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Efficiency of conservation areas to protect orchid species in Benin, West Africa

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The effectiveness of protected areas to guarantee future conservation of several plant species remains questionable. This study was carried out in the Biosphere Reserve of Pendjari (BRP) and surrounding unprotected areas to assess the efficiency of the reserve to conserve orchids. A total of 90 plots (52 in protected areas; 38 in unprotected areas) were sampled. The recorded data include: orchid species, number of individuals per species, the height and diameter at breast height of host trees. Diversity indices were used to assess the orchid diversity in the protected and unprotected areas. Preferred habitat conditions of orchid species were investigated using Constrained Correspondence Analysis. An independent t-test and two-way analysis of variance were performed to assess an existing combined effect of vegetation type and the conservation status on the density of orchid species. The Importance Value Index (IVI) was used to measure how dominant an orchid species is in a given zone according to the conservation status of the zone. Only three epiphytic orchids (Calyptrochilum christyanum, Cyrtorchis arcuata and Plectrelminthus caudatus) were recorded and all in gallery forest of unprotected areas. Indeed, 67% and 58% of the orchid species were only recorded in unprotected areas and in gallery forest, respectively. There was no significant difference between the density of all recorded orchids in protected and unprotected areas. The conservation status of the studied zone had a significant effect on the densities of Nervilia kotschyi and Eulophia guineensis (p < 0.0001). The highest IVI of N. kostchyi was observed in the protected area and of E. guineensis was in the unprotected area. This first effort to compile a reference list of the orchid species of the BRP showed that some orchid species were well represented within the protected area, but all of the epiphytic orchids were recorded from unprotected areas. A representative gap can be assumed to exist for most epiphytic orchids only recorded in the gallery forests of unprotected areas. Our results highlighted the need to redefine protective management strategies for orchid species in the BRP.
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Efciency of conservation areas to protect orchid species in Benin,
West Africa
E.S.P. Assédé
a,b,e,
,C.A.M.S.Djagoun
a,f
, F.A. Azihou
a
, Y.S.C. Gogan
c
, M.D. Kouton
a
,A.C.Adomou
d
,
C.J. Geldenhuys
e
,P.W.Chirwa
e
, B. Sinsin
a
a
Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques, Université d'Abomey-Calavi, 01 BP 526, Cotonou, Bénin
b
Faculté d'Agronomie, Université de Parakou, BP 123, Parakou, Bénin
c
Faculté des Lettres, Arts et Sciences Humaines, Département de Géographie, Université d'Abomey-Calavi, BP 248, Allada, Bénin
d
Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Département de Biologie Végétale, Université d'Abomey-Calavi, 01 BP 4521, Cotonou, Bénin
e
Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Pretoria, 1121 South Street, Pretoria 0002, South Africa
f
University of Rostock, Agricultural and Environmental Faculty, Grassland and Fodder Sciences, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, 18059, Rostock, Germany
abstractarticle info
Article history:
Received 21 November 2016
Received in revised form 13 February 2018
Accepted 23 February 2018
Available online xxxx
Edited by C Peter
The effectiveness of protected areas to guaranteefuture conservation of several plant species remains question-
able. This studywas carried out in the BiosphereReserve of Pendjari (BRP) and surrounding unprotected areas to
assess the efciency of the reserve to conserve orchids. A total of 90 plots (52 in protected areas; 38 in unpro-
tected areas) were sampled. The recorded data include: orchid species, number of individuals per species, the
height and diameter at breast height of host trees. Diversity indices were used to assess the orchid diversity in
the protected and unprotected areas. Preferred habitat conditions of orchid species were investigated using
Constrained Correspondence Analysis. An independent t-test and two-way analysis of variance were performed
to assess an existing combined effect of vegetation type and the conservation status on the density of orchid spe-
cies. The Importance Value Index (IVI) was used to measure how dominant an orchid species is in a given zone
according to the conservation status of the zone. Only three epiphytic orchids (Calyptrochilum christyanum,
Cyrtorchis arcuata and Plectrelminthus caudatus) were recorded and all in gallery forest of unprotected areas. In-
deed, 67% and 58% of the orchid species were only recorded in unprotected areas and in gallery forest, respec-
tively. There was no signicant difference between the density of all recorded orchids in protected and
unprotected areas. The conservation status of the studied zone had a signicant effect on thedensities of Nervilia
kotschyi and Eulophia guineensis (p b0.0001). The highest IVI of N. kostchyi was observed in the protected area
and of E. guineensis was in the unprotected area.
This rst effort to compile a reference list of the orchid species ofthe BRP showed that some orchid species were
well represented within the protected area, but all of the epiphytic orchids were recorded from unprotected
areas. A representative gap can be assumed to existfor most epiphytic orchids only recorded in thegallery forests
of unprotected areas. Our results highlighted the need to redene protective management strategies for orchid
species in the BRP.
© 2018 SAAB. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords:
Orchid conservation
Habitat conditions
Biosphere Reserve of Pendjari
1. Introduction
The role of protected areas in the preventionof extinction of species
has been much debated (Bruner et al., 2001). Several studies focused on
the effectiveness of the protected areas to ensure therepresentativeness
and persistence of biodiversity components (Defries et al., 2005;
Wittemyer et al., 2008; Houéhanou et al., 2011, 2012, 2013). Some of
the studies (Djossa et al., 2008; Gouwakinnou et al., 2009; Schumann
et al., 2010; Fandohan et al., 2011) have emphasized the positive effect
of protected areas to conserve some valuable species. However, a re-
view of conservation goals for different protected areas (Myers et al.,
2000; Diniz and Brito, 2015; Françoso et al., 2015)indicatedacleardif-
ference between expectations of conservation and the effectiveness in
species conservation. In addition, a gap of some priority areas for orchid
protection still needs to be lled by the existing protected areas net-
work (Wan et al., 2014). Furthermore, the number of speciesthreatened
with extinction far exceeds the projections of scientists (Myers et al.,
2000). This is the case of orchid species (CITES, 2017).
Orchids are distributed throughout the world from tropical to high
alpine areas (Delforge, 2001). The Orchid family is with the Asteraceae
the two largest families (Doyle and Luckow, 2003).
South African Journal of Botany 116 (2018) 230237
Corresponding author at: Faculté d'Agronomie, Université de Parakou, BP 123,
Parakou, Bénin.
E-mail address: assedeemeline@gmail.com (E.S.P. Assédé).
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2018.02.405
0254-6299/© 2018 SAAB. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
South African Journal of Botany
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/sajb
From the demographic explosion, correspondingly strong land mod-
ication was observed in West Africa (Wittig et al., 2007; Wittemyer
et al., 2008). Habitat alteration, including total loss, modication, and
fragmentation was by far the main threat to most orchids in the tropics
(Dressier, 1981). As a result, signicant modication of light intensity,
humidity, and other microclimatic factors affecting the survival of the
epiphytic orchids, were observed. Many orchid species in West Africa
are now considered to be at risk of extinction as a result of selective log-
ging of valuable timber species and clear-felling for agricultural devel-
opment (IUCN/SSC Orchid Specialist Group, 1996; Pillon et al., 2007;
Pant, 2013). Wild orchids have been overharvested at large scale to sup-
ply the medicinal, edible, and horticultural trades (Kasulo et al., 2009;
Pant, 2013; Ghorbani et al., 2014; Liu et al., 2014; Vermeulen et al.,
2014; Hinsley et al., 2015). Reliable statistics on the extent of the trade
in orchids in West Africa are scarce. However, several representatives
of the orchid family are under threat of extinction due to indiscriminate
collection (Cribb et al., 2005; Dunkan et al., 2005). In West Africa, ex-
traction of wild orchids for trade affects mostly those few orchid taxa
that either produce very showy owers or provide certain edible prod-
ucts (IUCN/SSC Orchid Specialist Group, 1996). As a result of these mul-
tiple threats, orchids featureprominently in theRed Data Book prepared
by International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) (Pant, 2013).
