Article

Learning from Mum: Cross-National Evidence Linking Maternal Employment and Adult Children’s Outcomes

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Abstract

Analyses relying on two international surveys from over 100,000 men and women across 29 countries explore the relationship between maternal employment and adult daughters’ and sons’ employment and domestic outcomes. In the employment sphere, adult daughters, but not sons, of employed mothers are more likely to be employed and, if employed, are more likely to hold supervisory responsibility, work more hours and earn higher incomes than their peers whose mothers were not employed. In the domestic sphere, sons raised by employed mothers spend more time caring for family members and daughters spend less time on housework. Analyses provide evidence for two mechanisms: gender attitudes and social learning. Finally, findings show contextual influences at the family and societal levels: family-of-origin social class moderates effects of maternal employment and childhood exposure to female employment within society can substitute for the influence of maternal employment on daughters and reinforce its influence on sons.

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... This study con structs an account of mater nal employ ment inequal ity that integrates struc tural fac tors oper at ing in soci ety with inter gen er a tional chan nels of sta tus trans mis sion oper at ing in fam i lies. Recent work has suggested that com pared with stay-at-home moth ers, work ing moth ers fos ter greater employ ment capacities in their daugh ters through the trans mis sion of atti tudes, skills, and oppor tu ni ties they glean from the work place (e.g., Galassi et al. 2019;McGinn et al. 2019). Accordingly, if struc tural forces increase mater nal employ ment inequal ity in one gen er a tion, inter gener a tional chan nels may pro duce a fur ther increase in the next gen er a tion. ...
... Drawing on new sources of inter gen er a tional data, recent work has esti mated strong inter gen er a tional employ ment cor re la tions between moth ers and daugh ters (Galassi et al. 2019;McGinn et al. 2019;Morrill and Morrill 2013;van Putten et al. 2008) even after con trol ling for a vari ety of human cap i tal and con tex tual fac tors. It is there fore plau si ble that some por tion of the long-run change in mater nal employ ment has resulted from chang ing expo sure of daugh ters to work ing moth ers. ...
... It is pos si ble that this gap has closed in part due to greater inter gen er a tional employ ment growth among White moth ers, who tend to have higher SES and thus may be less affected by insta bil ity mech a nisms. Future cross-national stud ies should look to add depth to the broad anal y sis of McGinn et al. (2019),whoesti matedinter gen er a tionalemploy mentcoef fi cientsusingcrosssec tional data from 29 countries. Longitudinal house hold sur veys in Britain (the British Household Panel Survey) and Germany (the Ger man Socio-Economic Panel) may per mit the esti ma tion of more detailed inter gen er a tional employ ment regres sions in those countries. ...
Article
During the late twentieth century, U.S. mothers' propensities to hold full-time jobs became increasingly unequal across the distribution of socioeconomic status (SES). Consequently, daughters in high-SES households became more likely to be raised by working mothers than daughters in low-SES households. To what extent did this unequal exposure further shape maternal employment inequality in the twenty-first century—when these daughters had grown into adults and begun to raise their own children? Leveraging the genealogical structure of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this article estimates intergenerational employment coefficients on a sample of late twentieth century mothers and their daughters. It documents a much stronger intergenerational relationship in high-SES families than in low-SES families. Supplementary analyses reveal that being raised by a working mother significantly reduces the motherhood employment penalty among high-SES women but not among low-SES women. Unequal rates of mother-daughter employment transmission by SES can account for 36% of growing inequality in maternal employment across SES groups, observed in the Current Population Survey, between 1999 and 2016. These findings indicate that family-level transmission processes magnify the effects of structural forces on maternal employment inequality.
... To test hypotheses H3a and H3b, the outcome variable is occupational aspirations; the key explanatory variable is father's [mother's] job type; and the control variables are migrant status and attitudes to gender roles. Previous research indicates that mother's and father's employment status and occupations are important factors shaping children's attitudes to gender roles as well as their occupational aspirations (McGinn et al. 2019). ...
... Furthermore, having a mother who was not employed was not associated with attitudes to gender roles. This finding contrasts with the results of previous research which indicates that having an employed mother is associated with holding less traditional attitudes to gender roles (Chesters 2009; Davis and Greenstein 2009;McGinn et al. 2019). According to Chesters' (2021) analysis, boy's attitudes to gender roles were associated with the occupations of both their father and mother, again indicating that the effects of family background characteristics are gendered. ...
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The persistence of occupational sex segregation is a global phenomenon that relegates women into lower paid, lower status jobs. Understanding why young women apparently choose such jobs is integral to reversing decades of economic inequality related to employment. The strength of the association between the education system and labour market as well as high levels of occupational sex segregation makes Germany an interesting case to study. Using data from the National Education Panel Study (NEPS) Starting Cohort 4 data, I examine whether the occupational aspirations of female secondary school students are related to family characteristics and/or attitudes to gender roles. The results indicate that girls with fathers employed in male-dominated occupations hold more conservative gender attitudes than their peers with fathers employed in gender-neutral occupations. Girls with more conservative gender attitudes are more likely to hold aspirations for jobs in female-dominated occupations. These findings suggest that despite growth in gender-neutral knowledge-based industries, the socialisation of young women, particularly with regard to attitudes to appropriate roles for women, continues to influence occupational aspirations.
... In the similar vein, several other studies conducted in order to investigate the same association between women's labor market activity and past work experiences of their mothers-in-law. (Kawaguchi & Miyazaki, 2009;Bütikhofer, 2013;Farré & Vella, 2013;Johnston et al., 2013;Morill & Morill, 2013;Campos-Vasquez & Velez-Grajales, 2014;Papapetreou & Tsalaporta, 2018;Lie & Liu, 2019;McGinn et al., 2019). ...
... McGinn et al. (2019) discuss how maternal employment can affect their sons' behavior, regarding the division of labor within the household, by caring more for family members in such a way that might produce suitable partners for working women in the next generation, along the lines of the work by Fernandez et al. (2004). McGinn et al. (2019) further show that working mothers can be effective both by shaping the attitudes of their children, and by becoming role models themselves. Farré and Vella (2013) emphasize the strong association between mother's work behavior-related aspect of her gender role attitude, and the working behavior of her daughter-in-law through its impact on the gender role attitude of his son, even after controlling for many background household characteristics. ...
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This paper examines the presence of intergenerational transmission in the Turkish labor market with respect to the association between labor market activity of women and work experience of their mothers-in-law. By utilizing a representative unique household labor force survey from İzmir, this study provides statistically significant results for the association above even after taking into account many socioeconomic factors such as parental education and the household characteristics. Our major findings show that the presence of a working mother-in-law increases the probability of women’s labor force participation rate by 11 percentage points. Our results are robust when we use different dependent variables such as employment rate and being a regular employee in non-agricultural sector. The labor market experience of women’s own mothers turns out to affect rather indirectly through human capital investment for their daughters. The impact of working mothers-in-law on women’s labor market activity is not homogeneous across all educational categories. This association is particularly significant among women with lower educational attainment (at most 8 years of schooling).
... The proponents of maternal employment think that children might also get advantages from being raised by working mothers. For example, a recent cross-national study by McGinn et al. (2019) found that being a working mother leads to a positive long-term effect on children through social learning. This finding is also in concordance with the result of a longitudinal study in the USA on how working mothers can increase the children's employability and ability to earn more money when they grow up (Stinson and Gottschalk 2015). ...
... An important question that has arisen since women have entered the professional workforce in large numbers in the 20th Century has been the effect of a working mother on child development and success. Although we did not specifically ascertain the academic or developmental success of children for this cohort, the positive effects of a working mother on children has been well-defined, including superior academic performance, higher rates of employment, and greater pay (Dunifon et al., 2013;McGinn et al., 2019). ...
