Article

Nonprofit fundraising with virtual reality

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Abstract

An increasingly competitive fundraising environment and the new media ecosystem have prompted nonprofit organizations to strengthen their digital marketing capabilities. Recently, a few nonprofits have used virtual reality (VR) technology in fundraising, which raises questions about its effectiveness. Does VR work, and if so, through what psychological mechanisms? Through a lab experiment, the usefulness of VR as a digital fundraising tool was investigated. Specifically, we compared the media effects of experiencing the same fundraising video on two different devices: (a) a head‐mounted VR and (b) a tablet. The results revealed that donation intention, perceived vividness, perceived interactivity, and social presence were all significantly greater with the VR medium than with the tablet medium. Next, we tested and successfully verified the mediation effect of social presence on donation intention. Finally, we verified that a viewer's sensation‐seeking tendency served as a moderator when the device type influenced donation intention. Specifically, the media effects of VR were stronger for high sensation seekers than for low sensation seekers. This study contributes to theory and research by verifying the VR fundraising effect and identifying the key role of social presence, and it also provides important managerial guidelines for media design in VR fundraising campaigns.

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... For reasons of relevance, focus and feasibility, we focus on the public communication of refugee organizations. Other, often related forms of communication, including marketing, fundraising communication (e.g., Yoo & Drumwright, 2018), private advocacy, and internal organizational communication of international refugee organizations are sometimes discussed, if relevant for explaining public communication (cf. see especially Chapter 9) but are not part of the central research focus of this project. ...
... In addition, we mainly focused on press releases, various types of news stories, photos and videos. Nevertheless, research into other used media genres is also important, including new media genres such as drone footage, virtual reality, and 360-degree videos (Wright, 2019, Yoo & Drumwright, 2018. Finally, although international refugee organizations very occasionally communicate about affected people who have not and/or cannot fled (cf. ...
... More concretely, some studies found that artistic storytelling campaigns create distance from affluent lifestyles in the 'Global North', triggering emotional alienation and encouraging 'Global Northern' citizens to reflect on global issues, such as the forced migration problem (Chouliaraki, , 2012a. Similarly, virtual reality technology is sometimes considered as an 'empathy machine' which can reduce the distance between forcibly displaced people and the audience by creating immersive, experiential non-mediated immediacy in the reality of and identification with the 'distant other' (Garcia-Orosa & Pérez-Seijo, 2020;Irom, 2018Irom, , 2022Schlembach & Clewer, 2021), which would increase donation intentions (Yoo & Drumwright, 2018). However, various academics criticize this humanitarian communication strategy for its focus on empathetic identification, limited political possibilities (Irom, 2018), risks to flatten real and material differences between suffers and spectators through the 'illusion of co-suffering' and to create 'improper distance' (Irom, 2022) potential depoliticizing effects, neglect of the political context, and unethical and manipulative nature, facilitating 'forced empathy' (Schlembach & Clewer, 2021). ...
Thesis
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Although forced migration has always occurred throughout history, it has increased significantly recently. The largest increase took place between 2012 and 2015 and was largely driven by conflicts in Syria, Iraq, Yemen, and Central African and East African countries (the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR], 2021). Worldwide, forcibly displaced people are, however, nowadays confronted with hostility, xenophobia and the increasing popularity of extreme right-wing political parties (Frelick, 2007; Freedman, 2015). Furthermore, in recent decades, several states have tightened their asylum policies and/or become more reluctant to cooperate with refugee organizations (Johnson, 2011; Freedman, 2015). Since 2015, the theme of forced migration has been ubiquitous in (often polarized, overlapping and interacting) public, media and political debates (Hellman & Lerkkanen, 2019). Within such contexts, UNHCR, which is mandated to lead and coordinate refugee protection worldwide (Jones, 2013), and other international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs) play key roles as providers of assistance and/or protection to forcibly displaced people (Betts et al., 2012). However, through public communication, they also try to inform, raise awareness and set news media, public, political and donor agendas. Therefore, they provide diverse communication content to news media and increasingly communicate directly with citizens via social media and websites (Atkin & Rice, 2013). Hence, these organizations can significantly influence how the general public perceives forcibly displaced people and related displacement crises (Chouliaraki, 2012a) and consequently can have broader policy and societal consequences. Nevertheless, few studies have examined how they attempt to influence public, media and political agendas, and even less studies have analysed the underlying reasons behind the use of their discursive strategies. While most research has analysed the news-making activities of humanitarian organizations, and broader changing journalism-NGO relationships in evolving news and humanitarian ecologies (e.g., Ongenaert & Joye, 2016; Powers, 2018; Van Leuven & Joye, 2014), fewer studies specifically investigated refugee organizations. Second, most research centres on agenda-setting (e.g., McCombs & Valenzuela, 2021) and, to lesser extents, stakeholders’ efforts to influence about which subjects news media, citizens or other stakeholders should think (cf. first-level agenda-building) (Kim & Kiousis, 2012). However, to our knowledge, only a few studies, have thoroughly explored refugee organizations’ second-level agenda-building strategies which attempt to influence how stakeholders perceive certain subjects (Kim & Kiousis, 2012). Further, they mainly textually focus on one organization, media genre, year, and/or crisis, lacking essential explanatory comparative, production, and/or societal perspectives. Therefore, adopting a mixed-methods research design, this research project analysed refugee organizations’ public communication strategies from multiple perspectives. More specifically, we examined various relevant international refugee organizations’ public communication strategies regarding the recent Syrian and Central African crises. Hence, the central research objective of this project is to investigate the conceptual, textual, production and societal dimensions and their interactions involved in international refugee organizations’ public communication strategies. This overarching objective is operationalized through three more specific, interrelated sub-objectives, corresponding to three components and adopting a source-to-end product perspective. First, we examined the conceptual dimension of international refugee organizations’ public communication strategies (component 1). How can the public communication of international refugee organizations be conceptualized? For this purpose, we conducted an extensive literature review. Second, we studied the textual dimension of international refugee organizations’ public communication strategies (component 2). Which discursive strategies do international refugee organizations mainly use (cf. how, who, what)? Acknowledging current trends and gaps within the literature, this sub-objective can be further divided into three more specific objectives: 1. How are forcibly displaced people mainly (not) represented and discussed in international refugee organizations’ public communication? In other words, which representation and argumentation strategies do the international refugee organizations use? For this purpose, we conducted two empirical studies. First, acknowledging potential organizational differences, we applied a comparative-synchronic (Carvalho, 2008) critical discourse analysis (CDA) according to Fairclough’s (1992, 1995) CDA model on the international press releases (N=122) of UNHCR and two INGOs, de ‘Danish Refugee Council’ (DRC) and de ‘International Rescue Committee’ regarding the Syrian crisis (2014-2015). Additionally, we conducted semi-structured expert interviews (N=6) with press and regional officers at these organizations to yield additional empirical material about the underlying production and societal contexts. Second, recognizing potential media genre and crisis differences, we applied a comparative-synchronic multimodal critical discourse analysis (MCDA) (Machin & Mayr, 2012), again following Fairclough’s (1992, 1995) CDA model, on UNHCR’s international press releases (N=28), news stories (N=233), and related photos (N=462) and videos (N=50) of the key year 2015. 2. Who is mainly (not) represented and given a voice in international refugee organizations’ public communication? 3. What is mainly (not) represented and discussed in international refugee organizations’ public communication? Which key characteristics (e.g., organizations, crises, media genres, years) and themes do international refugee organizations represent? To meet these specific objectives and acknowledging organizational, media, crisis and temporal differences, we applied a comparative, longitudinal, intersectional quantitative content analysis (Neuendorf, 2017; Riffe et al., 2019) on the press releases and news stories (N=1244) about the recent Syrian and Central African crises (2015-2018) of UNHCR, and two INGOs, the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) and the European Council on Refugees and Exiles (ECRE). Third, we focused on the production and societal dimensions (component 3). Central to the corresponding component are the production, political, economic and socio-cultural contexts, forces and motivations behind the public communication strategies. How do the underlying production, political, economic and socio-cultural contexts, forces and motivations explain the discursive strategies of international refugee organizations (cf. why)? Likewise, this sub-objective can be further divided into three more specific objectives that correspond with the specific textual objectives: 1. How can we explain how forcibly displaced people are mainly (not) represented and discussed in international refugee organizations’ public communication? 