The entire family is now included in Appendix II of the Convention on
International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
(CITES, 2017). However, in West Africa, large populations of orchids
are still assumed to be present in their natural habitats in protected
areas. It is therefore paramount to assess how effective the protected
areas are in conserving the orchids in West Africa.
The Biosphere Reserve of Pendjari (BRP) is part of a well-managed
protected area network in West Africa. It conserves 28% of the total
ora of Benin Republic (Assédé et al., 2012). Previous studies have
highlighted the importance of this reserve in plant conservation
(Gouwakinnou et al., 2009; Fandohan et al., 2011; Houéhanou et al.,
2011, 2013). Although the BRP is assumed to be the best way to con-
serve biodiversity of this area, its effectiveness in future conservation
of several plant species is not always guaranteed (Houéhanou et al.,
2013). Substantial representative gaps remain in its coverage of some
plant taxa. Terrestrial orchids are known to colonize both savanna and
forest areas (Delforge, 2001), while epiphytic orchids need appropriate
host plants on which to grow.
In the Sudanian zone of Benin Republic, the two major networks of
protected areas are focused on large mammal conservation. The
targeted zones to create the conservation areas are then savanna eco-
systems (the main habitat of those animals), covering up to 80% of the
total protected areas. Based on theecology of orchids, one might expect
a gap of representation in the network of the protected areas in the
study area. In Benin Republic, very few scientic studies have focused
on orchid species (Akoègninou et al., 2006).
The purpose of this paper is to assess the suitability of existing con-
servation areas to conserve orchid taxa in West Africa. This study there-
fore compares protected and unprotected areas to test the assumption
that the protected areas will have a higher conservation status of the or-
chid taxa than the unprotected areas. Specically, we addressed two re-
search questions: (1) What are the habitat requirements of orchid
species occurring within the area? (2) How are orchid populations af-
fected by the conservation status of the land, i.e. in protected versus un-
protected habitats?
2. Materials and methods
2.1. Study area
This research was conducted in the Biosphere Reserve of Pendjari
(BRP), located in the Sudanian zone of Benin Republic (West Africa)
and in its surrounding areas (Fig. 1). The BRP covers about
4666.4 km
2
. It is composed of the National Park of Pendjari or core
zone (2660.4 km
2
) representing the protected area in this study, and
the hunting zones (Pendjari: 1750 km
2
and Konkombri: 251 km
2
). In
the protected area, anthropogenic activities are strictly prohibited. The
surrounding areas representing unprotected areas in this study are
dominated by farmlands, fallows (disturbed savannas), and gallery for-
ests. The vegetation types in the unprotected areas were all subjected to
selective cutting of valuable tree species for timber and poles, livestock
grazing and harvesting of non-timber forest products. Gallery forest oc-
curs along the Pendjari river both inside and outside the reserve. The
dominant vegetation type in the protected area is savanna (wooded
grassland), intermingled with patches of woodland and grassland. The
climate is tropical with a ve-month dry period (NovemberMarch).
The mean annual rainfall is 1000 mm with 60% rain between July and
September (Delvingt et al., 1989). Temperature varies between 21 °C
during the night, and up to 40 °C during the day (CENAGREF, 2016). Fer-
ruginous, indurate and swampy tropical soils occur in many areas of the
protected and unprotected areas. The BRP is surrounded by 20 villages
with subsistence agriculture as the main activity followed by livestock
breeding and natural resources harvesting. Logging and clearing of
land for agriculture remain the main sources of income for the local
population. Cultivated crops include rice, yams, maize, sorghum, millet,
and cotton; the latter being a cash crop and requires intense use of pes-
ticides (Delvingt et al., 1989).
2.2. Data collection
Data were collected between December 2014 and August 2015, i.e.
covering the two main seasons of the region: dry and rainy seasons.
The vegetation map of the reserve (König, 2005) was used to identify
the three main vegetation types (savannas, woodlands and gallery for-
ests). Both protected and unprotected areas were included in the
study. In each vegetation type, points were randomly selected to serve
as the starting point of a transect. In total, 65 transects of at least 3 km
long in each vegetation type were surveyed for the presence of orchid
species.
Three-person teams were used to intensively survey the trees and
the vegetation on the ground for the presence of epiphytic and terres-
trial orchids. One team member monitored the compass bearing of the
transect, and the other two members scanned the vegetation for or-
chids. The presence of orchid species was conrmed by two team mem-
bers. This method was adapted from Bergstrom and Carter (2008) and
Yulia et al. (2011).
Sample plots (Fig. 1) were selected alongthe transects, based on the
presence of orchid species. Rectangular plots (10 m × 50 m) were sam-
pled in gallery forests (due to the linear shape of the gallery forests) and
Square plots (30 m × 30 m) in savannas, woodlands and fallows. At least
25 plots were sampled per vegetation type, and 90 plots in total
(Table 1; with 52 plots in protected areas and 38 in unprotected areas).
The species and number of individuals of all orchid species (terres-
trial and epiphytic) and the identity of host trees of epiphytic orchids
were recorded within each plot. The dominant plant species of tree
and shrub layers were recorded. Simultaneously, eld data on environ-
mental variables were collected. These included the vegetation type,
vegetation cover, soil texture, and the presence of rocks or stones.
Signs of human disturbance, including agriculture, grazing, tree cutting
and pruning, were also collected within the plots of unprotected areas.
Herbarium specimens of all recorded orchid species were prepared
and conrmed with the National ora (Akoègninou et al., 2006)and
at the National Herbarium of Benin Republic.
2.3. Data analyses
2.3.1. Orchid diversity and habitat requirements
Diversity indices were used to assess the orchid diversity in the two
zones (protected and unprotected areas). The taxonomic diversity con-
siders the number of species, genera, and families. The Shannon-
231E.S.P. Assédé et al. / South African Journal of Botany 116 (2018) 230237
Weaver index (H), the most important diversity index (Magurran,
2004), was calculated with the following formula:
H0¼−∑n
ipi log2pi
where, pi = ni/N and ni = Number of individuals of an orchid species.
N = Total number of individuals of all orchid species. His low (if
between 0 and 2.5); moderate (if between 2.6 and 3.9); or high (if be-
tween 4 and 5).
The Shannon measure of evenness (J) was calculated using the fol-
lowing formula.
J0¼H0
Hmax
where Hmax is computed as H
max
=log
2
(SR); SR representing the spe-
cies richness.
