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Mean and “Third Man Argument” in the Aristotelian Theory of Exchange Values (Μεσότητα και "Τρίτος Άνθρωπος" στην Αριστοτελίζουσα Θεωρία των Ανταλλακτικών Αξιών), Statistical Review, 11-12, pp. 142-160

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Abstract

This paper deals with key open issues involved in Book V of the Nicomachean Ethics and related to the theory of exchange values. On the basis of the Modern Classical theory of value-income distribution and the concept of ‘social abstract labour’, the paper argues that: (i) the Aristotelian approach to the market relative prices as “means between extremes”, and to these means as optimum points, is not completely barren; and (ii) Aristotle could not support the view that the “substance of value” is “human labour in general” (K. Marx) because he would contradict the “Third Man Argument”, which forms one of his own fundamental counter-arguments against Plato’s theory of Ideas. ΠΕΡΙΛΗΨΗ Το παρόν άρθρο πραγματεύεται κομβικά ανοικτά ζητήματα, τα οποία ενέχονται στο Βιβλίο Ε του Ηθικά Νικομάχεια, και σχετίζονται με τη θεωρία των ανταλλακτικών αξιών. Βάσει της Σύγχρονης Κλασικής Θεωρίας της αξίας-κατανομής εισοδήματος και της έννοιας της «κοινωνικής αφηρημένης εργασίας», το άρθρο υποστηρίζει ότι: (i) η αριστοτελική προσέγγιση των αγοραίων λόγων ανταλλαγής των εμπορευμάτων ως μεσοτήτων, και της μεσότητας ως αρίστου σημείου, δεν είναι πλήρως άγονη, και (ii) o Αριστοτέλης δεν θα μπορούσε να θεωρήσει ότι «κοινό μέτρο-ουσία της αξίας» των εμπορευμάτων είναι η «εργασία γενικά» (K. Marx), διότι θα ερχόταν σε αντίφαση με το «Επιχείρημα του Τρίτου Ανθρώπου», το οποίο αποτελεί ένα από τα θεμέλια της κριτικής του στην πλατωνική Θεωρία των Ιδεών.
Chapter
This chapter provides a detailed exploration of matrix demand multipliers in Sraffian frameworks for both closed and open economies with linear processes of single and joint production. It reveals the characteristic features of these multipliers, and shows that they involve an autonomous demand–transfer payments curve, which turns out to be a useful tool for dealing with multiplier processes in heterogeneous capital worlds. Finally, it focuses on the dependence of long-run matrix demand multipliers on the exchange rate, income distribution and, therefore, changes in relative commodity prices. Thus, this chapter highlights the distinctive contribution of the Sraffian theory to both the political economy and economic policy of effective demand management.
Chapter
Focusing on Kalman’s modern control theory, which is based on the dual concepts of controllability and observability, and on the relationships between the modern and the classical control theories, this chapter restates fundamental structural features of Sraffa’s theory of production. Thus, it identifies new aspects of the Sraffian theory, emphasizes the generality of this theory, determines the location of the alternative, traditional and Sraffian value theories in the complex plane and, hence, points out a spectral post-construction of the value theory.
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