2. How can we explain who is mainly (not) represented and given a voice in international refugee organizations’ public communication? 3. How can we explain what is mainly (not) represented and discussed in international refugee organizations’ public communication? Therefore, we conducted a three-week office ethnography at NRC’s main press and communication department, semi-structured expert interviews with press and communication officers of NRC (N=10), and a document analysis of the key communication policy documents of NRC. We thereby focused each time on the production and societal contexts of NRC’s public communication regarding the recent Syrian and Central African crises. In general, we found diverse, often mixed results that nuance, extend and sometimes contradict the existing literature on the public communication of refugee organizations and, more generally, humanitarian communication, and frequently interact with and explain each other. For reasons of relevance, focus and space, we discuss below interactions between different dimensions, as evidenced within one or more studies. The literature review indicated that in recent decades the social and scientific relevance of research on strategic and non-profit communication in general and on refugee organizations’ public communication particularly have increased. Nevertheless, these fields remain underdeveloped and are mostly text-focused, while the production and reception dimensions are barely explored. Remarkably, however, little or no research has been conducted from an organizational communication perspective, although this study demonstrates that the subject can be adequately embedded in and examined from the fields of strategic, non-profit and public communication. Specifically, our dissertation highlights the relevance of the holistic Communicative Constitution of Organizations (CCO) perspective. This perspective argues that communication is not just an activity that occurs within or between organizations, but forms the constitutive process of organization (Putnam & Nicotera, 2010). Further, strongly influenced by the understandings of Oliveira (2017), Atkin and Rice (2013), and Macnamara (2016), we define refugee organizations’ public communication as the practice of organized and systematic symbolic social action (diversified communication disseminated through a variety of channels and activities) within the public sphere to reach set goals, co-create the refugee organization, perform civic relations and fulfil its mission by groups of people that pursue the (perceived) common good for forced migration. Finally, our conceptual study argues that future research can benefit by adopting multi-perspective, practice-oriented, multi-methodological, comparative and/or interdisciplinary approaches to which we respond in our empirical studies. Regarding the ‘how’ and related ‘why’ dimensions, the critical discourse analysis shows that the observed organisations to varying extents dehumanize forcibly displaced people and subordinate them to the ‘Western Self’ and national state interests in their press releases. Acknowledging organizational and media genre differences, these power inequalities can be explained by the use of various discursive strategies, as well as the broader production and social contexts. The findings demonstrate that forcibly displaced people are often portrayed as a homogenous and suffering collective, confirming the dominance of the regime of pity’s traditional ‘negative’ representational strategies (Bettini, 2013; Chouliaraki, 2012a; Johnson, 2011). However, unlike existing fragmented research, this analysis also found evidence of the use of other discursive strategies and explored the production process and the social context. The aforementioned depersonalising humanitarian discourse can be considered to be the product of the specific features of the press releases. The importance of news media attention and commercial reasons are other explanatory factors. In addition, the study found articulations of a simultaneously existing post-humanitarian discourse. The interviews revealed that the humanitarian sector has evolved from a non-economic to a market-oriented sphere within which private choice and self-expression are central. One can relate this post-humanitarian discourse to the regime of irony and consider it as an expression of neoliberalism (Chouliaraki, 2012a). While post-humanitarian discourses respond to the needs for personal development and self-expression, the oft-deployed cross-issue persuasion strategy responds to state interests and reflects political realism (Grieco, 1999). Both strategies are self-directed and reduce forcibly displaced people principally to secondary figures. Similarly, the comparative-synchronic multimodal critical discourse analysis reveals that UNHCR primarily represents forcibly displaced people in its press releases and, to lesser extents, in its news as generic, anonymized, passive, victimized, deprived, and/or voiceless masses, reproducing humanitarian saviour logics and hierarchies of deservingness. However, stories, photos, and videos frequently combine these representations with portrayals of empowered individual doers, speakers, and/or thinkers. Both representation strategies can be partially explained by news logics such as genre characteristics, news media conventions, and representations, and by respectively political and private sector discourses and agenda-building opportunities, and related organizational goals, as the expert interviews show. Furthermore, we identified several argumentation methods, particularly in textual communication genres. UNHCR mainly attempts to stimulate pity-based solidarity but also voices various neoliberal post-humanitarian (mainly Western) Self-oriented solidarity discourses. Refining cross-issue persuasion, we discovered that UNHCR links protection to states’ (perceived) interests in various issue areas but also in various principles and values, and propose the more appropriate concept of ‘cross-interest persuasion’. Rather than just to other (perceived) important issue areas, refugee organizations link contributions to protection to the interests of states in general. Moreover, the term emphasizes the political realist nature of the pragmatic argumentation strategy. Finally, we consider these discursive strategies as reflections and reproductions of, and responses to dominant migration management paradigms and the increasingly neoliberalized and political realist international refugee regime. Concerning the textual ‘who’, ‘what’ and connected ‘why’ dimensions, the comparative, longitudinal and intersectional quantitative content analysis shows a mixed picture of what and who are (not) represented, involving interorganizational commonalities and differences. First, regarding ‘what’, the refugee organizations predominantly communicated in 2015 and 2016 about forcibly displaced people involved in the Syrian crisis, because of intertwined organizational, societal and/or financial reasons and mainstream media logics. More specifically, it is far more difficult for international refugee organizations to obtain media attention for the Central African crisis than the Syrian crisis, because of various factors such as the nature, magnitude, implications, mediatization and comprehensibility of the conflicts, and geographic and cultural proximity. As there is more media attention on Syria, international refugee organizations generally obtain also more resources specifically intended for the Syrian crisis, including for press and communication efforts. This leads on its turn to even more attention for this crisis, creating a ‘Vicious Neglected Crisis Circle (VNCC) effect’. Organizational factors generally reinforce this effect, while security and political factors in the case of communication about Syria limit it. Regarding ‘who’, we observed that primarily forcibly displaced people and refugee organizations obtain voices in het public communication about the investigated forcibly displaced people, refining earlier studies. Additionally, examining several (largely unexplored) sociodemographics, this study finds that individualized forcibly displaced people are represented in significantly unbalanced manners (e.g., mainly along age, geographical location, legal status, current country and continent, nationality, life stance, sexual orientation, family situation, marital status and former and current profession). This can be explained by a myriad of pragmatic, humanitarian, societal, organizational, ethical/personal, practical, security, political and/or narrative reasons. Shaped by production and societal contexts, humanitarian communication reproduces and reflects quantitative mediated hierarchies of suffering, both between (cf. what) and within (who) crises. In general, we can conclude that various pragmatic and contextual factors explain ‘how’, ‘who’ and ‘what’ are represented. Finally, we argue that well-balanced humanitarian communication is essential for societal and strategic reasons (e.g., negative long-term implications of imbalanced humanitarian imagery and sensational public communication, branding opportunities as reliable, accountable ‘authorised knowers’).
... Today, a new way to enhance audience interaction, participation and engagement has arisen with novel narratives such as 360°video storytelling, based on virtual reality technologies and 360°video (Domínguez 2015;Suh et al. 2018;Bindman et al. 2018;Yoo and Drumwright 2018). Despite being one of the least-studied fields during the past decade (Fraustino et al. 2018;Yoo and Drumwright 2018), some preliminary findings show similarities between the user experience with a VR headset and a reallife experience (Wagler and Hanus 2018). ...
... Today, a new way to enhance audience interaction, participation and engagement has arisen with novel narratives such as 360°video storytelling, based on virtual reality technologies and 360°video (Domínguez 2015;Suh et al. 2018;Bindman et al. 2018;Yoo and Drumwright 2018). Despite being one of the least-studied fields during the past decade (Fraustino et al. 2018;Yoo and Drumwright 2018), some preliminary findings show similarities between the user experience with a VR headset and a reallife experience (Wagler and Hanus 2018). ...
