Article

Halal culinary and tourism marketing strategies on government websites: A preliminary analysis

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Non-Muslim countries have also recognized the momentum of the Muslim travel market and develop strategies to better cater for and attract Muslim tourists. Prominent examples are the Japan National Tourism Organization, Korea Tourism Organization, and Tourism Authority of Thailand, which have included a whole new part in travel guide books to showcase the halal services they offer, such as prayer rooms, dedicated hotels' halal facilities and mosques' locations (Yousaf and Xiucheng, 2018). Likewise, Tourism Australia (2020) produces extensive tourist guides for halal-friendly eateries, cities, and Muslim-friendly itineraries, while several countries follow the same path by increasing their capabilities to attract Muslim travelers, such as New Zealand (Razzaq et al., 2016) and South Africa (Mastercard-CrescentRating, 2019b). ...
... Traveling is intertwined with the lives of Muslims, as their religion urges them to travel (Mohsin et al., 2016), provided they follow specific rules (Yousaf and Xiucheng, 2018). These rules or obligations constitute the key reason for Muslim tourists to demand differentiated halal services and products (Battour and Ismail, 2016). ...
... Previous literature has shown that halal-friendly services and products are key determinants of the consumption behavior, purchase intention, and satisfaction of Muslim tourists (Papastathopoulos et al., 2021;Akhtar et al., 2020;Aji et al., 2020;Battour and Ismail, 2016;Jeaheng et al., 2019;Shnyrkova and Predvoditeleva, 2019). Nonetheless, previous studies into halal tourism are mostly of a descriptive and theoretical nature (Oktadiana et al., 2016;Yousaf and Xiucheng, 2018), creating the need for further research (El-Gohary, 2016) with "more analytical processes to achieve better understanding of this phenomenon" (Ryan, 2016, p. 123). ...
Article
Tourism organizations around the globe, along with various professional and academic studies, have signaled the importance of halal tourism as an emerging lucrative market segment. Yet, there is no uniform and parsimonious scale to measure the range of hotel halal services that are most important to Muslim travelers when travelling to non-Muslim countries. Consequently, this study conceptualized a new multidimensional and continuum instrument for measuring the perceived importance of halal services provided by hotels to Muslim guests. A rigorous procedure consisting of a six-stage scale development, four studies, 1157 participants, and the novel application of an Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling framework (ESEM) culminated in a four-dimensional, twenty-five-item model. The results confirmed the continuum structure of halal services and supported reliability and validity. The new scale contributes to our understanding of the synergetic, complex, and multidimensional role of services in tourism.
... Haram food constitutes items like alcohol, pork, carrion, and all the meat products which are not slaughtered in an Islamic way (for details, see Henderson, 2016;Yousaf, 2016). Halal food is generally understood to extend beyond people's dietary habits, towards a symbolic manifestation of indoctrinating a complete Islamic code of conduct (Yousaf & Xiucheng, 2018). For this reason, traditionally, services and facilities required by Muslim tourists differ significantly from those frequented by conventional tourists, with the availability of Halal food being the most germane and sought-after choice for them (Dinar Standard, 2012). ...
... Under such circumstances, the special dietary requirements of Muslim travelers engendered a heightened sense of anxiety regarding the non-availability of halal food during their quarantine stay. Add to it, compared to its neighboring countries in South East Asia, there is relatively little culinary awareness of Halal food in China (Yousaf & Xiucheng, 2018), as it is generally perceived as a food of ethnic minorities (Sai, 2014), instead of food pertaining to particular religious' stipulations and protocols. ...
... The food may carry high resource valuation due to its lifeaffirming function, but for Muslim travelers, unavailability of halal food may pose disproportionately high resource loss salience, fueling the depleting resource spiral during the quarantine period elevating the psychological distress levels. Because all Muslim travelers vary in their religious adherence levels (Yousaf & Xiucheng, 2018), the resource loss salience and resulting psychological stress may be attributed to the significance of halal to one's self-concept. ...
Article
This study alludes to the highly relevant but scholarly underexplored phenomenon of halal food anxiety that Muslim travelers encounter in non-Muslim destinations. Set in the backdrop of pandemic travel, data were collected from Muslim travelers going through mandatory quarantine requirements of 3 weeks in Wuhan, China. Terror management theory (Greenberg et al., 1986 Greenberg, J., Pyszczynski, T., & Solomon, S. (1986). The causes and consequences of a need for self-esteem: A terror management theory. In B. F. Baumeister (Ed.), Public self and private self (pp. 189–212). New York: Springer.[Crossref] , [Google Scholar]) and conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll, 1988 Hobfoll, S. E. (1988). The ecology of stress. Hemisphere. [Google Scholar];1989 Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44(3), 513–524. doi:https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.3.513[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®] , [Google Scholar]) provided theoretical ground for this study. The results suggested that halal food is viewed as a highly valuable resource by Muslim travelers. Still, socio-spatial confinement of quarantine limits the availability of authenticated halal food, inducing halal food anxiety to settle in. Naturally, halal food anxiety was more prevalent among Muslim travelers who attach high importance to halal food to their self-concept. Halal food anxiety was positively associated with pandemic travel anxiety but negatively related to the psychological well-being of Muslim travelers. This study adds to the missing gastronomic aspect in the emerging scholarship of pandemic travel. It furthers the theoretical debate on the contingency effect of halal food resources to act as an anxiety buffer for Muslim travelers. For practitioners, various avenues are highlighted to exploit the vast commercial halal food market in non-Muslim majority destinations.
... The concept of halal tourism is substituted with Muslim-friendly tourism, sharia tourism, halal hotels, halal culinary, halal travel, and halal health (Adel et al. 2021;Bogan and Sarıışık 2019;Huda et al. 2021;Jeaheng et al. 2019;Pamukcu & Sariisik 2021;Ratnasari et al. 2021;Sarinastiti & Uljanatunnisa 2020;Zailani et al. 2015). In addition, many perspectives have emerged from researchers and practitioners regarding halal tourism, such as how to form a halal tourism strategy, halal tourism development, facilities, completeness, and halal tourism services in Islamic and non-Islamic contexts (Carboni et al. 2016;Haq & Wong 2010;Hsu et al. 2020;Joeliaty et al. 2020;Kasdi et al. 2019;Shah et al. 2020;Yousaf & Xiucheng 2018). ...
... Halal tourism focuses on halal facilities and services provided for Muslim visitors, such as worship facilities balanced with the availability of ablution water service facilities, prayer tools, and Qibla direction (Wardi et al. 2018). It is supported by Yousaf & Xiucheng (2018) that halal food or beverage facilities also need to be considered by improving the quality of services such as the sanctity of the kitchen, food ingredients, and cooking methods or how to produce food that is allowed in Islamic law. In addition, Aji et al. (Aji et al. 2020) emphasize how to dress, the hospitality served by service providers, a polite appearance by adhering to Islamic law. ...
... The importance of halal tourism branding strategy can be done through promotions through mass media, such as the procurement of websites or official accounts for halal tourism (Adel et al. 2021;Yousaf & Xiucheng 2018). This can also be strengthened by upgrading the e-branding system that promotes more attractive names or brands, logos, web designs through online media. ...
... The quality and quantity of messages on the website reflected the awareness that the government developed (Conversano, Contu, & Mola, 2019;Narbona & Arasa, 2018). The government's promotional website content reflects the government's focus on culinary tourism development (Yousaf & Xiucheng, 2018;Zhou & DeSantis, 2005). ...
... Research on the Indonesian government's culinary tourism promotion message content during the pandemic was limited. Previous studies used content analysis of a government websites to examine how tourism destination promotion messages to analyzed food as a tourist attraction (Okumus, Okumus, & McKercher, 2007;Yousaf & Xiucheng, 2018;Mohamed et al., 2020), and the government's strategies in promoting food tourism (Horng & Tsai, 2012;Okumus, Okumus, & McKercher, 2007;Yousaf & Xiucheng, 2018). ...
... Research on the Indonesian government's culinary tourism promotion message content during the pandemic was limited. Previous studies used content analysis of a government websites to examine how tourism destination promotion messages to analyzed food as a tourist attraction (Okumus, Okumus, & McKercher, 2007;Yousaf & Xiucheng, 2018;Mohamed et al., 2020), and the government's strategies in promoting food tourism (Horng & Tsai, 2012;Okumus, Okumus, & McKercher, 2007;Yousaf & Xiucheng, 2018). ...
Article
Culinary tourism had the most extensive product portfolio and was one of the tourism sectors most affected by the pandemic in Indonesia. The website was a specific communication tool for promoting tourism. The study objective was to examine how the government's promotion of culinary tourism in official website content strengthens the sustainability of culinary tourism development during the pandemic. This study used qualitative content analysis on the official tourism promotion website of the Indonesian government, namely https://www.indonesia.travel. Two hundred twenty-four articles on the "Culinaries'' and "Culinaries & Wellness" links were analyzed in seven data groups and 17 keywords. The placement and number of keyword analysis on the website found that tourism promotion had identified culinary resources but not enough to promote culinary as a tourist attraction. Business actors with small capital have not been promoted adequately, and promotion has not offered virtual culinary tour packages and online purchase messages sufficiently. It was concluded that the promotion of culinary tourism still required improvement to strengthen it’s sustainability during the pandemic. The government must promote culinary tourism by increasing the messages specifically for culinary tourism, information on culinary tourism attractions, business actors, local food, small-capital business actors, supporting online promotion, and integrating culinary tourism into other tours.
... Nevertheless, a non-Muslim destination should consider the following issues before engaging in marketing communication with Muslim tourists. First, a non-Muslim country that targets Muslim tourists successfully should identify the attributes required by these tourists that subsequently affect their purchasing behaviors and satisfaction [2,3,[20][21][22][23]. Several studies have found that consumers evaluate their postpurchase satisfaction for certain attributes [2,10,24,25]. ...
... Samori et al. [7] attempted to compare the current trends in Halal tourism in Muslim (Malaysia) and non-Muslim (Japan) countries and found that Muslim tourists could be an important niche market in Japan due to the increasing number of such tourists each year. Meanwhile, Yousaf and Xiucheng [21] observed the government websites of four non-Muslim Asian countries, indicating that a destination's positioning as Muslim-friendly was one successful marketing strategy for enhancing Muslim tourists' experiences. Han et al. [22] explored Muslim tourists' possible Halal-friendly critical attributes (generic or basic) at a non-Muslim destination. ...
... El-Gohary [3] proposed Halal tourism principles and/or key requirements comprising the basic needs expected, for example, Halal food, absence of alcohol, absence of ham or pork, a copy of the Quran in every room, prayer rooms, Islamic dress code for staff uniforms, prayer mats, markers indicating the direction of Mecca, and suitable guest dress codes. Yousaf and Xiucheng [21] summarized 27 attributes into five factors to compare four countries' Halal culinary and tourism marketing. e main attributes include Halal appraisal and certification, Halal cuisine features, recommended Halal food restaurants, Halal as a symbol of culinary diversity, and additional Halal services and facilities. ...
Article
Full-text available
The rapid growth of Halal travel offers a tourism opportunity for countries, but non-Muslim countries often find it difficult to meet the multiple religious needs of Muslim tourists. This study verifies Muslim tourists’ requirements for basic hotel and food services and identifies the categories in which to place these attributes and which ones need resources to increase Muslim tourists’ satisfaction. Applying Taiwan as a non-Muslim destination, we surveyed 216 Indonesian Muslim foreign workers and used the recently developed Gradient Boosting Decision Trees, instead of a regression method, to overcome the nonlinear and multicollinearity issues of Penalty-Reward-Contrast Analysis. Impact-Range Performance Analysis and Asymmetric Impact-Performance Analysis were then applied to examine the basic attributes of Muslim foreign workers’ tourist experiences. We learned that using Gradient Boosting Decision Trees provided advantages over the regression method. Empirical results indicated that hotel-related factors are prioritized over food services when Muslim tourists visit a non-Muslim country. In addition, religious observances play an essential part in Muslim tourists’ hotel choices, and conveniently accessible Halal food is a desirable travel requisite for this group.