The Shannon measure of evenness (J') has a theoretical minimum
value of zero when all orchids belong to the same species, and the
index value increases to 1 when the number of species increases.
Preferred habitat conditions of orchid species were investigated
using Constrained Correspondence Analysis (CCA). The aim of CCA
was to display the plots of protected and unprotected areas as groups
Fig. 1. Location of the study area with the plot sites.
Table 1
Distribution of the sampled plots in protected and unprotected areas.
Ecosystems Protected area Unprotected areas Total
Tree and shrub savannas 20 8 28
Woodlands 16 15 31
Gallery forests 16 15 31
Total 52 38 90
232 E.S.P. Assédé et al. / South African Journal of Botany 116 (2018) 230237
in ordination space, based on habitat characteristics. The environmental
variables tested were tree cover, herb cover, topography, altitude and
soil texture. A weighted method was used and environmental data are
reweighted at each permutation step using permutated weights. All
qualitative environmental variables were coded. The CCA model and
the signicance of the tted environmental variables were evaluated
by the Monte Carlo permutation test with 499 permutations. Monte-
Carlo permutation tests were also used to test the signicance of the or-
dination axes (499 permutations under reduced model). A P-value of
0.05 for the rst ordination axis was accepted as an indicator for a sig-
nicant relationship between the items. Data were computed using the
Vegan package of R software, version R-3.2.4.
2.3.2. Effect of conservation status of sites on orchids
The independent Student t-test was rst performed to examine
whether the conservation status of a study area inuenced the density
of the overall orchid species. The mean density of all orchid individuals
was compared statistically between the protected and unprotected
areas. Data were log-transformed in order to normalize the distribution.
Two-way Analysis of Variance (Two-way ANOVA) was then
performed to assess an existing combined effect of vegetation type
(woodland, savanna and gallery forest) and the conservation status of
the two zones (protected and unprotected) on the density of orchid
species. Zones and vegetation types were used as categorical indepen-
dent variables. The continuous dependant variable was the density of
orchids. The density of orchids was therefore determined for each stud-
ied zone and vegetation type. Two-way ANOVA was also computed on
the two most common orchid species (Nervilia kotschyi (Rchb.f.) Schltr.
and Eulophia guineensis Lindl.) to assess the importance of the protected
area in their conservation. The average density per plot of orchids
was log-transformed in order to normalize the distribution. Data
were tested to check the homogeneity of variance with Levene's
test. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests were used in the
case of homoscedasticity. In the absence of homoscedasticity, samples
were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis and Tukey's post-hoc tests
(Scherrer, 2007).
In addition, the Importance Value Index (IVI) was used to measure
how dominant an orchid species is in a given zone according to the con-
servation status (protected and unprotected) of the area (Houéhanou
et al., 2012). The calculation of IVI for orchid species was based on Rel-
ative Density (RD) and Relative Frequency (RF).
IVI ¼RD þRF
RD ¼Number of individual of a species
Number of individual of all species X100
RF ¼Number of occurence of a species
Number of occurence of all species X100
A species with high IVI value is considered to be well represented
and thus, ecologically healthy in the given zone. The signicance level
of all analyses was set at 0.05. Data were computed using the Stats pack-
age of R software, version R-3.2.4.
3. Results
3.1. Orchid diversity in protected versus unprotected areas
A total of 12 orchid species distributed over 7 genera were recorded
in the studied areas (Table 2). Three epiphytic orchid species, i.e.
Calyptrochilum christyanum (Rchb.f.), Cyrtorchis arcuata (Lindl.) Schltr.
and Plectrelminthus caudatus (Lindl.) Summerh., were recorded on
eight host trees (Pentadesma butyracea Sabine, Breonadia salicina
(Vahl) Hepper & J.R.I.Wood, Syzygium guineense (Willd.) DC., Berlinia
grandiora (Vahl) Hutch. & Dalziel, Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst. ex
A.DC., Isoberlinia tomentosa (Harms) Craib & Stapf, Tamarindus indica L.
and Ficus spp.) in the gallery forest of the unprotected area. The two
most diversied genera were Eulophia and Habenaria.Nervilia kotschyi
(Rchb.f.) Schltr. and Eulophia guineensis Lindl. were the most common
and abundant terrestrial orchid species respectively in the protected
and unprotected areas (Table 2). C. christyanum (Fig. 2A, B) was the
most common epiphytic orchid with a high occurrence on S. guineense
(35.4%), B. salicina (24.6%) and B. grandiora (17%). The rarest orchid
species recorded with less than three individuals each, were the terres-
trial Platycoryne paludosa (Lindl.) (Fig. 2C) Rolfe and epiphytic
Plectrelminthus caudatus (Fig. 2D). Gallery forests contained the most
important proportion of recorded orchid species (58%). The majority
of the orchid species (67%) were only recorded in unprotected areas.
The taxonomic diversity (SR) was moderate in unprotected areas
and low in protected areas (Table 3). The Shannon-Weaver diversity
index (H) was low in both the protected and in unprotected areas,
but close to zero in the protected areas. The Evenness index of Shannon
(J') was low in protected areas but relatively high in unprotected areas
(Table 3).
3.2. Orchid distribution and habitat condition requirements
The CCA explained 26.8% of the total variation (6.8). Table 4 showed
the correlation of environmental variables with the rst two canonical
axes. The major oristic groups correlated with the tree cover gradient
(axis 1). Topography, tree cover, herb cover and soil texture correlated
best with the rst axis (CCA1) whereas altitude correlates with the
Table 2
Distribution of the orchid species in protected and unprotected areas.
RA = Relative abundance of orchid species.
Protected area Unprotected area
Number of individuals RA (%) Number of individuals RA (%)
Species Type of orchid Woodland Savanna Gallery Total Woodland Savanna Gallery Total
Calyptrochilum christyanum (Rchb.f.) Summerh. Epiphytic 0 0 0 0 0.00 0 328 284 612 13.18
Cyrtorchis arcuata (Lindl.) Schltr. Epiphytic 0 0 0 0 0.00 0 26 0 26 0.56
Eulophia spp Terrestrial 0 33 21 54 1.14 0 0 21 21 0.45
Eulophia guineensis Lindl. Terrestrial 9 27 139 175 3.69 0 0 2183 2183 47.02
Eulophia horsfallii (Bateman) Summerh. Terrestrial 0 0 0 0 0.00 0 0 116 116 2.50
Habenaria cirrhata (Lindl.) Rchb. f. Terrestrial 0 0 41 41 0.87 0 0 22 22 0.47
Habenaria licornis Lindl. Terrestrial 0 0 0 0 0.00 0 79 0 79 1.70
Habenaria schimperiana Hochst. ex A.Rich. Terrestrial 0 0 0 0 0.00 0 171 0 171 3.68
Nervilia bicarinata (Blume) Schltr. Terrestrial 0 0 0 0 0.00 0 0 942 942 20.29
Nervilia kotschyi (Rchb.f.) Schltr. Terrestrial 1847 2269 352 4468 94.30 0 0 417 417 8.98
Platycoryne paludosa (Lindl.) Rolfe Terrestrial 0 0 0 0 0.00 0 53 0 53 1.14
Plectrelminthus caudatus (Lindl.) Summerh. Epiphytic 0 0 0 0 0.00 0 0 1 1 0.02
Total 1856 2329 553 4738 100.00 0 657 3986 4643 100.00
233E.S.P. Assédé et al. / South African Journal of Botany 116 (2018) 230237
second axis (CCA2). The environmental variables are projected in the
rst two axes as well as the discriminated habitat groups (Fig. 3). The
pattern of these variables conrmed effectively that the rst axis
showed a decreasing tree cover gradient.