... In this regard, another study shows that ''VR formats prompted a higher empathetic response than static photo/text treatments and a higher likelihood of participants to take 'political or social action' after viewing'' (Archer and Finger 2018). Moreover, Yoo and Drumwright (2018) carried out an experiment with users using a 360°video about a Syrian refugee camp as a stimulus and discovered that viewers wearing a VR headset experienced greater levels of donation intention, vividness, interactivity and social presence than the tablet users. ...
Article
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The article analyses 360° video production in international humanitarian aid nonprofit organizations from 2015 to 2019 as 360° video storytelling is one of the latest innovations in organizational digital communication. Through a content analysis and interviews, a specific use of the 360° video format for particular issues or campaigns in order to bring a distant reality to the organization’s audience has been detected. Thus, putting the users in the shoes of “the other” seems to be the objective pursued. NGOs may soon begin to understand long-term interactivity and engagement not just as action and reaction between organization and receiver (almost non-existent to date), but above all as the receiver’s behaviour, which they may strive to orient towards one of the organization’s end goals, depending on the communication strategy set by the organization’s director. With this objective, common to entities from other sectors, they could be moving towards an innovative conceptualization of engagement.
... New technological devices and immersive media content, however, can create the feeling of being physically present in a distant, troubled location, which could facilitate compassion and ultimately result in prosocial behavior (Ahn et al., 2013;Fonseca & Kraus, 2016;Rosenberg et al., 2013). Consequently, immersive technologies that simulate unmediated sensory experiences, such as virtual reality (VR) or augmented reality, are expected to play a key role in future fundraising practices (Milk, 2015;Suh & Prophet, 2018;Yoo & Drumwright, 2018). Numerous charities and NGOs such as the United Nations (UN), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and Oxfam are already using immersive media to persuade possible donators to support their cause. ...
... These immersive videos have already successfully been shown to possible donors via VR headsets during face-to-face fundraising campaigns and at larger gatherings (e.g., the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland;UN, 2015). However, research on the impact of immersive videos on relevant constructs such as empathy, issue involvement, and donor behavior is scarce and inconclusive (Herrera et al., 2018;Van Damme et al., 2019;Yoo & Drumwright, 2018). ...
... One can assume that immersive videos are more vivid and interactive than regular videos. Additional senses (e.g., the perception of actually moving inside the environment) can be addressed, resulting in pronounced sensory breadth and depth (Van Kerrebroeck et al., 2017;Yoo & Drumwright, 2018). Real-time interaction and the additional possibility of manipulation (e.g., real-time adjustment of the visual field) should increase the perceived interactivity (Yoo & Drumwright, 2018). ...
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This experimental study examined how varying the degree of immersiveness of a short documentary about a remote health issue influenced users' reported spatial presence, empathic parasocial interaction, and individual issue involvement. Higher-order responses, namely, the desire for information and willingness to donate to the cause, were also analyzed. The documentary was shown to 85 participants using three different technologies with varying degrees of immersiveness (high, moderate, and low). The results show that the level of the technology's immersiveness gradually increases the spatial presence, empathic parasocial interaction, and issue involvement of the user. While participants of the highly immersive condition reported a higher desire for additional information, the results on donation behavior were less conclusive.
... Although the studies mentioned above focused on the immersive, 3-dimension VR experience that is fully responsive to the users' actions, emerging research also suggests that stories produced with prerecorded 360 video technology hold strong potential to promote attitudinal and behavior change, especially when they are experienced through HMDs. [16][17][18] For instance, Fonseca and Kraus 16 randomly assigned participants to watch an immersive 360 video about meat consumption and its relationship to climate change either in HMDs or in tablets. The authors found that participants in the HMDs condition reported greater interest in vegetarian food and intentions to reduce meat consumption than those in the tablets condition. ...
... 19 For example, users' physical reality (such as light and sound) is completely blocked off when they wear HMDs, whereas they are still able to see their physical surroundings when they watch the video in tablets or computers. As immersion is positively related to persuasion, [16][17][18] we expect that an immersive story of a young woman who engages in drinking and driving and subsequently causes a three-car crash will lead to more favorable attitudes toward alternatives to drinking and driving and lower intentions to drink and drive when it is viewed through HMDs versus tablets. H1: The story viewed through HMDs (vs. ...
... Immersive stories are a promising tool for engaging audiences and effecting attitude and behavior change. [16][17][18]22 In the current study, we examined the impact of an immersive story viewed through different modalities (HMDs vs. tablets) on college students' attitudes and intentions related to drinking and driving. Additionally, as our experiment stimulus features a young female protagonist, we also investigated how gender would moderate the persuasive impact of modality. ...
Article
Objective: College students are at risk of drinking and driving. The current study examines the use of immersive stories to prevent college students from drinking and driving. Participants: 107 college students participated in the study. Methods: Participants were randomly assigned to watch an immersive 360° video, which featured a story of a young female driver who caused a fatal car crash due to impaired driving, either in head-mounted displays (HMDs) or in tablets. Results: The story viewed through HMDs (vs. tablets) led to lower intentions to drink and drive only among female participants. Moreover, female participants' perceived similarity to the protagonist mediated the effect of modality on their intentions to drink and drive. Conclusions: 360° video stories experienced through high immersion (via HMDs) have the potential to prevent risky behavior. It is important to consider the protagonist's gender when adopting immersive stories in alcohol education programs on college campuses.
... Steuer [73] described mapping as the "way in which human actions are connected to actions within a mediated environment" (p. 86). Therefore, immersion represents what the technology can deliver [70]. ...
... Because immersive 360°videos have only recently gained popularity, few studies have analyzed their impact on persuasive effectiveness [9,20,26,52,53,78,83,86]. For instance, using a 360°video featuring the outdoor fashion brand The North Face, Van Kerrebroeck et al. [78] analyzed the effects on perceived vividness, spatial presence, attitudes toward the ad, brand evaluation, and purchase intentions. ...
... Feng et al. [26] reported superior persuasive effects for only one of three analyzed 360°c ommercials. Several other studies have examined the persuasive impact of 360°videos on social causes, such as corporate social responsibility initiatives [52] and fundraising or environmental appeals [9,12,86], and explored the impact of 360°documentaries [10,77]. However, not all previous studies have found positive effects of 360°videos compared with unidirectional videos [9,26,77]. ...
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With the rise of immersive media, advertisers have started to use 360° commercials to engage and persuade consumers. Two experiments were conducted to address research gaps and to validate the positive impact of 360° commercials in realistic settings. The first study ( N = 62) compared the effects of 360° commercials using either a mobile cardboard head-mounted display (HMD) or a laptop. This experiment was conducted in the participants’ living rooms and incorporated individual feelings of cybersickness as a moderator. The participants who experienced the 360° commercial with the HMD reported higher spatial presence and product evaluation, but their purchase intentions were only increased when their reported cybersickness was low. The second experiment ( N = 197) was conducted online and analyzed the impact of 360° commercials that were experienced with mobile (smartphone/tablet) or static (laptop/desktop) devices instead of HMDs. The positive effects of omnidirectional videos were stronger when participants used mobile devices.
... While used in a range of fields, including tourism (Huang et al., 2016), education (Hu-Au & Lee, 2017;Kavanagh et al., 2017), clinical research (Li et al., 2017), and pandemic responses (Singh et al., 2020), marketing (Pala et al., 2021), and retail (Hilken et al., 2021), there has been little consideration of VR in nonprofit fundraising (see Kandaurova & Lee, 2019;Yoo & Drumwright, 2018). UNICEF used VR technologies in 2015 to raise much-needed funds for Syrian refugees (Kang, 2016) by seeking to close the gap between the social and emotional (Yoo & Drumwright, 2018). ...
... While used in a range of fields, including tourism (Huang et al., 2016), education (Hu-Au & Lee, 2017;Kavanagh et al., 2017), clinical research (Li et al., 2017), and pandemic responses (Singh et al., 2020), marketing (Pala et al., 2021), and retail (Hilken et al., 2021), there has been little consideration of VR in nonprofit fundraising (see Kandaurova & Lee, 2019;Yoo & Drumwright, 2018). UNICEF used VR technologies in 2015 to raise much-needed funds for Syrian refugees (Kang, 2016) by seeking to close the gap between the social and emotional (Yoo & Drumwright, 2018). Other charitable organizations, such as the United Nations and Amnesty International, have sought to enhance social responsibility and spread awareness of social issues through VR (Kandaurova & Lee, 2019). ...
