreneurship is the process whereby people aged 50+ participate in business start-ups; however, despite representing the fastest growing segment of entrepreneurship little is known about this phenomenon. This research seeks to answer the following questions: What is the scope of senior entrepreneurship in Australia? What are the impacts of senior entrepreneurship in Australia? What perceptions do seniors hold about entrepreneurship as a career option? What policy implications and recommendations can be derived to enhance active ageing, and extend working lives through senior entrepreneurship? A systematic literature review was initiated to guide the study, complimented with analysis from large national databases, namely the Comprehensive Australian Study of Entrepreneurial Emergence (CAUSEE) and the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). We developed conceptual themes to frame the study. Qualitative interviews were conducted among available network members and a quantitative survey was distributed amongst National Seniors Australia (NSA) members.

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... Mature-aged entrepreneurship is the process whereby people aged 50þ participate in business start-ups (Kautonen et al., 2014;Maritz et al., 2015). The mature-aged entrepreneur is often referred to as the seniorpreneur, latepreneur, third-age entrepreneur, grey entrepreneur, late-career, or old entrepreneur. ...
... In order to contextualise the research, it is important to outline how the concept of entrepreneurship and self-employment is defined and used in this paper. We apply the definitions above as proposed by Kautonen et al. (2014) and Maritz et al. (2015), with the caveat that we use the terms entrepreneurship and self-employment interchangeably; mindful that some scholars separate the two, viewing entrepreneurship in a more idealised, innovative-oriented lens (Bygrave & Hofer, 1992;Schumpeter, 1934). As such, those who are self-employed are often described as consultants, small business owners, entrepreneurs, and social entrepreneurs (Pitt-Catsouphes et al., 2017). ...
... Investigation of Australian mature-aged entrepreneurs (e.g., Maritz et al., 2015;Maritz & Eager, 2017) reveals heterogeneity of motivations, lifestyles, employment, and venture type, both within and across the limited number of sampled cohorts. One study, drawing on data from National Seniors Australia , found the average age of senior entrepreneur respondent to be 57 years (with 11% aged 71 years or older), and that levels of participation were somewhat balanced across a binary male-female gender categorisation. ...
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... Concerning age (column 1), the matrix displays meager correlation rates. Contrary to developing countries, such as Mexico, developing nations' seniors are more driven by opportunity than necessity entrepreneurship and are primarily internally motivated [100], as they have the skills, financial resources [27], and time available to contribute to economic activity [101]. With regards to gender (column 2), correlations are also low, and there are no substantial differences between the values, education being the highest correlation value (0.155), which shows that higher educational levels slightly increase entrepreneurial growth ambition. ...
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... Target groups are those who are disadvantaged and under-represented in entrepreneurship and self-employment including youth, women, seniors, ethnic minorities, immigrants, and disabled people (OECD, 2010). A recent study of senior entrepreneurship from a minority and inclusive perspective in Australian entrepreneurship provides contextual adaptation for this study (Maritz et al., 2015). ...
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Son yüzyılda yaşanan tıbbi ve bilimsel gelişmelerin etkisiyle ortalama yaşam süresi artmış buna bağlı olarak yaşlı nüfus hızla artmaya başlamıştır. Öte yandan sanayileşme ve kentleşme sürecinin de etkisiyle yaşlılık önemli bir sosyal sorun olarak görülmeye başlanmış ve devletlerin öncelikleri arasına girmiştir. Diğer yandan büyük ölçüde üretken olmayan ve bağımlılık oranı yüksek olan yaşlılar ekonomiler için büyük bir yük haline gelmeye başlamıştır. Bu nedenle devletler yaşlıları ekonomik ve sosyal hayatın içinde kalmaları ve aktif bir yaşlılık dönemi geçirmeleri için teşvik etmektedirler. Bu bağlamda yaşlı nüfusun üretkenliğinin sağlanmasının yollarından biri yaşlı girişimciliğidir. Girişimcilik faaliyetleri ile yaşlılar ekonomik hayatın içinde kalmaya devam ederken sosyal olarak da kendilerini toplumun bir parçası olarak görmeye devam etmektedirler. Dünya’da giderek artan yaşlı girişimciliği trendi akademik olarak da ele alınmaya değer önemli bir faaliyet alanı haline gelmiştir. Bu çerçevede çalışma ile Türkçe literatür için yeni bir kavram olarak yaşlı girişimciliği genel hatları ile ele alınmıştır. Ayrıca özellikle bir sosyal politika kavramı olarak bağımlı nüfus ekseninde yaşlıların girişimcilik faaliyetlerine katılmalarının olası sonuçları tartışılmıştır.
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