A differentiation appeared between groups of gallery forests of
protected and unprotected areas (G1), woodland of protected areas
(G2) and grassland of unprotected areas (G3) (Fig. 3). The two sub-
groups on the top and bottom of G1 (Fig. 3) were respectively domi-
nated by the genus Eulophia and the epiphytic orchid C. christyanum
on respectively relatively low (mean of 220 m) and high altitudes
(mean of 363 m). Both subgroups were characterized by a high cover
of the woody layer (mean of 85%), a low cover of the herb layer
(mean of 15%), clayey soil with presence of rocks and boulders, and a
steep slope. The dominant tree species were S. guineense and
B. salicina. The third subgroup of G1 dominated by Nervilia bicarinata
and E. guineensis was a mixed stand of terrestrial and epiphytic orchids,
recorded on clay-sandy soil at relatively low altitude (mean of 267 m)
and moderate slope in unprotected areas. In this subgroup (G1), the
vegetation was tree and shrub savanna dominated by Khaya
senegalensis. The tree layer covered 45%50% and the herb layer 25%
30%. The second group G2, constituted by N. kotschyi, is a mixed stand
of woodland and gallery forest of the protected and unprotected areas
on clayey soil, relatively low altitude (mean of 246 m), and slope. The
average cover of the tree and herb layers was respectively 70% and
30%. The dominant tree species was Anogeissus leiocarpa (DC.) Guill. &
Perr. The Group G3, was clearly differentiated from the other groups,
being represented by plots from unprotected areas and dominated by
H. schimperiana,H. licornis and P. paludosa. This group was associated
with the plains at 245 m, silty soil, and characterized by a high cover
of the herbaceous layer (95%) dominated by Cyperus spp. and
Andropogon spp. and a relative absence of the tree layer.
3.3. Inuence of conservation status and vegetation types on orchid density
Results from the Student t-test (p = 0.3) and that from the two-way
ANOVA inside zones (p = 0.2) did not show any signicant difference
between the density of all recorded orchids in protected and unpro-
tected areas. However, there was a signicant difference in the orchid
density when considering the vegetation types (p = 0.004) as well as
the interaction between zones and vegetation types. Based on Tukey's
post-hoc tests, the gallery forests presented a higher orchid density
than woodlands (p = 0.03). The protected area presented the highest
density of N. kotschyi, and signicantly more than in the unprotected
areas (p b0.0001), but the vegetation type, and the interaction between
zones and vegetation type, had no effect. Only vegetation type effect
was signicant on E. guineensis density (p b0.0001). The result from
Tukey's post-hoc test showed signicant differences between gallery
forest and woodland (p b0.0001), and between gallery forest and sa-
vanna (p b0.0001). E. guineensis was more abundant in gallery forest
than in woodland and savanna (p = 0.03).
3.4. Conservation status of orchid species based on IVI
The IVI of the recorded orchid species varied between the protected
and unprotected areas (Table 5). Nervilia kostchyi had the highest IVI
Fig. 2. Orchidspecies in the Biosphere Reserve of Pendjari: the most common orchid, Calyptrochilum christyanum individual (A) andower (B); the rarest terrestrial orchid,Platycoryne
paludosa (C); the rarest epiphyte orchid Plectrelminthus caudatus (D).
Table 3
Diversity indices of protected and unprotected areas.
Index Protected areas Unprotected areas
Species richness: SR 4 12
Shannon-Weaver diversity: H0.3 2.3
Shannon evenness: J' 0.1 0.6
Table 4
Correlation of environmental variables with ordination axes of CCA. Only values N0.5
contribute substantially to the axis.
Variables CCA1 CCA2
Soil texture 0.5284 0.0464
Topography 0.7751 0.5304
Altitude 0.6688 0.7227
Herb cover 0.7463 0.0992
Tree cover 0.7472 0.1027
234 E.S.P. Assédé et al. / South African Journal of Botany 116 (2018) 230237
(169.3) in the protected areas. In unprotected areas, the species with
the highest IVI values were Eulophia guineensis and Calyptrochilum
christyanum (respectively 69.52 and 45.68).
4. Discussion
4.1. Orchid diversity and habitat characteristics
The Biosphere Reserve of Pendjari (BRP) is known to be a corner
stone for strategic conservation of plant species in the Sudanian zone,
with 35.6% of all species and 33.3% of all genera listed for Benin
(Akoègninou et al., 2006). However, only 23% of recordedorchid species
was found in the core zone of the reserve with no epiphytic species. It
has been assumed that the protection status of an area would normally
conserve more animal and plant species (Dudley and Bean, 2012). This
assumption may be true only when the vegetation structure is suitable
to the ecology required by the species. For example, gallery forests had
the highest orchid density and a great diversity of terrestrial orchids in
the protected area of the BRP (a mosaic of savannas and woodlands)
compared to unprotected areas (Table 3). Several factors inuence the
distribution pattern of orchid species. Epiphytic orchid diversity in-
creases along moisture and latitudinal gradients (Gentry and Dodson,
1987;Phillips et al., 2011). At larger scale, orchid richness is highest in
the high rainfall zones with closed vegetation cover. In addition, closed
formations with high tree density were found to be providing ideal de-
velopment conditions for epiphytic orchids. Therefore, with the low
rainfall (an average of 1000 mm per year) and long dry season (ve
month dry period) observed in the BRP compared to the national scale
(up to 1400 mm per year), several orchid species may experience less
drought stress in gallery forests. However, the conditions required by
some terrestrial orchids are an open area with thin ground litter. The
vegetation found across both protected and unprotected areas and the
difference in orchid species might also be a consequence of different
land uses. The vegetation in unprotected areas was more disturbed by
anthropogenic activities, especially logging and farming system. In the
protected areas there was no human activity. But, if gallery forests of un-
protected areas still conserve more orchids than gallery forests in
protected areas, it is probably because some specic ecological condi-
tions were also required by orchids even if the vegetation was not
disturbed.
The small size of orchid seeds and the fact that they lack endo-
sperm make these plants dependent on mycorrhizal symbioses to
provide energy and nutrients during their early development stages
(Otero and Flanagan, 2006; Barthlott et al., 2014). Mycorrhizal spec-
icity and habitat specialization (Gravendeel et al., 2004; Otero and
Flanagan, 2006)havebothbeenimplicatedinthediversication of
the orchid family. The diversity of mycorrhiza was demonstrated as
afactortoinuence seed germination and greater growth for all or-
chid species (Phillips et al., 2011; McCormick et al., 2016). However,
the real benet conferred by mycorrhizal associations to plants may
also depend on soil conditions, especially fertility. Therefore, identi-
fying the mycorrhiza associated with the recorded terrestrial orchids
and their role in orchid distribution in protected vs unprotected zone
of the BRP should be the next goal in the study of the ecology of
orchids.