... Other charitable organizations, such as the United Nations and Amnesty International, have sought to enhance social responsibility and spread awareness of social issues through VR (Kandaurova & Lee, 2019). Thus, VR offers exciting opportunities and potential when considering how best to increase donations (Yoo & Drumwright, 2018). ...
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Virtual reality (VR) as a communication tool is increasingly gaining attention in various contexts, including the promotion of fundraising and donation‐based activities. Recent academic literature tends to focus on VR as a valuable tool for human‐human donation, with little consideration of the human‐animal donation context. Furthermore, the use of key flagship species can encourage donations for the specific animal and provide broader conservation and economic benefits, including encouraging tourism and visitor spending. However, work needs to explore VR as a tool for flagship species donation versus other forms of communication tools and the impact this could have on broader conservation goals. Two studies were conducted to investigate VR in a human‐animal donation context using two modalities (VR and static advertisement). Study 1 investigates the mediating role of psychological elements: empathy and enjoyment, while Study 2 examines the mediating role of technological elements of VR: usability and telepresence. We found that VR increases enjoyment and engagement with the flagship species, increasing the likelihood of donating. VR also increases telepresence, and the usability of the VR tool positively affects donors' likelihood to donate. Our findings inform a future research agenda to consider VR in a donation context further.
... For example, previous work on AR-based interactions among people suggests that interactions are more engaging when interactants appear to share the same physical space (Toet et al., 2021). Broadly, social presence mediates user responses to virtual content (Miller & Bailenson, 2020), contributing to affective (Jin, 2011) and behavioral responses (Yoo & Drumwright, 2018). In the context of human-wildlife interactions, a greater sense of social presence with wildlife is thus presumed to contribute to key affective and behavioral responses towards the species. ...
... In AR-and VR-based interactions with virtual objects and characters, "presence tends to mediate responses to virtual stimuli" (Miller & Bailenson, 2020). A strong sense of presence with virtual stimuli is known to contribute to outcomes such as enjoyment (Jin, 2011), behavioral intentions (Yoo & Drumwright, 2018), and interest in science . Speci c to altruistic outcomes, previous work has also identi ed social presence with virtual victims as a key predictor of empathic responses (Bouchard et al., 2013). ...
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Interactions with wildlife can contribute to biodiversity conservation outcomes, though safety and accessibility considerations limit animal encounters from being a viable strategy. This investigation explores the feasibility of mobile augmented reality to facilitate interactions with wildlife and encourage biodversity conservation. A mobile augmented reality experience (Snapchat lens), titled “ Penguin Rescue! ”, was created to allow users to rehabilitate an oil-slicked virtual penguin. Study 1 distributed the lens globally to Snapchat users (N=63,605) who spent an average of 47 seconds rehabilitating the penguin; psychographic data showed pro-environmental interests were not associated with the lens’ use. Study 2 employed a within-subjects experimental design (N=80) to examine the effects of Penguin Rescue! on conservation outcomes. Results showed that the interaction increased connectedness with the species. Moreover, social presence and plausibility served as key mechanisms contributing to environmental concern and behavioral intentions. Overall, results clarify how biophilic interactions via augmented reality can benefit biodiversity conservation.
... Thus, the adoption of business practices has become widespread to address these challenges (Knutsen, 2013). Looking at various successful practices used in the for-profit context, NPOs have increasingly been examining the adoption of e-marketing and its impact on organizational performance (Leeflang, Verhoef, Dahlström, & Freundt, 2014;Maxwell & Carboni, 2016;Yoo & Drumwright, 2018). ...
... Website effectiveness also positively affects organizational performance in NPOs (Krueger & Haytko, 2015;Yeon et al., 2007). Recently, Yoo and Drumwright (2018) ...
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Nonprofit organizations are facing increasing challenges to survival and mission accomplishment in a market economy. Thus, many nonprofit organizations are actively exploring how to enhance organizational performance through Internet and communication technologies in the digital era. The relationship between e‐marketing adoption and organizational performance of for‐profit companies has been studied intensively. However, this relationship has not been examined in the nonprofit context. The objectives of this study are to investigate factors promoting the adoption of e‐marketing and the latter's effect on the performance of nonprofits. This paper surveyed 54 nonprofits and used partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS‐SEM) to test the research hypotheses grounded in resource dependence theory and e‐marketing orientation. Results indicated that top management's attitudinal emphasis on e‐marketing does not lead to e‐marketing adoption. Differs from for‐profit companies, nonprofits' e‐marketing adoption is mainly related to planning and implementation capabilities. Moreover, although planning strongly influences e‐marketing adoption, implementation capabilities play a crucial role in a performance‐driven adoption. Hence, if e‐marketing is adopted without sufficient manpower and skills, organizational performance will not be enhanced even with adequate e‐marketing budget.
... For instance, while emerging research in this area indicates that audiences often feel more involved and connected to the media (Ahn et al., 2016) and that technologies might impact attitudes and willingness to help (e.g., Ma, 2019), results are inconclusive (e.g., Breves, 2020;McMahan, Lai, & Pal, 2016). While some research suggests that cognitive processes such as presence are key to understanding how these technologies might work (e.g., Yoo & Drumwright, 2018), more research is needed to help organizations understand when the financial investment in this costly storytelling approach is needed. In other words, even if the Charity Water event was successful, understanding the underlying reasons is still unclear. ...
... (H4) increased narrative engagement will result in positive attitudes toward the cause contained in the prosocial message. research has found that immersive video content enhances emotional involvement and attitudes toward pro-environmental behaviors (Fonseca & Kraus, 2016), as well as donation intention (Yoo & Drumwright, 2018). ...
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Little empirical work has explored the psychological processes triggered by immersive technologies and how they might lead to more effective desirable prosocial outcomes. Thus, the current study explores two different modalities for presenting 360 videos—YouTube and head‐mounted display (HMD)—as strategies for engaging audiences with cause‐related stories. Across three stories, using these technologies led to the highest levels of presence, but there was no association between presence and increased attitudes towards the story content. Only narrative engagement impacted prosocial attitudes towards the video content. Data suggest that regardless of the technology used, telling engaging narratives that increase the viewer's self‐efficacy is key to behavioral intentions—immersive technologies help viewers feel closer to the physical location of the narrative, but not the narrative itself.
... One study (Lau 2015) found no differences between customer service management training outcomes when done in virtual mall as compared with training in a traditional shopping mall. Another study examined the impact on users' donation intentions when presented using VR with an HMD compared to watching a video on a tablet (Yoo and Drumwright 2018). They also found that all the donation-related variables were higher after the VR treatment. ...
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Immersive systems can be used to capture new data, create new experiences, and provide new insights by generating virtual elements of physical and imagined worlds. Immersive systems are seeing increased application across a broad array of fields. However, in many situations it is unknown if an immersive application performs as well or better than the existing application in accomplishing a specific task. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature that addresses the performance of immersive systems. This review assesses those applications where experiments, tests, or clinical trials have been performed to evaluate the proposed application. This research addresses a broad range of application areas and considers studies that compared one or more immersive systems with a control group or evaluated performance data for the immersive system pre- and post-test. The results identify those applications that have been successfully tested and also delineate areas of future research where more data may be needed to assess the effectiveness of proposed applications.
... However, it is important to note that although all of the participants, including those who played the 2D game, reported more favorable attitudes, the increase was significant only among participants who experienced the VR version. The VR technology enhanced the positive effect, consistent with earlier studies on the prosocial effects of VR simulations (e.g., Ahn, Le, & Bailenson, 2013;Yoo & Drumwright, 2018). Furthermore, being physically present in the game environment may have enhanced the parasocial interaction with the NPC. ...
