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Effects of feeding hydroponics maize fodder on performance and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs

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A study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding hydroponics maize fodder on performance and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs. A total of 36 pigs were allocated in a completely randomized design to 3 treatments. Treatment 1 contained 100% concentrate (Con 100); Treatment 2 contained 50% concentrate and 50% hydroponics maize fodder (Con 50 HM 50) while Treatment 3 had 100% hydroponics maize fodder diet (HM 100). Each treatment had 12 weaned pigs with three replicates of four pigs per replicate. The experiment lasted for six weeks. Dietary treatments had significant effects (P < 0.05) on final weight, weight gain and feed conversion ratio of the pigs. Pigs fed Con 100 had the highest (P < 0.05) final weight while the lowest weight was recorded in pigs on diet HM 100. Feed intake and weight gain were highest (P < 0.05) in pigs fed concentrate diet (Con 100) while the lowest intake was in animals fed HM 100. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was improved (P < 0.05) in pigs fed Con 100 and Con 50 HM 50 respectively. Crude protein, crude fibre and ether extract digestibilities were improved (P < 0.05) in animals fed Con 100. Pigs fed dietary mixtures of concentrate and hydroponics maize fodder (Con 50 HM 50) had better (P < 0.05) CP and CF digestibility as compared to those on HM 100. Inclusion of hydroponics maize fodder in pig nutrition improved performance and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs.
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Adebiyi et al.: Effects of feeding hydroponics maize fodder on performance and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs
- 2415 -
APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 16(3):2415-2422.
http://www.aloki.hu ISSN 1589 1623 (Print) ISSN 1785 0037 (Online)
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15666/aeer/1603_24152422
2018, ALÖKI Kft., Budapest, Hungary
EFFECTS OF FEEDING HYDROPONICS MAIZE FODDER ON
PERFORMANCE AND NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY OF
WEANED PIGS
ADEBIYI, O. A.1 ADEOLA, A. T.1 OSINOWO, O. A.2 BROWN, D.3* NGAMBI, J. W.3
1Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
2Department of Agricultural Education, Federal College of Education
Osiele, Abeokuta, Nigeria
3Department of Animal Production, School of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences,
University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga, Polokwane, South Africa
*Corresponding author
e-mail: db4010396@gmail.com
(Received 9th Jan 2018; accepted 3rd Apr 2018)
Abstract. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding hydroponics maize fodder on
performance and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs. A total of 36 pigs were allocated in a completely
randomized design to 3 treatments. Treatment 1 contained 100% concentrate (Con100); Treatment 2
contained 50% concentrate and 50% hydroponics maize fodder (Con50HM50) while Treatment 3 had 100%
hydroponics maize fodder diet (HM100). Each treatment had 12 weaned pigs with three replicates of four
pigs per replicate. The experiment lasted for six weeks. Dietary treatments had significant effects (P < 0.05)
on final weight, weight gain and feed conversion ratio of the pigs. Pigs fed Con100 had the highest (P < 0.05)
final weight while the lowest weight was recorded in pigs on diet HM100. Feed intake and weight gain were
highest (P < 0.05) in pigs fed concentrate diet (Con100) while the lowest intake was in animals fed HM100.
Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was improved (P < 0.05) in pigs fed Con100 and Con50HM50 respectively. Crude
protein, crude fibre and ether extract digestibilities were improved (P < 0.05) in animals fed Con100. Pigs fed
dietary mixtures of concentrate and hydroponics maize fodder (Con50HM50) had better (P < 0.05) CP and CF
digestibility as compared to those on HM100. Inclusion of hydroponics maize fodder in pig nutrition
improved performance and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs.
Keywords: sprouted, monogastric, technology, diet, concentrate
Introduction
Pig production is one of the fastest growing livestock sector in developing countries
like Nigeria (Imonikebe and Kperegbeyi, 2014). Compared to ruminants, pigs are prolific,
have high feed conversion efficiency, early maturing, require small space and easy to
manage (Ouma et al., 2014). According to Tewe and Egbunike (1998), pig production
represents the cheapest means of correcting animal protein shortage among the
impoverished people in Nigeria. However, their production is facing tremendous set back
and on the verge of collapse due to unavailability of feed, which accounts for 70-80% of
the total cost of production (Olomu and Oboh, 1995). The major factors responsible for
the shortage of green fodder are scarcity of land due to small land holding size, water
shortage and labour (Naik et al., 2015).
A possible way of solving this problem of feed scarcity in pig industry is through the
use of hydroponic farming systems. Fodder produced by growing plants in water or
nutrient rich solution but without using any soil is known as hydroponics fodder, sprouted
grains or sprouted fodder (Dung et al., 2010a). Production of hydroponics fodder involves
Adebiyi et al.: Effects of feeding hydroponics maize fodder on performance and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs
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APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 16(3):2415-2422.
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15666/aeer/1603_24152422
2018, ALÖKI Kft., Budapest, Hungary
growing of plants without soil but in water or nutrient rich solution in a greenhouse (hi-
tech or low cost devices) for a short duration - approx. 7 days - (Naik et al., 2015).
Hydroponics technology has been recognized as a viable method of producing
vegetables (tomatoes, lettuce, cucumbers and peppers) as well as ornamental crops such
as herbs, roses, freesia and foliage plants. Different types of fodder crops such as barley
(Reddy et al., 1988), oats, wheat (Snow et al., 2008); sorghum, alfalfa, cowpea (AI-
Karaki and AI-Hashimi, 2012) and maize (Naik et al., 2012) can be produced by
hydroponics technology. Hydroponics fodder is more palatable, digestible and nutritious
while imparting other health benefits to the animals (Suraj et al., 2016). Naik et al. (2015)
reported yields of 5-6 folds of fresh hydroponics maize fodder in 7 days. Supplementation
of sprouted fodder in the ration of pigs is a viable possible alternative technology to
conventional green fodder (Naik et al., 2015). However, there is paucity of information on
the use of hydroponically sprouted maize fodder in weaned pigs. Therefore, the objective
of this study was to determine the effect of feeding hydroponics maize fodder on the
growth performance and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs.