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Background: Female dermatologists often face the challenges of balancing a rewarding medical career with duties of home life and childrearing. Excessive responsibility at home or work can introduce barriers to balance and prove detrimental to the health and wellness of the physician. Objective: We aim to perform a needs assessment through a series of survey questions with regard to home and work responsibilities and impacts on mental health. Methods: Survey participants were selected from the Women's Dermatologic Society through an e-mail invitation with a link to an anonymous survey tool and a paper questionnaire at the Women's Dermatologic Society Forum in February 2019 in Dallas, Texas. The survey included 20 questions with regard to household responsibilities, child care, clinical responsibilities, specialty education, and impacts on personal time, sleep, and overall sense of well-being. There were a total of 127 respondents. Results: Eighty-five percent of physicians in our cohort are currently married. A large percent of respondents utilized hired household help in the form of nannies to perform chores. Spousal contribution was emphasized in this cohort and often highlighted as an important factor in maintaining home life duties. Conclusion: The professional women in our cohort may be balancing work and life at the expense of personal physical and mental health with little time to exercise and fewer hours of sleep per night.
... godine, čime je obavezala sve budžetske korisnike da počnu da vrše rodnu analizu, međutim, i dalje je potrebno raditi na njenoj boljoj primeni. 21 18 Najpoznatiji primer indirektne diskriminacije žena u poreskim zakonima predstavlja neadekvatno regulisano oporezivanje zajedničkog dohotka muža i žene, odnosno porodice, umesto pojedinačnog oporezivanja svakog pojedinca. Neke od analiza ukazale su na efekte koje pojedini poreski oblici imaju na položaj žena. ...
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Gender equality in the Republic of Serbia has still not been reached. The female unemployment rate is 11,1% and the inactivity rate is more than 50% which endagers the sustainable development for the Republic of Serbia. Even though the problem has been recognized, adequate measures have still not been taken to address it. For that reason, this paper provides an analysis of the need for economic empowerment of women in the Republic of Serbia, as well as the adequacy of tax measures to achieve such a goal, based on which six fiscal measures are proposed in this paper. The measures proposed are aimed at the economic empowerment of women, primarily through their employment and encouragement to use their property rights, which entail a number of other positive effects on the position of women. The measures proposed are tax breaks aimed at encouraging flexible work arrangements (part-time work and work "from home"), as well as the possibility of provision of child-care services for employees. Also, an increase in the tax burden for making gifts consisting of a share on agricultural land by a female to a male family member is proposed.
... A second, large strand of literature deals with intergenerational interdependence in the work domain, but this literature is exclusively concerned with point-in-time outcomes (e.g., Platt and Polavieja 2016;van Putten et al. 2008). For instance, in a recent study, McGinn et al. (2019) examined how maternal employment affects adult daughters' employment in 29 countries (including Germany). They found positive associations between mothers being employed and daughters being employed, daughters' supervisory responsibility, work hours, and incomes. ...
Article
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Women’s life courses underwent substantial changes in the family and work domains in the second half of the twentieth century. The associated fundamental changes in opportunity structures and values challenged the importance of families of origin for individual life courses, but two research strands suggest enduring within-family reproduction of women’s family behavior and work outcomes. We revisit this issue by studying two complementary types of intergenerational associations in women’s combined work-family trajectories. On the one hand, we examine similarities across mothers’ and daughters’ work-family trajectories to address the direct within-family reproduction of female life courses (intergenerational persistence). On the other hand, we examine systematic associations between work-family trajectories that are typical in each generation to address intergenerational interdependencies beyond direct reproduction that account for individual and societal constrains and opportunities that each generation faced (intergenerational correspondence). We use a within-dyad approach to sequence analysis and examine combined work-family trajectories between ages 18 and 35 of two generations of women, born in 1930–1949 and in 1958–1981, within the same family drawn from the German Socio-Economic Panel. Overall, we find evidence of small but nontrivial persistence in work-family trajectories across generations that is partly attributed to within-family mechanisms of reproduction. In addition, we find correspondence across typical trajectory patterns of each generation, without daughters necessarily resembling their mothers’ trajectories. The strength of the intergenerational associations varies by social background. Our research improves and broadens our understanding of the reproduction of female life courses across generations.
... This may lead wives to voice expectations for heightened father involvement, something a number of fathers reported from their wives and sometimes even from other female relatives. Notably, a number of fathers spoke of their own mothers being well-educated and having participated in paid work, factors known to be associated with more gender-equitable behaviours and male caregiving in the next generation (McGinn, Ruiz Castro, & Lingo, 2018). ...
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Viewed as strategic for achieving gender equality, involved fatherhood and the relationship between caregiving and masculinity are increasingly a focus of research. Qualitative research among thirteen urban-dwelling educated men identified as ‘involved’ fathers in Mizoram, Northeast India explores fatherhood in a context where childcare has long been seen as the preserve of women and a discourse of ‘new fatherhood’ has not yet taken root. We argue that a child-oriented ‘family-man’ masculinity has emerged at the intersection of various recent social changes and, critically, personal reflections on the shortcomings of the currently still dominant style of fatherhood predicated on distance from childrearing and household tasks. We discuss the implications of the emergence of involved fatherhood practices among these men for locally hegemonic masculinity.
... Yet, behavioral science finds no differences between children whose parents work versus having one stay-at-home parent. For example, children with working mothers are just as happy as those who have stay-athome mothers (McGinn et al., 2018). In addition, perceptions of women's ability to manage work and family play a large role in workplace satisfaction and environments. ...
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Pregnant women and new mothers experience numerous biases: they are inappropriately touched, less likely to be hired or promoted, paid less, and subjected to a host of stereotypes. Pregnant women and mothers are perceived as warm and maternal, but also incompetent and uncommitted. If they return to work, they are perceived as cold, but still incompetent, and uncommitted. These stigmas worsen when pregnant women are heavier, as weight-based stigmas add additional biases. This article explores the overlapping stigmas of pregnancy, motherhood, and weight in the workplace and higher education. Each has implications for policies. Addressing the stigmas for pregnant women and mothers will increase diversity in the workforce and higher education. The COVID-19 pandemic brings additional pressures on pregnant women and mothers.
... The findings of the present study suggest that studying the effect of residential mobility on social cognition would allow gender differences to be taken into account. Changes in social cognition and social status might be passed to the next generation by interaction among family members (McGinn et al., 2018;Tuccio and Wahba, 2018). Females play a significant role in influencing the values and perspectives of children due to their responsibility to teach and raise the next generations, especially in the context of traditional Chinese culture (King and Bond, 1985). ...
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Social norms are essential, but they vary across cultures and societies. With the internationalization of human society, population mobility has greatly increased, especially in developing countries, which can have an impact on people's psychological states and behaviors and result in sociocultural change. The current research used three studies to examine the hypothesis that residential mobility plays a crucial role in the perception of social norm violations. Study 1 used an association test and found that residential mobility was correlated with the perception of both weak and strong social norm violations in females. Study 2 combined electroencephalography and found a negative differential N400 between weak social norm violations and appropriate behavior between residentially mobile and stable mindsets, suggesting that residential mobility modulates individuals' detection of social norm-violating behavior. Study 3 revealed that residential mobility does not have a similar effect on semantic violations, which indicates that the effect of residential mobility does not occur in non-social norm violations. Our findings provide insight into how and why individuals' detection of social norm-violating behaviors varies according to the dynamic development of society. As residential mobility continues to increase worldwide, especially in developing countries, more attention should be paid to the concomitant impact during the course of sociocultural change to build a better strategy for cultural specific social governance.