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Video games are one of the most popular media forms in today’s society, but are often criticized for various reasons. For instance, mainstream video games do not incorporate enough racially diverse game characters or are often connected to adolescents’ levels of aggression and have thus been the focus of many debates. While the negative consequences of video games have been analyzed by many academic studies, research on the prosocial effects of video games is scarce. To address this research gap and support the ongoing call for more diverse video game characters, this study used a 3 × 1 between-subjects design (N = 86) to test the impact of racially diverse non-playable characters (NPCs). The parasocial contact hypothesis was used as the theoretical foundation, incorporating virtual reality technology as an intensifier of effects. The results showed that helping a Black NPC did not reduce implicit bias, but reduced explicit bias towards Black people. This improvement was stronger when the video game was played using virtual reality technology than when using a traditional two-dimensional gaming device.
... immersiveness might be especially well suited to communicate socially distant topics or topics that are perceived to be low in hypotheticality. Furthermore, in terms of presence, only technological immersiveness and spatial presence were included in this study, but other dimensions of presence, such as social presence, might also be particularly important for addressing (socially) distant topics (e.g., Yoo & Drumwright, 2018). Although the manipulation of spatial presence in the present study was considered successful, the 360 • videos used in the high-immersiveness condition did not enable notable feelings of interactivity or self-presence (Flavián et al., 2019). ...
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The growing psychological distance from environmental issues is often used to explain the lack of pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors in today’s society. According to construal level theory, individuals might perceive distant issues as more abstract and personally non-relevant, compared with issues they experience directly. Consequently, this experimental study (N = 112) analyzes whether immersive media, such as omnidirectional 360° videos, may be a promising approach for decreasing individuals’ psychological distance and increasing personal relevance as well as perceived risk severity and behavioral intentions concerning environmental issues. The results indicate that higher levels of technological immersiveness may be especially well suited to communicate the severity of distant risks and enhance pro-environmental behavioral intentions by simulating direct experiences; however, higher levels of immersiveness seem to be detrimental for issues that were already perceived as proximal and thus may be considered too close for comfort.
... De Gauquier et al., 2018;Van Kerrebroeck et al., 2017), fundraising (e.g. Yoo & Drumwright, 2018), and narrative engagement (Bindman, Castaneda, Scanlon, & Cechony, 2018). The result suggests that the mediated nature experience was perceived as providing more direct contact with nature. ...
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Pro-environmental attitudes and behavior are declining as people become increasingly disconnected from nature. The growing disconnection from nature is thought to be due to cultural shifts, such as the increasing use of electronic media. However, mediated nature contact through new forms of media may also strengthen feelings of environmental connectedness. Therefore, this experimental study (N = 56) investigated whether viewing immersive 360° nature videos can influence individuals' commitment to the environment. According to the theory of spatial presence, immersive videos are perceived as unmediated nature experiences. The results indicate that immersive nature videos promote stronger feelings of spatial presence and commitment to the environment than regular nature videos. The participants' need for affect was incorporated as a moderator of the impact of immersive nature videos on commitment to the environment, but a negative interaction was observed in contrast to the hypothesized effect.
... The studies on social policies examine public support for income transfer programmes (Lim & Tanaka, 2019) and urbanisation policies (Cai et al., 2020). The two studies of non-profits examine whether government funding affects charitable donations (Jilke et al., 2019) and the innovative use of virtual reality (VR) technology by non-profits (Yoo & Drumwright, 2018). ...
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Scholars of public administration are increasingly using experimental research to develop more robust causal inferences and greater methodological capacity. Against this backdrop, we examine the extent to which experimental research has taken hold in the Asia-Pacific region and assess regional capacity. Our review of 30 articles published by scholars based in the Asia-Pacific region in the public administration section of the Web of Science's Journal Citation Reports finds that the regional capacity for experimental research is concentrated in a small number of institutions and strongly supplemented through international collaboration. Topics studied reflect the advent of behavioural public administration. Although progress is being made in reporting experimental designs, much work is needed in the region to bring greater transparency to scholarship. We conclude by encouraging scholars to more robustly implement and report experimental research and by outlining future directions.
... We also offer suggested marketing program approaches aimed at different donor groups. Also, from a promotion standpoint, this paper addresses the recommendation offered by Garber and Muscarella (2000) to examine the burgeoning area of digital media as a marketing channel for targeting the stakeholders of nonprofit organizations (Smith, 2018;Yoo & Drumwright, 2018). Here, we compare and contrast consumer preferences regarding various general promotional outlets and social media platforms specifically among segments of individual donors. ...
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Our article examines market segments within the broader category of individual donors to charity and cause related organizations. This is an area of research in which considerable conflicting results have been produced. In our study, we find that while similarities between these segments exist along demographic factors and donation behaviour (e.g., frequency of donating), important distinctions exist along motivational factors, thereby suggesting differentiated promotion messaging. Surveys were administered to 680 subjects. Their responses along twenty-seven motivational variables were subjected to factor analysis. Cluster analysis was then applied to the factor scores that yielded three donor segments. We find six key motivating factors influencing the donation decision: organizational criteria, external inducements, intrinsic motivators, charity organization attributes, egocentric rewards and economic considerations. We also find three distinct segments of individual donors: intrinsics, sceptics and impressionable. Donations by the intrinsic group members are more influenced by selfless altruistic reasons for donating. Decisions made by members of the skeptic segment result from the examination of charitable organization along such criteria as the clarity of its mission and the efficiency of its management practice. The impressionable segment members are most likely to be influenced by the impact of external factors in the donation decision such as marketing measures employed by the charity and the encouragement of others.
... Scientifically, there is some evidence that VR can lead to changes in behaviour, or at least, behavioral intentions. Watching the 360-video Clouds of Sidra via a VR headset (compared to tablet) led participants to agree that they were likely to "donate to a non-profit organization helping the Syrian refugee camp" (Yoo & Drumwright, 2018). Similarly, a 360degree VR experience about social and climate issues increased hypothetical donations of time and money to a relevant charity (Kandaurova & Lee, 2019). ...
Preprint
Nonprofits have embraced virtual reality (VR), however, scientific evidence supporting its effectiveness for social good often uses poor experimental methodology, and finds inconsistent results. We conduct a rigorous randomized control trial testing whether 360-degree video virtual reality increases empathy and charitable donations. Participants (N=155) were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: 1) Classic VR: 360-degree footage of child refugees, 2) Boost VR: the same, but with perspective-taking instructions, 3) Audiobook: a control condition with the same information about child refugees but in text format, or 4) Waiting Room: another control condition with a 360-degree view of a waiting room. Although the Classic and Boost VR conditions increased emotional empathy compared to controls, they did not improve cognitive empathy more than the audiobook. Moreover, any empathic gains were mostly extinguished after 10 days. Critically, the Classic and Boost VR conditions did not influence charitable donations to a relevant charity (UNICEF).
... Being, and staying, independent is especially grounded in the stable financing of operations, without pressure from lower financial resources [17,18]. Therefore, the different forms of fundraising for media deserve special attention and have been the object of ongoing scientific research over the last years [19][20][21][22][23][24]. In particular, operating publications independently from established publishing houses is a challenge because of the lack of visibility, marketing options, and resources [25,26]. ...
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Crowdfunding, as an alternative method to fundraising, triggers increased awareness in society, while it is also an effective marketing tool for campaign runners. The production and release of independent print media poses significant hurdles in terms of financing. Including the community in raising funds through crowdfunding seems like a good possible alternative. This paper examines which types of crowdfunding the independent print media use, and why, and also focuses on the possible types of crowdfunding that are the best fit for organizations. The study applies a case example approach on a total of thirty independent print publications that have relied on crowdfunding. We found that independent print media focus on reward-based crowdfunding for the launch of publications, the method being not used solely for fundraising, but also specifically for community building. Practitioners benefit from the insights by being enabled to draft campaigns that are better-suited to the specific needs of the independent media target group, and to secure financing for the start of the operations. The approach of this study is of special value, as the research and empirical insights into the independent media sector are limited.