Materials and methods
Study site and experimental design
This study was carried out at the Piggery Unit, Teaching and Research Farm,
University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. The farm is situated in Southern Nigeria at 70201N,
30501E at an altitude of 200-300 m above sea level. A total of 36 weaned pigs were
purchased from a reputable farm in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria. The pigs were fed ad
libitum and cool clean water was provided. The pigs were allotted into three groups
consisting of 12 animals per group, replicated three times with four pigs per replicate in a
completely randomized design. The groups were allocated into 3 treatments as follows-
Pigs fed 100% concentrate diet (Con100), pigs fed 50% concentrate diet and 50%
hydroponics maize fodder (Con50HM50) and pigs fed 100% hydroponics maize fodder
(HM100). The concentrate composition is presented in Table 1. The experiment lasted for
six weeks. Pigs were housed in properly disinfected pens and all routine management
practices were strictly observed.
Table 1. Gross composition of concentrate fed to weaned pigs
Ingredient
Percentage (%)
Maize
43.00
Soyabean meal
15.00
Wheat offal
15.00
Groundnut cake
7.00
Palm kernel cake
15.00
Palm oil
3.00
Limestone
1.25
Salt
0.50
Premix
0.25
Total
100.00
Calculated nutrient
Crude protein (%)
19.03
Metabolizable energy (kcal/kg)
2905.20
Adebiyi et al.: Effects of feeding hydroponics maize fodder on performance and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs
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APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 16(3):2415-2422.
http://www.aloki.hu ISSN 1589 1623 (Print) ISSN 1785 0037 (Online)
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15666/aeer/1603_24152422
2018, ALÖKI Kft., Budapest, Hungary
The hydroponic system
The production of hydroponic maize fodder, that is, sprouted maize grown in a
nutrient solution was conducted under natural illumination in growth chamber as
described below. The maize used was grown for 7 days.
Planting material
Maize grains were obtained from a local market. The seeds were cleaned from debris
and other foreign materials and were subjected to a germination test to check for viability.
Clean seeds were washed, sterilized in Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) solution and soaked in
tap water for 24 h before distribution in the trays.
Seed planting and irrigation
Seeds of maize were sown in the planting trays. The seedling rate used was 500 g of
maize grain per tray. Trays were irrigated manually with organic hydroponics nutrient
solution twice a day (07:30 and 17:30 hr) at a fixed rate of 250 ml/tray/day using a
spray gun for 20 s. Drained water were collected in plastic containers which were
placed under each planting tray and measured. The seeds were scattered uniformly
within the tray. The tray was kept in cool and well illuminated environment.
Green fodder harvesting
The sprouted seeds were grown in the greenhouse for a period of 7 days. The fully
grown fodder (Fig. 1) was then given to the pigs as whole feed.
Figure 1. Hydroponic maize fodder (Source: Adebiyi et al., 2018)
Fodder yield
Samples of the green fodder were taken weekly to determine the dry matter and
nutrient contents. The quantity of hydroponics fodder and biomass production was
recorded daily by weighing the seeds before planting and weighing the fodder produced.
Growth performance
Growth parameters of the pigs were observed and recorded throughout the
experiment. Feed intake was obtained by subtracting the leftover feed from the total
quantity of feed served. Weight gain was determined by subtracting the initial live
Adebiyi et al.: Effects of feeding hydroponics maize fodder on performance and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs
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APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 16(3):2415-2422.
http://www.aloki.hu ISSN 1589 1623 (Print) ISSN 1785 0037 (Online)
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15666/aeer/1603_24152422
2018, ALÖKI Kft., Budapest, Hungary
weight from the final live weight. Feed conversion ratio was defined as the quantity of
feed (kg) consumed to gain a unit of live weight (kg):
Feed Intake
FCR Weight Gain
Nutrient digestibility
At day 37, three animals were randomly selected from each treatment. The selected
pigs were kept in metabolic cages for 5 days. Feed intake and total faecal collection
from individual animals were recorded. The experimental feed and faecal samples were
dried. The feed and faecal samples were further analyzed for crude protein (CP), crude
fibre (CF), ether extract (EE) and ash contents using the procedure of AOAC (2000).
The nitrogen free extract (NFE) contents of the samples were obtained using the
equation:
 
NFE 100 – CF CP EE Ash   
Statistical analysis
Data on performance and nutrient digestibility were analysed using the General
Linear Model (GLM) procedures of the statistical analysis of variance (SAS, 2010).
Duncan Multiple Range Test was applied for mean separation where there were
significant differences (P < 0.05).
Results and discussion
The results of the proximate composition of the hydroponics maize fodder are
presented in Table 2. There are changes in the nutrient content of the maize grains and
hydroponics fodder. The average dry matter (DM) content of the maize seed was
95.08% whereas the hydroponic maize fodder was 25.00%. The decrease observed in
the DM may be due to the decrease in the starch content of the hydroponics fodder.