... The higher costs of ECEC programmes have a negative impact on women's employment and deepen gender inequalities, making it particularly difficult for single-parent families -who are already at increased risk of poverty and social exclusion -to participate in the labour market (Dobrotić, 2015). Research suggests that mothers' employment is also important from a gender and socialization perspective, as children of working mothers show more gender-egalitarian attitudes in adulthood, while the sons of working mothers are more involved in providing care in the home (Sieverding et al., 2017;McGinn et al., 2018). ...
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... Literature also suggests an intergenerational link between fathers' wealth and education and their daughters' successful labour market outcomes (Hellerstein and Morrill, 2011). Moreover, the similarity between mothers' and daughters' employment is well established: mothers' employment may shape daughters' behaviour and attitudes towards employment and family roles (McGinn et al., 2019). Lastly, family and kinship networks might influence mothers' decisions in relation to employment by constructing and enforcing norms and expectations around the gendered division of roles and morally approved notions of 'good motherhood' (Duncan et al., 2003). ...
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This article studies mothers’ employment transitions around childbirth. It argues that leaving employment around childbirth and returning after an interruption might depend on multiple influences: the micro-context of individual and household characteristics, the meso-context of women’s jobs and the macro-context of broader cultural and institutional factors. This conceptual model is tested using data from the Italian Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) ‘Family and Social Subjects (2009)’ survey. The findings confirm that mothers’ transitions out of employment are shaped by micro-characteristics such as education, meso-characteristics such as status and security of prior jobs, and macro geographical and temporal factors. Subsequent returns to employment also reflect micro and macro influences, as mothers born before 1950, with low education, and large families are less likely to return; but they seem less dependent upon prior job characteristics. The research highlights the importance of considering multiple levels of influence to understand the enabling factors of maternal employment.
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After the birth of children, due to health issues, household chores, and lack of time and management, most of the mothers leave their professional jobs. Some of the ladies usually prefer coaching jobs for grossing and continuing professional life because nurturing of children is prime accountability for mothers in Eastern Culture. However, it is still disputable that teaching-mothers can give better attention to by providing quality time to develop their kids' personalities as teaching these days has proven to be a highly demanding profession. This study attempts to find out the after-effects of mothers' professional workload on the early growth of their children, training, and performance. For serving the purpose, the analysis of the variables to test the hypothesis, samples of children of working and non-working mothers was selected from the city of Karachi to make it a comparative one. The Mixed Quantitative approach was used, employing a collection of data through an online survey questionnaire form and structured interviews. It is evident from this research's statistical analysis that previous trends about mothers' employment are changing, and nowadays mothers specially engaged with teaching profession are not only contributing to the country's economy but also playing an important role as a mother by managing children's development as proficiently as household mothers. ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION
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The paper details the research I intend to undertake into the experience of working mothers and the process I will undertake.
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The monograph How is it for Mums portrays mothering in the first generation of mothers after the 1989 Velvet Revolution. The female respondents who took part in our research were growing up or born after November 1989, at times of considerable changes in all spheres of society, parenting being no exception. Fuller contact with the world enabled by the fall of the Iron Curtain, joining the EU and the development and spread of the internet have brought more informa‑tion and options to all areas of life. More options, however, also mean that one must choose what paths are best. Choices and decisions in mothering or parenting in gen‑eral start straight from pregnancy. Once a child is born, the number of decisions to be made increases. Parents decide how to bring their child up, but also how to ap‑proach the child’s psychomotor development, health, sleep, food, exercise, access to electronic gadgets and so on. Current parenting trends are often concerned not only with child upbringing, but also with some of the previously listed points. The Attach‑ment Parenting trend, for example, advocates long‑term breastfeeding, co‑sleeping and using a baby‑sling instead of a pram. The Intensive Mothering trend emphasises, among other ideas, stimulating the child in all areas of psychomotor development. Changes in parenting also occur in those EU countries which have not gone through a substantial societal transformation. Likewise, in the US, parental roles have been undergoing equally important changes. Father’s contributions to upbring‑ing have become more substantial and are now a given. The image of parenting and its evaluation in society has also been changing. Parents are expected to be highly engaged in their children’s lives. They are expected to provide and ensure a wide array of stimuli and opportunities for complex development. Expectations and demands that current society places on parents are, with a varying degree of explicitness, also found in the media, including film and TV. Extreme forms of societal expectations placed on upper‑class mothers mainly in the American context are embodied in the concepts of Yummy Mummy and Alpha mothers, often inspired by depicting celeb‑rities in maternal roles, for example Sarah Jessica Parker (Jermyn, 2008) or Angelina Jolie (Pitt, 2008). The concept of Yummy Mummy expects a woman in her maternal role to ensure her children’s visible happiness and health. Herself and her marriage should be equally happy and healthy. Yummy Mummies are expected to be successful in both their maternal roles and in their careers, the two existing in mutual harmony. This description of the Yummy Mummies concept makes it clear that it has been based on an unrealistic media image of women whose incomes and backgrounds are 123Summaryhighly above average. Even though the Yummy Mummies concept describes moth‑ering of well‑off American women and is, consequently, culturally and economically not very pertinent to an average Czech woman, there are traces of its image in Czech women’s mothering. Even though the concept of Yummy Mummies is unrealistic and unattainable, it does affect the forms of maternity, or, more accurately, the de‑mands put on women in maternal roles. The influence of US trends on Czech parenting is easily recognisable, for exam‑ple, in the growing popularity of children’s birthday parties, in celebrating Hallow‑een or in introducing the phenomenon of the Tooth Fairy. None of these currently so ubiquitous trends in upbringing of pre‑schoolers and young schoolers existed when today’s mothers were children. Changes in mothering and parenting in the very early stages of a child’s development can also be observed. It is fairly common to see parents with a baby in a sling or in a baby carrier, or to see mothers breastfeeding in public. Research on parenting and mothering in the Czech context often suffers from the lack of basic descriptive data which could serve as a foundation for more com‑plex research questions and hypotheses. Even though it is presumed that parenting has been undergoing changes in many aspects in recent decades, a more detailed description of its current form in the Czech environment is absent. This mono‑graph describes basic aspects of mothering from pregnancy up to the third year of a child’s life. Even though the project which provided most of the data published in this monograph is not a wholly representative source of data, owing to the charac‑teristics of the research sample, it is in many respects a unique probe into current forms of mothering, even taking the sample’s limitations into account. Each chapter is devoted to a particular aspect of mothering, describing basic characteristics of this particular aspect of mothering in our research sample. The data from the pro‑ject have been placed into the context of modern psychological knowledge in baby care, trends in upbringing, mothering ideals and bonding with the child. They also provide a psychological perspective of balancing family and work lives, integrating fathers into childcare, and coparenting support while raising a child.Let us take a look at the roots of mothering of modern women and find food for thought about possible links between various approaches to mothering, and specif‑ically, between particular families and their members. We hope that we have man‑aged to demonstrate that there is no single, guaranteed “recipe” for being a good mother, and that it is always crucial to consider other circumstances in the life of a family. We wish the monograph How is it for Mums to serve as a springboard for further research in mothering and parenting.
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Previous research on maternal employment has disproportionately focused on the immediate postpartum period and typically modeled either cross-sectional employment status or time until a specific employment transition. We instead conceptualize maternal employment as a long-term pattern, extending the observation window and embedding employment statuses in temporal context. Using data from NLSY79 and sequence analysis, we document five common employment patterns of American mothers over the first 18 years of maternity. Three typical patterns revolve around a single employment status: full-time (36 %), part-time (13 %), or nonemployment (21 %); the other two patterns are characterized by 6 (15 %) or 11 (14 %) years of nonemployment, followed by a period of transition and then full-time employment. Analyses of the immediate postpartum period cannot distinguish between the nonemployment and reentry groups, which have different employment experiences and different prematernity characteristics. Next, we describe how mothers’ human capital, attitudes and cultural models, family experiences, and race/ethnicity are associated with the employment patterns they follow, elucidating that these characteristics may be associated not only with how much mothers work but also the patterning of their employment. Our results support studying maternal employment as a long-term pattern and employing research approaches that address the qualitative distinctness of these diverse patterns.