... Unfortunately, Halal leisure has not gained sufficient prominence among academicians and practitioners. Although, the sub-domains of Halal leisure like Halal culinary (Yousaf & Xiucheng, 2018), Halal tourism (Battour & Ismail, 2016), and Halal hospitality (Hall et al., 2019) continue to attract scholarly attention due to their ubiquitous presence in the form of tourism and hospitality products and services. Still, a coherent positioning of Halal leisure, exploring the dialectical interaction between Islam and leisure avenues, is sparsely discussed. ...
... First, the religion Islam has a massive influence on the daily lives of its adherents. Islam provides Muslims with guidance regarding their social behaviour and conduct, ultimately reflecting their leisure and recreational choices (Yousaf & Xiucheng, 2018). Specifically, the public leisure activities are primarily influenced by the community standards expected of Muslims advocated by Islam (Amara & Henry, 2012). ...
... The global Muslim Halal travel activities alone were valued at 194 billion USD in 2019 (State of the global Islamic economy report, 2020/2021). With a growing Muslim population accelerating at a rate faster than the rest of the world, with 54% of the total Muslim population being younger than 30 years by 2030 (State of the global Islamic economy report, 2018/19), there is an everflourishing market for religiously compliant travel and leisure products and services (Yousaf & Xiucheng, 2018). Given the commercial aspects involved in the Halal frontier and the desire for Muslims, especially youth, to have more contemporary avenues of religiously compliant leisure inspired by the Western forms of leisure, there has been a burgeoning increase in the development of so-called Halal-hybrid leisure spaces in Muslim markets. ...
Article
This research note discusses why and how the conventional description of leisure makes positioning Halal leisure difficult for researchers and practitioners and then identifies four leisure zones based on the overall consensus of Islamic teachings, cultural tolerance of Islamic societies, and localized/regionalised interpretations of Islamic scriptures. In doing so, this paper contributes to enhancing the nascent understanding of the position of leisure in Islam, considering religious and socio-political factors. For practitioners, this research note alludes to the emergence of Halal-hybrid leisure spaces where Muslims’ religious and cultural identities continuously evolve to accommodate traditionally Westernised leisure habits.
... Halal tourism in recent decades has become popular and occupied an essential segment of international and national tourism (Vargas-Sanchéz & Perano, 2018;. The sizeable Muslim population and its high growth have become significant market potential (Zailani et al., 2015;Yousaf & Xiucheng, 2018;Adel et al., 2021). By the end of 2020, the world's Muslim population was reported to have grown drastically to reach 13% of the world's total population (Rashid et al., 2020). ...
... Some literature indicates halal tourism with the substitution of Muslim-friendly tourism, sharia tourism, halal hotels, halal culinary, travel, and halal health (Zailani et al., 2015;Boğan & Sarıışık, 2019;Jeaheng et al., 2019;Sarinastiti & Uljanatunnisa, 2020;Adel et al., 2021;Huda et al., 2021;Pamukcu & Sariisik, 2021;Ratnasari et al., 2021). In addition, scholars and practitioners also try to formulate the development of halal tourism strategies through branding and marketing strategies (Yaakop et al., 2017;Aji et al., 2020;Katuk et al., 2020;Adel et al., 2021), development of tourism facilities, equipment, and services in Islamic and non-Islamic contexts (Haq & Wong, 2010;Carboni et al., 2016;Yousaf & Xiucheng, 2018;Kasdi et al., 2019;Hsu et al., 2020;Joeliaty et al., 2020;Shah et al., 2020). ...
... The documents related to marketing strategy (Haq & Wong, 2010;Haq, Wibawa et al., 2021;Hanafiah et al., 2021). In addition, several selected journals also reviewed comprehensively related to products and services (Carboni et al., 2016;Yousaf & Xiucheng, 2018;Huda et al., 2021) and business processes (Junaidi et al., 2019;Rashid et al., 2020;Pamukcu & Sariisik, 2021;Rahmawati et al., 2021). (5) The development of halal tourism strategy is focused on several areas that need attention, namely marketing strategy, customer behavior, halal tourism products and services, and business processes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Halal tourism has recently become an open industry development that attracts scholars to study, analyze, and research. A few systematic reviews were conducted in this area. This study aimed to investigate the existing literature regarding halal tourism development strategies. This study used a systematic literature review and thematic analysis for the data analysis. PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic literature review) was adopted as a guide in this systematic literature review with primary data collected from the Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar databases. Based on 25 selected articles, this study identified four main halal tourism development strategies including marketing strategy, customer behavior, halal tourism products and services, and business processes. The current paper systematically reviewed all relevant literature to fill the gaps by analyzing the growing evidence on halal tourism development strategies. The challenges and prospects of halal tourism were also highlighted.
... Until the conclusion that Halal Tourism is a concept of tourism carried out by Muslims for recreational purposes while looking at the creation of Allah SWT in order to appear gratitude for the pleasure and majesty that Allah SWT has created. During the trip, it is required for Muslims to remain bound by Islamic law [5]. Ryan (2016) recommends that researchers no longer only discuss the concept of Halal Tourism in general, but can conduct further studies relating to the implementation of Halal Tourism in order to make it more realized and accepted by many people [6]. ...
... At present, the world community especially non-Muslims often consider halal as a term in the concept of food and drink only [15]. Furthermore, Samori et al. (2016) say that halal is not only synonymous with food and drink but also various types of products and services offered to Muslims, including Halal Tourism [12] [16].When traveling, Muslims have a series of sharia laws' which must be implemented, that is, still paying attention to religious norms even for tourism purposes [5]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Halal Tourism is becoming a trend. The increasing number of Muslim tourists in the world spending hundreds of billions of dollars in spending provides opportunities for Halal Tourism destinations. OIC and non-OIC member countries are competing to respond to this opportunity by developing the concept of Halal Tourism. Indonesia as the first ranked Halal Tourism destination by GMTI 2019 also prepared a strategy by making a series of policies. As a Muslim majority country that has natural resources, ethnicity, race, history and culture, it provides an opportunity for Indonesia to survive as the best Halal Tourism destination. However, its implementation needs to be reviewed again in order to maintain the best service quality in accordance with Islamic values in order to bring forth new strategic input in developing Halal Tourism. This literature study was written by examining journals related to Halal Tourism and reports / documents from the Indonesian government and global institutions. The aim is to contribute to the government of Indonesia and other countries and businesses to develop and manage Halal Tourism which provides many benefits for economic and social aspects.
... Many countries, apart from Muslim-majority countries, have shown the openness of their tourism authority which raises the values of Islamic teachings and also the concept of halal; one of which is represented through various products and services from halal tourism, such as in Japan (Sukmayadi & Effendi, 2020), Russia (Gabdrakhmanov, Biktimirov, Rozhko, & Mardanshina, 2016) Korea Selatan (Han, Al-Ansi, Olya, & Kim, 2019), China, and Thailand (Yousaf & Xiucheng, 2018). It means that halal tourism is currently a recent phenomenon in developing the tourism industry in several non-Muslim countries worldwide. ...
... Of these three publications, they have had a significant impact on the development of halal tourism studies, despite of it, many also have citations e.g. Yousaf & Xiucheng (2018) ...
Article
Full-text available
Halal tourism is a new segment in tourism studies that have received attention and has now proliferated. Past studies have not been so deep in treading global scientific literature on halal tourism studies on tracking its evolution and trends among scientific journal which focuses on social science discipline. Therefore, this article is based on a systematic literature review analysis of halal tourism in social science discipline as an effort to improve our understanding of previous halal tourism studies. Data were obtained from the academic database Scopus, 31 articles were obtained about halal tourism in social science discipline, and the data period was collected from the beginning to the end of 2020. The data is illustrated using two applications, namely NVIVO and VOSViewer, as the primary tools for analyze qualitative data, which selected; (VOSViewer; Keyword Co-occurrence Network Maps and Trend (KCNM/T)), (NVIVO; Hierarchy Chart (HC), word frequencies (WF), and Explore Diagram Analysis (EDA)). The results showed that, from 31 journals, Stephenson (2014) has the most influence with high cited, besides, Tourism Management as a journal name that identified many articles published there, and Routledge as a publisher with a high total journal on Halal Tourism, and Indonesia as a country that high mention time. Specifically, various approaches and distributions based on methodology, objectives, and geography were the research's focus. Recent trends and the dominant frequency of words from the study of halal tourism have shown several scholars' high interest. In the halal tourism studies on social sciences discipline, previous scholars have carried out many different research segments, namely, tourism issues, product issues, destination issues, travel issues, service issues, and market issues. Future research is also considered in this article
... In the same vein, today, other religions such as Hindu, Buddhist and Christian (non-Muslims) are also consuming halal food for their dietary health (Rahman et al., 2020). Non-Muslims are considered contributors to this flourishing sector (Rahman et al., 2020) and halal-themed events of local culinary traditions, lifestyles and heritage that are associated with Muslims attract both Muslim and non-Muslim tourists (Yousaf and Xiucheng, 2018). Non-Muslim consumers place great importance on quality food choices and selection due to concerns over health, ethics in food preparation and being green and environmentally friendly (Damit et al., 2018). ...
... Moreover, many non-Muslim countries engage with halal hotels, halal resorts, halal restaurants, halal trips, halal products and services and halal foods to encourage tourists to visit (Akhtar et al., 2019). Countries in Asia, namely, Thailand, Japan and South Korea, market their countries through halal food culture and cuisine (Yousaf and Xiucheng, 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the underlying antecedents of memorable halal food experiences by considering how specific internal factors of non-Muslim tourists—novelty seeking, authenticity and sensory appeal—combine with external factors in a restaurant setting—togetherness, experience co-creation and substantive staging of the servicescape—to effect memorable halal food experiences. The study also examined the relationship between memorable halal food experiences and place attachment.
... In the same vein, today, other religions such as Hindu, Buddhist and Christian (non-Muslims) are also consuming halal food for their dietary health (Rahman et al., 2020). Non-Muslims are considered contributors to this flourishing sector (Rahman et al., 2020) and halal-themed events of local culinary traditions, lifestyles and heritage that are associated with Muslims attract both Muslim and non-Muslim tourists (Yousaf and Xiucheng, 2018). Non-Muslim consumers place great importance on quality food choices and selection due to concerns over health, ethics in food preparation and being green and environmentally friendly (Damit et al., 2018). ...
... Moreover, many non-Muslim countries engage with halal hotels, halal resorts, halal restaurants, halal trips, halal products and services and halal foods to encourage tourists to visit (Akhtar et al., 2019). Countries in Asia, namely, Thailand, Japan and South Korea, market their countries through halal food culture and cuisine (Yousaf and Xiucheng, 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This study aims to examine the underlying antecedents of memorable halal food experiences by considering how specific internal factors of non-Muslim tourists – novelty seeking, authenticity and sensory appeal – combine with external factors in a restaurant setting – togetherness, experience co-creation and substantive staging of the servicescape – to effect memorable halal food experiences. The study also examined the relationship between memorable halal food experiences and place attachment. Design/methodology/approach During the first week of August 2021, an online survey was used for data collection and shared on Amazon Mechanical Turk (Mturk) as well as sent to non-Muslim people known to the authors to have had halal food experiences in a tourism setting. A total of 293 valid responses were obtained. Findings The results revealed that novelty seeking, authenticity, experience co-creation, substantive staging of the servicescape, togetherness and sensory appeal influence memorable halal food experiences. Furthermore, these experiences positively impact place attachment. Originality/value This is one of the first studies to explore non-Muslim tourists’ memorable halal food experiences.
... The urbanisation trend in Iran has intensified in the recent decades (Qelichi et al. 2017;zarghamfard et al. 2019), and the majority of the country's population has become urbanised (Shia 2003: 38). The need to create new urban land uses has gradually reduced the share of green space and urban gardens, resulting in limited human access to nature (Moureh 1994: 72). ...