During sprouting, starch is catabolized to soluble sugars for supporting the metabolism
of energy requirement of the growing plants for respiration and cell wall synthesis, so
any decrease in the amount of starch causes a corresponding decrease in DM (Naik et
al., 2015). This result is similar to the findings of Thadchanamoorthy et al. (2012), who
reported a DM content of 26.07% for sprouted maize fodder. The crude protein content
in the present study showed that hydroponic maize fodder contained 13.75% CP as
compared to 8.7% in maize seed. This observation has been reported by other authors
(Dung et al., 2010a; Naik et al., 2015). According to Dung et al. (2010a), the use of
nutrient solution enhances the CP content of the hydroponics fodder which is higher
than the tap water, thus leading to the uptake of nitrogenous compounds. Additionally,
sprouting has been reported to alter the amino acid profile of maize seeds and increases
the crude protein content of hydroponic fodder (Morsy et al., 2013). In the present
study, ether extract of the hydroponics maize fodder was 3.55%. The value reported in
the current study was slightly higher than the range of 3.27-3.49% obtained by Singh
(2011) and Naik et al. (2015). The increase in the EE content of the hydroponics fodder
Adebiyi et al.: Effects of feeding hydroponics maize fodder on performance and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs
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APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 16(3):2415-2422.
http://www.aloki.hu ISSN 1589 1623 (Print) ISSN 1785 0037 (Online)
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15666/aeer/1603_24152422
2018, ALÖKI Kft., Budapest, Hungary
may be due to the increase in the structural lipids and production of chlorophyll
associated with the plant growth (Naik et al., 2015).
The CF content of 14.77% was within the range of 7.35-21.20% reported by Naik et
al. (2015). Increase in CF contents of hydroponics maize fodder may be attributed to the
build-up of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin (Cuddeford, 1989). The value of total
ash (3.33%) observed in the hydroponic maize fodder in the current study is within the
range of 1.75-3.80% reported by Naik et al. (2014). During the sprouting process, the
total ash content increases due to the absorption of minerals by the root (Dung et al.,
2010b). The NFE content observed (60.72%) was higher than that of hydroponically
sprouted grains reported by earlier workers - 1.56-3.64% (Naik et al., 2015).
Table 2. Proximate composition of hydroponics maize fodder
Parameter
Percentage (%)
Dry matter
25.00
Crude protein
13.75
Ether extract
3.55
Crude fibre
14.77
Ash
3.33
Nitrogen free extract
60.72
The results of hydroponics maize fodder on the performance of pigs are shown in
Table 3. Dietary treatments had significant effects (P < 0.05) on final weight, weight
gain and feed conversion ratio of the pigs. The final weight ranges from 9.04-17.08 kg.
Pigs fed Con100 had the highest (P < 0.05) final weight while the lowest weight was
recorded in pigs fed HM100. Feed intake and weight gain were highest (P < 0.05) in pigs
fed concentrate diet (Con100) while the lowest intake was in animals fed HM100. Feed
conversion ratio (FCR) was improved (P < 0.05) in pigs fed Con100 and Con50HM50
respectively. In the present trial, pigs fed dietary mixture of concentrate and
hydroponics maize fodder (Con50HM50) performed better than those fed solely on
sprouted fodder (HM100). Helal (2015) reported higher dry matter intake, final body
weight and improved FCR in goats fed dietary mixture of sprouted barley grains and
barley straw. Similar results were reported by Fayed (2011) and Helal (2012).
Hydroponic sprouts are rich sources of bioactive enzymes and contain grass juice
ingredients that improve the performance of livestock (Naik et al., 2013). The increase
in weight gain of pigs may be attributed to enhancement of microbial activity in the gut.
According to Kruglyakov (1989), hydroponics fodder has simpler forms of vitamin,
starch, protein and lipids which have positive effect on the performance of the animals.
Nutritional value of sprouted fodder improves due to the modification of heterogeneous
compounds into essential form (Chavan et al., 1989). Sprouting of grains has resulted
into increase in quantity and quality of protein, sugars, minerals and vitamin (Naik et
al., 2015). Weight loss was recorded in pigs fed solely on hydroponics fodder (HM100).
This observation may be due to the low DM intake of the pigs. Additionally, pigs being
monogastric cannot thrive solely on fodder-based diet.
Feeding hydroponics maize fodder to pigs led to a decrease in the total daily feeding
costs of experimental rations, Con50HM50 (#61.96) and HM100 (#53.97) as compared to
Con100 (#70.00) which was mainly a concentrate diet (Table 3). Feed costs (#/kg)
Adebiyi et al.: Effects of feeding hydroponics maize fodder on performance and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs
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APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 16(3):2415-2422.
http://www.aloki.hu ISSN 1589 1623 (Print) ISSN 1785 0037 (Online)
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15666/aeer/1603_24152422
2018, ALÖKI Kft., Budapest, Hungary
significantly reduce as the inclusion of the maize fodder increases. This result is similar
to the findings of Fayed (2011) and Helal (2012) who found the lowest feed cost and
highest profit in lambs fed dietary mixture of sprouted barley grains and Tamarix
mannifera. In terms of economic efficiency, it is more profitable (feed cost per weight
gain) to feed pigs on Con50HM50 (#228.01) as compared to Con100 (#316.4) and HM100
(#-446.91).
Table 3. Performance and cost benefit of feeding hydroponics maize fodder to pigs
Con100
Con50HM50
HM100
SEM
P-value
9.90
10.00
9.97
0.009
0.6094
17.08a
13.35b
9.04c
0.775
0.0026
30.89a
12.72b
8.00c
1.334
0.0001
7.18a
3.46b
-0.93c
0.783
0.0021
4.52a
3.68a
-8.69b
1.425
<0.0001
70.00
61.96
53.73
316.4a
228.01b
-466.91c
SEM: Standard error of the mean
a,b,cMeans within the same row with different letters are significantly different (P < 0.05)
BW: body weight, DM: dry matter, FCR: feed conversion ratio
*Calculated by multiplying the cost/kg of each ingredient used to formulate the diet by the quantity of
the ingredient
Nutrient digestibility of pigs fed hydroponic maize fodder is presented in Table 4.
