Ectopic expression of the rice WINDING 1 (WIN1) gene leads to a spiral phenotype only in shoots but not in roots. Rice WIN1 belongs to a specific class of proteins in cereal plants containing a Bric-a-Brac/Tramtrack/Broad (BTB) complex, a non-phototropic hypocotyl 3 (NPH3) domain and a coiled-coil motif. The WIN1 protein is predominantly localized to the plasma membrane, but is also co-localized to plasmodesmata, where it exhibits a punctate pattern. It is observed that WIN1 is normally expressed in roots and the shoot-root junction, but not in the rest of shoots. In roots, WIN1 is largely localized to the apical and basal sides of cells. However, upon ectopic expression, WIN1 appears on the longitudinal sides of leaf sheath cells, correlated with the appearance of a spiral phenotype in shoots. Despite the spiral phenotype, WIN1-overexpressing plants exhibit a normal phototropic response. Although treatments with exogenous auxins or a polar auxin transport inhibitor do not alter the spiral phenotype, the excurvature side has a higher auxin concentration than the incurvature side. Furthermore, actin filaments are more prominent in the excurvature side than in the incurvature side, which correlates with cell size differences between these two sides. Interestingly, ectopic expression of WIN1 does not cause either unequal auxin distribution or actin filament differences in roots, so a spiral phenotype is not observed in roots. The action of WIN1 appears to be different from that of other proteins causing a spiral phenotype, and it is likely that WIN1 is involved in 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid-insensitive plasmodesmata-mediated auxin transport.