The habitat conditions required by the orchid species were shown in
the CCA (Fig. 3). There is a differentiation between habitats of protected
and unprotected areas in terms of tree cover, altitude, soil type and to-
pography that inuence the pattern of orchid distribution in both
zones, andthe importance of woodland in the protected area. Therefore,
orchids associatedwith woodland, the dominant vegetation type in the
protected area, characterized by an average tree cover, were assumed
more conserved in the protected area as conrmed by the conservation
status of N. kotschyi. However, a gap of conservation can be assumed to
exist for most of the epiphytic orchids conned to the gallery forests of
unprotected areas.
Setyawan (2000) highlighted the importance of the height of the
host trees in the distribution, diversity and density of epiphytic
plants. Even though data were not collected and tested with refer-
ence to this assumption, it was observed during this study that the
taller host tree species were the most colonized by C. christyanum
in gallery forest. Similarly, Yulia and Budiharta (2011) also showed
that the characteristics of the host tree (height and bark type) impact
on the establishment and development of epiphytic orchids. How-
ever, several other environmental factors not quantied by this
study have been highlighted as determinants of orchid distribution.
Indeed, the constraint axis of the CCA explained only 26.8% of the
total variance between plots. The micro-climatic factors (sunshine
intensity, humidity and air temperature) and the potential for soil
resources (moisture and soil pH) have also been reported to inu-
ence the orchid distribution (McCormick et al., 2012). Furthermore
the difference in host tree composition and pollination strategy
(Jersàkovà et al., 2006) are key aspects to examine in the future be-
cause this may help explain the observed distribution patterns of or-
chid species.
Fig. 3. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) diagram representing the rst two axes
that explained 72.8% (CCA1: 39.2% and CCA 2: 33.6%) of all varianc e explained by the
CCA. Empty circle designate the plots scores in each discriminated habitat group (np:
unprotected area; p: protected area) by orchid species composition; G1: gallery forest
plots (dominate d by those of unprotected areas), G2: protected woodland and tree
savanna plots, G3: unprotected grassland plots. Environmental variables are represented
by blue vectors (Alt: Altitude, Topo: To pography, Tex_sol: Soil texture, S_Arb: Tree
cover, S_Herb: Herb cover) that determine additional arrowed axes in the diagram.
Table 5
Importance Value Index (IVI) of orchid species within the studied zones.
Species Protected areas Unprotected areas
RD RF IVI RD RF IVI
Calyptrochilum christyanum 0 0 0 13.18 32.50 45.68
Cyrtorchis arcuata 0 0 0 0.56 2.50 3.06
Eulophia spp 1.14 4.20 5.34 0.45 2.50 2.95
Eulophia guineensis 3.69 16.60 20.29 47.02 22.50 69.52
Eulophia horsfallii 0 0 0 2.50 5.00 7.50
Habenaria licornis 0 0 0 1.70 2.50 4.20
Habenaria schimperiana 0 0 0 3.68 2.50 6.18
Habenaria cirrhata 0.86 4.20 5.06 0.47 7.50 7.97
Nervilia bicarinata 0 0 0 20.29 5.00 25.29
Nervilia kotschyi 94.30 75.00 169.30 8.98 12.50 21.48
Platycoryne paludosa 0 0 0 1.14 2.50 3.64
Plectrelminthus caudatus 0 0 0 0.02 2.50 2.52
235E.S.P. Assédé et al. / South African Journal of Botany 116 (2018) 230237
4.2. Conservation status and orchid density
Although there was low species richness in protected areas com-
pared to unprotected areas, the absence of conservation effect on orchid
density (when all species are considered), was observed mainly because
the species recorded in the protected area were characterized by a
high density. Thus, this effect became signicant when considering the
orchid species separately. N. kotschyi seems more common in protected
than in unprotected areas, probably because of its habitat preference. As
a terrestrial orchid, the species grew more in woodland (Akoègninou
et al., 2006), the dominant vegetation type of the protected area. The
habitat suitability, a factor that determines where a species is found,
can explain the afnity of some recorded orchids to particular tree spe-
cies associated with a specic community of gallery forest occurring
within unprotected areas. E. guineensis is an example of this with the
highest density and IVI in unprotected areas. E. guineensis was always
recorded under shade in dense vegetation of gallery forest with a
steep slope (Akoègninou et al., 2006). This species could be assumed
to be ecologically suited to specic gallery forest communities of unpro-
tected areas. The gallery forest community in unprotected areas would
also be one of the suitable habitats for Calyptrochilum christyanum and
Plectrelminthus caudatus where these orchids were the most abundant.
Hence, the prevalence of specic trees (e.g., Berlinia grandiora,
Breonadia salicina,Pentadesma butyracea) and high tree cover in the gal-
lery forests of unprotected areas should be one of the factors explaining
both E. guineensis abundance and the occurrence of three epiphytic or-
chid species in unprotected areas. Therefore, the establishment of
C. christyanum, the most common epiphytic orchid, should not be af-
fected by human activities. Even if recorded under closed canopy,
C. christyanum can establish on a host tree under severe pruning. In ad-
dition, one of the factors which determined the epiphytic orchid estab-
lishment may be the presence of rock slabs or sandstone boulders.
Indeed, contrary to the situation in the protected area, the edaphic sup-
port of more than 90% of investigated gallery forests in unprotected
areas, wasrepresented by therock slabs and large deposits of sandstone
boulders of varying size. A high density of epiphytic orchids, in particu-
lar C. christyanum, was observed. However, these assumptions need to
be tested in future studies. The environmental conditions required at
ner scale for epiphytic orchids in gallery forests in unprotected areas
need to be ascertained. Are those specic site conditions requirements
provided by tree species only present in gallery forest in unprotected
areas, or by specic physical habitats provided by rock slabs and/or
sandstone boulders, or both?
5. Conclusion and suggestions for management
The Biosphere Reserve of Pendjari was found to be a habitat for or-
chid species of the Benin Republic. Three epiphytic orchid species
were recorded from eight host tree species. The two most diverse orchid
genera were Eulophia and Habenaria. Some orchid species (N. kotschyi)
were well represented within the protected area, while all the recorded
epiphytic orchids and E. guineensis (67% of all species recorded in the
study) were only recorded in unprotected areas. Gallery forests had a
higher orchid density than woodlands. The most common orchid
species in unprotected areas were C. christyanum (epiphyte) and
E. guineensis (terrestrial), while in protected area it was N. kotschyi
(terrestrial).
Based on our extensive ndings, we propose a new approach for the
joint protection and management of orchid species. A special manage-
ment plan should be developed for gallery forest in unprotected areas.
Control measures should be reinforced in those areas left to the local
population for their livelihoods, especially in the gallery forests, to facil-
itate the sustainable management of orchid populations. The current
deforestation and anthropogenic activities observed in unprotected
areas should be mitigated to maintain the habitats of the orchids.