Crude protein, crude fibre and ether extract digestibilities were improved (P < 0.05) in
animals fed Con100. However, animals fed dietary mixtures of concentrate and
hydroponics maize fodder had better (P < 0.05) CP and CF digestibility as compared to
those on HM100. Helal (2015) recorded highest digestibility coefficients of CP, CF, EE,
NDF and hemicellulose in goats fed sprouted barley. Similar results were reported by
Fayed (2011) and Naik et al. (2015). Feeding of hydroponics fodder increased the
digestibility of the nutrients which could be attributed to the tenderness of the fodder
(Naik et al., 2014). The digestibility of the nutrients of the hydroponics fodder was
comparable with the highly digestible legumes like berseem and clovers (Pandey and
Pathak, 1991). According to Chung et al. (1989), highly soluble protein and amino acids
in response to the early plant growth and enzymatic transformations of sprouted grains
are responsible for improved digestibility in animals. The low CF digestibility reported
in HM100 may be attributed to the minimal crude fibre utilization in monogastrics.
Table 4. Nutrient digestibility of pigs fed hydroponics maize fodder
Parameter
Con100
Con50HM50
HM100
SEM
P-value
CP
70.51a
66.27b
55.41c
1.50
<0.0001
EE
72.98a
67.37c
68.43b
0.57
<0.0001
CF
50.91a
48.77b
34.82c
1.68
<0.0001
Ash
39.45b
43.52a
42.63a
0.41
0.0001
SEM: standard error of the mean
a,b,cMeans within the same row with different letters are significantly different (P < 0.05)
CP: crude protein, EE: ether extract, CF: crude fibre
Adebiyi et al.: Effects of feeding hydroponics maize fodder on performance and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs
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APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 16(3):2415-2422.
http://www.aloki.hu ISSN 1589 1623 (Print) ISSN 1785 0037 (Online)
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15666/aeer/1603_24152422
2018, ALÖKI Kft., Budapest, Hungary
Conclusion
Inclusion of hydroponic maize fodder in pig nutrition improved performance and
nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs. Thus, there is great potential for developing
hydroponic technology for fodder production in pig farming. Sole feeding of
hydroponic maize fodder exerted negative effects on the performance of the animals.
Further research is needed to establish the potential health benefits of hydroponic fodder
in monogastrics.
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... However, little variations on FCR were found. Again, in another study by Adebiyi et al. (2018), FCR was improved (P<0.05) in pigs fed Con 100 and Con 50 HM 50 . Hydroponic sprouts are rich sources of bioactive enzymes and contain grass juice ingredients that improve livestock performance (Naik et al., 2013). ...
... T1) as presented inTable 4, which was lower thanAdebiyi et al. (2018), where Conc 100 had 70.51% CP. The CF content was higher in T2 (31.20%), followed by T3 (23.00%) and T1 (17.80%) in this study, which showed lower crude fibre utilization in monogastric animals. ...
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An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of hydroponics maize fodder on growth and nutrient digestibility of weaned piglets from July 1st, 2017 to August 11th, 2017, for six weeks. The experiment consisted of 75 days old, 15 crossbreed piglets (Duroc x Nagpuri & Duroc) in a Completely Randomized Design with three treatments and five replications. Treatment 1 (T1) contained 100% concentrate feed, Treatment 2 (T2) 90% concentrate feed and 10% hydroponics maize fodder and Treatment 3 (T3) 80% concentrate feed and 20% hydroponics maize fodder in the diet. The study revealed that hydroponics maize fodder contained DM 13.80%, CP 12.54%, NDF 47.04%, and ADL 16.51%. The treatments had non-significant effect (P > 0.05) on daily weight gain, final weight and feed conversion ratio of the piglets. However, piglets fed with 90% concentrate and 10% hydroponics maize fodder had the highest final weight (35.8±5.0 kg), while the lowest (33.6±5.00 kg) was recorded in piglets fed with 80% concentrate and 20% hydroponics maize fodder. The cost of hydroponics maize fodder production was Rs. 20.62 per kg, which was higher than the cost in the Indian context. The difference in Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) was also not significant. However, piglets fed with T2 (1:2.58) diet recorded higher FCR than T3 (1:2.56) and T1 (1:2.51). In conclusion, the inclusion of hydroponics maize fodder in piglets diet appeared promising in growth, nutrient digestibility and cost of production.
... Brown et al. [11] confirmed the positive effect of hydroponic green herbage when used in the diet of pigs. They recorded a high nutritional value and digestibility of sprouted feed and considered it as a possible alternative to traditional green feed. ...
... In 1939, Leitch analyzed a series of experiments using sprouted feed for various livestock and poultry types and reported that sprouted feed is the commercial exploitation of water plant culture processes for livestock feed production. In 1969, the English scientist Woodward attempted to grow plants in various water sources [11]. There is abundant potential for the development of hydroponics technology for feed production. ...
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Background and aim: Green food is the natural diet for livestock and poultry. Therefore, production of green food in sufficient quantities to meet the current demand has emerged as an urgent problem today. The use of natural laylands results in green food shortage, which, in turn, necessitates the application of various methods of artificial production of green herbage. One of these methods is hydroponic cultivation of green grass as animal feed. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the productive and reproductive qualities of geese of the parent herd. Materials and methods: Complex scientific analysis was conducted to explore the effect of hydroponic green herbage used at various dosages (20%, 25%, 30%, and 35% of total diet weight) on the realization of the reproductive qualities of parent flock geese. The methodological framework of this research is the efforts of various foreign and domestic scientists on the topic under study. This research was conducted using generally accepted methods (i.e., experiment, comparison, analysis, and generalization), along with special methods (zootechnical, physiological, biological, hematological, morphological, statistical, and economic). Results: The optimal dosage of hydroponic green herbage for geese diet was established, which constituted 25-30% of the total diet weight and increased the poultry population survival rate by 2.0%, egg production rate by 3.8%, and the hatching egg yield by 4.9%. The carotenoid content in egg yolk ranged from 1.62 to 3.50 μg. The content of Vitamins A and B2 was higher by 3.19 and 2.32 μg, respectively, compared to that in the control. The production profitability level increased by 9.6%. Conclusion: By introducing 25-30% of hydroponic greens from the weight of the diet, it is possible to increase the safety of livestock by 2%, the yield of hatching eggs by 4.9%, egg production by 1.46-1.11 μg.