... Planning for tourism development requires attention to the necessities, characteristics and market demands. In this regard, recognising the motivation of tourists to travel is important as a marketing strategy (Correia et al. 2007;zhang, Peng 2014;Yousaf, Xiucheng 2018) and facilitates tourism planning (Wu, Pearce 2014). Indeed, the existence of different motivations, specifies the necessity of planners' and tourism administrators' awareness of these characteristics (Truong et al. 2017;Vigol et al. 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
This research aims to identify the pull and push factors that are effective for tourists travelling to Gilan province and classifying their motivations into key factors. Data were collected using a questionnaire. A total of 20 motives, including 11 push factors and 9 pull factors, were investigated. The sample size of the study was 390 people. For data analysis, single-sample t -test and factor analysis were used. The results showed that the average total pull motive was greater than the push motive. Motives were divided into three main factors: ‘nature-based tourism and spiritual regeneration’, ‘place dependency and the purchase of agricultural products’ and ‘lifestyle’. It should be noted that the ‘nature-based tourism and spiritual regeneration’ was found to be the most important factor for travelling to Gilan province.
... Based on the report by the media, it seems that Muslim consumers always end up as victims to greedy traders and manufacturers who use their own Halal certification, which is not recognised. They are either inconsiderate or not bothered on why the products have to be Halal for Muslims (Yousaf & Xiucheng, 2018). ...
... Therefore, the control of Halal food is viewed by the Government as a sensitive and serious matter. The Government's commitment to facilitate the provision of Halal food for the Muslim consumers in the country is reflected through the establishment of the following legal infrastructures (Yousaf & Xiucheng, 2018). Unrecognized and alienated 'Halal' logo has been widely used by many irresponsible producers on their products. ...
... Many countries, apart from Muslim-majority countries, have shown the openness of their tourism authority which raises the values of Islamic teachings and also the concept of halal; one of which is represented through various products and services from halal tourism, such as in Japan (Sukmayadi & Effendi, 2020), Russia (Gabdrakhmanov, Biktimirov, Rozhko, & Mardanshina, 2016) Korea Selatan (Han, Al-Ansi, Olya, & Kim, 2019), China, and Thailand (Yousaf & Xiucheng, 2018). It means that halal tourism is currently a recent phenomenon in developing the tourism industry in several non-Muslim countries worldwide. ...
... Of these three publications, they have had a significant impact on the development of halal tourism studies, despite of it, many also have citations e.g. Yousaf & Xiucheng (2018) ...
Article
Full-text available
Halal tourism is a new segment in tourism studies that have received attention and has now proliferated. Past studies have not been so deep in treading global scientific literature on halal tourism studies on tracking its evolution and trends among scientific journal which focuses on social science discipline. Therefore, this article is based on a systematic literature review analysis of halal tourism in social science discipline as an effort to improve our understanding of previous halal tourism studies. Data were obtained from the academic database Scopus, 31 articles were obtained about halal tourism in social science discipline, and the data period was collected from the beginning to the end of 2020. The data is illustrated using two applications, namely NVIVO and VOSViewer, as the primary tools for analyze qualitative data, which selected; (VOSViewer; Keyword Co-occurrence Network Maps and Trend (KCNM/T)), (NVIVO; Hierarchy Chart (HC), word frequencies (WF), and Explore Diagram Analysis (EDA)). The results showed that, from 31 journals, Stephenson (2014) has the most influence with high cited, besides, Tourism Management as a journal name that identified many articles published there, and Routledge as a publisher with a high total journal on Halal Tourism, and Indonesia as a country that high mention time. Specifically, various approaches and distributions based on methodology, objectives, and geography were the research's focus. Recent trends and the dominant frequency of words from the study of halal tourism have shown several scholars' high interest. In the halal tourism studies on social 116 sciences discipline, previous scholars have carried out many different research segments, namely, tourism issues, product issues, destination issues, travel issues, service issues, and market issues. Future research is also considered in this article.
... The researcher used qualitative content analysis as a data analyst and did not use software because it considered the diversity of information that required skills in coding, data grouping, and relatively small data (Stepchenkova, Kirilenko, & Morrison, 2009). Analysis of the content of policy documents, publications, and promotions used conceptual references carefully before conducting text analysis to reduce researchers' subjectivity as a deficiency in the qualitative content analysis approach (Mehmetoglu & Dann, 2003;Yousaf, & Xiucheng, 2018). ...
... Finally, researchers examined the policy text by noting the existence of the information, the position of information in the policy text to determine the relationship between information and the position of information as a government development priority. The description of the information in tourism documentation and promotion used the presence or absence of information (Yousaf & Xiucheng, 2018). The researcher then recorded the frequency of occurrence of information about tourist objects/attractions in all documents. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The number of the urban poor is still a development problem in Bogor City. Tourism development has the potential to overcome the problem of poverty in society. This study aims to find how the contents of the text of tourism development policy documents, publications and tourism promotions indicate the involvement of the urban poor in building inclusive tourism. This research used the content analysis method to the text of tourism development policy documents, publication documents and official promotions of the Bogor City government. The results of the analysis of the contents of the policy documents showed that the two policy documents have not clearly defined who the urban poor are and how to involve the urban poor in tourism development. The link between tourism development and the involvement of the urban poor is listed indirectly through the development of the creative economy. Publication and promotion documents included government-owned and large-capital private tourism objects as priorities for the publication and promotion of city tourism. Tourism objects that can involve the urban poor are not a priority for publication and promotion. The city government handled the most potential tourism objects involving the urban poor as informal businesses vulnerable to control. The results showed that inclusive tourism development is still not possible in the content of policy documents, publications and tourism promotion in Bogor City.
... There are gaps in previous research, namely: there is a significant effect of price, service quality, product and location (PSPL) on visitor purchase intention found in studies: Stone et al. (2017), Gugerell et al. (2017), Björk and Kauppinen-Räisänen (2016), (Sivrikaya & Pekerşen, 2020). While others say there is no relationship and influence of PSPL on purchasing intention, but halal recommendations (Yousaf & Xiucheng, 2018), services and products have no effect on buying intention (Vargas-Sánchez & López-Guzmán, 2018), the priority is culinary innovation (Okumus & Cetin, 2018), (Aggarwal, Albert, Hill, & Rodan, 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to determine the effect of price, service, product and location (PSPL) quality factors on tourist purchase interest and to find the factor most influencing tourists' purchase intention in local culinary in the Lake Toba area. The method used in this research was verification analysis using multiple linear regression. From the results of the research by conducting the F test, the variable price (X1), service quality (X2), product quality (X3), and location (X4) have a significant effect on purchase intention in local culinary in the Lake Toba area. Testing with the T test showed that the variables affecting the purchase intention of Arsik Fish Culinary are the variables of service quality (X2), product quality (X3), and location (X4). The variables influencing Naniura purchase intention are product quality (X3) and location (X4). The variables that affect the purchase intention of Manuk Napinadar are service quality (X2), product quality (X3), and location (X4). The variables that affect Natinombur purchase intention are price (X1), product quality (X2), and location (X4). The variables that influence Dali Ni Horbo's purchase intention are product quality (X3) and location (X4). The variables that affect Tanggo-Tanggo purchase intention are the variable product quality (X3) and location (X4). Overall from the type of culinary service, it is found that hospitality is the lowest, so it needs to be improved. The results of this study can be used by local culinary managers or owners in developing strategies and increasing sales performance.
... Social media is online media with its users who can easily get involved in sharing or creating blog content, social networks, wiki forums, and the virtual world. Besides, social media has positive and negative functions, depending on their use [4]. E-commerce is an economic transaction whereby buyers and sellers are incorporated on the internet, forming contractual agreements regarding the placement of prices and delivery of certain goods or services as well as completing transactions through sending payments and contracted goods or services [5]. ...
Article
This study aims to describe the millennial generation to become online entrepreneurs, where the problem in this generation is a high level of consumption. Therefore, this generation must be more observant to see business opportunities in popular activities on social media, especially Instagram and utilize social networking as a market business. This research used a descriptive method and interviews to describe the ease of access to social media, the level of consumptive achievement in the millennial generation, and the widespread use of social media for the business market. The results of this study are the use of social media and more critical to see business opportunities by utilizing social networks that can meet our own needs and invest in small businesses. It can be seen from the many new business-based accounts used by Millennials on social media. It can be concluded, that social networking has the best interaction between business owners with consumers and potential customers. Besides, the smart and productive use of the internet can benefit business owners
... In addition to taste, usually foodies will see the unique side of the food they buy. not only attractive but also pocket-friendly (Febriyantoro & Arisandi, 2018;Pérez-Lloréns et al., 2021;Suharti & Sirine, 2012;Yousaf & Xiucheng, 2018). Now there are many food trends from Japan that are sold in Indonesia, one of which is Takoyaki and Okonomiyaki. ...
Article
Full-text available
Culinary, with various types of food and various menus, is now rife in the midst of society, especially during the current pandemic. It is added with the implementation of The Community Activities Restrictions Enforcement (CARE) by the government to limit the physical interaction between people and groups in an effort to reduce the transmission of COVID-19. With this implementation, the activities of people going out of the house are decreasing. This is what fosters public interest in buying food online. Companies that run online applications currently provide many attractive promos to attract the attention of consumers using their services. Marketing strategies and brands that exist in food trends businesses are diverse, in the current pandemic, there are many creative ideas for entrepreneurs to work with online culinary application service companies whose aim is to make it easier for consumers to buy food online. People who use this marketing and branding strategy also find it helpful because they don't need to leave the house to buy food, by using an application on their gadget the food will be delivered by an online motorcycle taxi driver (Ojol). Still because of the pandemic, many workers got laid off so many of them switch to opening a business, and most of the business they do is to open a contemporary culinary business. From the many culinary businesses that have sprung up, it also indirectly fosters the interest of entrepreneurs to open culinary businesses. The research method in this study used a qualitative descriptive with reference to the theory of Hierarchy Effect Models using the AIDA model as a stage of assistance in marketing targets to consumers. The source of the research data above was taken by using primary data (interviews and documentation). While the purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of the "Digital Branding" Strategy on food trends businesses in order to foster creativity and interest of Entrepreneurs in opening a culinary business or business opportunity, especially during the pandemic.
... Since market advertising and promoting an item or service is very diverse, one of the tools that can be used is social media. Social Media is an internet-based application group network using a website and technology [4]. Every social media user can make or exchange information on the application as well. ...
Article
The purposes of this research are to identify marketing strategies using exposure in the online business world, explain the role and understanding of Exposure in the online marketing business, and explain the marketing system in social media influencers. The method used in this research is descriptive method. The results of this study is that exposure could be one of the best way to promote the product. This study discusses about exposure, influencers' social media, barter exposure, barter exposure system in influencers' social media, and the benefits of doing barter exposure in marketing.
... They are more into advertising it to social media, websites, and other forms of e-marketing to showcase their foods. Uniqueness and authenticity of the foods bring out a perfect marketing tool for culinary tourism (Yousaf & Xiucheng 2018). The province of Bukidnon is not into marketing its authentic dishes and local delicacies through social media and websites. ...
... (Jonas et al., 2002), and promote stigmatisation (Jonas et al., 2002). (Yousaf and Xiucheng, 2018). Consumer behaviour is significantly influenced by death-related psychological worries. ...
This study explores the influence of intra-pandemic perceptions on travellers' post-pandemic hotel booking behaviour among crisis-resistant travellers and crisis-sensitive groups. It also examines the moderating role of mortality threats and religiosity on these behaviours. We collected quantitative data utilising survey method via questionnaires to address various levels of the research. We used PLS-SEM to evaluate our proposed model. We collected data from 1580 who had booked hotels in Egypt. Our study indicated that intra-pandemic perception has a stronger effect on travellers’ post-pandemic hotel booking behaviours if the travellers are less religious and feel deeply threatened by the idea of their own level of mortality. Moreover, it revealed that intra-pandemic perceptions had a stronger association with post-pandemic planned behaviour for travellers who chose to cancel their hotel booking plans. Our study also indicated that emergency public information plays a critical role in influencing post-pandemic planned behaviour. Our study offers effective strategies to aid hospitality and tourism practitioners when risky and threating situations such as COVID-19 arise, specifically in the period of response and recovery.