Finally, our study did not consider the inuence of several factors,
such as soil nutrients, humidity and light conditions, and host tree iden-
tity and characteristics that could explain more of the high occurrence
of orchids,both epiphytic and terrestrial, in unprotected areas. In future,
factors such as these should be included in the analyses to rene our un-
derstanding of the effects of distribution patterns and conservation
status on the orchid species. In so doing, we will further improve con-
servation strategies that aim to protect these orchid species. Despite
this limitation, our results highlighted the need to redene protective
and management strategies for orchid species in the Biosphere Reserve
of Pendjari.
Acknowledgements
We are grateful to The Rufford Foundation for nancial support
through Rufford Small Grants for Nature Conservation to Eméline Sêssi
Pélagie ASSEDE (grant reference: 16855-1). Eméline Sêssi Pélagie
ASSEDE was further supported by the University of Pretoria Postdoc-
toral Fellowship Program. We thank Adandé Belarmain Fandohan and
Paxie W. Chirwa for their useful comments. We also thank the staff of
the Biosphere Reserve of Pendjari for logistic support during this study
and anonymous reviewers for their feedback. Most importantly, we
are grateful to the eld guides and farmers of the villages surrounding
the reserve, who collaborated during data collection.
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Orchids belong to one of the largest botanical families, Orchidaceae, highly diverse with 25,000 to 30,000 plant species in approximately 1,000 genera. These figures make it one of the most important families of flowering plants, with populations found in almost all types of environment. Orchids are plant species almost unknown globally in Benin (West Africa) and around the Biosphere Reserve of Pendjari (BRP) in particular. The attractive shape and color of their flowers make them very popular in temperate environments because of their immense ornamental and economical values. They are also known for their close and frequent relationships with insects, their main pollinators, and fungi which promote their germination and growth. However, these specialized relationships and human induced disturbances also make them one of the most sensitive and threatened taxonomic groups. Hence, more than 600 species of orchids are listed as threatened on the global database of threatened species maintained by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, known as the IUCN Red List. This could be the case around the Biosphere Reserve of Pendjari in Benin (West Africa) where there is a gap in the conservation of some recorded orchid species. This booklet is an illustrated guide to the orchid plant species inventoried in the BRP and its adjacent areas to establish a first contact with the Benin orchids and the enthusiasts of these unusual flowering plants.
... The overall loss of biodiversity has increased considerably in recent years. Therefore, it is imperative to implement conservation strategies for the conservation and propagation of phytogenetic resources from each geographic region (Assédé et al., 2018;Deplazes-Zemp, 2018). In this context, Mexico has endemic orchid species that are enlist in a risk category according to the "Norma Oficial Mexicana" (NOM-059- SEMARNAT-2010). ...
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Laelia anceps Lindl is an orchid endemic to Mexico that is endangered of extinction as a result of the fragmenta-tion of its habitat and the overexploitation of its natural populations. Therefore, programs aimed at the conserva-tion and propagation of thisgeneticresource should be implemented. The objective of this studywasto develop aprotocol for in-vitro conservation and regeneration of L. anceps germoplasm. To establish the in-vitro conserva-tion, this study different concentrations (¼, ½, and ¾) of MS salts (Murashige and Skoog), (0.5, 1, and2mgL−1) of two growth inhibitor abscisic acid (ABA) and of paclobutrazol (PBZ), and (10, 20, and 30 g L−1)theosmoregulator polyethyleneglycol (PEG-8000) were evaluated.For in vitro regeneration, different concentra-tions (0, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg L−1) of Thidiazuron (TDZ) and (0, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg L−1) of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP)were evaluated. 2 mg L−1of PBZ reduced the development and growth in vitro of L. anceps, without drasticallyaffecting the survival of the shoot. The higher number of shoot per explant (7.28) was achieved with the additionof 2 mg L−1of BAP to the culturemedium.Finally, a 90% survival was achievedduring the acclimatization process.In conclusion, our results are a possible option in the establishment of strategies for in-vitro conservation andpropagation of L. anceps, and is suitable for use in the preservation and propagation of other orchid species aspart of species genetic improvement.
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Tripleurospermum insularum Inceer & Hayirlioglu-Ayaz (Asteraceae) is a critically endangered endemic species in Turkey that is face the risk of extinction as a result of the fragmentation of its habitat as well as overgrazing and trampling of its natural population. However, the protocol for micropropagation of this threatened species has not been developed yet. Here, its regeneration ability on MS media supplemented with different plant growth regulators were evaluated using nodal segments. The higher number and length of shoot per explant was achieved with the addition 4.6 µM ZEA and 0.5 µM IAA to the culture medium. Besides, the highest node number of shoot per explant was obtained from MS medium supplemented with 4.6 µM ZEA and 0.5 µM IBA. Flow cytometric analysis also revealed that most of the in vitro developed shoots of T. insularum possessed similar nuclear DNA content as well as ploidy level as initial material and plants from natural population. In vitro rooting of shoots was achieved at 100 % efficiency containing 2.9 µM IAA. Rooted and well-developed plantlets were initially acclimatized under greenhouse conditions and then moved to the botanical garden, where they matured and flowered. Finally, 76% and 74% survivals were achieved during the acclimatization process, respectively. This is the first report of a successfully developed micropropagation protocol of threatened T. insularum for its ex situ conservation.
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Plants that inhabit Antarctica have raised scientific interest due to their resilience to climate change, abiotic tolerance mechanisms and potential biological applications. In vitro propagation is useful for conservation, genetic material availability of these species and avoiding mass collection in their habitat. In vitro culture protocols for the native plants Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica and the non-native Juncus bufonius have been affected by endophytic microorganisms that proliferate when introduced to tissue cultures. This study evaluated the microbicidal and phytotoxic effect of calcium hypochlorite (Ca(ClO)2), silver nitrate (AgNO3) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), and their use at different concentrations for different time periods. The Ca(ClO)2 at 100 mg mL−1 showed the best microbial contamination control in D. antarctica (applied for 20 min) and for the three C. quitensis populations (applied for 15 min). In J. bufonius, AgNO3 at 10 mg mL−1 for 10 min reduced the microbial growth, but oxidative damage was generated. AgNPs did not prevent contamination or have adverse effects on tissues. Survival plantlets from each treatment, population or species were effectively introduced to the tissue culture and their propagation was successful. These results constitute a fundamental advance for the introduction, propagation and conservation of Antarctic species and their use in scientific research.
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Overexploitation is a main driver of biodiversity loss globally. Protected areas may have a key role in reducing overexploitation, yet their actual effectiveness in maintaining high-density and viable populations of overexploited species has rarely been evaluated. For overharvested plants, in particular, available information is extremely limited, making it unclear whether protected areas are indeed effective at protecting species. Here, we provide the first biome-wide assessment of the effectiveness of protected areas in maintaining populations of overexploited plants. We analyzed data from 50 populations of the overexploited and threatened palm Euterpe edulis, an ecologically and economically important species of the Atlantic Forest biodiversity hotspot. By integrating these data with species distribution modelling and matrix population modelling, we were able to evaluate the most likely causes and possible consequences of differences in population density inside and outside protected areas. Forest sites located inside protected areas had, on average, almost three times higher adult density of E. edulis than sites located outside protected areas, and a corresponding higher frequency of viable populations (≥60 adults/ha). Our analyses indicate that these differences are a direct consequence of the lower frequency of palm heart harvest inside protected areas, rather than differences in climatic suitability or forest cover. The matrix model showed that the higher density and lower harvest frequency inside protected areas may significantly increase long-term persistence of E. edulis populations, reducing their extinction risk. Our findings provide new and compelling evidence that terrestrial protected areas may be crucial for long-term conservation of overexploited plants.