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Las expresiones vertidas en este libro son exclusiva responsabilidad de los autores y no representan la opinión de CONFEDI ni de LACCEI. Las cifras y datos publicados en este libro son exclusiva responsabilidad de los autores.
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The Netherlands performs well on many measures of gender equality, but the country faces a persistent equality challenge between women and men: the high share of women in part‑time jobs. Nearly 60% of women in the Dutch labour market work part‑time, roughly three times the OECD average for women, and over three times the rate for Dutch men. The Netherlands’ gender gap in hours worked contributes to the gender gap in earnings, the gender gap in pensions, women’s slower progression into management roles, and the unequal division of unpaid work at home. These gaps typically widen with parenthood, as mothers often reduce hours in the labour market to take on more unpaid care work at home. The Dutch government must redouble its efforts to achieve gender equality. Better social policy support can help level the playing field between men and women, contribute to more egalitarian norms around the division of work, and foster more gender‑equal behaviour in paid and unpaid work in the Netherlands. See, http://oe.cd/pub/gender-netherlands-2019
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This article examines the association of mothers’ income with children’s economic mobility in a period of increased women’s labor market participation in Sweden. I found that whether a mother was economically independent and had an income similar to that of the father during her children’s late childhood and adolescence positively associated with upward mobility. The results show a substantial association of mother’s income position to their daughters’ mobility, but not for sons’. Among the primary mechanisms, I argue that extra resources from mothers helped human capital investment through education and that mothers influenced daughters by a gendered role model.
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Drawing on 70 in‐depth interviews, I investigated how maternal employment shapes urban young Chinese women's work–family expectation in a context of rapid social change. These interviews indicated that respondents attached strong moral meaning to mothers’ wage work, regarding it as integral to a “good” mother and an “ideal” woman. This moralization of maternal employment, in turn, led contemporary young Chinese women to view wage work as a taken‐for‐granted choice. Yet different from their own mothers, these young women were confronted with profound transformation across various domains of the postreform Chinese society. The normative expectation of women's wage work, coupled with slow‐to‐change expectations about women's roles at home and in a changing labor market, intensified young women's burden of “doing it all.” This research highlights the importance of bringing the macro‐level context back into the mother–daughter dyad to understand the intergenerational transmission of gender beliefs and behavior.
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Using data in the United States, UK and Germany, we show that women whose working hours exceed those of their male partners report lower life satisfaction on average. By contrast, men do not report lower life satisfaction from working more hours than their female partners. An analysis of possible mechanisms shows that in couples where the woman works more hours than the man, women do not spend significantly less time doing household chores. Women with egalitarian ideologies are likely to perceive this unequal division of labour as unfair, ultimately reducing their life satisfaction.
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Since China’s transition to a socialist market system, women’s labor force participation has declined sharply. Using data from the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) 2010, the authors re-examine China’s gender gap in labor force participation with a focus on social norms. Probit model estimates of the gender gap in labor force participation probability confirm the contribution of conventional factors such as health and other human capital as important explanations for the resurgent gender gap in China. However, even after extensive controls for human-capital differences, the gap remains mostly unexplained in the data. The Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition analysis confirms that the gender gap in labor force participation is predominantly explained by behavioral differences between women and men. Gender-related community social norms account for 41.4 percent of the unexplained gap. The study results are robust to alternative measures of social norms and additional controls for community characteristics. HIGHLIGHTS • Recent studies have examined why women’s labor force participation has declined sharply in post–economic reform China, but research on the effects of social norms has been limited. • The gender gap in participation remains mostly unexplained by differences in human capital between women and men. • Social norms account for almost half of the unexplained portion of the gender gap in labor force participation. • Along with expanding women’s access to education and improving their health, policies should promote favorable attitudes toward women’s employment, particularly during times of economic crisis.
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This article analyzes the intergenerational correlation of employment between young women (at about 30 years of age) and their mothers (when their daughters were about 14 years old), using 2011 European Union Survey on Income and Living Conditions data. It examines the extent to which this correlation varies across 19 European countries and is associated with the socioeconomic context at the national level. Having grown up with a working mother is associated with a sizeable increase in the daughters’ employment probability in almost all countries, with greater effect for women with children. For this group, the intergenerational correlation is smaller in countries where the policy context is less favorable to maternal employment. It is crucial to promote gender equality, challenging individuals’ gender stereotypes through education and in society at large, and create conditions that allow young women’s preferences for work to be realized, enhancing policies that favor a balanced sharing of unpaid work.
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Women around the world are on the move but find it difficult to secure jobs. Employment is vital for migrant integration as it affords financial security, autonomy in the family and helps to establish social contacts. Besides human capital, previous research has looked into ethnic origin and specific source country aspects as drivers of female migrant employment. By contrast, ideas of adolescence as the ‘impressionable’ years and individuals’ exposure to female employment at that time have not yet entered the discussion. However, these theoretical notions have previously been found to be highly predictive of employment in adulthood for natives. This study further investigates these theoretical ideas by using data on 2,047 female immigrants from the German Socio-Economic Panel. Female migrants’ employment and hours worked are analysed in multivariate regressions. The analyses focus on female migrants’ adolescent experiences with female employment in their family—namely, whether their mother worked—and in the broader labour market—measured by the female to male labour force participation rate—as explanatory variables. These two experiences are retrospectively captured for respondents at age 15. Analyses highlight the deep embeddedness of individuals in home country social norms and the power of role models during youth for later employment.
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The increasing rate of post-industrialisation in advanced economies has dramatically impacted on the availability of jobs in male-dominated occupations. Consequently, men with traditional gender attitudes may experience difficulties in finding employment that aligns with their conception of masculinity. Attitudes to gender roles develop during childhood as part of the process of socialisation; thus, family background, and in particular parental education and occupation, may influence the occupational aspirations of young people. To examine the associations between family background, a child’s attitudes to gender roles and a child’s occupational aspirations, analysis of the German National Education Panel Study (NEPS) Starting Cohort 4 data was conducted. The findings suggest that family background continues to be associated with attitudes to gender roles and occupational aspirations.
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This study focuses on the lived experiences of 25 professionally employed UK fathers who are first‐wave beneficiaries of Shared Parental Leave (SPL), which facilitated a period of leave from work during their child's first year. Using exploratory qualitative interviews, we investigate the ways in which family relations, organizational initiatives, and public policy collaborate to disrupt or transform what have hitherto been traditional gendered expectations around early infant care. Our understanding is framed using Giddens' democratic family and notions of “undoing gender”. Our longitudinal design allows us to capture fathers' lived experiences at two points, firstly pre/during their period of SPL and secondly following their return to work. In seeking glimpses of change, we first explore this at the level of men's disruption of generational biographies, then how fathers navigate SPL policy within a contested gendered context, and finally their subsequent transformations in work/care practices. We discuss the implications for policy, recognizing shortcomings in the current design of UK leave offerings.
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Having children can result in large earnings penalties for mothers. Using extensive administrative data from the Netherlands, we assess the magnitude and drivers of the effects of first childbirth on parents’ earnings trajectories in the Netherlands. We show that mothers’ earnings are 46% lower compared to their pre-birth earnings trajectory, whereas fathers’ earnings are unaffected by child birth. We examine the role of two potential determinants of the unequal distribution of parents’ labour market costs by gender: childcare policies and gender norms. We find that while child care availability is correlated with lower child penalty, the immediate short-term causal effect of increasing child care availability on the earnings penalty of becoming a mother is small. By taking advantage of variation in gender norms in different population groups, we show that gender norms are strongly correlated with child penalty for mothers.