... The Muslim community globally is vast and will continue to grow. The population is expected to increase to 31.1%, equivalent to 3 billion Muslims in 2060 (Yousaf & Xiucheng 2018). There is a strict Islamic dietary law. ...
Book
Full-text available
ABSTRACT: This study was designed to unveil the influence of demographic, socio-economic, and environmental factors on the preferences and behavior of middle-class Muslims toward the potential of a halal hospital in Surabaya, Indonesia. A simple random sampling technique was used with a total of 217 respondents in this study. To analyze the data, the Structural Equational Model (SEM) from the AMOS statistical software was used. Findings revealed that demographics, socio�economics, and the environment significantly influenced respondents’ preferences. This study also discovered that preferences towards behavior, preferences towards the potential of a halal hospital, and the actual behavior towards the potential of a halal hospital are correlated. Arguably, a halal hospital’s potential is central, which is around 75% as measured by the level of preference and behavior of middle-class Muslims who have different demographic, social, economic, and environmental characteristics. Keywords: Middle-class Muslim, demographic, socio-economic, environment, potential halal hospital
... With an area of 605.21 km 2 , Seoul ( Figure 1) is a special city in South Korea, which is one of the most populous cities in the world (Sarker et al., 2020). In addition, Seoul is also a city where Itaewon is located, which is one of the regions that has the largest number of Muslims, especially seen from the growth of halal restaurants there (KTO, 2019a(KTO, , 2019bYousaf and Xiucheng, 2018;KTO, 2019aKTO, , 2019bHan et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This study aims to investigate the opinion of a group of informants in Seoul – South Korea’s foremost destination – on the possibility of developing a halal tourism policy that is closer to the wishes of Muslim customers, which is also in line with Islamic principles. Design/methodology/approach This research investigated the perceptions of 17 key informants. The data was conducted through interview about the possibility of developing an industry that is more in line with the lifestyle of Muslim tourists and more in line with halal criteria. Findings This study shows that the idea is quite attractive, especially among Seoul tourism industry players and even the South Korean Government itself. Although the potential for halal tourism is recognized, its development is currently divided into three groups, namely, groups that support the development of the policy, groups that reject and groups who do not care about it. Originality/value The research in this paper shows further developments from the studies that have been conducted in Djerba, Tunisia, that halal tourism carried out in Seoul, South Korea, has become a priority for the government through agencies/institutions/communities related to the halal industry.
... Few others have focused on halal products in the context of tourism (Kawata et al., 2018;Yousaf and Fan, 2018;Mannaa, 2019;Muharam and Asutay, 2019;Ahmadova and Aliyev, 2020;Rahman et al., 2020). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the role of attitude as a mediator in exploring the Halal cosmetics purchase intention of Indian Muslim women. Various drivers of electronic word of mouth (eWOM) (quality, quantity, consistency and quantity) have been tested as antecedents of purchase intention through the lenses of the elaboration likelihood model (ELM). Design/methodology/approach The positivist paradigm approach has been used to test the proposed mediation model using structural equation modelling. Responses of 313 Indian Muslim women who read reviews shared on various social media platforms before making any halal cosmetics purchase intention have been used for the final analysis. Mediation was tested using bootstrapping. Findings The findings of the study revealed that attitude towards halal cosmetics mediates the relationships of various drivers of eWOM with halal cosmetics purchase intention. However, it was observed that this mediation was partial in the context of eWOM quality, eWOM valence and eWOM consistency. Furthermore, for eWOM quantity, the mediation effect was full as the direct impact of eWOM quality on halal cosmetics purchase intention was not significant but its indirect impact on the latter via attitude was found to be significant. Research limitations/implications This study adds to the marketing communication literature, especially in the context of eWOM. The study also validates ELM theory in explaining the attitude that shapes the halal cosmetics purchase intention, thus the current study enriches the ELM literature. Practical implications The current study offers several implications for halal cosmetics marketers. It offers various suggestions to them on how to capitalize on eWOM as it influences Indian Muslim women’s purchasing intention for halal cosmetics by shaping their attitude towards such cosmetics favourably. Originality/value With reference to halal cosmetics, the current study offers a new perspective by examining the purchasing intention for such cosmetics based on various drivers of eWOM. The attitude towards halal cosmetics as a mediator has helped in better explaining the purchase intention for halal cosmetics.
... Dölekoğlu vd., (2017) tarafından yapılan araştırmaya göre, yolcuların meyve ve sandviç gibi yemesi kolay ve hızlı yiyecekleri seçme olasılıkları daha yüksek bulunmuştur. Yolcular, çeşitli yiyecekleri seçme imkanına sahip olsa da, alerjen içermeyen (Seidenberg, 2020), inançlarına uygun yiyecekleri talep etme ve yiyeceklerin içeriği konusunda hassas davranmaktadırlar (Yousaf & Xiucheng, 2018;Latiff, 2019). Bu nedenle havayolları, çoğu yolcunun tıbbi, kişisel fizyolojik, patolojik, dini veya diğer nedenlerle ihtiyaç duyduğu en yaygın yemek çeşitlerini karşılamak üzere tasarlanmış özel uçak içi yemek hizmetlerini de karşılamaktadır (Leggat & Nowak, 1997;Ko & Chen, 2016). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Uçak içi ikram ve servis, gastronomi sektörünün kalanından farlılıklar göstermektedir. Standart uygulamaları çeşitli faktörler nedeniyle uçaklarda gerçekleştirmek mümkün olmamaktadır. Havayolu işletmeciliğinin kritik, önemli, gelir getiren ve prestiji yükselten bir hizmeti olan uçak içi ikram hizmetleri; şirketler için hayati bir noktaya gelmiştir. Yıllar içerisinde artan müşteri talepleri, uçak içi ikram hizmetlerinin kalitesini ve çeşitliliği arttırmış; buna bağlı olarak da operasyonel değişimi kaçınılmaz kılmıştır. Yaklaşık yüz yıllık bir geçmişe sahip olan uçak içi ikram sektörü zaman içerisinde gelişmiş ve değişmiştir. Bu değişimi irdelemek sektörün geleceğini öngörmede önemli bir rol oynayacaktır. Uçak içi ikram ve serviste ortaya çıkan farklılık ve zorluklar bu alanda çalışacak olan profesyonellerin de uyum sağlamasını gerektirmektedir. Bu doğrultuda, uçak içi ikram ve servis hizmetlerinin kendine özgü çalışmalarını iyi anlamak, profesyonellerin gelişimleri ve eğitimleri için gereklidir. Bu çalışma ile, uçak içi ikram ve servis hizmetlerinin tarih içerisindeki gelişimi ile standart hizmetlerden ayrıldığı noktalar hakkında literatür incelenmiş ve ortaya konmuştur. Yıllar içinde artan ve artmaya devam eden yolcu sayısının ve uzun mesafe uçuşların getirdiği bir sonuç olarak büyüyen sektör, ikram ve servis konusunda da büyümek ve gelişmek durumundadır. Yolcu taleplerini karşılamak ve rekabet içinde güçlü olmak isteyen işletmelerin ikram ve servis konusunda öne çıkmaları güçlü kalmalarını sağlayabilir. Bu durum gastronomi sektöründe çalışan profesyonellerle ilgili talep oluşturacak, temel mesleki yeterliliğin yanında özel olarak uçak içi hizmetlerde uzmanlaşmayı gerektirecektir. Çalışma uçak içi ikram ve servis hizmetleri hakkında bilgi ve inceleme ortaya koyarak, paydaşların dikkatine sunmayı amaçlayan bir çalışmadır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Uçak içi ikram hizmetleri, uçak içi yiyecek-içecek servisi, uçuş gastronomisi ABSTRACT In-flight catering and service differ from the rest of the gastronomy industry. It is not possible to perform standard applications on airplanes due to various factors. In-flight catering services, which is a critical, important, revenue-generating and prestige-enhancing service of airline management; it has come to a vital point for companies. Increasing customer demands over the years have increased the quality and variety of in-flight catering services; accordingly, operational change has become inevitable. The in-flight catering industry, which has a history of nearly a century, has developed and changed over time. Examining this change will play an important role in predicting the future of the industry.
... Hal ini dimaksudkan untuk menarik wisata muslim agar berwisata di negara mereka. Dengan metode ini maka wisata halal yang digaungkan oleh pemerintah dinegara tersebut berkembang dengan pesat (Yousaf & Xiucheng, 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Community-based tourism (CBT) is one of the management models adopted by the Wakatobi Regency government in managing tourism. This paper examines the management of community-based tourism in Wangi-Wangi Island, Wakatobi Regency from 2006 to 2019 Data were obtained from various literatures by conducting literature studies and from field observations and interviews with the community. Meanwhile, the data analysis technique used was a qualitative data analysis with CBT perspective. The results of this study indicate that the CBT model is carried out in two types: (1) tourism management is carried out by landowners in which local community is not directly involved in the management of object; (2) tourism management is carried out by the government, in which the local community is directly involved in managing the tourist objects. The supervision of CBT model management is carried out by the government along with the community involved in tourist objects. The local community can feel directly the benefit of CBT model, either directly or indirectly involved.
... The location is not only limited to religious tours/Islamic countries but also non-Islamic countries (Battour & Ismail, 2016). This is of course different from Religious / Islamic Tourism, whose main motivation in traveling is to explore religion and increase faith through religious tourism to certain destinations such as pilgrimage, umrah/hajj, and other places to increase faith in Allah SWT ( FICCI Religious Tourism Report, 2012: 2, in Yousaf andXiucheng, 2018). ...
Article
Inline to accelerate the development of halal tourism in Indonesia, this paper aims to analyze the halal tourism market in Indonesia through the approach of Muslim tourist behavior both in terms of current supply and potential demand. By using a combination method as a research approach, the results of this study are expected to be more contributive in formulating promotion strategies and development of halal tourism throughout Indonesia, especially in D.I. Yogyakarta. This study involved 718 respondents. This research was completed with interviews at the West Nusa Tenggara Province Culture and Tourism Office as a role model in the development of halal tourism. The results of the analysis show that tourists are dominated by the millennial generation and women, where differences in gender and age generations also indicate behavior and needs in traveling. In the end, there are at least seven strategies that can be done to develop halal tourism, such as (1) regulations; (2) acceleration of halal certification; (3) optimization of supporting facilities and infrastructure; (4) cooperation with business actors and travel agents; (5) approaching religious and community leaders; (6) cooperation with airlines; and (7) actively involved in national and international promotion.
... The existence of websites about culinary businesses [9], especially catering diets, certainly brings many benefits to the business owner. That is because by using the website, people will be able to more easily access and find out about the catering business. ...
... Wisata kuliner, bisa digunakan selaku fasilitas buat menghadirkan budaya lokal (Özdemir & Seyitoğlu, 2017). Wisata kuliner bisa dijadikan selaku strategi difrensiasi pariwisata (Yousaf & Xiucheng, 2018). Wisata kuliner mempertahankan produk lokal wilayah, tradisi wilayah serta fitur geografis buat menunjang pengembangan pariwisata berkepanjangan (Rinaldi, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
The diversity of culinary tourism in Pangkal Pinang makes these culinary specialties have a significant potential to be exploited as supporting services in the development of culinary tourist potential. Culinary tourism is an option in addition to other sorts of tourism that visitors to Pangkal Pinang are already familiar with, such as cultural tourism, nature tourism, and marine tourism. This study intends to identify culinary tourism items based on native food ingredients present in Pangkal Pinang City, as well as challenges encountered in the process of establishing Pangkal Pinang City-specific culinary tourism. Culinary tourism is one of the attractions for both domestic and foreign tourists who want to sample various varieties of local cuisine, particularly in Pangkalpinang City. It is also envisaged that it will stimulate the expansion of the creative sector, particularly those relating to culinary tourism, particularly in Pangkalpinang City. The goal of this study is to find local food-based culinary tourism that has the potential to promote culinary tourism in Pangkalpinang City. so that it can look for goods with the potential to be developed from these local food ingredients and study the growth of local food ingredients in Pangkalpinang City This is a descriptive study that employs both primary and secondary data. According to the findings, there are 12 different types of culinary tourist goods based on local food ingredients found in Pangkalpinang City.