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Communicators of charity organizations have begun to adopt virtual reality modality to draw in more donors in recent years. However, there is still a lack of comprehensive theoretical exploration and empirical verification on the avenues that may optimize the function of virtual reality modality for communication conducted by charity organizations. To fill this gap, the current study proposes and validates a framework based on integrative extension of theories pertaining to enactive cognition, media affordances, and personal norm. As the research result suggests, the five immersive affordance attributes of vividness, authenticity, coherence, interactivity, and controllability are primary facilitators of empathy and personal norm activation in the virtual reality context. The type of virtual reality modality, which provides immersive affordance attributes to exercise the transformative change effect, serves to elicit charitable donation intention through evocation of empathy and personal norm activation as the two key mediators. More noteworthy, the positive impact of empathy on charitable donation intention significantly increases due to the partial mediating effect of personal norm activation. Overall, the research result contributes to enhancing the effectiveness of communication conducted by charity organizations.
Chapter
Technology-based business improvements characterize the so-called digital transformation (DT). For non-profit organizations (NPOs), with their unique value creation structure and specific preconditions in terms of staff and resources, keeping up with the DT is challenging. Still, opportunities for the DT are unknown. Thus far, there are no comprehensive guidelines for DT strategy development in NPOs. Both digital value creation and digitally supported communication with customers can lead to competitive advantages. Therefore, NPO decision-makers must understand the opportunities and the challenges of DT. In our research approach, we aim to answer the research question: What are the fields of action for the digital transformation in NPOs? Following a grounded theory approach, we have developed a theoretical framework including fields of action and guidance for the strategic advancement of DT in NPOs. The results show that NPOs need to be aware of their digital communications channels with volunteer staff, customers and donors. A clear DT vision and new roles help NPOs meet this challenge.
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La révolution digitale a redessiné le paysage associatif et a dynamisé la créativité des associations faisant appel à la générosité publique. Aujourd’hui, se diriger vers le digital et organiser des campagnes de collecte de dons en ligne est devenue un ingrédient clé pour financer les actions et les projets des associations par une population d’E.-donateurs souvent sous-estimée, mais dont la contribution est décisive. Cet article a pour objectif de dresser un état des lieux sur les nouvelles modalités d’engagement portées par la transformation digitale et mises en place par les associations en vue de solliciter et stimuler les dons. L’accent sera mis sur la collecte des dons en ligne et sa place dans la création d’une dynamique solidaire au service des projets associatifs. Pour mieux comprendre ce phénomène grâce à la réalité vécue et racontée par ces acteurs, nous avons choisi de mener notre étude terrain auprès d’une association marocaine. Plus concrètement, notre démarche méthodologique, qui s’apparente à une approche qualitative exploratoire à cas unique a pour objectif de cerner l’apport et la contribution de la digitalisation de la collecte des dons dans le fonctionnement de l’association et la réalisation de ses projets et actions solidaires tout en mettant en avant les difficultés rencontrées pour accéder au digital et bénéficier de ses potentialités ainsi que les défis à relever.
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Interactions with wildlife can contribute to biodiversity conservation outcomes, though safety and accessibility considerations limit animal encounters from being a viable strategy. This investigation explores the feasibility of mobile augmented reality to facilitate interactions with wildlife and encourage biodversity conservation. A mobile augmented reality experience (Snapchat lens), titled “Penguin Rescue!”, was created to allow users to rehabilitate an oil-slicked virtual penguin. Study 1 distributed the lens globally to Snapchat users (N=63,605) who spent an average of 47 seconds rehabilitating the penguin; psychographic data showed pro-environmental interests were not associated with the lens’ use. Study 2 employed a within-subjects experimental design (N=80) to examine the effects of Penguin Rescue! on conservation outcomes. Results showed that the interaction increased connectedness with the species. Moreover, social presence and plausibility served as key mechanisms contributing to environmental concern and behavioral intentions. Overall, results clarify how biophilic interactions via augmented reality can benefit biodiversity conservation.
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Chapter
Digital transformation (DT) describes technology-based improvements in business processes, business models, and customer experience. It promises efficiency gains for industrial enterprises. Nonprofit organizations also expect advantages from DT. However, barriers hinder realizing all its possible advantages in both sectors. If decision-makers recognize the potential barriers, they can reflect upon these challenges and take well-coordinated countermeasures. Orienting towards a Straussian grounded theory approach, a framework of barriers is developed with data of two diverse sectors: industry and nonprofit. According to the framework pre-conditions such as profit-orientation and size shape the possibilities to tackle different barriers. In general, the DT process in the industry-sector has been slowed down by barriers. Whereas, nonprofit organizations often take the view that they are not in a DT process at all. This might be due to limited individual and organizational perspectives. Especially, NPOs have to work on their recruitment of skilled volunteers to challenge this view.
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Mobile Virtual Reality provides a gateway for marketers to innovatively reach consumers. This study examines the impact of Virtual Reality in the context of transformational brand experience appeals, focussing specifically on the determining role of vividness. A three-dimensional conceptual framework is presented, offering a systematic review of the literature on vividness effects in marketing communications, revealing the major gap that most available studies only focus on informational messages. We conducted an experiment to address this gap and demonstrate in the context of a transformational ad that Virtual Reality generates higher perceptions of vividness and presence than a regular two-dimensional video, with vividness positively affecting attitude toward the ad, both directly and indirectly via presence. Our study also reveals that vividness in turn elicits a positive effect on brand attitudes which stimulates consumers’ purchase intentions. As such, the strategic potential of Virtual Reality for marketing communications is highlighted.
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John Casey explores the expanding global reach of nonprofit organizations, examining the increasingly influential role not only of prominent NGOs that work on hot-button global issues, but also of the thousands of smaller, little-known organizations that have an impact on people's daily lives. What do these nonprofits actually do? How and why have they grown exponentially? How are they managed and funded? What organizational, political, and economic challenges do they face? Casey answers these questions and also, liberally using case studies, situates the evolution of the sector in the broader contexts of differing national environments and global public affairs. With its broad perspective, The Nonprofit World affords readers a thorough understanding of both the place of nonprofits in the global arena and the implications of their growing importance. CONTENTS • The Nonprofit World. • The Rise of the Nonprofit Sector. • The Evolution of the Nonprofit Sector. • Comparing National Nonprofit Sectors. • The Globalization of Ideas. • Internationalization of the Nonprofit Sector. • International Nonprofits at Work. • Stewarding International Nonprofits. • Emerging Trends. For ordering information, see: https://www.rienner.com/title/The_Nonprofit_World_Civil_Society_and_the_Rise_of_the_Nonprofit_Sector
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The popularity of stereoscopic 3-D technology is encouraging advertisers to adopt this format as a new advertising tool in diverse contexts. This research investigates the impact of nonglasses and glasses types of stereoscopic 3-D advertising, and proposes a theoretical model examining the role of presence in advertising effectiveness. Due to their power to increase presence, both stereoscopic 3-D advertising formats have a significantly stronger impact on diverse marketing variables than flat 3-D advertising. A structural equation model reveals the process through which presence affects advertising effectiveness by enhancing enjoyment and increasing perceived product knowledge. In addition, the moderating effects of novelty and cybersickness on presence are identified.
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This study compares effectiveness of comparative and noncomparative advertising for products characterized by different levels of cognitive and affective involvement. Comparative advertisements induce more positive brand attitudes for products which elicit cognitive and affective motivations simultaneously. This happens because brand comparisons facilitate an attribute-based processing style which might otherwise succumb to the competing affective involvement. Noncomparative attribute-based ads yield more favorable attitudes toward the ad when affective involvement is high than when it is low. Comparative ads are also shown to positively influence brand switchers and have a negative impact on consumers loyal to competing brands.
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Although interactivity is often considered to have a positive infl uence on persuasion, research on interactiv- ity effects is actually very mixed. This paper argues that under certain circumstances, interactivity may either enhance or inhibit persuasion. A dual-process model of interactivity effects is proposed and tested that posits differential effects of interactivity on persuasion depending on person and situation factors. Results of an experiment that manipulated level of Web site interactivity and task involvement, and measured user ability (Internet usage experience), show that under low-involvement conditions, the mere presence of interactivity served as a peripheral cue that led to more positive atti- tudes regardless of ability (experience). Under high-involvement conditions, however, interactivity elicited more positive attitudes for experienced users but less positive attitudes for inexperienced users. Implications for the use of interactivity in advertising and promotions are discussed.