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This research investigates the role of parents in explaining the surprisingly low presence of women among inventors despite their increase among graduates from science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subjects. With Danish registry data on the population born between 1966 and 1985 and an experimental setting crafted on siblings’ gender composition, we find that the transmission of inventorship from parents to children disfavors daughters if they have a (second-born) brother. We complement this analysis with evidence about the role of parental factors at different stages of children’s education. Overall, our results confirm that parental role models matter for children’s education, especially at early stages and, through this, increase the probability of a child’s becoming an inventor. However, the direct transmission of inventorship that favors boys much more than girls seems to be affected by gendered expectations developed by parents about daughters’ and sons’ returns from inventorship. Our study contributes to explaining who becomes an inventor and why by adding an important boundary condition to the literature: Parents are intermediaries who, based on their own interpretation of external information about inventive jobs, contribute to create or limit opportunities for their children. This paper was accepted by Olav Sorenson, organizations.
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We study whether a woman’s labor supply as a young adult is shaped by the work behavior of her adolescent peers’ mothers. Using detailed information on a sample of U.S. teenagers who are followed over time, we find that labor force participation of high school peers’ mothers affects adult women’s labor force participation, above and beyond the effect of their own mothers. The analysis suggests that women who were exposed to a larger number of working mothers during adolescence are less likely to feel that work interferes with family responsibilities. This perception, in turn, is important for whether they work when they have children.
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The article examines cross-national variations in attitudes towards gender roles and the extent to which they map onto regime types. It explores intra-national variation in attitudes to non-traditional gendered behaviour drawing on the theoretical approach of the ‘economy of conventions’, informed by feminist perspectives from comparative research. Data from the European Social Survey are used to map where there is a strong degree of resonance or dissonance between societal and individual attitudes and how these are attenuated by sex and employment status. The results expose unexpected national and intra-national similarities and differences. Societies characterized by a traditional male breadwinner model, such as Spain, indicate a higher degree of permissive values than expected; more liberal countries like the UK show high degrees of indifference, as well as a strong element of traditionalism. Dissonance and indifference compromise traditional gendered conventions and illustrate underlying tensions at the individual and societal level in resolving gender conflicts.
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Research emphasising the importance of parenting behaviours and aspirations for child outcomes has been seized on by policymakers to suggest the responsibility of the worst off themselves for low levels of social mobility. This article provides a critique of the way in which research evidence has been used to support the dominant policy discourse in this area, as well as an empirical analysis. We use the Millennium Cohort Study to interrogate the relationship between social class and attainment in the early years of schooling. We investigate the extent to which social class inequalities in early cognitive scores can be accounted for by parental education, income, family social resources and parental behaviours. We conclude that social class remains an important concept for both researchers and policymakers, and that the link between structural inequalities and inequalities in children's cognitive scores cannot be readily accounted for in terms of individual parenting behaviours.
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This study tests the two assumptions underlying popularly held notions that maternal employment negatively affects children because it reduces time spent with parents: (1) that maternal employment reduces children's time with parents, and (2) that time with parents affects child outcomes. We analyze children's time-diary data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and use child fixed-effects and IV estimations to account for unobserved heterogeneity. We find that working mothers trade quantity of time for better "quality" of time. On average, maternal work has no effect on time in activities that positively influence children's development, but it reduces time in types of activities that may be detrimental to children's development. Stratification by mothers' education reveals that although all children, regardless of mother's education, benefit from spending educational and structured time with their mothers, mothers who are high school graduates have the greatest difficulty balancing work and childcare. We find some evidence that fathers compensate for maternal employment by increasing types of activities that can foster child development as well as types of activities that may be detrimental. Overall, we find that the effects of maternal employment are ambiguous because (1) employment does not necessarily reduce children's time with parents, and (2) not all types of parental time benefit child development.
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Despite many studies on the gendered division of housework, there is little research on how couples divide the work of household management. Relative resource theories of household bargaining inform analyses of who does the housework, but their applicability to household management is unclear, if only because management responsibility may be viewed as unwanted drudgery or as coveted control over family and household. Building on theories of power and exchange, this article examines the relation of relative resources and management responsibility and asks whether the partner who does more housework also does more management. According to 2002 International Social Survey Program data for 31 countries, three fourths of married persons report joint, rather than individual, decision making on children’s upbringing, weekend activities, and major purchases. Supporting a gendered relative resource hypothesis, women, and not men, are more likely to take sole charge of household decision making when their income is higher than their partner’s.
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Mothers' employment and earnings partly depend on social policies and cultural norms supporting women's paid and unpaid work. Previous research suggests that work–family policies are deeply shaped by their cultural context. We examine country variation in the associations between motherhood and earnings, in cultural attitudes surrounding women's employment, and in childcare and parental leave policies. We model how cultural attitudes moderate the impact of policies on women's earnings across countries. Parental leaves and public childcare are associated with higher earnings for mothers when cultural support for maternal employment is high, but have less positive or even negative relationships with earnings where cultural attitudes support the male breadwinner/female caregiver model.
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This study examines how changes in gender role attitudes of couples after childbirth relate to women’s paid work and the type of childcare used. Identifying attitude-practice dissonances matters because how they get resolved influences mothers’ future employment. Previous research examined changes in women’s attitudes and employment, or spouses’ adaptations to each others’ attitudes. This is extended by considering how women and men in couples simultaneously adapt to parenthood in terms of attitude and behavioural changes and by exploring indirect effects of economic constraints. Structural equation models and regression analysis based on the British Household Panel Survey (1991-2007) are applied. The results suggest that less traditional attitudes among women and men are more likely in couples where women’s postnatal labour market participation and the use of formal childcare contradict their traditional prenatal attitudes. Women’s prenatal earnings have an indirect effect on attitude change of both partners through incentives for maternal employment.
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The purpose of this article is to review research on the construction of gender ideology and its consequences. The article begins with a summary of research focused on measuring gender ideology — individuals' levels of support for a division of paid work and family responsibilities that is based on the belief in gendered separate spheres. We describe the ways this concept has been operationalized in widely available data sources and provide a categorization schema for the items used to measure gender ideology. We also review the research predicting gender ideology, focusing on social and demographic characteristics while concurrently examining studies using cross-sectional, trend, and panel data. Finally, this article summarizes research focused on the consequences of gender ideology, both in families and family-related behaviors and in other areas of social life where beliefs about gender are relevant, such as the workplace. We conclude with implications for future research for measurement tools, predictors of gender ideology, and consequences of ideology in individuals' lives.
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We study the impact on children of increasing maternity leave benefits using a reform that increased paid and unpaid maternity leave in Norway in July 1977. Mothers giving birth before this date were eligible only for 12 weeks of unpaid leave, while those giving birth after were entitled to 4 months of paid leave and 12 months of unpaid leave. This increased time with the child led to a 2.7 percentage points decline in high school dropout and a 5% increase in wages at age 30. For mothers with low education we find a 5.2 percentage points decline in high school dropout and an 8% increase in wages at age 30. The effect is especially large for children of those mothers who, prior to the reform, would take very low levels of unpaid leave.
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This paper presents evidence on intergenerational occupational mobility from agriculture to the nonfarm sector using survey data from Nepal and Vietnam. In the absence of credible instruments, the degree of selection on observables is used as a guide to the degree of selection on unobservables, à la Altonji et al. (2005) to address the unobserved genetic correlations. The results show that intergenerational occupational mobility is lower among women in both countries, and is lower in Nepal compared with Vietnam. In the case of Nepal, strong evidence favors a causal role played by the mother’s nonfarm participation in the daughter’s occupation choice, possibly because of cultural inheritance in a traditional society.