... Such is its importance that managers invest significant financial and social capital in attracting foreign customers and engage in long-term innovation processes to ensure they meet their foreign customers' expectations. Managers stress the importance of incorporating cultural heritage aspects and local experiences in their services (Dai, Hein, & Zhang, 2019;MacNeill & Wozniak, 2018;Yousaf & Xiucheng, 2018) in order to satisfy foreign customers, and they deliver such services to enhance inbound internationalization. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the inbound internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Inbound internationalization refers to a process of internationalization where firms attract foreign customers to their home market instead of entering foreign markets. While a plethora of studies have documented outward firm internationalization, knowledge of inbound internationalization is limited. We draw on the dynamic capabilities perspective and conduct qualitative research with owner-managers of tourism and hospitality SMEs. Our findings show that both managerial and organizational capabilities (networking, marketing, technology, and innovation) drive inbound internationalization. We contribute to the SME internationalization literature by investigating an under-researched phenomenon and by identifying the operational and dynamic capabilities that drive inbound internationalization. Furthermore, we add to the capability perspective in an international business context by showing that managerial and organizational capabilities complement each other and jointly influence inbound internationalization. Our study also contributes to the international business literature in a Latin American context.
... The journey's purpose has now become more relaxed and value for moneycentric (Ateljevic, 2009). The new generations are more excited to learn new things and experience culture, food, traditions, etc (Yousaf and Xiucheng, 2018). By this, we clearly say that tourism is going through the global advancement stage, which is good, and India needs to change accordingly (Arun et al., 2019). ...
Article
Background: Ecotourism is a very fast-growing sector worldwide, connecting rural and urban people to more sustainable and alternative means of livelihood. When it comes to India, Rajasthan is well known for its tourist places worldwide because of its forts, palaces, wildlife sanctuaries, national parks, etc. Many tourist places in Rajasthan display the diversity of the entire country. Among them, Jodhpur is the most favored tourist destination. Due to cultural variability and traditional values, Jodhpur has been taken as a study area. Purpose: This study aims to understand the geospatial technology and management planning for sustainable ecotourism development in Jodhpur district, Rajasthan, India. Objective: (a) Identify the role of GIS and management in ecotourism's growth and planning. (b) Identifying and mapping some of the significant ecotourism hotspots using Arc GIS software and plotting the current flow of tourism in the study area. Methodology: The methodology section has consists of three crucial parts in which; the first section deals with GIS planning tells us how the location-based information helps in the proper collection of GIS based data and channelization of work. The second section shows the management planning which shows how the proper management activity may lead us to an effective and efficient flow of visitors has been maintained and, lastly, sustainability details about how the GIS planning and management planning may lead us to a sustainable future of tourism called ecotourism. Result: The use of GIS and management planning in tourism-related activities can significantly contribute to employment generation, revenue generation, enhancement of local market and people may understand the local tradition and culture. Effective and efficient use of all resources may lead us towards sustainable future. Conclusion: GIS and management planning can do much better than we think. With the utilization of geospatial technology, the visitors flow can be managed in eco-fragile areas in more effective manner. Tourists mostly recorded in unique places, which is commendable work for the tourism sector's growth. However, the central and state
... However, there are still many gaps that can be explored on this topic. Yousaf and Xiucheng (2018) and Kim et al. (2015) consider that research on halal tourism strategies is still primarily limited to Muslim-majority countries, leaving many opportunities for researchers who study non-Muslim majority countries to see practices there. In addition, other studies also tend to be more interested in seeing the suitability of halal tourism with the halal concept in Islamic teachings (El Gohary, 2016;Vargas-Sanchez & Moral-Moral, 2019;Adinugraha et al., 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article describes how globalisation paves a way toward Thailand's decision to develop its gastrodiplomacy strategy. In more detail, the practice that the author will examine is the practice of Thai gastrodiplomacy with Indonesia, which is directed explicitly to promoting their halal products. This research is descriptive and uses a case study approach, which may provide a deeper picture of a phenomenon in social sciences. Through the Thailand case study, we can see that so far, countries that have a comparative advantage in the culinary field can also respond to globalisation in their way. Responding to the high demand from the global trend of halal tourism, Thailand has slightly adjusted its gastrodiplomacy strategy towards the halal aspect. This also improves the image of those already popular with sex tourism. Uniquely, this halal gastrodiplomacy has also made them successful in gaining markets in other countries despite not being a Muslim-majority country. This research highlights that the practice of gastrodiplomacy can be viewed from various perspectives. One of them is the perspective of globalisation, which investigates how interactions between people can change our perception of objective and subjective needs and how linking these two needs creates new modes of activity.
... This shows that the Muslim market is not homogeneous. Yousaf and Xiucheng (2018) compared the promotion of halal tourism and halal culinary carried out by Japan, South Korea, Thailand, and China through government websites. Japan, South Korea, and Thailand introduced halal cuisine, halal food culture, halal restaurants, and other halal facilities in order to attract Muslim tourists through constant promotion on government websites. ...
Article
Full-text available
Since 2014, Japan has been developing halal tourism in order to increase the number of tourists. The halal tourism project emphasizes Japan’s need to understand the halal concept in order to provide appropriate facilities. This research discusses how the halal concept as a foreign culture is understood to provide Muslim-friendly facilities and halal products’ guarantee. This study uses mixed methods: data were taken from the halal signifier pictograms in restaurants, collected from the Japan National Tourism Organization (JNTO) and Japan Muslim Guide websites. In addition, the data related to several halal products were also taken from the ‘Japan Halal’ Facebook account. The types and the quantity of pictograms used in restaurants that are recommended by JNTO and Japan Muslim Guide were interpreted to discover how the halal concept is understood in Japan using a multiculturalism framework. This study found that the concept of halal is understood through, and has been adapted to, Japanese local values: the acceptance of halal concept as foreign culture in Japan’s halal tourism is carried out through localization of the concept. Localizing the halal concept provides a strong contribution to tourist destination country, in this case, Japan, as a non-Muslim majority country, to be more attractive to the Muslim tourist in terms of the Japan’s ability in providing the halal facilities for the Muslims while also still showing Japan’s characteristic on its culture.
... However, reviewing the literature, illustrates that the number of theoretical studies on halal tourism outweighs empirical studies, and most studies are conducted in an Islamic context with only a few considering the non-Islamic (or Islamic minority) context (Jia & Chaozhi, 2020). On the other hand, previous empirical studies on halal tourism of non-Islamic countries found a shift from western countries (Halkias et al., 2014;Razzaq et al., 2016) to eastern countries (Dabpbhet, 2021;Jia & Chaozhi, 2020;Yousaf & Xiucheng, 2018). This research paper theoretically positions itself where academic discourse on halal tourism specific to the Philippines, a Muslim-minority country, remains scant. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study analyses various institutions’ halal certification and standards in the Philippines and their potential for halal tourism. The demand for halal services and products has been increasing in the Philippines, however, the major halal certifiers in the country uphold different standards, leading to confusion and abuse in halal accreditation and certification. The unification of halal standards is a complex process due to varying interpretations and thus, this research utilised case study methods to analyse the similarities and differences of the three major halal certifiers in the country within the lenses of the Work System Elements Framework and the Institutional Analysis and Development Framework which examine the participants, processes, information needs, and environment. Results show that halal certifiers do not have a common standard in their certification practices. Additionally, there is no national certification scheme or a standard scheme that certifiers can follow. Therefore, each certifying body has its own standard, scheme, and policy regarding halal certification, resulting in a fragmented development of certification schemes. An appropriate halal standard in the Philippines is essential to attract Muslim visitors, as the country initiated a halal programme that aims to increase the arrival of international Muslim travellers. The findings provide implications for developing and managing halal tourism and for diversifying tourism products in the Philippines. Further, this study makes a valuable contribution to the understudied phenomenon of halal certification in a Muslim-minority country that could benefit from incorporating halal tourism in their destinations.
... The World Food Travel Association (2020) estimates that more than one quarter of tourists' travel budgets are spent on food. Tourism satisfaction at destinations is significantly influenced by food (Yousaf & Xiucheng, 2018). The main beverages of coffee and tea are consumed globally for a variety of reasons, such as a daily beverage, health and well-being, ceremonies, and gift-giving (Hedrick et al., 2021). ...
Chapter
The objective of this chapter is to review the literature to identify the different marketing strategies used by different countries in promoting food tourism with special reference to the viewpoints of female tourists. The viewpoints of female tourists have been selected as female travelling category has seen rapid expansion in today's worldwide outbound tourism industry. This study contributes by becoming the first systematic literature review on different marketing strategies used by different countries in promoting food tourism with special reference to the viewpoints of female tourists during the period 2015 to 2021.
Book
You can reach my book, 'Digital Marketing' via the following link: https://www.morebooks.shop/store/gb/book/digital-marketing/isbn/978-613-8-96557-2
Article
This study proposed ‘performing culinary diaspora’ to examine how South Asians use food to articulate diasporic identity in Hong Kong and foster culinary encounters with Hong Kong Chinese. Drawing on in-depth interviews and participant observations of South Asians and Hong Kong Chinese in different South Asian restaurants, grocery shops, and homes, this work examined how transnational South Asian food networks have facilitated the formation of culinary space in which South Asians prepare and consume traditional food with co-ethnics in restaurants and homes. The research also considered the culinary encounters in which South Asians utilise their culinary knowledge to initiate meaningful contacts with Hong Kong Chinese by preparing ‘authentic’ South Asian dishes in different eating places. This research argued that ethnic foodways serve as a space of both social frictions and interactions. By focusing on culinary practices, this study demonstrated how the South Asian diaspora is felt, embodied, and perceived by the host society. It contributes to intercultural studies by revealing how South Asians in Hong Kong use their traditional food culture to create a sense of place, initiating cultural encounters, and promoting social inclusion in Hong Kong.
This study used two comparison studies to examine the potential brand perception of localized and foreign restaurants to predict consumer behavior. A total of 680 participants (e.g., 318 foreign restaurant customers and 362 localized restaurant customers) were included to discover and confirm the causal relationships among the quality of food and meals, environmental evaluation, willingness to pay more, and recommendations. Our study of foreign restaurant brands (Study 1) found that food and meals may indirectly affect the willingness to pay more and recommendations through providing a friendly environment. The destination's moderating role is also confirmed. Additionally, our study of localized restaurant customers (Study 2) identified the mediating roles of risk evaluation and willingness to pay more, which link the relationship between food and meals and recommendation behavior. Furthermore, destination trust was found to strengthen the relationship between risk evaluation and willingness to pay more.
Purpose Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are a key player in the food services and restaurants sector; thus, the aim of this work consists in studying the previous research on ICTs in food services and restaurants in the context of tourism and hospitality through a systematic literature review. Design/methodology/approach The systematic literature review is performed on full papers published in journals included in the Journal Citation Report of the WoS in the category of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism. A total of 165 articles from 28 journals are analyzed, following different criteria, such as the research methods, perspectives, statistical techniques, geographical focus, topics, technologies, authors and universities. Findings The restaurant sector is more and more based on the creation of experiences and ICTs, through their multiple possibilities, can undoubtedly contribute to adding value to the simple meal and create and recreate experiences to attract and retain customers who are increasingly sophisticated and hooked on ICTs. ICTs are basic for managers taking decision at the highest level in food services and restaurants, so ICTs should not be seen as a technical tool but as an essential element for top management. Research limitations/implications This paper examined articles from very well-known tourism and hospitality journals, leaving aside others as well as different publication formats such as books or papers presented at conferences. Originality/value A significant contribution made with this paper is the availability of a list of topics in the context of ICTs in food services and restaurants. These topics are classified into three areas (Consumers, Suppliers and Environment and Tendencies) that can serve as a future research framework. The paper also provides useful information to restaurant managers about ICTs, to researchers for their future projects and to academics for their courses.