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In Benin, people have a rich ethnobotanical knowledge of plant species, reflecting the cultural and ecological diversity of their environment. Several studies were focused on the question of how valuable are plant species for local communities. However, there has been very little research interest in the orchid species in spite of the importance of orchids in the livelihood of the local people. This study examined the use and differences in knowledge of local people of orchids in the Sudanian zone of Benin. An ethnobotanical study was conducted amongst the four main socioeconomic and ethnic groups from six villages around the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in Benin. One hundred and sixty people participated in this study. Data were gathered using semi-structured individual interviews and analysed using quantitative ethnobotanical methods. 29 different types of use were recorded and can be grouped into four main use categories: medicinal, veterinary, spiritual and food. There were differences in orchid utilization among the ethnic groups, gender and age. The knowledge of orchid uses was significantly affected by the ethnic group and the age of the respondent. Unlike young educated generations, most adults and elders, especially women, had a more comprehensive knowledge of orchid uses. Calyptrochilum christianum, the most used orchid, was mentioned in more than 50% of the types of orchid use. The Gourmantché and Waama tribe had more knowledge on orchid use whereas the Berba tribe had less knowledge. Three orchid species (Habenaria cirrhata, Eulophia horsfallii and Nervilia bicarinata) were reported as food. Orchids had low use value ranging from 0.01 (Eulophia spp) to 0.2 (C. christianum). The controlled access to the biosphere reserve and rural exodus can explain the lack of indigenous knowledge transfer of orchid use and value from elders to the young generation. Résumé: Au Bénin, les connaissances ethnobotaniques sont riches et variées, reflétant la diversité culturelle et écologique en place. De nombreuses études ont porté sur la question de l'utilité des plantes pour les communautés locales. Cependant, peu de travaux ce sont intéressés aux orchidées, malgré leur importance pour le bien-être des populations locales. Cette étude a examiné l'importance et la variation des connaissances locales sur l'usage des orchidées dans la zone soudanienne au Bénin. Une étude ethnobotanique a été conduite dans les quatre principaux groupes socioéconomiques et ethniques représentés par six villages autour de la Réserve de Biosphère de la Pendjari. Cent soixante personnes ont été enquêtées. Les données ont été recueillies à l'aide d'entrevues individuelles semi-structurées et analysées suivant les méthodes ethnobotaniques quantitatives. Au total, 29 différents types d'usages ont été enregistrées et peuvent être regroupées en quatre catégories: médecine, vétéri-naire, spirituel et alimentaire. Il y a une variation des usages faits des orchidées aussi bien suivant les groupes ethniques, le genre que de l'âge. Le niveau de connaissance des usages faits des orchidées est significativement influencé par le groupe ethnique et l'âge du répondant. Contrairement aux jeunes générations scolarisées, la plupart des adultes et personnes âgées, en particulier les femmes, ont une plus grande connaissance des usages possible des orchidées. Calyptrochilum christianum, l'orchidée la plus utilisée, a été mentionnée dans plus de 50% des types d'usages. Les Gourmantché et les Waama ont plus de connaissances sur l'utilisation des orchidées tandis que les Berba en ont moins. Trois espèces d'orchidées (Habenaria cirrhata, Eulophia horsfallii et Nervilia bicarinata) ont été rapportées comme utilisées dans l'alimentation. Les orchidées en générale ont une faible valeur d'usage, valeurs allant de 0,01 (Eulophia spp) à 0,2 (C. christianum). L'accès contrôlé à la réserve de biosphère et l'exode rural pourraient expliquer la rupture apparente du transfert des savoirs sur les usages et valeur des orchidées des anciens aux jeunes générations.
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The spatial distribution of plants, which is often generated by patterns of seed recruitment, is an important determinant of population dynamics, especially for orchids with seeds that must be exposed to appropriate mycorrhizal fungi. 2.We compared the distribution and abundance of target mycorrhizal fungi detected in the soil using DNA-based molecular techniques and germination in seed packets of Goodyera pubescens, Liparis liliifolia, and Tipularia discolor. 3.We further examined Tulasnella spp. associated with G. pubescens to determine whether areas with abundant host fungi resulted from multiple genets of the same species or from a single widespread fungal genet. 4.We found that target fungi were more likely to be detected using soil DNA assays than by seed germination. Based on soil DNA, fungi were more widespread than suggested by seed germination, which most often reflected the presence of abundant mycorrhizal fungi in the soil. Fungi were more likely to be abundant close to established orchids. Established plants of G. pubescens that were <50cm apart associated with a single abundant fungal genet, while those >50 cm apart associated with multiple fungal genets. 5.Synthesis. This study demonstrates the importance of using multiple methods to detect the distribution and abundance of target fungi and suggests that fungal ‘hot spots’ may be keys to the dynamics of orchid populations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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The Biosphere Reserve of Pendjari is an example of best management practice of protected areas in West Africa with typical Sudanian savanna vegetation. It is part of the vast and transboundary protected areas of W, Pendjari and Arly National Parks of Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger. This work provides an overview of the flora of the reserve by means of a thorough botanical inventory. The plant species composition is typical of Sudanian savanna. We recorded 684 plant species, which were distributed among 366 genera and 89 families. The two most species-rich families were Fabaceae (115) and Poaceae (112). The most important life forms were phanerophytes and therophytes. The chorological spectrum was dominated by Sudanian species. With Ipomoea beninensis Akoègninou, Lisowski and Sinsin, Thunbergia atacorensis Akoègninou and Lisowski and Cissus kouandeensis A.Chev., three endemic species of Benin were recorded, demonstrating the importance of the reserve for plant conservation.
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The protected areas are essential for the conservation of native biota. However, only the protected area establishment does not guarantee the persistence of threatened species. Here, we assessed the efficiency of the Cerrado protected areas in maintaining viable populations of giant anteater and analyzed the impact of roadkills. We used the software VORTEX to model the viability of giant anteater populations in 18 Cerrado protected areas. We evaluated the impact of roadkills through three mortality scenarios (2.5%, 5% and 10% of the initial population). Our results show that in the pessimistic scenario, only three protected areas are able to maintain viable populations of the giant anteater. In the optimistic scenario, 11 protected areas out of the 18 protected areas are capable of maintaining viable giant anteater populations in the next 100 years. Three protected areas are not able to maintain viable populations in any scenario. The roadkills have had a major negative impact on the long-term persistence of giant anteater populations. We suggest that management actions to counteract the negative effects of roadkills are necessary to maintain populations of giant anteater in protected areas affected by this threat.
