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EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF BASIL SEEDS ON SOME BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL TRAITS

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This study was designed to evaluate the effect of the different levels of basil seeds (Ocimum Basilicum) on blood biochemical values of broilers. Three equal treated groups (100 birds/treatment) with two replicates (50 birds/ replicate) of total 300 straight run (Ross 308) at age one day old chicks were randomly weighed and divided into three dietary treatments: T1 (as control group) birds fed basal diet without any additives. While, T2 and T3 fed diet supplemented daily with 0.3 and 0.6% basil seeds respectively to the end of the experiment (42 days). Blood samples were collected and then analysis. Traits involved in this study were creatinine, total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose, cholesterol, HDL, ALT, AST and ALP concentration. The results indicate that total protein, albumin, globulin were increased significantly in serum blood of chicks were fed on basal diet with 0.3% and 0.6% basil seeds while ALT, AST and ALP and cholesterol were decreased significantly. However, creatinine, glucose, and HDL were not affected by adding 0.3% and 0.6% of basil seeds to basal diets. In conclusion, basil seeds at a level 0.3% and 0.6% led to enhance the blood biochemical parameters and health status of broilers.
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G.J.B.B., VOL.5 (4) 2016: 477-480 ISSN 2278 9103
477
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF BASIL SEEDS ON SOME BLOOD
BIOCHEMICAL TRAITS
Kadhim Saleh Kadhim IraqDepartment of Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Kerbala,
ABSTRACT
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of the different levels of basil seeds (Ocimum Basilicum) on blood
biochemical values of broilers. Three equal treated groups (100 birds/treatment) with two replicates (50 birds/ replicate) of
total 300 straight run (Ross 308) at age one day old chicks were randomly weighed and divided into three dietary
treatments: T1 (as control group) birds fed basal diet without any additives. While, T2 and T3 fed diet supplemented daily
with 0.3 and 0.6% basil seeds respectively to the end of the experiment (42 days). Blood samples were collected and then
analysis. Traits involved in this study were creatinine, total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose, cholesterol, HDL, ALT,
AST and ALP concentration. The results indicate that total protein, albumin, globulin were increased significantly in serum
blood of chicks were fed on basal diet with 0.3% and 0.6% basil seeds while ALT, AST and ALP and cholesterol were
decreased significantly. However, creatinine, glucose, and HDL were not affected by adding 0.3% and 0.6% of basil seeds
to basal diets. In conclusion, basil seeds at a level 0.3% and 0.6% led to enhance the blood biochemical parameters and
health status of broilers.
KEYWORDS: Poultry, Broilers, Nutrition, Herbs, Basil seeds, Blood biochemical traits.
INTRODUCTION
After the European Union ban the use of antibiotics as
growth promoters (AGP) in animal diet, also other
countries still permitted the use of antibiotic as (AGP) like
the United States. Increment the resistant risk of pathogens
to antibiotics and consumers concerns about residues of
antibiotic. The United States Department of Agriculture
(USDA) showed that do not allow the use of antibiotics as
growth promoters or to prevent diseases. Therefore,
organic poultry producer’s need alternatives to the
antibiotics to produce non-antibiotic products (Dibner and
Richards, 2005). Plant, herbs, and their extract are an
alternative to antibiotics and act as growth promoter feed
additives plants (Jamroz and Kamel, 2002; Khattack et al.,
2014; Cornelison et al., 2006; Tiihonen et al., 2010;
Mathlouthi et al., 2012; Hashemipour et al., 2013). The
beneficial effect of this natural feed additives are health
properties of this product including antioxidant (Vichi et
al., 2001 and Lee et al., 2004), antimicrobial (Deans and
Ritchie, 1987; Paster et al., 1990; Hammer et al., 1999),
stimulating endogenous digestive enzymes (Lee et al.,
2004) and increasing digestibility (Mitsch et al., 2004;
Kroismayr et al., 2008), also improving gut health and
histology and modifying secretions of digestion (Williams
and Losa, 2001; Kreydiyyeh et al., 2003; Jamroz et al.,
2003). Windisch et al., 2008; Steiner, 2006; and Periˇc et
al., 2010 have shown that some phytobiotic act to reduce
microbial toxins in addition, reduce inflammation,
therefore; protein production may be allocated to growth
due to enhancing of immune modulator. Finally,
enhancing of health status of broiler (Steiner, 2006;
Kroismayr et al., 2008). Plants are natural, less toxic and
less residue in the poultry product, also Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) certified plant and their products as
Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) (Wang et al.,
1998). The major active ingredient of basil were (linalool;
3.94 mg/g), (estragole; 2.03 mg/g), (eugenol; 0.896 mg/g),
and 1,8-cineole (0.288 mg/g) (Lee et al., 2005). The
present study was designed to evaluate the effect of
different levels of basil seeds as some dietary feed
additives to the poultry. The effects of this seeds on
creatinine, total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose,
cholesterol, HDL, ALT, AST and ALP concentration were
determined as an indicator of health status of chicks.
MATERIALS & METHODS
Three hundred day-old straight run broilers chicks (Ross-
308) were bought from a commercial hatchery and divided
randomly and equally into three treated groups of 100
birds, each treated group was subdivided into 2 replicates
of 50 birds per replicate. The first group (T1) was fed
daily on diet without basil seeds additive as a control
group. Second group (T2) were fed daily on diet with
added 0.3% basil seeds and the third group (T3) were fed
on diet with 0.6% basil seeds. Birds were management
according to (Aviagen, 2009) guide for management and
nutrition requirement. Feed and water were provided ad
libitum. One types of diets (starter was used over the
period of experiment (42 days) (Tables 1).