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Both Britain and the USA are described as market-oriented or 'liberal' welfare regimes. However, there are important variations within these two countries: although both have high rates of maternal employment, part-time work is much more common in the UK than in the USA, where dual-earner (full-time) couples are the norm. Part-time employment can help to ease work-family conflict for women, while simultaneously contributing to the household income. However, part-time work is limited in its economic benefits, is also career limiting, and, in the USA, it generally comes without health insurance. While most of the current research regarding maternal employment decisions focuses on women, this research involves interviews with 83 British and American fathers, to better understand the complexity of such decision-making. Men's attitudes and experiences are examined in detail, focusing on the need for two incomes, the importance of paid health care and childcare costs and the potential role of part-time work.
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Exploiting a randomized natural experiment in India, we show that female leadership influences adolescent girls’ career aspirations and educational attainment. A 1993 law reserved leadership positions for women in randomly selected village councils. Using 8453 surveys of adolescents aged 11 to 15 and their parents in 495 villages, we found that, relative to villages in which such positions were never reserved, the gender gap in aspirations closed by 20% in parents and 32% in adolescents in villages assigned a female leader for two election cycles. The gender gap in adolescent educational attainment was erased, and girls spent less time on household chores. We found no evidence of changes in young women’s labor market opportunities, which suggests that the impact of women leaders primarily reflects a role model effect.
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The core methods in today's econometric toolkit are linear regression for statistical control, instrumental variables methods for the analysis of natural experiments, and differences-in-differences methods that exploit policy changes. In the modern experimentalist paradigm, these techniques address clear causal questions such as: Do smaller classes increase learning? Should wife batterers be arrested? How much does education raise wages?Mostly Harmless Econometricsshows how the basic tools of applied econometrics allow the data to speak.In addition to econometric essentials,Mostly Harmless Econometricscovers important new extensions--regression-discontinuity designs and quantile regression--as well as how to get standard errors right. Joshua Angrist and J rn-Steffen Pischke explain why fancier econometric techniques are typically unnecessary and even dangerous. The applied econometric methods emphasized in this book are easy to use and relevant for many areas of contemporary social science.An irreverent review of econometric essentialsA focus on tools that applied researchers use mostChapters on regression-discontinuity designs, quantile regression, and standard errorsMany empirical examplesA clear and concise resource with wide applications.
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This meta-analysis of 69 studies (1,483 effect sizes) used random effects models to examine maternal employment during infancy/early childhood in relation to 2 major domains of child functioning: achievement and behavior problems. Analyses of studies that spanned 5 decades indicated that, with a few exceptions, early employment was not significantly associated with later achievement or internalizing/externalizing behaviors. The exceptions were for teacher ratings of achievement and internalizing behaviors: Employment was associated with higher achievement and fewer internalizing behaviors. Substantial heterogeneity among the effect sizes prompted examination of moderators. Sample-level moderator analyses pointed to the importance of socioeconomic and contextual variables, with early employment most beneficial when families were challenged by single parenthood or welfare status. Maternal employment during Years 2 and 3 was associated with higher achievement. Some moderator analyses indicated negative effects of employment for middle-class and 2-parent families and for very early employment (child's first year). Associations also differed depending on whether effect sizes were adjusted for contextual variables. Only 1 study-level moderator (sex of first author) was significant after adjusting for other moderators. The small effect size and primarily nonsignificant results for main effects of early maternal employment should allay concerns about mothers working when children are young. However, negative findings associated with employment during the child's first year are compatible with calls for more generous maternal leave policies. Results highlight the importance of social context for identifying under which conditions and for which subgroups early maternal employment is associated with positive or negative child outcomes.
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We study how the duration of paid parental leave affects the accumulation of cognitive skills among children. Using a reform which extended parental leave benefits from 12 to 15 months for Swedish children born after August 1988 we evaluate the effects of prolonged parental leave on children's test scores and grades at age 16. We show that, on average, the reform had no effect on children's scholastic performance. However, we do find positive effects for children of well-educated mothers, a result that is robust to a number of different specifications. We find no corresponding heterogeneity relative to parental earnings or fathers' education, or relative to other predictors of child performance. We find no effects on intermediate outcomes such as mothers' subsequent earnings, child health, parental fertility, divorce rates, or the mothers' mental health. Overall the results suggest positive causal interaction effects between mothers' education and the amount of time mothers spend with their children. Since the institutional context is one in which the alternative is subsidized day care, the results imply that subsidizing longer parental leave spells rather than day care reinforce the relationship between maternal education and school outcomes.
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Using data from Australia and the United States, the authors explore the effect of spouses' contribution to family income on how house- work is divided. Consistent with exchange-bargaining theory, women decrease their housework as their earnings increase, up to the point where both spouses contribute equally to income. In other respects, gender trumps money. The base level of housework for women is much higher. Among the small percentage of couples who are in the range where women provide 51%-100% of household income, the change in housework is opposite what exchange theory predicts: couples that deviate from the normative income standard (men make more money than women) seem to compensate with a more traditional division of household work.
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Maternal employment is still below the overall EU recommended level of 60% in many European countries. Understanding the individual, household and contextual circumstances under which mothers of children of different ages are likely to be employed is crucial to develop strategies capable of increasing maternal employment. This article takes a comparative approach to investigating the characteristics associated with maternal employment in the presence of children aged 0–2, 3–5, 6–9 and 10–12 years. We model the probability of being employed full-time, part-time or being a homemaker using EU-SILC data (2004 to 2007) from Germany, Italy, Norway and the United Kingdom – four countries belonging to different gender and welfare regimes. The results indicate that individual and household characteristics are more relevant in determining mothers’ employment in countries where the state is less supportive towards maternal employment: Italy and to a lesser extent Germany and the UK – for the period observed.
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This study assessed the links between early maternal employment and children's later academic and behavioral skills in Australia and the United Kingdom. Using representative samples of children born in each country from 2000 to 2004 (Australia N = 5,093, U.K. N = 18,497), OLS regression models weighted with propensity scores assessed links between maternal employment in the 2 years after childbearing and children's skills in first grade. There were neutral associations between maternal employment and children's first-grade skills in both countries. However, there was a slight indication that more time away from parenting was negatively linked to children's behavioral functioning in Australia and employment begun between 9 and 24 months was positively linked to cognitive skills for U.K. children of low-wage mothers.
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In this article, we study attitudes towards the gendered division of paid and unpaid work from a comparative perspective. Based on the notion that political institutions are important in structuring individuals’ orientations, five countries with different family policy arrangements are included in the analysis: Denmark, Finland, Germany, Poland and Sweden. Previous comparative attitude research has a strong bias towards public opinion about women’s employment, while research on attitudes towards men’s participation in care work is rare. Drawing on data from the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) 2012, we use latent class analysis to explore public opinion about: (a) how parents should divide the responsibilities of economic provision and unpaid work; and (b) whether and how parents should divide paid parental leave between them. The strongest support for a traditional organization of work and care is found in Poland, while the strongest support for an equal sharing of work and care responsibilities is found in Sweden. Among the Nordic countries, results differ. While those holding non-traditional ideals in Denmark and Finland emphasize the importance of full-time work for both parents, non-traditional Swedes instead emphasize that both parents should cut back their work hours and thereby share the responsibility for earning and caring in the family.
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We investigate the question of whether investing in a child's development by having a parent stay at home when the child is young is correlated with the child's adult outcomes. Specifically, do children with stay-at-home mothers have higher adult earnings than children raised in households with a working mother? The major contribution of our study is that, unlike previous studies, we have access to rich longitudinal data that allows us to measure both the parental earnings when the child is very young and the adult earnings of the child. Our findings are consistent with previous studies that show insignificant differences between children raised by stay-at-home mothers during their early years and children with mothers working in the market. We find no impact of maternal employment during the first five years of a child's life on earnings, employment, or mobility measures of either sons or daughters. We do find, however, that maternal employment during children's high school years is correlated with a higher probability of employment as adults for daughters and a higher correlation between parent and daughter earnings ranks.