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The demand for wildlife products drives an illegal trade estimated to be worth up to $10 billion per year, ranking it amongst the top transnational crimes in terms of value. Orchids are one of the best-selling plants in the legal horticultural trade but are also traded illegally and make up 70% of all species listed by the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). To study consumer preferences for horticultural orchids we use choice experiments to survey 522 orchid buyers online and at large international orchid shows. Using latent class modelling we show that different groups of consumers in our sample have distinct preferences, and that these groups are based on gender, genera grown, online purchasing and type of grower. Over half of our sample, likely to be buyers of mass-produced orchids, prefer white, multi-flowered plants. Of greater conservation interest were a smaller group consisting of male hobbyist growers who buy their orchids online, and who were willing to pay significantly more for species that are rare in trade. This is the first in-depth study of consumer preferences in the international orchid trade and our findings confirm the importance of rarity as a driver of hobbyist trade. We show that market-research methods are a new tool for conservationists that could provide evidence for more effective conservation of species threatened by trade, especially via campaigns that focus on demand reduction or behaviour change.
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The definition of conservation targets is strategic for the protection of biodiversity and must ensure the representativeness and persistence of biodiversity components. This is especially critical in fast-disappearing ecosystems, such as in the Cerrado, where opportunities for conservation are rapidly diminishing. We evaluate how different categories of protected areas (PAs) in the Cerrado contribute to achieve the 17% conservation target defined by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Deforestation rates in sustainable use PAs (IUCN categories IV to VI) are similar to those outside PAs, indicating they are not adequate to ensure the protection of biodiversity. Conversely, strict PAs exhibit significantly less deforestation and should form most of the target content. Because strict PAs represent only 3% of the Cerrado, Brazil is far from achieving the 17% target defined by the Convention on Biological Diversity. Urgent measures toward the creation of strict PAs in the Cerrado are needed, to ensure the representativeness and persistence of its conspicuous biodiversity.
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The objectives of the research were to know: (1) the diversity of epiphyte species at the stand of puspa trees (Schima wallichii (D.C.) Korth.) in Cemoro Sewu and Cemoro Kandang of mount Lawu, and (2) the distribution and cover abundance of the species based on its location from the land surface. The research objects were all species of epiphyte plants on the stand of puspa trees. The procedures of data collection were including species collection in the field, make up herbariums, observation of epiphyte vegetation using transect method and morphology observation in the laboratory. The results show that in the south slope of the mount Lawu were found 23 species of epiphyte consisting 4 species of lichenes, 2 species of Fungi, 3 species of Bryophyte, 10 species of Pterydophyte, 2 species of Orchidaceae and 2 species of liana. The species with the highest density was Bryophyte, and the highest diversity was Pterydophyte. The height of the trees affects the distribution, diversity and density of the epiphyte plants.
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Orchids are nature's most extravagant group of flowering plants distributed throughout the world from tropics to high alpine. They exhibit incredible range of diversity in size, shape and color of their flowers. Though orchids are grown primarily as ornamentals, many are used as herbal medicines, food, and other have cultural value by different cultures and tribes in different parts of the world. Orchids have been used in many parts of the world in traditional healing system as well as in the treatment of a number of diseases since the ancient time. Though Orchidaceae is regarded as a largest family of plant kingdom, few studies have been done regarding their medicinal properties. Linking of the indigenous knowledge of medicinal orchids to modern research activities provides a new reliable approach, for the discovery of novel drugs much more effectively than with random collection. Many of these orchids face the extreme danger of extinction due to over-exploitation and habitat loss. Plant tissue culture could be one of the most suitable alternative tools to minimize the pressure on natural population of medicinal orchids and their sustainable utilization.
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The Orchidaceae with some 22 000 species is one of the two largest plant families. Despite of the vast literature on orchids, rather little is known about their seeds, which are generally considered as wind dispersed, small and reduced “dust seeds”. Based on some 1400 collections of orchid seeds analysed by SEM and other methods over the last four decades, about 7000 micrographs of some 1100 species from 352 (out of c. 880) genera were evaluated for this first monograph on orchid seeds. Orchid seeds exhibit an astonishing diversity. This is not only reflected in their sizes (between 0.1 mm in Oberonia and 6 mm in Epidendrum) and shapes, but especially in the complexity of their lightweight seed-coat architecture and hierarchical surface sculpturing. A consistent terminology for characters of the orchid seed coat is proposed. Taxa at subtribal to tribal levels are often well characterized by seed-coat characters. Fifteen selected characters were mapped on well-supported molecular phylogenetic trees and were found to be largely consistent with the major clades. Combinations of characters classified into 17 seed types often delimit tribes (e.g. Cymbidieae, Epidendreae, Vandeae). Highly specialized features like polyembryony (up to 12 embryos per seed in Thecostele) or highly adaptive (with respect to dispersal biology) seed-coat features (e.g. in Galeola, or the sophisticated seed-attachment mechanism of Chiloschista) are restricted to only a few genera. This monograph provides a first atlas (624 micrographs) and data to identify the major groups of orchid seeds and a terminology for taxonomic purposes. The first character reconstruction of seed characters based on modern molecular phylogenetic hypotheses allows an application for further systematic studies of the family. Barthlott W., Große-Veldmann B. & Korotkova N. 2014: Orchid seed diversity: A scanning electron microscopy survey. – Berlin:Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem. – Englera 32. – ISBN 978-3-921800-92-8. – Softcover, 17.6 × 25 cm (B5), 245 pages, 620 micrographs, 26 phylogenetic trees and 7 other figures. – Price: EUR 25. For information on ordering, please visit: www.bgbm.org/englera
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The aim of this study was to observe epiphytic orchid diversity and their host trees at three different altitudes (1796, 1922 and 2041 m asl) at southern part of Mount Lawu, District of Magetan, East Java. Line transect of 10 x 100 m was set up and then divided into ten plots (as replicates) of 10 x 10 m. At each plot, species name and number of individual of epiphytic orchids, and species name, number of individual and diameter at breast height (dbh) of host trees were recorded. The result showed that there were 19 species of epiphytic orchid recorded at the study sites. There were significantly different among gradient altitude in number of epiphytic orchid species (F = 3.7; df = (2, 27); P < 0.05). The highest number of species of epiphytic orchid was recorded at the altitude of 1922 m asl (6.6 species/100 m2) while the highest number of individual was recorded at the altitude of 1796 m asl (1337.7 individuals/100 m2). The study site at altitude of 1922 m asl was recognized as the denser and richer in species of host trees (2.3 species/100 m2 and 3.5 individuals/100 m2 respectively). However, the highest basal area of host tree was recorded at the altitude of 2041 m asl (4558 cm2/100 m2).
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Cemoro Sewu hiking pathway is one of the tourist attractions in Mount Lawu, District of Magetan. Along this pathway, there were various epiphytic orchid species attached on several host trees. This study analyzed the diversity of epiphytic orchid and its host trees in a type of potentially disturbed landscape in a protected area of Mount Lawu. Line transect sampling with 100 m in length was used, and by dividing the line into ten plots (as replicates) with 10 x 10 m in size. At each plot, the following data were gathered: species name and number of individual of epiphytic orchids, and species name and number of individual of host trees. Results showed that 8 epiphytic orchid species and 5 host trees species recorded. Pholidota globosa (Relative Abundance of Orchid/%Fo = 58,54) was the most abundant orchid at the site, followed by Coelogyne miniata (%Fo = 15,73). In addition, Lithocarpus sundaicus is host tree with the highest number of individual epiphytic orchid attached on it Average number of individual of epiphytic orchid on a species of host tree / Ji/ Jt= 662,41.