Article
Purpose This paper aims to explore the effect of three destination competitiveness attributes: core resources and attractors, supporting factors and destination management on the tourist perceived behavioral control, perceived value, trust and tourists’ intention to visit halal tourism destination in Indonesia. Design/methodology/approach Quantitative data is collected by conducting an online survey. Using data from 244 Muslim respondents in Indonesia, this study applies a partial least square-structural equation modeling to test and estimate relationships among variables. Findings The results show that perceived behavioral control, perceived value and trust directly influences the intention to visit halal tourism. Subsequently, supporting factors also directly affect the intention to visit halal tourism, whereas the other attributes of destination competitiveness that is core resources and attractors and destination management have an indirect relationship or act as mediating variable to the intention. Destination management performs as a driving force of intention to visit halal tourism through the three variables, namely, perceived behavioral control, perceived value and trust. Meanwhile, core resources and attractors only have an indirect relationship through trust. Research limitations/implications There are limitations of the data collection, the respondent of the survey in this study is Muslim tourist, for wider range of region the study should also be conduct not only for Muslim respondent but also non-Muslim respondent to get comprehensive data of halal tourism market in Indonesia. Practical implications This study provides insights to the government and stakeholders about domestic tourist intentions toward halal tourism destinations. This study also makes some recommendations for elements that can be used to increase tourist acknowledgement of halal tourism, acquire the domestic tourist market and increase state revenue through halal tourism. Social implications This study has substantial implications; halal tourism in Indonesia has a promising economic future. The tourism industry is not only intended to increase government revenue but has also contributed to environmental sustainability. The study reveals the significance of destination management in halal tourism. Hence, to make Indonesia a leading country in halal tourism, Indonesia needs to fulfill the tourism destination competitiveness among others to implement sustainable tourism and enhance the infrastructure, promotion, services and environmental aspects. Originality/value This study offers a framework model related to halal tourism focus on destination competitiveness as part of the knowledge contributions. Besides, the findings of the study can be the references for the stakeholders to take any strategic decision with regards to attract tourists’ intention to visit halal tourism destinations.
Article
Purpose Halal tourism despite its increasing contributions toward the global tourism industry, remains a nascent field of research, in particular, investigations that explore the drivers of halal tourism purchase intention of Muslim tourists are insufficient. To contribute to this end, this study aims to examine the moderating role of perceived behavioral control (PBC) on attitude, subjective norms (SN) and behavioral intention by applying the theory of planned behavior. Design/methodology/approach The conceptual model is tested by using structural equation modeling based on the data collected from 306 Muslim tourists of Bangladesh. Findings The results reveal that PBC moderates the relationship between attitude and halal tourism intention. Halal tourism intention is also influenced by attitude and PBC but not by SN. Research limitations/implications Findings of the study contributed to halal tourism literature by identifying the role of perceived autonomy and capacity on halal tourism intention and by offering an understanding of the underlying psychological drivers of halal tourism choice. Practical implications This would help the marketer to design suitable halal tourism offerings to fulfill the unique needs of this less explored tourism market. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is perhaps the first study in the context of the Bangladesh tourism sector that focuses on customers’ halal tourism intention. The study’s findings are crucial in Islamic marketing and halal tourism.
Article
This study contributes to understanding the mediating and moderating processes that link technology management with brand equity accumulation through the function of attitudes. Two- and three-ways moderated model linking image/video integration and utilitarian functions to the strength of the relationship between technology inspiration and attitudes. Further, drawing on brand equity and attitude theory, our multiple mediation model posits that (1) the value-expressive attitude influences the social-adjustive attitude through the hedonic function, and (2) perceived quality may affect brand image and advance customer brand loyalty. Data from 642 visitors engaged in Kinmen culinary experience support this proposed model. Implications for theoretical and managerial practice are discussed in the final section.
Article
Halal tourism witnessed a significant growth during the second half of the decade ended on December 2020 with COVID19 pandemic. This expansion can behas been witnessed equally in academic research and Halal tourism industry. Keeping in view the this phenomenal growth in Halal tourism industry and academic research, this research performs review of the very high quality research literature on Halal tourism to consolidate its findings and recommendations. It performs thematic analysis of 74 articles , published between the period 2009 to 2020 i.e., up to before the beginning of the COVID19 pandemic, listed in the A* and A ranked journals of the Australian Business Deans Council (ABDC). It consolidates research methodologies, themes, dependent/independent and mediating/moderating variables, which that ultimately lead to a master conceptual framework of research. It highlights that the research on Halal tourism is in its developing stages, with more themes emerging in the recent years. It suggests that everyeach country must reflect the blend of its own culture duly enveloped in the Shariah parameters. Finally, this review of literature highlights a nexus between Social values, tourism services and Islamic stipulations , as a way forward for research and developments in the Halal tourism research and industry.
Article
This study examines the price competition, experiential quality and online marketing decisions of a tourism supply chain, consisting of a tourism operator and two online retailers. The equilibrium solutions and the conditions for unique optimal solutions are derived in three supply chain strategies. This study also investigates performance improvement measures, including the operator’s involvement in online marketing and online reviews for quality improvement. An experimental analysis is conducted to compare supply chain performance and provide tourism managerial insights. The investigation provides a reference for tourism policies that could assist in improving experiential quality and operation performance.
Article
Full-text available
The launch of halal tourism is based on the consideration that Indonesia is the largest Muslim majority country in the world, namely 207 million people. This study aims to analyse the potential of halal tourism in Madura with digital technology, access, value-added, and facilities mediated by e-marketing to see the intention to visit halal tourism. The research method used is Structural Equation Modeling with Smart Partial Least Square (PLS). The sample of this study was collected through a questionnaire from 187 tourists who were travelling in Madura halal tourism destination as respondents. The study results indicate that either directly or mediated by e-marketing, access significantly affects the intention to visit halal tourism. On the other hand, technology innovation and value-added have no significant effect. Meanwhile, facilities and e-marketing also directly affect the intention to visit halal tourism. Overall, to increase the potential for halal tourism visits in Madura, it needs easy access, good e-marketing and supporting facilities because the Madura area has many halal tourist destinations. The added value presented as an opportunity to see original regional merchandise, regional performances, and innovative technology has not become a priority for tourists to have halal tourism intention in Madura Island. This study provides research and practical implications for stakeholders related to halal tourism in Madura.
Article
Penyengat Island in Riau Islands Province was appointed by the Ministry of Tourism as one of the leading halal tourism destinations. The development of halal tourism on Penyengat Island requires strategies that can increase Muslim tourist arrivals. This article aims to analyze alternative strategies for the development of halal tourism in Penyengat Island so that the number of tourist visits can increase and the application of the concept of halal tourism in Penyengat Island can be implemented, so as to obtain the recommended strategy. This research uses a qualitative descriptive approach through literature study with the use of journals that are in accordance with the research topic. The alternative policy evaluation uses evaluation criteria in the form of technical feasibility, economic feasibility, political feasibility and administrative feasibility. There are three alternative policies that can be implemented for the development of halal tourism on Penyengat Island, namely branding and marketing; easy access and visa; and the provision of Muslim tourist-friendly facilities. The policy recommendation is the provision of friendly facilities for Muslim tourists that can creat comfortable for Muslim tourists.
Purpose This study aims to conduct a synopsis and overview of past research that discussed halal hospitality development and the halal travel market. Design/methodology/approach An extensive systematic review of 108 articles within the hospitality and tourism domain from 2000 to 2021 that were extracted from the Web of Science and Scopus databases was exhaustively assessed. Findings The results are visualised to determine the most thematic domains, contexts and concepts previously discussed. It also computed the contribution of journals, authors and affiliations in fostering the mobility of halal tourism studies. The study attempted to chart new directions and insights for future scholars and academics to expand the scope of halal literature in two ways. It articulated the implications and guidance themes emphasised in previous studies and identified new paths to abreast the contemporary issues of the hospitality and tourism industry, including sustainable consumption trends, community development, technology and smart practises, as well as potential threats and challenges such as islamophobia. Originality/value In view of the fast growth of halal market studies, the direction and contribution of the previous literature produced limited discussions with certain theoretical concepts. This study advises new pathways in which halal tourism development can respond to contemporary issues in hospitality and tourism.
Article
Purpose This paper aims to provide a brief bibliometric review of previous literature reviews in understanding halal suppliers in the food supply chain to achieve halal standards from upstream to downstream. Design/methodology/approach The method used was a structured literature review sample of during 2008–2020 totalling 142 articles. The authors use the R-package bibliometric and VOSviewer to find out information about journals, articles, authors, citations, keywords and word hierarchy maps. Findings The analysis reveals five research clusters: halal supply chain, food supply chain, supply chain integration, halal lifestyle, halal logistics. Research limitations/implications This study focuses on articles that discuss halal suppliers in the food supply chain. Originality/value Bibliometric reviews related to suppliers in the halal food supply chain in this study will help explore halal suppliers and be useful for researchers and practitioners in their fields as well as assist supplier management in the halal food supply chain.
Article
Full-text available
Coronavirus (COVID-19) gained and will continue to gain a lot of global attention over the coming months (and maybe the coming few years). Since its outbreak in Wuhan (China), it has turned into one of the major challenges affecting the whole world. In a comparatively short time, the virus outbreak turned into a pandemic that led to massive negative impacts not only on people health and well-being, but also on the global economy, travel industry, pharmaceutical industry, tourism industry, and many other industries. This research paper aims to investigate the different effects of coronavirus on the global Halal tourism and Halal hospitality industry and whether the coronavirus pandemic is the end of Halal tourism and hospitality as we know it or not. The paper offers an in-depth theoretical examination of the different aspect of the pandemic on Halal tourism and hospitality industry and provides guidance on how to address these different aspects. The current paper is one of very few research papers addressing coronavirus on the tourism and hospitality industry.
Article
Full-text available
Terror management theory is focused on the role that awareness of death plays in diverse aspects of life. Here, we discuss the theory’s implications for understanding the widely varying ways in which people have responded to the COVID-19 pandemic. We argue that regardless of whether one consciously believes that the virus is a major threat to life or only a minor inconvenience, fear of death plays an important role in driving one’s attitudes and behavior related to the virus. We focus on the terror management theory distinction between proximal defenses, which are activated when thoughts of death are in current focal attention and are logically related to the threat at hand, and distal defenses, which are activated when thoughts of death are on the fringes of one’s consciousness and entail the pursuit of meaning, personal value, and close relationships. We use this framework to discuss the many ways in which COVID-19 undermines psychological equanimity, the diverse ways people have responded to this threat, and the role of ineffective terror management in psychological distress and disorder that may emerge in response to the virus.
Article
Full-text available
This exploratory study reviews the overall impacts of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on China’s hotel industry. A COVID-19 management framework is proposed to address the anti-pandemic phases, principles, and strategies. This study also suggests that COVID-19 will significantly and permanently affect four major aspects of China’s hotel industry—multi-business and multi-channels, product design and investment preference, digital and intelligent transformation, and market reshuffle.
Article
Full-text available
The global crisis caused by COVID-19 pandemic and the introduction of long-term international quarantine measures have had a very negative impact on the tourism industry. The paper aims to analyze the sectoral losses of the tourism industry during quarantine due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Lviv, a city whose historical center is included in the UNESCO World Heritage Site. The article highlights the potential of the tourism industry before the introduction of quarantine measures, as well as using extrapolation methods estimates the economic losses of the tourist industry of Lviv in the conditions of long-term quarantine. Besides, the anti-crisis measures of the city authorities to minimize the impact of quarantine due to COVID-19 pandemic on the tourism industry of Lviv are described. Based on a statistical analysis of the forecasted economic losses, it is recommended that city authorities abolish some local taxes and fees in the tourism sector to restore its potential as soon as possible.