... During sprouting, starch is catabolized to soluble sugars for supporting the metabolism and energy requirement of the growing plants for respiration and cell wall synthesis, so any decrease in the amount of starch causes a corresponding decrease in DM. The increase in CP content may be attributed to the loss in Dry matter (DM), particularly carbohydrates, through respiration during germination and thus longer sprouting time is responsible for greater losses in DM and an increase in protein content [39]. Besides, the absorption of nitrates facilitates the metabolism of nitrogenous compounds and thus increases the CP levels. ...
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... Though, hydroponic maize fodder feeding increased the cost of feeding/animal/day (`) slightly, it reduced the cost of production/kg live weight gain (`) compared to control group (Table 3). The results are in agreement with Adebiyi et al. (2018) who reported that feeding pigs with 50% concentrate and 50% hydroponics maize fodder (Con50HM50) as compared to 100% concentrate (Con100) and 100% hydroponics maize fodder (HM100) is more profitable and economically efficient in terms of feed cost per weight gain to feed pigs. Gebremedhin (2015) also reported that feeding of finger millet straw + hydroponic maize and barley fodder at a proportion of 60:40 for growing Konkan Kanyal goats (T3, T5, and T4) was highly beneficial and economically valid. ...
... In one instance, Kafantaris et al. [1] tested a grape filling as a fodder additive for weaned piglets in order to examine the effect on pigs' well-being, productivity and meat quality. Another experiment with fodder was performed by Adebiyi et al. [2], who fed weaned piglets hydroponic corn fodder. The results showed that the introduction of hydroponic corn fodder into the pig diet improved the nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs. ...
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Knotweeds (Reynoutria spp.) are plants producing useful secondary metabolites, including stilbenes (resveratrol and piceid have been studied more thoroughly) and emodin. Many studies have shown the positive effects of resveratrol on the health status of humans and animals. Resvera-trol has been added into pigs' diet as a pure extract, but it has never been supplemented into the fodder with knotweed biomass which contains other secondary metabolites, thus we would expect it would provide a more complex effect. The study objective is to discover whether the 2 weight percent addition of knotweed into pigs' diet will have positive effects on their health. We compared two groups of Prestice Black-Pied pigs, the experimental group was fed by fodder with the knot-weed rhizomes additive, the control group without knotweed additive. Investigated parameters were feed consumption, the composition of excrements, weight increment, muscle-to-fat ratio, fatty acid composition and blood haematology and biochemistry. The addition of knotweed stimulated a whole range of physiological changes. It positively stimulated weight growth and increased the back fat and proportion of muscle, but statistically significant only in gilts. On the other hand, the changes in fatty acid composition seemed to be unsatisfactory. It is the first study of the effects of knotweed on pigs' development, and more detailed research is desirable.
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The study aimed to determine the effects of feeding outdoor-grown hydroponics maize sprouts (HMS) on the growth performance and digestibility of nutrients in goats. Three treatment groups (n = 5), group T1 (control), were fed 500 g concentrate, and Napier grass; T2, 500 g concentrate, and HMS, while T3 had sole feeding of HMS using a completely randomized design. The results showed that HMS had a better feed nutritive composition with the lower concentration of indigestible fibre (P<0.05) and higher concentration of crude protein (12.28%) compared to Napier grass (7.22%) (P<0.05). Goats in T1 and T2 fed with concentrate had a higher average daily gain (ADG) of 79 g/day and 48 g/day rivalling goats fed with HMS (44 g/day) (P<0.05). Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly better (P<0.05) in goats in T1 and T2 compared to T3. Goats in groups T1 and T2 showed significantly higher dry matter digestibility (69.27% and 63.95%, respectively) and crude protein digestibility (71.89% and 72.28%, respectively) compared to group T3. Sole feeding of HMS exerted a minor impact on growth performance in the animals. However, the HMS could potentially replace the conventionally planted sprouts in conjunction with commercial concentrate to improve the growth performance of the small ruminants.
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This study aimed to identify the chemical composition of hydroponic maize fodder (HMF) from two varieties of maize grains (popcorn and feed corn). A completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications was used in which popcorn was irrigated with clean tap water (T1) and nutrient solution (T2); feed corn irrigated with clean tap water (T3) and nutrient solution (T4). Seven-days green fodders were sampled for chemical analysis. The crude protein (CP) content was the highest at 7.48% in T4 compared to popcorn (P<0.05) and T3 (P>0.05). Treatment 3 showed the highest dry matter content as 94.42% (P>0.05) and organic matter content observed as 98.29% especially compared with T1 (P<0.05). The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents of feed corn were insignificantly different, but T3 was observed as 67.66% and 41.55%, respectively, which were higher than T1 (P<0.05). Although feed corn had better nutritional value than popcorn, popcorn showed a 7% higher germination rate than feed corn (P<0.05). As a result, the total yield of 1.5 kg hydroponic maize fodder per kg feed corn was lower than popcorn (2.5 kg per kg grains). Hence, popcorn was used to grow HMF with the open-air hydroponic system. HMF showed better feed nutritive composition than conventionally planted Napier grass. A lower concentration of indigestible fiber (P<0.05) and a higher concentration of crude protein (12.28%) was observed in HMF compared to CP in Napier grass (7.22%) (P<0.05). In conclusion, the open-air hydroponics system can be an alternative method among smallholders by replacing conventionally planted fodder.