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Research investigating relationship development through computer-mediated channels has failed to acknowledge the importance of initial interactions. Increasingly, multimodal forms of communication, such as audio- and videoconferencing, in addition to text-only formats have emerged on socially oriented websites designed for relationship initiation. Utilizing the principle of interactivity as a conceptual framework, the present study investigates whether increased structural interactivity provided by the additional aural and visual modalities influences initial interaction processes and outcomes online. The results indicate that increased availability of nonverbal modalities, combined with the valence of the information acquired, significantly affected interaction involvement and mutuality, which are markers of processual interactivity, as well as the interaction outcomes of uncertainty, predicted outcome value, and information seeking. Additional analysis revealed that mutuality mediated the effect of richness on postinteraction uncertainty level and the evaluations of future relationship potential.
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Advertisements often stimulate consumers to imagine themselves in a situation in which they would personally benefit from using the product being advertised. However, when an advertisement is intended to induce consumers to benefit someone else (e.g., to donate money for relief of disaster victims), stimulating them to imagine themselves in the situation confronting the beneficiary can sometimes conflict with the image they form of themselves as a potential helper. This conflict in imagined perspective can decrease the advertisement's effectiveness. Five studies confirm this hypothesis. When participants took the perspective of the beneficiary at the time they read an appeal for help, characteristics of the appeal that increased the ease with which they could imagine the situation from this perspective (e.g., a picture of the victim) had a positive effect on both their urge to help and the amount of money they donated. However, when they had an a priori disposition to take the perspective of a potential donor at the time they read the appeal, these same characteristics decreased the appeal's effectiveness.
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Summary • In the current study we have applied the concept of presence to 3DTV research. More specifically, we took this concept to reflect the increased perceptual linkage between the observer and the mediated environment, supporting an illusion of non-mediation. We applied the continuous assessment methodology to reveal time-variant properties of presence, which were hitherto largely ignored, and to assess some of the contributing factors that have been suggested as determinants of presence. • Our results indicate that subjective presence ratings are subject to considerable temporal variation depending on the stimulus material used. The continuous assessment methodology may be regarded as a useful measurement tool that is sensitive to this time-varying information in subjective presence judgements, provided that any conclusions are based on averaged results obtained from an adequate number of observers. • We also found qualitative evidence suggesting that increasing the extent of sensory information provided to an observer, through the addition of stereoscopic and motion parallax cues (simulated via camera movement), may enhance the observer's sense of presence.
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Book
Empathy has long been a topic of interest to psychologists, but it has been studied in a sometimes bewildering number of ways. In this volume, Mark Davis offers a thorough, evenhanded review of contemporary empathy research, especially work that has been carried out by social and personality psychologists.Davis' approach is explicitly multidimensional. He draws careful distinctions between situational and dispositional “antecedents” of empathy, cognitive and noncognitive “internal processes,” affective and nonaffective “intrapersonal outcomes,” and the “interpersonal behavioral outcomes” that follow. Davis presents a novel organizational model to help classify and interpret previous findings. This book will be of value in advanced undergraduate and graduate courses on altruism, helping, nad moral development.
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To increase the effectiveness of fundraising campaigns, many human-need charities include pictures of beneficiaries in their ads. However, it is unclear when and why the facial expression of these beneficiaries (sad versus happy) may influence the effectiveness of charity ads. To answer these questions, an experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of the facial expression on donation intentions, while considering the moderating role of psychological involvement with charities. It found that psychological involvement with charities moderated the impact of the facial expression on donation intentions in that seeing a picture of a sad versus happy person increased intentions to give among participants with lower levels of psychological involvement, whereas the reverse was true for highly involved participants. The moderating effect of psychological involvement was fully explained by the perceived efficacy of one's donation. The findings not only contribute to our understanding of the effect of the facial expression of people pictured in charity appeals on donation behavior, but also suggest that nonprofits should tailor their ads to target potential donors with various levels of psychological involvement with charities.
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This paper proposes and tests a model to explain how consumers’ perceptions of product presentation technologies may affect online impulse buying. Data from a laboratory experiment (N = 212), which were analyzed using a structural equation modeling approach, showed that vividness and interactivity of online product presentations increased the participants’ perceptions of local presence, which refers to the sense of a product being present with a consumer in his or her own environment. Local presence, in turn, influenced the urge to buy impulsively by generating both cognitive (perceived risk) and affective (product affect) product responses. The implications of these results are discussed.
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ARTISTS and philosophers have usually been particularly sensitive to the fragile and fluctuating boundary between fantasy and reality. The rest of us have muddled through and felt that our personal survival was proof enough that we could make the distinction when it really counted. Our hold on the real world may be precarious but it is also tenacious, and science as a method and as a creed has been enthusiastically espoused because it has made our hold just that much stronger.
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Intergroup threat harms attitudes toward the outgroup, leading to greater levels of prejudice and outgroup derogation (Rothgerber, 1997). Two experiments were conducted to examine (1) if perspective taking mitigates the negative influence of threat on explicit and implicit intergenerational attitudes and, if so, (2) whether this buffering effect would be stronger for participants who embodied an elderly person in an immersive virtual environment (IVE) compared to those who engaged in a traditional perspective taking exercise via mental simulation (MS). When intergroup threat was presented without intergroup contact (Study 1), the negative effect of threat on ageism dissipated when participants engaged in a perspective taking exercise. Differential effects were found depending on the perspective taking medium. However, when participants were exposed to a concrete and experiential intergroup threat (Study 2), neither modality of perspective taking (IVE and MS) buffered negative intergenerational attitudes.
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The practice of increasing donations through special events has significant financial implications for charitable organizations. However, little is known about how such events can be organized to increase individuals' donation intention beyond their event attendance. In this case study, a post-event survey was conducted with attendees of a professional golf tournament operating as a special event to identify event-related attributes that affected their intention to donate to the cause supported by the event. The results indicate that attendees' donation intention was positively associated with their event satisfaction, perceived contributions of the event to the cause, and sense of camaraderie at the event. Furthermore, the effects of event satisfaction and camaraderie were stronger for attendees whose primary motivation for attending the event was unrelated to cause support. These results support hypotheses drawn from social exchange theory and provide implications for charitable organizations engaging in special events.
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Motivations for prosocial behavior have been explored in diverse ways. Empirical research suggests that empathy is an important motive for prosocial behavior. Building upon previous studies, in this article the authors hypothesize that charitable giving is distinctively affected by different components of dispositional empathy, including empathic concern, perspective taking, and personal distress. Using the 2008–2009 wave of American National Election Studies data set, this study examines the impact of these three components of dispositional empathy on probability and amount of giving to various charitable causes. The results support the authors’ hypotheses that the three components of dispositional empathy are associated with charitable giving in different ways. In particular, empathic concern consistently stimulates the likelihood and amount of giving. The effects of perspective taking and personal distress are mixed. The results offer several direct implications for fundraisers and nonprofit organizations in crafting effective fundraising appeals.
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The proliferation of the Internet and other technological innovations has transformed the structure of the tourism industry as well as affected how tourism destinations are perceived and consumed. The 3D virtual world provides opportunities for destination marketing organizations to communicate with targeted markets by offering a rich environment for potential visitors to explore tourism destinations. However, as of yet, there is little understanding about how to effectively market tourism destinations to virtual world participants who are technology users as well as potential consumers. The purpose of the present study is to develop a research framework that integrates the technology acceptance model (TAM) and self-determination theory to understand how tourists use a 3D virtual world. Primary data were obtained for this study through self-administered Web questionnaires. The data were conducted in a laboratory setting with 186 participants. This study contributes to the empirical TAM literature by applying the model to a 3D virtual tourism site. Additionally, this study provides a research framework to capture the entertainment nature of a 3D virtual world by extending the TAM to incorporate psychological elements of self-determination theory to understand consumer experience. From the perspective of tourism professionals, this study contributes to an understanding of how best to construct informative and interactive tourist destinations in 3D virtual worlds to attract potential online and real-world tourists. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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This paper empirically examines the effects of discriminatory fees on ATM investment and welfare, and considers the role of coordination in ATM investment between banks. Our main findings are that foreign fees tend to reduce ATM availability and (consumer) welfare, whereas surcharges positively affect ATM availability and the different welfare components when the consumers’ price elasticity is not too large. Second, an organization of the ATM market that contains some degree of coordination between the banks may be desirable from a welfare perspective. Finally, ATM availability is always higher when a social planner decides on discriminatory fees and ATM investment to maximize total welfare. This implies that there is underinvestment in ATMs, even in the presence of discriminatory fees.