At day 42th of age, blood samples were collected from the
bronchial vein in a test tube without anticoagulant from six
broilers of each treatment randomly. The blood was
allowed to clot and centrifuged for 10 minutes at 3000 rpm
to obtain on serum which stored in a deep freeze (-20Cº)
(Al-Daraji, 2008). Creatinine, total protein, albumin,
globulin, glucose, cholesterol, HDL, ALT, AST and ALP
concentration were determined by using of diagnostic kit
and spectrophotometer. Data generated from experiment
Different levels of basil seeds on some blood biochemical traits
478
was carried out in a complete randomized design (Steel
and Torrie, 1980). These data were subjected to ANOVA
according to general linear model procedure of SPSS
software (SPSS, 2001). The significant differences among
means were determined by Duncan's multiple range tests
with (p≤0.05) level of significance.
TABLE 1: compositions of experimental diets (NRC, 1994)
Starter diet
Ingredient %
32.5
Yellow corn
30
Soybean meal (48% protein)
30
Wheat
5
Animal protein
1
Sunflower oil
0.5
Premix
0.1
DL-Methionine
0.1
Lysin
0.8
Dicalcium phosphate
100
Total
Calculated chemical analysis
3020
Metabolize energy (kcal/kg)
21.5
Crude protein (%)
RESULT & DISCUSSION
The effect of adding basil seeds on total protein, albumin,
globulin and glucose were showed in table (2). Result
showed that total protein, albumin, and globulin were
improved significantly (p0.05) in T2 and T3 (chicks fed
basal diet with 0.3% and 0.6% basil seeds respectively as
compared with control group, while glucose was no
significant differences (p0.05) among these treated
groups. The effect of adding basil seeds on ALT, AST and
ALP were showed in table (3). Liver enzymes were
decreased significantly (p≤0.05) in T2 and T3 (chicks fed
basal diet with 0.3% and 0.6% basil seeds respectively as
compared with control group. Data of cholesterol, high
density lipoprotein HDL, and creatinine were presented in
table (4). The highest significant (p≤0.05) decrease of
cholesterol was decreased significantly (p≤0.05), while
HDL was decreased significantly (p0.05) in T2 and T3
(chicks fed basal diet with 0.3% and 0.6% basil seeds
respectively as compared with control group. However,
creatinine was no significant differences (p0.05) among
treated groups.
TABLE 2: Effect of different levels of basil seeds on total protein, albumin, globulin, and glucose
Treatment Parameter
T1
(Control)
T2
(Basil seeds 0.3%)
Total protein (mg/DL)
5.09±1.62
c
6.54±1.16
a
Globulin (mg/DL)
2.1±0.31
c
2.2±0.53
b
Albumin (mg/DL)
2.99±1.05
c
4.34±2.11
a
Glucose (mg/DL)
180.8 ±3.11
187± 2.25
Small different letters in the same raw denoted that significant differences between treatments at a level (p≤0.05).
TABLE 3: Effect of different levels of basil seeds on liver enzymes (IU/L).
Treatment Parameter
T1
(Control)
T2
(Basil seeds 0.3%)
T3
(Basil seeds 0.6%)
ALT
14.92±0.99
c
13.4±1.24
b
12.96±2.28
a
AST
122.6±7.50
c
111.4±8.45
b
102.8±6.57
a
ALP
372.4±22.01
c
306±16.6
b
287.6±22.08
a
Small different letters in the same raw denoted that significant differences between treatments at a level (p 0.05).
TABLE 4: Effect of different levels of basil seeds on cholesterol, HDL, and creatinine (mg/DL).
Treatment Parameter
T1
(Control)
T2
(Basil seeds 0.3%)
T3
(Basil seeds 0.6%)
Cholesterol
233.6 ±10.9
b
179 ±12.12
a
193.2 ±6.29
a
HDL
36.4 ±1.50
a
29.2 ±1.21
b
29 ±1.36
b
Creatinine
0.907 ±0.002
0.865 ±0.004
0.802 ±0.001
Small different letters in the same raw denoted that significant differences between treatments at a level (p 0.05).
G.J.B.B., VOL.5 (4) 2016: 477-480 ISSN 2278 9103
479
The increment of total proteins, albumin, and globulin
might be due to improving immune response and
immunoglobulin production because of total protein is
composed from antibodies and albumin. One of the active
ingredient in basil is linalool and it`s an intermediate in the
manufacture of vitamin E zek et al., 2010). It acts as
suppressed genotoxicity, by radical scavenging activity
(Mitić-Culafić et al., 2009). The use of antioxidants,
especially vitamin E has been proven to reduce harmful
peroxidation of lipids and cholesterol in animal models
(Singh et al., 2005). Therefore, the use of basil seeds may
act as antioxidant to protect body cell membrane from
damage by free radical. Also, the active ingredient of basil
seeds may produce vitamin E which responsible for
production of eicosanoids that acts to decrease the
incidence of inflammation in poultry (Calder, 1998).
Therefore, the use of basil seeds in poultry diets may be
decrease the incidence of inflammation and damage cells
of organs especially liver and kidney that may minimized
the levels of liver enzymes ALT, AST and ALP. The
active ingredient of plant oil extract inhibits the activity of
hepatic 3-hydroxy-3- methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-
CoA) reductase (Crowell, 1999) who has shown that this
enzyme is considered a key enzyme in cholesterol
synthesis. Our results with agreement with (Abbas, 2010)
who reported that the use of basil seeds was led to
decrease blood cholesterol significantly.
CONCLUSION
Basil seeds at a level 0.3% and 0.6% led to enhance the
blood biochemical parameters especially total protein, and
decrease liver enzymes ALT, AST and ALP, also decrease
cholesterol.
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