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The study had been carried out among the mandarin producer households in the Kushe Rural Municipality of Jajarkot District to analyze the financial viability of mandarin production, calculate cost of production, gross margin, internal rate of return (IRR), benefit cost ratio (BCR) and payback period (PBP). A total of 80 respondents had been selected through random sampling method. Primary data has been collected through household survey through questionnaire and other relevant information has been taken as secondary sources. Relevant statistical tools like SPSS and Ms Excel has been used to analyze the data. The study found BCR as 1:55, the net present worth at 12 percent discount wasNRs.111702, and IRR has been found 26%. The cost of production of 1 kg mandarin orange was NRs15.326 for 5-12 years and the capital return was estimated at 7.9 years as PBP within the economic life of 20 years. This study showed that the mandarin production is a financially viable agri-business in the study area.
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Green feed is a natural diet for livestock and poultry, so its residual production to meet current demand is becoming an urgent problem today. The use of natural pasture lands leads to a shortage of green feed, which leads to the need to use various methods of artificial production of greenery. One of these methods can be hydroponic cultivation of green grass as animal feed. The introduction of a hydroponic green feed enriched with vitamins and minerals in the diet can increase the productivity of animals and improve their overall health. The presented material presents the results of complex scientific research on the analysis of the impact of hydroponic greens in different dosages (20, 25, 30, 35% of the total diet weight) on the implementation of the reproductive qualities of geese of the parent herd. The methodological basis of the research was previously conducted by foreign and domestic scientists on the topic under study. The work was performed using common methods: experiment, comparison, analysis, and generalization; special methods: zootechnical, physiological, biological, hematological, morphological, statistical and economic. The results of the studies established the optimal dose of inclusion hydroponic greens in the composition of the diet of geese in the amount of 25-30% by weight of the ration, thereby improving safety of livestock by 2.0%, egg production – by 3.8%, yield of hatching eggs by 4.9%. the content of carotenoids in the yolk of eggs from 1.62 to 3.50 mcg/g, and vitamin A and B2 by 3.19 and 2.32 mcg / g compared to the control, respectively. The level of profitability of production increased by 9.6%.
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Application of hydroponic systems in feed production has not been extensively studied. Therefore, there is insufficient data on the effect of the slope of hydroponic growing trays used in the nutrient film technique on wheat fodder yield and its qualitative parameters. The slope of the trays has only been studied for food crops. This study conducted experimental research using a nutrient film technique hydroponic fodder growing device to evaluate the impact of growing tray slope angle on hydroponic wheat fodder production. The slope angle of the growing trays was changed from 2.0% (1.15 •) to 8.0% (4.57 •) with increments of 1.5% (0.86 •). This research used two different light sources for wheat sprout illumination: indoor lighting (fluorescent lamps) and light-emitting diode illumination. In addition, two nutrient solutions were used for sprout irrigation: tap water and a solution enriched with macro-and microelements. Experimental studies confirmed the hypothesis that the slope angle of growing trays significantly affects the yield of wheat fodder grown for seven days. Analyzing the results, we found that the highest yield of wheat fodder after seven days of cultivation was achieved with growing trays sloped by 6.5% and using indoor lighting. In addition, we achieved the highest wheat fodder dry matter content using a 6.5% slope angle. Experimental studies also confirmed the hypothesis that using macro-and micronutrients in the nutrient solution does not significantly affect the yield of wheat fodder grown hydroponically for seven days.
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The present research was aimed to study the effect of sprouted barley grains (Hordeum vulgare L.) on different levels of olive cake (OC) and barley straw as media. A laboratory study was conducted to show the performance of sprouted barley grain on tested roughages media by fodder yield and conversion ratio values; followed by five digestibility trials which conducted to evaluate the digestibility of experimental roughages by using twenty five desert male goats (20 months old) with average 22.50±2.54kg live body weight. Animals were randomly divided into five equal groups of 5 animals each to receive one of the following experimental roughages G1: alfalfa ad libitum as (control); G2: sprouted barley grains on 75% olive cake (OC) + 25% barley straw (BS) ad libitum; G3: sprouted barley grains on 50% olive cake (OC) + 50% barley straw (BS) ad libitum; G4: sprouted barley grains on 25% olive cake (OC) +75% barley straw (BS) ad libitum; G5: sprouted barley grains on 100% barley straw (BS) ad libitum. The best treated group from the results of digestibility trail was conducted feeding trail. Results showed that the treatments with sprouted barely increase CP, ash and C.CHO contents while DM, OM, EE, CF, NDF, ADF and ADL contents were decreased. Sprouted barely on olive cake or barley straw revealed a significant (P≤0.05) improvement in OM, CP, EE, CF, NFE, NDF, ADF and hemicellulose digestibility. Nutritive values expressed as TDN g/Kg BW and DCP% increased significantly (P≤0.05) in treated groups G1 and G2 followed by G3, G4 and the lowest values were in G5. Also, goats fed the four sprouted mixture recorded higher significantly (P≤0.05) of N balance compared with G1 (control group) with insignificant differences in Na and K balance (g/kg BW) values between studied groups. Goats fed sprouted barely had significantly (P≤0.05) higher values of total volatile fatty acids (VFA's) and ruminal ammonia (NH3-N) concentration post feeding with 3 hours. Serum total proteins, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinin were increased (P≤0.05) compared with untreated roughages. Feed cost LE/gm gain was improved by goats fed on G2 and G3 with percent (34.15 and 32.52% respectively) in compared to control diet. Relative economical efficiency was improved by 90.77% in G2 comparison with the control diet. In conclusion we can produce green fodder by utilizing dried olive cake and barley straw by simple methodology using crop sprouts barley without any harmful effect on goats.