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Previous research concerning the linkages between women's occupational origins and destinations has applied models developed for the study of men's intergenerational occupational mobility. In this paper, we use an approach that incorporates two unique aspects of women's occupational experiences. First, we consider housework to be a possible occupational outcome for women. Second, we consider the occupations of mothers as well as those of fathers in the portrayal of women's occupational origins. We show that this approach more fully displays the influences of occupational origins on women's subsequent occupational activities. In particular, we find that women whose mothers worked are themselves more likely to join the labor force, and their occupations are likely to resemble their mother's.
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In 1998 the Norwegian government introduced a program that increased parents' incentives to stay home with children under the age of 3. Many eligible children had older siblings, and we investigate how this program affected the long-run educational outcomes of the older siblings. Using comprehensive administrative data, we estimate a difference-in-differences model that exploits differences in older siblings' exposures to the program. We find a significant positive treatment effect on older siblings' tenth-grade GPA, and this effect seems to be largely driven by mother's reduced labor force participation and not by changes in family income or father's labor force participation.
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This study examines the intergenerational transmission of two gender attitudes (gender role ideology and work role identity). It draws on a life course perspective and panel data on mothers to assess the relationships between daughters' attitudes and (a) mothers' attitudes and employment experiences, as well as (b) the daughters' own life experiences. We find that mothers' gender role ideology in the 1950s was positively related to their daughters' gender role ideology as adults in 1988 and that social change over this 30-year period contributed to greater mother-daughter congruence in gender role ideology and work role identity by the 1980s. However, daughters' own status matters most in predicting their work role identity, suggesting the importance of both behavior and broad historical changes in moderating intergenerational transmission processes.
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Previous research on social mobility in both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland has confined itself exclusively to the linkages between male occupational origins and destinations. In this paper, three unique aspects of the Irish occupational mobility experience is investigated. First, the question of women's intergenerational occupational mobility is considered for the first time. Second, as in some recent North American research, traditional models of male intergenerational occupational mobility are modified to allow only the occupational achievement of mothers in the portrayal of a woman's occupational origins. Third, the occupational category of housewife is included as one possible occupational outcome for Irish women. The general conclusion of this paper is that not only does a mother's occupational attainments more realistically display the influence of occupational origins on women's subsequent occupational activities, but one vital component of this influence must be the occupational category of housewife. Only via the introduction of both these elements may the notably ascriptive nature of both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland in relation to female occupational mobility become understandable.
Article
By situating men within the country and time period in which they live, social scientists are better able to understand men's housework and child care behaviors. The author proposes that national context, conceptualized here as women's employment practices and policies, influences men's unpaid work behaviors by shaping the benefits of specialization, the terms of bargaining, and the ease of adhering to gender ideologies and norms. Using 44 time-use surveys from 20 countries (spanning 1965 to 2003) combined with original national-level data, the author utilizes multilevel models to test hypotheses regarding the relationship between national context and men's unpaid work behaviors. She finds that men's unpaid work time increases with national levels of women's employment. Furthermore, the effect of children on men's unpaid work time depends on women's national employment hours, the length of available parental leave, and men's eligibility to take parental leave, which indicates that particular public policies affect men in specific household situations. The analyses document the importance of national context for the unpaid work behaviors of all men, especially fathers, and shift the research focus from the attributes of individual men to the structures that hinder and facilitate men's unpaid work.
Article
This article uses data from various waves of the British Household Panel Survey (1993—2003) to examine the associations of housework hours with relative income and gender-role attitudes. In particular, it tests the hypothesis that the effect of relative income on housework time will be diminished due to one's gendered expectations. Findings show both men's and women's housework hours are significantly decreased with increases in their amount of income relative to their partners'.Traditionalism in gender-role attitudes is associated with longer housework hours in the case of women and shorter hours in the case of men.Women holding traditional attitudes spend longer hours on housework than other women with the same level of economic independency. Apart from this, there is no conclusive evidence to support the claim that highly economic independent women and highly economic dependent men tend to resort to a gender-traditional form of domestic division of labour.
Article
While most previous studies focus on the effects of individuals' and couples' characteristics on the division of housework, this study argues that macro-level factors are equally important in the dynamics of housework distribution between spouses. Data from the 1994 International Social Survey Programme is used to examine whether macro-level gender inequality limits the effect of individual-level variables (relative resources, time availability, and gender ideology) on the division of housework in 22 industrialized countries. The results show that the equalizing effects of time availability and gender ideology are stronger for women in more egalitarian countries; women in less egalitarian countries benefit less from their individual-level assets. Additional analysis shows that other macro-level factors (economic development, female labor-force participation, gender norms, and welfare regimes) may also influence the division of housework. The results suggest that changes in individual-level factors may not be enough to achieve an equal division of housework without the reduction of macro-level gender inequality.
Article
Using data from the first two waves of the National Survey of Families and Households, the author finds that married and cohabiting men exposed to maternal employment during childhood spent more time on housework as adults than did other men. By contrast, there is no such association for single men. These findings show that men’s housework performance is affected by both their childhood socialization and their adult circumstances, that is, whether they live with women. Furthermore, the positive relationship between maternal employment and adult housework for partnered men is restricted to men who grew up with their fathers present. Taken together, these results demonstrate that men’s adult housework performance is influenced by a combination of factors, namely, maternal employment, father presence, and marital status, rather than any one of them in isolation. The study suggests that we need both the socialization and the situational, or interactionist, perspectives to understand men’s adult family behavior.
Article
This study uses a comparative framework to examine the relationship between individual-level attributes and gender-role attitudes in a state-market society (Hungary) and in a capitalist society (the United States). Data from the 1988 International Social Science Program (ISSP) indicate significant differences in attitudes between the two populations. Both women and men in the United States were more supportive of women's employment than their counterparts in Hungary, despite the Hungarian government's policy of full employment during communist rule. Nevertheless, the level of agreement between women and men (the gender gap) was uniform across national contexts: Women were more supportive of women's employment than men. We also found that individual-level attributes, such as employment status and marital status, differentially affected gender-role attitudes in the two countries. This study contributes to a broader dialogue about the dynamic relationship between social structure and gender ideology.
Article
Despite a recent emphasis on contextual explanations for the gendered division of housework, early socialization may also be important. Data from a 31-year panel study of white mothers and children are used to examine parental predictors of the division of household labor among the adult children. Parental influences are assessed when the children were ages 1 and 15; characteristics of the adult children are measured at ages 23 and 31. The effects of the parents' division of housework and parents' education on children's division of housework are considered, as well as the effects of the mother's gender-role attitudes and employment. The parental division of labor measured when the sons were very young has a positive effect on the sons' later participation in routine housework, while the mother's employment during their daughters' early years is a more important predictor of the allocation of housework among the daughters. Parental influences are transmitted partially through the children's gender-role attitudes, but there is also evidence of enduring direct effects of parental characteristics on children's housework allocation, especially for men.
Article
Recent studies have shown that beliefs, preferences, and attitudes are important pathways for the intergenerational transmission of economic outcomes. We contribute to this literature by documenting the importance of gender role attitudes with data from the 1970 British Cohort Study. We find that mothers’ and children’s gender role attitudes, measured 25 years apart, are strongly correlated, equally so for sons and daughters. We also find that daughters and sons’ wives/partners have greater human capital and labour supply if their mothers held nontraditional attitudes. A fixed effect analysis shows that the female labour supply effects are particularly large following childbirth. Importantly, sons’ human capital and labour supply are unaffected, suggesting the results are not driven by unobserved heterogeneity. All these findings imply that the intergenerational transmission of gender role attitudes explains a substantive part of gender inequalities.