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Despite numerous studies on motivation for generosity, much remains unknown. Given that the lion's share of giving and volunteering is directed toward religious institutions, we aimed to test the motivation for the generosity of Mormons. Previous research has indicated that Mormons (Latter-day Saints) volunteer and donate at much higher levels than other groups. This study examined how self-reported motivations to volunteer explain the annual number of hours volunteered and the likelihood of donating toward various causes. We used thirty qualitative interviews with Latter-day Saints to create a comprehensive questionnaire measuring the time spent engaged in various volunteer activities and whether or not the respondents donated to various causes. The questionnaire also asked respondents to rank how important twenty-five different motivations were to their service or volunteering. We used factor analysis of the results on the twenty-five motivation items to identify underlying variables behind volunteer motivations, and we used the scores on the five resulting factors in multiple regression analyses to predict volunteer hours and logistic regression analyses to predict the likelihood of making donations. Different types of motivations predicted different types of volunteering and charitable giving. Theological motivations had the broadest impact and predicted religious volunteering, social volunteering to benefit church members, social volunteering through the church to benefit the community, religious donations, and donations toward social causes made through the church. After inserting control variables into our models, we found that none of the five types of motivations predicted secular volunteering or secular charitable giving. We conclude with managerial and conceptual implications of these and other results.
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This study examines the effect of 3D virtual worlds on an individual's communication experience in comparison with Face-to-Face communications (FtFCs). Using 2x2 posttest only group design where subjects were asked to discuss over a given topic. This study investigated whether individuals' different personality characteristics (i.e. shyness) influence communication experiences (i.e. communication apprehension). The data suggest that shy individuals felt less of communication apprehension during the discussion conducted online than FtFC. On the other hand, FtFC turned out to be more effective in influencing individuals' intention to change behavior compared to virtual worlds. The results suggest that lack of visual/auditory cues in virtual reality is the major factor that influenced the outcome.
Article
Although often confused, imagining how another feels and imagining how you would feel are two distinct forms of perspective taking with different emotional consequences. The former evokes empathy; the latter, both empathy and distress. To test this claim, undergraduates listened to a (bogus) pilot radio interview with a young woman in serious need. One third were instructed to remain objective while listening; one third, to imagine how the young woman felt; and one third, to imagine how they would feel in her situation. The two imagine perspectives produced the predicted distinct pattern of emotions, suggesting different motivational consequences: Imagining how the other feels produced empathy, which has been found to evoke altruistic motivation; imagining how you would feel produced empathy, but it also produced personal distress, which has been found to evoke egoistic motivation.
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Two studies are reported that examine the relationships between optimum stimulation level (OSL), selected personality traits, demographic variables, and exploratory behavior in the consumer context. The results show several significant correlations between OSL and the other variables examined. Research and managerial implications of the results are outlined.
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This paper examines research on social presence theory and the implications for analyzing interaction, communication, collaborative learning, and the social context of computer-mediated communication (CMC). Two studies that examined whether social presence is largely an attribute of the communication medium or users' perception of the medium are discussed. It can be concluded from the results that even though CMC is considered to be a medium that is low in social context cues, it can be perceived as interactive, active, interesting, and stimulating by conference participants. However, it is the kind of interactions that take place between the participants, and the sense of community that is created during the conference, that will impact participants' perceptions of CMC as a "social" medium. Therefore, the impetus falls upon the moderators of computer conferences to create a sense of online community in order to promote interaction and collaborative learning.
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How does the changing representation of the body in virtual environments affect the mind? This article considers how virtual reality interfaces are evolving to embody the user progressively. The effect of embodiment on the sensation of physical presence, social presence, and self presence in virtual environments is discussed. The effect of avatar representation on body image and body schema distortion is also considered. The paper ends with the introduction of the cyborg's dilemma, a paradoxical situation in which the development of increasingly “natural” and embodied interfaces leads to “unnatural” adaptations or changes in the user. In the progressively tighter coupling of user to interface, the user evolves as a cyborg.
Article
[This book examines] empathy from the standpoint of contemporary social/personality psychology—emphasizing these disciplines' traditional subject matter (e.g., emotion, cognition, helping, aggression) and its research techniques (survey research, laboratory experiments). [The author's] goal was to provide a thorough, readable . . . summary of contemporary empathy research [primarily for advanced undergraduate and graduate students]. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Proposes a 2-stage model of empathic mediation of helping behavior, which holds that taking the perspective of a person in need increases empathic emotion; this in turn increases helping. Ss in 2 experiments learned of another person's need from taped radio broadcasts and were subsequently given an opportunity to offer help to that person. The experiments used different strategies for manipulating empathic emotional response to the other's plight. In Exp I, using 44 male and female undergraduates, the empathic emotion of some Ss was experimentally reduced by a misattribution of arousal technique; in Exp II, using 33 female undergraduates, the empathic emotion of some Ss was experimentally increased by a false feedback of arousal technique. Results of each experiment support the proposed model. Ss who experienced the most empathic emotion also offered the most help. Results of Exp I indicate that perspective taking did not directly affect helping; it affected helping only through its effect on empathic emotion. Motivational implications are discussed. (31 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Electronic networking holds the promise of innovation with involuntary organizations as they seek to respond to deep shifts in the social, economic, and political spheres in which they operate. Evidence from our study of U.K. voluntary organizations demonstrates relatively low uptake of the core networking technologies and applications essential to support the reconfiguration of key relationships in and around the organizations. Friends of the Earth and the Samaritans are exceptions to this trend. Case studies of these organizations suggest they are using information and communication technologies to reshape internal relationships and reconfigure relationships externally. The extent to which the organizations are reconfiguring around intelligent campaigning and intelligent client service is tempered by their long-standing values.
Article
This article reviews previous literature on presence, with a particular focus on its conceptualization and typologies. It first compares various types of presence-related terms (e.g., telepresence, virtual presence, mediated presence, copresence, and presence) and suggests that of those terms the term presence works best for the systematic study of human interaction with media and simulation technologies. After an extensive explication process, presence is newly defined as “a psychological state in which virtual objects are experienced as actual objects in either sensory or nonsensory ways.” Three types of presence—physical, social, and self presence—are defined based on the general definition of presence and the corresponding domains of human experience. Finally, implications of the current explication to the study of presence are discussed.
Article
This study evaluated the relationships between sensation seeking and impulsivity, appraisal of risk in several areas including crime, financial, social violations, sports, and risk of AIDS from sexual activity, and risky behavior in the same areas. Subjects were 447 undergraduates who were given personality tests, and risk appraisal and risky behavior scales developed from factor analyses. Multiple regression analyses showed perceived peer behavior and sensation seeking to be strong predictors of risky behavior, particularly in the areas of criminal behavior and social violations. Personal risk appraisal was negatively related to risky behavior for all the areas except AIDS risk where it was positively related to risky sexual behavior for men. Structural equation modeling analyses showed that a model specifying that risk appraisal trait is a consequences of risky behavior was superior to a model with risk appraisal as a mediator of the relationship between sensation seeking and risky behavior.
Article
This paper provides the first empirically based marketing model of the perceptions of givers and the resulting impact on donations. Within nonprofit marketing there is a considerable amount of extant research to support the view that both extrinsic and intrinsic variables can be used to separate givers and non-givers to nonprofits. However, they are less useful in explaining the level of support that will be offered. Perceptual factors may offer more utility in this regard. Structural equations models are presented based on a survey of over 1300 donors that link a series of perceptual determinants to the level of the average donation to a specific organization. The potential mediating roles of trust and commitment are also explored. Trust appears unrelated to the direct benefits that accrue to donors as a consequence of their gift. Rather, trust (and indirectly, commitment) is predicated on the perceived benefits supplied to beneficiaries and the manner in which the impact of these benefits is communicated back to donors.