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Hydroponics maize fodder of 7 days growth was fed to 6 dairy cows divided into two equal groups (BW 442 kg; avg. milk yield 6.0 kg). Animals were offered 5 kg concentrate mixture and ad lib. jowar straw along with either 15 kg fresh hydroponics maize fodder (T-HF) or conventional napier bajra hybrid (NBH) green fodder (T-CF) for 68 days. The hydroponics maize fodder (HMF) had higher CP (13.30 vs 11.14, %), EE (3.27 vs 2.20, %), NFE (75.32 vs 53.54, %) and lower CF (6.37 vs 22.25, %), TA (1.75 vs 9.84, %) and AIA (0.57 vs 1.03, %) than NBH. HMF intake was low (0.59 kg DM/d) than NBH (1.19 kg DM/ d) by the cows. However, the DMI (2.05 and 2.17%) was similar in both the groups. Digestibility of CP (72.46 vs 68.86, %) and CF (59.21 vs 53.25, %) was higher (P<0.05) for cows fed HMF. The DCP content (9.65 vs 8.61, %) of the ration increased significantly (P<0.05) due to feeding of HMF; however, the increase (P>0.05) in the CP (13.29 vs 12.48, %) and TDN (68.52 vs 64, %) content was non-significant. There was 13.7% increase in the milk yield of T-HF (4.64, kg/d) than the T-CF group (4.08 kg/d). The feed conversion ratio of DM (2.12 vs 2.37), CP (0.29 vs 0.30) and TDN (1.45 vs 1.52) to produce a kg milk was better in the T-HF than the T-CF group. There was higher net profit of Rs. 12.67/- per cow/d on feeding HMF. It can be concluded that feeding of HMF to lactating cows increased the digestibility of nutrients and milk production leading to increase in net profit.
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Production of hydroponics fodder involves growing of plants without soil but in water or nutrient rich solution in a greenhouse (hi-tech or low cost devices) for a short duration (approx. 7 days). The use of nutrient solution for the growth of the hydroponics fodder is not essential and only the tap water can be used. In India, maize grain should be the choice for production of hydroponics fodder. The hydroponics green fodder looks like a mat of 20-30 cm height consisting of roots, seeds and plants. To produce one kg of fresh hydroponics maize fodder (7-d), about 1.50-3.0 litres of water is required. Yields of 5-6 folds on fresh basis and DM content of 11-14% are common for hydroponics maize fodder, however, DM content up to 18% has also been observed. The hydroponics fodder is more palatable, digestible and nutritious while imparting other health benefits to the animals. The cost of seed contributes about 90% of the total cost of production of hydroponics maize fodder. It is recommended to supplement about 5-10 kg fresh hydroponics maize fodder per cow per day. However, sprouting a part of the maize of the concentrate mixture for hydroponics fodder production does not require extra maize. Feeding of hydroponics fodder increases the digestibility of the nutrients of the ration which could contribute towards increase in milk production (8-13%). In situations, where conventional green fodder cannot be grown successfully, hydroponics fodder can be produced by the farmers for feeding their dairy animals using low cost devices.
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The studies reported in this research examined the nutrient profile of barley grain when it was sprouted hydroponically. Following sprouting, the measurement of animal response at experimental level and also in a commercial setting was performed in order to test the hypothesis that sprouting gives rise to hydroponic sprouts that give higher animal responses. In first part of the experiment, barley gram was sprouted hydroponically for a duration of 7 days. Daily sampling of the sprouts was done to assess DM concentration and also to determine the nutrient concentration on day 7 in comparison to the unsprouted gram. Results showed a 21.9% loss in DM from the original seed after sprouting for a period of 7 days. A loss of 2% GE was recorded after comparing the sprouts with the original grain. The CP, ash and all other minerals except potassium were lower in concentration on a DM basis in the barley grain than in the sprouts. This was considered to be a reflection of a loss in DM after sprouting causing a shift in concentration of these nutrients. The second phase of the experiment involved in sacco degradation of hydroponic barley sprouts and the unsprouted grain in the rumen of Merino sheep. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in in sacco degradation when unsprouted grain was compared with hydroponic barley sprouts. It was concluded that the loss of 21% DM followed by a lack of difference in in sacco degradability disproved the presence of any advantage of sprouts over the original grain.
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A hydropomc nutrient solution was used to raise barley sprouts to compare with sprouts raised using tap water irrigation (two treatments). In both treatments, the sprouts were raised in continuous light in a temperature-controlled room for a period of 7 days. There was no difference (p>0.05) in DM loss after 7 days of sprouting. The DM losses after 7 days of sprouting were 16.4 vs. 13.3% for tap water irrigation and hydroponic nutrient solution, respectively. Sprouts grown with nutrient solution had a higher protein concentration than those grown with tap water irrigation (17.3 vs. 15.9%), respectively. There was however, no difference (p>0.05) in in sacco degradation of sprouts in the rumen of Merino sheep. There was no advantage in the use of nutrient solution for producing hydroponic sprouts compared to sprouting with tap water only. If these sprouts were fed to ruminants, the DM losses would have represented a loss in digestible energy which would otherwise have been available for productive purposes. On a large scale these losses could add to the cost of animal production.
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The objectives of this study were to evaluate five forage crops (alfalfa (Medicago sativa), barley (Hordeum vulgare), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and wheat (Triticum aestivum)) for green fodder production and water use efficiency under hydroponic conditions. The experiment has been conducted under temperature-controlled conditions (24 ± 1°C) and natural window illumination at growth room of Soilless Culture Laboratory, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain. The results showed that green forage can be produced in 8 days from planting to harvest using hydroponic technique. Highest values for green fresh yields were recorded for the crops cowpea, barley, and alfalfa which gave 217, 200, and 194 tons/ha, respectively. However, only cowpea and barley crops gave the highest green dry yield, but not alfalfa. Barely crop used water more efficiently than the other four tested crops when produced about 654 kg fresh matter/m3 water in comparison to 633, 585, 552, and 521 kg fresh matter/m3 water for cowpea, sorghum, wheat, and alfalfa, respectively. No significant differences between barley and cowpea for water use efficiency were noted. It can be concluded from this study that barley crop can be considered the best choice for production of hydroponic green fodder with less water consumption.