Article
Full-text available
The goal of the research was to measure the impact of the meaning in life, life satisfaction, and the beliefs in orderliness and positivity of the social world on emotional and cognitive reactions to the COVID-19 pandemic. The 317 participants were recruited over four days (April 1st–4th) during the start of the dynamic increase of the pandemic in Poland. The study was performed via open-access forums on the internet. The analyses indicated that stronger basic hope and higher levels of meaning in life and life satisfaction correlate with lower state anxiety and lower COVID-19 stress. Mediation analyses suggested the following interpretation of the interdependencies: basic hope supports meaning in life and life satisfaction and the increase in the latter two factors results in lower anxiety and COVID-19 stress. The results suggest that these three global assumptions and feelings may serve as buffers against anxiety as well as nonproductive thinking and decision making in the face of an unpredictable threat.
Article
Full-text available
Objective The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact that self-quarantine has on behaviors associated with weight gain. Methods This was a quantitative descriptive/correlational research design. Research announcement was sent out via Facebook to 1200 possible participants. Six surveys were condensed into a single Survey Monkey questionnaire for participants to complete. Surveys asked questions relating to risk factors linked to weight gain. Results Ninety-one percent of our sample stated they spend more time at home now than before COVID-19. Twenty-two percent of the sample stated they gained 5-10 pounds. Within those who gained 5-10 pounds, there was a significantly higher percentage of the total sample who reported they increased eating in response to sight and smell (p = .048), eating in response to stress (p = .041), and snacking after dinner (p=.016) compared to those who stated they did not change those behaviors at all. There were significant relationships between predictor variables hours of sleep per night and physical activity time on reported weight gain (r=-.195, p = .021, r=-.155, p = .034, respectively). Conclusion Risk factors for weight gain during self-quarantine are inadequate sleep, snacking after dinner, lack of dietary restraint, eating in response to stress, and reduced physical activity.
Article
Full-text available
Based on the theoretical foundation of emotion regulation, this exploratory study aimed to examine changes in tourists’ perceived well-being and to determine whether these changes were due to use of emotion regulation strategies (ERSs) during their vacation. This study used travel diaries to record tourists’ use of ERSs on a daily basis, and also measured tourists’ perceived well-being one day before and after their vacation. Results indicated that tourists had significantly higher perceptions of well-being after vacation, and those who used ERSs were more likely to indicate a higher sense of well-being after vacation. The results provide new insight into which aspects of tourists’ subjective and psychological well-being can be boosted by taking vacations and how these aspects may be enhanced by using different ERSs.
Article
Full-text available
For some tourists, shopping is a “must-do” activity, and many tourists’ purchases can be classified as souvenirs. This study employs a grounded theory approach to explore the central elements of souvenirs that help tourists reminisce about their holiday experiences and encourage their intentions to revisit a place. Based on semi-structured interviews with visitors to Rovaniemi, Finland, from 14 different nationalities, uniqueness, usability and functionality emerged as central elements that prolonged memorability of the travel experience and encouraged revisit intention. This research contradicts studies indicating that a lack of authenticity is an attraction when buying souvenirs and that tourists purchase “genuine counterfeit products” while on holiday due to their lower prices. The managerial implications of this study are that tourism service providers who sell souvenirs in similar contexts should invest more resources on offering objects that represent uniqueness and on local food products and clothes, as well as kitchenware, which represent usability and functionality
Article
Full-text available
In the recent digitization era, transformation has been observed from traditional modes to the modern and effective ones, in the way people communicate, gather information and in terms of the factors that make or break a decision to travel. Recognizing the significance of electronic platform and online media in tourism and hospitality industry, the present study is intended at a comparative content analysis of the official tourism websites of world’s top tourist destinations by incorporating the modified Balanced Score Card (BSC) approach. The top ten tourist destinations worldwide that comprise a major share of the global tourism have been examined on a set of critical success factors under the perspective of technical performance, user friendliness and site attractiveness, tourism effectiveness and food tourism effectiveness. Moreover, the study attempts to suggest some meaningful remedial measures in order to embolden the tourism promotion through official web portals of the destinations.
Article
Full-text available
Tourists consider many factors, including health, when choosing travel destinations. The potential for exposure to novel or foreign diseases alone can deter travelers from selecting high-risk locations for disease transmission. The 2015–2016 Zika Virus (ZIKV) outbreak in the Americas and Caribbean prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. This study investigated factors that may contribute to travel avoidance to areas experiencing ZIKV transmission while also considering different levels of health concern and awareness among groups with varying demographics. An online survey was administered February 10–12, 2016 to a sample of U.S. residents (n = 964). Demographics, information about travel behaviors, and levels of health concern were collected. Ordered logit models were employed to assess the impacts of the ZIKV outbreak on travel planning. Respondents giving higher levels of attention to general health were more likely to avoid travel to areas experiencing ZIKV transmission. It is anticipated that the findings of this study may be of interest to public health officials, healthcare providers, and government officials attempting to mitigate impacts of ZIKV. Disease outbreaks in regions of the world typically frequented by vacation or leisure travelers are particularly problematic due to the increased amount of exposure to disease in an immunologically naïve population that may then contribute to the outbreak through their travel plans. Avoiding travel to destinations experiencing outbreaks of disease due to health concerns may be interpreted positively by the public health community but can have negative economic consequences.
Article
Full-text available
The increasing number of Muslim tourist creates the necessity to understand of their needs and requirements when travelling. Despite this fact, efforts to explain Islamic tourism remain fragmented, with a distinct lack of theoretical underpinnings explaining this emerging phenomenon. This paper examines the concept of Islamic or halal tourism, based on the theory of Leiper's Tourism System (1979), by exploring the pertinent and crucial elements within the constructs of the tourism system. This intimate understanding allows service providers and policy-makers to consider the issues and challenges embedded within the industry to make way for proper planning and developments to gain a portion of this lucrative market, especially with regards to the Islamic nations worldwide.
Article
Full-text available
The consumption of halal food may be seen as an expression of the Muslim identity. Within Islam, different interpretations of ‘halal’ exist and the pluralistic Muslim community requests diverse halal standards. Therefore, adaptive governance arrangements are needed in the halal food market. Globalization and industrialization have complicated the governance of halal food. A complex network of halal governors has developed from the local to the global level. In this paper, we analyze to what extent halal certification bodies in the Netherlands address the needs of the Muslim community and how they are influenced by international halal governance. The Netherlands serves as a case study with its growing Muslim community and its central position in international trade. The data comes from literature review and eleven qualitative semi-structured interviews with the most prominent actors in the Dutch halal governance system. Our analysis shows that the halal governance system in the Netherlands is weakly institutionalized and hardly adaptive to the needs of a heterogeneous Muslim community. Improvements are needed concerning stakeholder engagement, transparency, accessibility, impartiality and efficiency.
Article
Full-text available
Tourism recognizes the growing interest in Halal tourism from both the perspectives of industry and research. Halal tourism can be summarized by any object or action which is permissible to use or engage in tourism industry, according to Islamic teachings. Therefore, the success of developing and marketing Halal tourism destination must be guided by the adoption of Islamic teachings and principles in all aspects of tourism activities. This paper explores the concept of Halal tourism along with the components which constitute the industry. It provides worldwide examples of some of the current best practises. The opportunities and challenges in developing and marketing Halal tourism are also discussed.
Chapter
Full-text available
Terror management theory posits that human awareness of the inevitability of death exerts a profound influence on diverse aspects of human thought, emotion, motivation, and behavior. People manage the potential for anxiety that results from this awareness by maintaining: (1) faith in the absolute validity of their cultural worldviews and (2) self-esteem by living up to the standards of value that are part of their worldviews. In this chapter, we take stock of the past 30 years of research and conceptual development inspired by this theory. After a brief review of evidence supporting the theory's fundamental propositions, we discuss extensions of the theory to shed light on: (1) the psychological mechanisms through which thoughts of death affect subsequent thought and behavior; (2) how the anxiety-buffering systems develop over childhood and beyond; (3) how awareness of death influenced the evolution of mind, culture, morality, and religion; (4) how death concerns lead people to distance from their physical bodies and seek solace in concepts of mind and spirit; and (5) the role of death concerns in maladaptive and pathological behavior. We also consider various criticisms of the theory and alternative conceptualizations that have been proposed. We conclude with a discussion of what we view as the most pressing issues for further research and theory development that have been inspired by the theory's first 30 years.
Article
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
The study of religion has attracted interest and considerable attention from researchers and practitioners as a result of wanting to know more about religions (such as Islam) and religiosity. However, regardless of the importance of religious studies, religious tourism is still very much under-represented in the literature. In fact, it is distressing to find that little is known about religious tourism in many developed and developing economies. Meanwhile, Islamic tourism (or Halal tourism) is deeply rooted within the Islamic Shari'ah as every Muslim is required to travel for many reasons, some directly related to Islamic Shari'ah itself (e.g. Hajj and Umrah) while many travel for education, medical treatment, and knowledge acquisition, etc. This paper examines the concept of Halal tourism (as a subcategory of religious tourism), its roots, principles and most importantly answers the questions: is Halal tourism really Halal? Is Halal tourism only for Muslim families who abide by Islamic Shari'ah rules? Should it be Halal tourism or Islamic tourism? Is Halal tourism only about Islamic countries or it is also important for other countries? What are the impacts of non-compliance to Halal principles on hotels (and other tourism organisations) performance?
Article
Full-text available
This study explores the role that social media serves in mediating and connecting religious communities and markets through a netnographic study of the search for halal food in the U.S. We find that social media websites can serve as important tools for overcoming obstacles to finding and verifying halal food sources, including barriers of physical access, authenticity, and quality. At a macro level, social media platforms have the potential to moderate the relationship between religion, the market, and consumption in a number of important ways, such as providing a venue for dialogues related to standards of commitment and faithfulness, serving as a community-based arbiter of standards, supporting identity constructions, and helping to overcome the marginalization associated with minority populations.
Article
Full-text available
One of the brain's key roles is to facilitate foraging and feeding. It is presumably no coincidence, then, that the mouth is situated close to the brain in most animal species. However, the environments in which our brains evolved were far less plentiful in terms of the availability of food resources (i.e., nutriments) than is the case for those of us living in the Western world today. The growing obesity crisis is but one of the signs that humankind is not doing such a great job in terms of optimizing the contemporary food landscape. While the blame here is often put at the doors of the global food companies - offering addictive foods, designed to hit 'the bliss point' in terms of the pleasurable ingredients (sugar, salt, fat, etc.), and the ease of access to calorie-rich foods - we wonder whether there aren't other implicit cues in our environments that might be triggering hunger more often than is perhaps good for us. Here, we take a closer look at the potential role of vision; Specifically, we question the impact that our increasing exposure to images of desirable foods (what is often labelled 'food porn', or 'gastroporn') via digital interfaces might be having, and ask whether it might not inadvertently be exacerbating our desire for food (what we call 'visual hunger'). We review the growing body of cognitive neuroscience research demonstrating the profound effect that viewing such images can have on neural activity, physiological and psychological responses, and visual attention, especially in the 'hungry' brain.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that motivate the halal food firms in Malaysia to practice halal orientation strategy (HOS). Design/methodology/approach – Data were obtained from a survey of 137 halal food firms in Malaysia, and analyzed using the partial least squares technique. Findings – Results showed that halal market demand, government support, expected business benefits, and integrity positively affect HOS. Practical implications – The findings of the study will help policy makers and managers of halal food firms to understand external and internal drivers of HOS, which may lead to successfully motivating the implementation of HOS in halal food firms. Originality/value – Although HOS plays a key role in protecting the halal status of any given product, this topic is rarely explored. This study thus contributes to the advancement of knowledge on factors that motivate the halal food firms to practice HOS. Keywords Malaysia, Halal orientation strategy, Halal food
Article
This study investigates the timely, yet academically unexplored, topic of travel burnout. The study explores the return journeys of pilgrim-tourists from Iran to Pakistan during COVID-19 pandemic and contextualizes travel burnout as a negative emotional state placed in the existing theoretical streams. The conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll, 1989; 2004) provided theoretical support to guide current study's research agenda. On the basis of a qualitative grounded theory research design, 47 in-depth interviews of pilgrim-tourists were conducted. Travel burnout emerged as a multidimensional concept comprising 3 core dimensions, i.e., low tourist self-efficacy, travel exhaustion and emotional maladaptation. Travel burnout anchors emerged as those factors that facilitated preservation of the tourists' resources when travel circumstances became beyond their regulation. The results pave the way for a more theoretically sound conceptualization of travel burnout. For destination marketing organizations, various avenues are identified that need attention to alleviate the tourist concerns that lead to burnout.