Article
Mothers who participate and persist in full-time work after the birth of their first child are in a minority in the United Kingdom. Yet maintaining full-time employment is a precondition for many mothers to maintain their careers relative to men and women without children. At a societal level mothers who persist in full-time employment contribute to narrowing the pay gap between men and women. This article explores what leads partnered first time mothers to participate in full-time employment, and to persist in it, from three theoretical standpoints: profit maximization, polarization and preference theory. Women who are the main earners in the household are much more likely to continue in full-time employment and, moreover, they make up a disproportionate share of mothers who are in continuous full-time employment. Mothers who are equal earners are also much more likely to persist in full-time employment but to a lesser degree than mothers who are main earners. Partners' attitudes to family life prove to be as important as mothers' attitudes in guiding employment decisions. The research confirms theories derived from the UK context that dual full-time earning is more likely to be a lifestyle adopted by those at the top of the household income distribution.
Article
Studies of how characteristics of the family of origin are associated with educational and labor market outcomes indicate the degree of openness of societies and have a long tradition in sociology. We review research published since 1990 into educational stratification and social (occupational or class) mobility, focusing on the importance of parental socioeconomic circumstances, and with particular emphasis on comparative studies. Large-scale data now available from many countries and several time points have led to more and better descriptions of inequality of opportunity across countries and over time. However, partly owing to problems of comparability of measurement, unambiguous conclusions about trends and ranking of countries have proven elusive. In addition, no strong evidence exists that explains intercountry differences. We conclude that the 1990s witnessed a resurgence of microlevel models, mostly of a rational choice type, that signals an increased interest in moving beyond description in strat...
Article
This paper examines the link between parents' occupational attainment and that of their children. The existence of such a link implies dependence on inherited conditions and the stronger the link the less the potential for intergenerational mobility. The degree to which occupational mobility is influenced by parental achievements is investigated using data from the British Household Panel Survey. The evidence obtained suggests that individual attainment is strongly influenced by parental status. In particular, the occupational attainment of sons is found to depend significantly on the socioeconomic status of their fathers. The implication is that occupational mobility in 1990s Britain was still to some extent constrained by the achievements of the previous generation.
Article
Previous research examining the intergenerational transmission of gender ideology focuses generally on the influence of mothers' beliefs. This article extends the understanding of gender ideology construction and transmission in two important ways. Utilizing data from the child sample of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (N = 206), we examine the construction of adolescent gender ideology via mothers' and fathers' gender beliefs. Further, we consider the interaction between maternal and paternal ideologies as they influence adolescent ideology. Findings suggest that paternal ideology plays a strong role in adolescent ideology formation, both directly and as a moderator of maternal influence.
Article
Recent research is reviewed to consider the effects of the mother's employment on the child in the two-parent family. This work deals mainly with maternal employment during the child's preschool years. Because of the difficulties in measuring enduring traits in young children, and because neither previous nor current research has revealed clear differences between children in dual-wage and single-wage families, attention is also given to the effects on the family processes that mediate child outcomes: the psychological well-being of the parents, their marital relationship, the father's role, and parent–child interaction. The influence of maternal employment on these variables, as well as on child outcomes, is found to be dependent on the attitudes of the parents, the number of hours the mother is employed, social support, and the child's gender. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Studied the degree to which role models influenced the career choices of 60 college seniors. Ss completed the Attitudes Toward Women Scale and the Influence of Role Model Scale. An ANOVA (sex × sex-role attitudes × models) showed (a) no significant effects for sex or sex-role attitudes; (b) a significant ( p 
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This paper asks whether maternal employment has a lasting influence on the division of household labor for married women and men. Employing multi-level models with 2002 ISSP survey data for 31 countries, we test the lagged accommodation hypothesis that a long societal history of maternal employment contributes to more egalitarian household arrangements. Our results find that living in a country with a legacy of high maternal employment is positively associated with housework task-sharing, even controlling for the personal socialization experience of growing up with a mother who worked for pay. In formerly socialist countries, however, there is less gender parity in housework than predicted by the high historical level of maternal employment.
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Conventional social mobility research, which measures family social class background relative to only fathers' characteristics, presents an outmoded picture of families-a picture wherein mothers' economic participation is neither common nor important. This article demonstrates that such measurement is theoretically and empirically untenable. Models that incorporate both mothers' and fathers' characteristics into class origin measures fit observed mobility patterns better than do conventional models, and for both men and women. Furthermore, in contrast to the current consensus that conventional measurement strategies do not alter substantive research conclusions, analyses of cohort change in social mobility illustrate the distortions that conventional practice can produce in stratification research findings. By failing to measure the impact of mothers' class, the current practice misses a recent upturn in the importance of family background for class outcomes among men in the United States. The conventional approach suggests no change between cohorts, but updated analyses reveal that inequality of opportunity increased significantly for men born since the mid-1960s compared with those born earlier in the century.
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Does the presence of female political role models inspire interest in political activism among young women? We find that over time, the more that women politicians are made visible by national news coverage, the more likely adolescent girls are to indicate an intention to be politically active. Similarly, in cross-sectional analysis, we find that where female candidates are visible due to viable campaigns for high-profile offices girls report increased anticipated political involvement. Contrary to conventional wisdom, this effect does not appear to be mediated through beliefs about the appropriateness of politics for women, nor through perceptions of government responsiveness. Instead, an increased propensity for political discussion, particularly within families, appears to explain the role model effect.
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One argument advanced in favor of descriptive representation is that female politicians serve as role models, inspiring other women to political activity. While previous research finds female role models affect women's psychological engagement, few studies report an impact on women's active participation, and none have done so in cross-national research. Our work also is the first to consider whether the impact of female role models is, as the term implies, greater among the young. Using three cross-national datasets, we find that where there are more female members of parliament (MPs), adolescent girls are more likely to discuss politics with friends and to intend to participate in politics as adults, and adult women are more likely to discuss and participate in politics. The presence of female MPs registers the same effect on political discussion regardless of age, but the impact on women's political activity is far greater among the young than the old.
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Data from the Monitoring the Future Study were used to examine the impact of early gender role attitudes on later career outcomes for women and men. We also examined the impact of marriage, children, and labor market outcomes on changes in gender role attitudes. Women’s early gender role attitudes predicted their later work hours and earnings. Women’s work hours predicted their later gender egalitarianism. Children were negatively associated with later gender egalitarianism for both women and men. Findings indicated that gender role attitudes influence subsequent behavior, but they may also be adjusted to accommodate to situational constraints.
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Investments in children are generally seen as investments in the future economy. In this study I focus on time investments in children as I investigate the long-term educational effects on children of increasing parents' birth-related leave from 14 to 20 weeks using a natural experiment from 1984 in Denmark. The causal effect of the reform is identified using regression discontinuity design to compare a population sample of children born shortly before and shortly after the reform took effect. Results indicate that increasing parents' access to birth-related leave has no measurable effect on children's long-term educational outcomes. Mothers' incomes and career opportunities are slightly positively affected by the reform.
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We analyze the effects of social policy regarding women’s employment and work-family conflict on the division of household labor in 33 countries. We classify policies according to Chang’s (2000) equality of access (affirmative action and absence of discriminatory policy) and substantive benefits (parental leave and childcare services). Results show that countries without prohibitions against certain types of employment for women, and those with longer parental leave policies, exhibit a more egalitarian gender division of housework. Further, women’s fulltime employment and higher income have stronger effects on the gender division of housework in countries with greater equality of access policies. However, longer parental leave policy is associated with weaker effects of women’s full-time employment. The findings suggest that social policies affect not only the overall gender division of housework, but also the dynamics of micro-level negotiations. Such policies may contribute to the context in which gender roles in the labor market and in the family are defined.