Conference Paper
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of sprouted barley (Hordeum vulgare) on Acacia saligna (As), rice straw (Rs) and mixture of them on performance of growing lambs. Thirty five growing female Barki lambs (initial weight of 16.4±0.8 kg), about four months age were divided by weight into five groups (7 animals each) for 180 days. To receive one of the following experimental roughages: G1: rice straw (Rs) ad-lib (untreated) as control; G2: dried Acacia ad-lib (As) as control; G3: sprouted barley grains on rice straw ad-lib (SRs); G4: sprouted barley grains on dried Acacia adlib (SAs); G5: sprouted barley grains on 50% Rs+50% As adlib (SRs+SAs). All animals were fed 60% of total energy requirements as concentrate feed mixture (CFM). At the end of the growing trial five digestibility trials were conducted to evaluate the digestibility of the experimental roughages. Results showed that the treatments with sprouted barely increased CP, Ash and NFE contents while DM, OM, EE, CF, NDF, ADF and ADL contents, were decreased. Sprouted barely on Acacia (SAs) or rice straw (SRs) revealed a significant (P≤0.05) improvement in OM, CP, EE, CF, NFE, NDF, ADF and hemicellulose digestibilities. Nutritive values expressed as TDNg/Kg B.W. and DCP% increased significantly (P≤0.05) in treated groups G4, G3 and G5 than untreated G1 (Rs) and G2 (As). Also, lambs fed the treated roughages retained higher (P≤0.05) nitrogen values than untreated treatments. Na and K balance (g/kg BW) of G4 had highest (P≤0.05) significant values as compared with other tested roughages in present study. lambs fed sprouted barely had significantly higher (P≤0.05) values of total volatile fatty acids (VFA), ruminal ammonia (NH3-N) concentration, serum total proteins. Albumin, globulin, urea and creatinin were increased (P≤0.05) compared with untreated roughages. The highest (P≤0.05) value of average daily gain, feed conversion (g feed/g gain) and economical feed efficiency were recorded for G4. However the lowest (P≤0.05) values were recorded for G1. In conclusion we can produce green fodder by utilizing dried Acacia and rice straw by simple methodology using crop sprouts barley without any harmful effect on growing female Barki lambs.
Article
High cost of conventional feedstuffs has resulted to the need to exploit the diverse feed resources for improved sustainability in swine production. Hydroponic sprouts which undergo nutritional modification during the sprouting process are a good source of nutrients that could improve the performance of pigs. Hence, nutrient digestibility, performance, haematological and serum biochemical parameters of weaned pigs fed hydroponic maize fodder (HMF) and conventional basal based diets were studied. Thirty-six (36) crossbred weaned pigs were randomly allotted to three treatments with four replicates each in a completely randomized design. Treatment 1 (T1) had 50% hydroponically grown maize sprouts + 50% concentrate, Treatment 2 (T2) had 100% hydroponically grown maize sprouts and Treatment 3 (T3) had 100% basal diet (cassava peel +palm kernel cake +brewery dried grain). The experiment lasted 6 weeks. Significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in the apparent digestibility of nutrients, performance and blood profile of pigs across dietary treatments. T1 had higher (P<0.05) apparent crude protein digestibility (65.76%) while the lowest (55.27%) was observed in T2 with a similar trend observed for apparent crude fibre digestibility. Apparent ether extract digestibility was higher (P<0.05) in T2 (68.43%) and lowest in T3 (65.47%) while ash digestibility was (P<0.05) highest in T3 (46.08%). Significantly higher values were obtained in T3 for final weight (13.83kg), feed intake (12.79kg) and weight gain (3.83kg) while least values were observed in T2. However, T1 had the highest value for FCR (3.68kg) while comparable values were obtained for feed cost/weight gain in pigs fed T1 and T3. T1 had higher (p<0.05) RBC (5.73×10 µl), WBC (1.80×10 µl), lymphocytes (69%) and eosinophils (3.67%) values while lowest values were obtained in T2 for PCV (34.67%), RBC (5.08×10 µl) and lymphocytes (56.33%). Significant differences (P<0.05) were also observed for cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL, total protein, globulin and albumin while glucose and HDL showed no differences (P>0.05). All values obtained for haematology and serum biochemical parameters were within the normal physiological range of the animals.In conclusion, hydroponics maize fodder when combined with concentrate feed had a positive impact on nutrient digestibility and performance of pigs. Also, haematological and serum biochemical indices of pigs were not negatively affected.
Article
Pig production has increasingly become an important activity, especially among smallholder farmers in Uganda in the past three decades as evidenced by a dramatic rise in pig population from 0.19 to 3.2 million. This is linked to the rise in demand for pork due to changes in preferences. Per capita consumption of pork has been estimated at 3.4 kg/person/year representing a ten-fold increase in the last 30 years. Pigs are important assets for the poor smallholders in Uganda generating income for meeting planned and emergency household financial needs. Despite its importance, the smallholder pig systems are faced with a number of productivity and market related constraints ranging from diseases, poor nutrition and poorly organized markets. Strong growth opportunities to improve smallholder pig systems exist if the constraints are minimized. However the constraints and opportunities vary among smallholder producers as they are not a homogenous group and are affected by various factors. This paper applies a cluster analysis to characterize smallholder pig production systems into typologies in three districts in Uganda by utilizing village level data from 35 villages. The paper further explores the constraints and opportunities for the different typologies to engage with output and input market systems. The paper concludes that different interventions are necessary to improve market linkages with the smallholder pig production systems due to their varying differences in terms of farmers’ cooperative involvement, institutional linkages and intensification related indicators.