Article
Pandemics are affecting tourism in many ways. Being a niche research field before, the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic created a strong urgency to develop this topic. For researching pandemic-induced changes in tourist beliefs and travel behaviour, we developed a construct that measures the intra-personal anxiety of travellers (and non-travellers): the Pandemic (COVID-19) Anxiety Travel Scale (PATS), using two large online studies (N=2,180; N=2,062) and including two different cultural contexts (US; Denmark). In Study 1, explorative and confirmative factors analysis confirms a short and easy-to-use 5-item solution, while the presented model adds face validity. In Study 2, we confirmed the structure (reliability) and tested nomological validity, by putting PATS into the context of different constructs (xenophobia and prevention focus). Although the proposed scale arose from the coronavirus (COVID-19), it is not limited to this specific pandemic and will hopefully prove to be a valuable measurement tool for future pandemics as well.
Article
Countries' most effective methods to reduce the impact of outbreaks are quarantine the regions during the pandemic periods. Quarantine decisions during a pandemic directly affect the hospitality industry. There is no universal guideline regarding the quarantine decision during a pandemic. There is a gap in the literature on making the right quarantine decisions to decrease the negative effect of a pandemic on the hospitality industry. To fill this gap, this study uses a decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method to help countries for quarantine decisions due to the COVID-19 pandemic. One of the critical hospitality industry indicators is the inter-regional travel flow between regions for local tourism. Data from the household domestic tourism survey obtained from the Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkStat) is used to acquire the number of people entering and exiting among regions. This study's findings indicate that Istanbul has an essential impact on Turkey's rest. The results also demonstrate that the DEMATEL method provides convenient solutions for quarantine decisions during a pandemic. The DEMATEL application results concerning the COVID-19 pandemic effect might shed light on the hospitality industry’s prospects and challenges. This study's findings might be adopted to prepare the hospitality industry for the COVID-19 pandemic and similar pandemic.
Article
Purpose This study focusses on the underlying needs of Muslims to adhere to the tenets of their religion and to guide their behaviours accordingly. These requirements, for the purpose of travelling, constitute halal tourism. As Muslim-minority nations, such as Taiwan, South Korea and Japan, began to market their own brands of halal tourism, there are concerns of whether their current practices are able to meet the requirements of Muslim travellers. Thus, this study aims to understand the main needs and concerns of Muslim travellers when they visit Muslim-minority countries. Design/methodology/approach Interviews were conducted on selected Muslim travellers who recently visited one of the following destinations, Japan, South Korea or Taiwan. Applying the process theory of travel, service marketing perspective and Muslim religious needs, the study’s conceptual framework served as the basis for crafting interview questions, selecting the participants and explaining the findings. Findings Muslim travellers are mostly concerned with the need to perform daily prayers and to find halal food at the point of need, and willing to conduct extensive research on the destination prior to their visit. Muslim travellers’ experiences in these Muslim-minority countries are generally met with their expectations, although further socialisation with the locals is needed to induce greater overall satisfaction with the destinations. Practical implications Understanding the current practices of halal tourism is critical so that improvements can be implemented in the industry. Originality/value Key preparations, expectations, actual experiences in the destinations and reflections of Muslim travellers provide in-depth insights into their needs and concerns when travelling in Muslim-minority countries. The emergent religion-based dimensions in service experience, such as availability of social agents and halal food at the point of need, extend the conceptualisation of perishability and heterogeneity in service marketing literature.
Article
How do guests feel during their stay at quarantine lodging? This study draws on terror management theory and social exclusion theory to synthesize a model that highlights guests’ perceptions about their experience under enforced isolation. The model articulates guests’ feeling of anxiety and loneliness, whereas quality of service presents warmth and care that activates an anxiety buffer mechanism that mitigates the effect of anxiety. In turn guests’ level of anxiety is further explained by an interaction between their health status and the length of stay. Results point to a conduit for studying the dark side of hospitality, opening up research avenues that could help assess broader social behavioral changes during the global pandemic, while offering operators revelations for lodging management during a crisis.
Article
Unquestionable, the coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic is one of the most impactful events of the 21st century and has tremendous effects on tourism. While many tourism researchers worldwide are currently ‘Covid-19 research gap spotting’, we call for more deliberateness and rigor. While we agree that the coronavirus pandemic is unique and relevant to research, we argue that not all effects are worth researching or novel to us. Previous research on crises and disasters do show similar patterns and existing theories can often very well explain the current phenomena. Thus, six illustrative examples are shown how a research agenda could look like. This includes parts where theoretical explanations from tourism are missing, as well as where we think existing knowledge might be subject to a tourism paradigm-shift due to the coronavirus pandemic.
Presentation
In 3rd World Research Summit for Tourism and Hospitality and 1st USA-China Tourism Research Summit: Transforming Partnerships 2015. UCF Rosen College of Hospitality Management, Orlando, Florida, USA, December 15-19, 2015. Elsevier. (Highly Commended Award).
Article
The purpose of this research is to understand how nation branding initiatives complement education diplomacy for a country such as China and to investigate how country distance shapes perceptions of China across a large international student contingency in China. We use Ghemawat’s [(2001). Distance still matters. Harvard Business Review, 79(8), 137–147] CAGE distance framework, nation branding theory [Anholt, 2007. Competitive identity: The new brand management for nations, cities and regions. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan] and brand equity theory [Aaker, D. A. (1991). Managing brand equity. New York, NY: The Free Press; Yoo & Donthu (2001). Developing and validating a multidimensional consumer-based brand equity scale. Journal of Business Research, 52(1), 1–14] to provide theoretical support for the answers to our questions. It was found out that country distances are relevant in determining national images. While national image dimensions for China positively influence behavioral intentions related to China and positively contribute to the brand equity of HEIs. A multi-group analysis shows that significant differences exist between international students belonging to different regions in their disposition towards China as a country and China as a destination for higher education. The international strategies of firms in shaping perceptions related to national images.
Article
The study examines the importance of availability of halal food in destination selection, travel experience satisfaction and retention among Muslim travellers. The study adopted the qualitative approach. Required data were collected through 35 semi-structured interviews. The study revealed that the availability of halal food neither has a significant impact on Muslim travellers’ destination selection decision nor on the overall travellers’ satisfaction. However, the study findings indicated that availability of halal food affects the travellers’ intentions to revisit the destination, length of stay and the type of accommodation chosen. The study findings are valuable for the hospitality industry managers and providers to understand the importance of halal food for Muslim travellers. The findings also help the Destination Management Organizations to better promote and serve products to Muslim travellers and increase the non-Muslims’ awareness of halal principles and related food products.
Place attachment is significant in tourism marketing as it influences revisit intentions and destination loyalty. Drawing upon the Place Attachment theory, this study examines how memorable tourism experiences and well-being influences destination attachment in tourism. Well-being is operationalized as hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Data was collected from 430 recent travellers to investigate the relationship between memorable tourism experiences, hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, and place attachment. The frequency of visits was included in the investigation as a moderating variable. The results show that memorable tourism experiences significantly influences place attachment, and that hedonic and eudaimonic well-being fully mediates this relationship. The frequency of visits do not influence these relationships. Tourists develop an attachment to a destination when their experience is memorable, satisfying and enhances their purpose and meaning in life. This study contributes to the literature on destination attachment and positive psychology. Discussion of the study findings and implications for academics and practitioners conclude the paper.
Article
The purpose of this empirical study is to investigate the effect of general risk, a multidimensional factor, on halal customer trust, satisfaction and intention to recommend halal food. The study also calculates the mean comparison of trust, satisfaction and intention recommendation across the demographic variables of halal customers. Our results from the structural analysis revealed that general risk has significant and positive effects on trust, satisfaction, and intention to recommend halal food. In addition, the results of the mean difference test advised that satisfaction and intention to recommend halal food are significantly different between male and female customers and that trust significantly varies across halal customers with different educations and marital status backgrounds. This study added a valuable contribution to the current literature of halal food consumption by performing a set of symmetric analytical approaches to assess desired responses from halal food customers.
Article
This research introduces the concept of search effort to explore the drivers of religion-motivated consumption by religious minorities. The study draws on three theoretical frameworks to develop a model and hypotheses about the role of religious identity, community, knowledge, and attitudes in explaining the effort religious minorities exert in order to uphold religiously-motivated consumption behavior. Using the search for halal food in the United States as a research context and data from a survey of U.S. consumers to test a model of search effort, the study finds that insistence on religiously-motivated behavior is a strong predictor of consumers' willingness to exert effort toward the behavior. In turn, degree of religiosity, attitude toward the behavior and religious self-identity are strong positive predictors of the level of insistence. Further, religious knowledge and sense of religious community are strong positive determinants of attitude toward the behavior. The model provides an improved conceptualization of the relationship between religious identity and consumer behavior, particularly religiously-sanctioned or motivated consumption. Theory and research implications are outlined and potential avenues for further exploration are identified. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Conservation of resources (COR) theory (Hobfoll, 1988, 1989) was applied to social intervention and research. COR theory depicts resource loss as disproportionately weighted in comparison to resource gain. COR theory further posits that to prevent resource loss or establish resources, other resources must be invested. Resources contribute to further resource gain, whereas lack of resources contributes to ongoing resource loss. Consequently, people, groups, or organizations that are endowed with strong personal or social resource reserves should better resist the deleterious effects of stress and withstand everyday challenges. One of the basic principles of the theory—that loss is disproportionately weighted compared to gain—was tested in two samples and strongly supported. Implications of the model for intervention were discussed.
Article
The statistical tests used in the analysis of structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error are examined. A drawback of the commonly applied chi square test, in addition to the known problems related to sample size and power, is that it may indicate an increasing correspondence between the hypothesized model and the observed data as both the measurement properties and the relationship between constructs decline. Further, and contrary to common assertion, the risk of making a Type II error can be substantial even when the sample size is large. Moreover, the present testing methods are unable to assess a model's explanatory power. To overcome these problems, the authors develop and apply a testing system based on measures of shared variance within the structural model, measurement model, and overall model.
Article
Halal tourism, a term widely used as a synonym for Muslim travel, refers to products, leisure, recreation and social purposes that comply with Islamic teaching. This study considers the needs of this increasingly large travel market. Existing studies repeatedly emphasise the needs for Halal food, Halal restaurants, religious practices, and Halal compliant accommodation, tours, and destinations. By contrasting existing studies with the key cultural facets of interaction and communication derived from the Coordinated Management of Meaning (CMM) theory, the researchers found the need to better identify Muslim travellers' needs from the Culture norms, Verbal and non-verbal communication, Life Scripting, and Relationships domains. Proposed studies include understanding the role of travel for individual well-being in Islamic life, identifying the specifics of verbal and non-verbal interaction with Muslim tourists, investigating the management of the segregation of the sexes in public recreational areas, and supporting Islamic religious and cultural events.
Article
Muslim travellers are increasing in volume and value, inciting the interest of the tourism industry worldwide. However, Islam calls for adherence to certain practices which impact tourist behaviour and create distinctive requirements. This paper is concerned with the phenomenon of Islamic tourism, encompassing the particular needs of Muslim tourists and industry responses. It reviews recent trends and underlying determinants, making specific reference to circumstances in Japan. The country has seen some success in attracting Muslim visitors, and its strengths and weaknesses as a destination for them are discussed alongside issues of tourist–resident relations. The market, overall, is shown to be growing and have good prospects, but realising potential is a challenge for service providers. Efforts must be made to understand the defining characteristics of Muslim tourists and take action to meet their expectations while also satisfying the demands of non-Muslims and avoiding possible conflicts with locals.