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Common Psychological Outcome Measures For the Selection Of Civilian and Military Pilots

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Abstract

This tool is concerned with the common psychological outcome measures for the selection of civilian and military pilots. If used please contact us at jonathan.laws@northumbria.ac.uk so we can track the tool's use and cite as Laws, J.M. (2018). AMSRG tool for common psychological outcome measures for the selection of civilian and military pilots.
Aerospace Medicine Systematic Review Group
Common Psychological Outcome Measures For the
Selection Of Civilian and Military Pilots
Version: 1.1
This tool is concerned with the common psychological outcome measures for the selection of civilian and military pilots. If used please contact us at
jonathan.laws@northumbria.ac.uk so we can track the tool's use and cite as Laws, J.M. (2018). AMSRG tool for common psychological outcome measures
for the selection of civilian and military pilots.
The common psychological outcome measures relating to civilian and military aviation pilot selection were determined using a literature review.
The validity and reliability of the tool are yet to be determined.
What the tool should be used for:
The tool is useful to highlight the common psychological research outcomes that are used in assessing the skills, abilities and traits of civilian and military
pilots.
Limitations of this tool:
The aviation industry often undergoes changes, both technological and operational, and this may lead to changes in the psychological skills and capabilities
pilots require to most efficiently operate aircraft. Examples of this are changes from three to two person crews, cockpit automation and the integration of
resource management. These changes may affect the pilot selection process and the psychological traits needed for assessing pilots.
The tool further does not indicate which outcome measures are considered the most important for civilian and military pilots, but rather which outcome
measures are commonly found in research of these skills, traits and abilities.
Version 1.1. Changes: Changes to reference date.
Outcome
Description
Validity
Aggressiveness
(Interactive/Social
skills)
Violent, hostile and forceful behaviour.
43 subject matter experts (experienced fighter pilots) from the United States,
Canada and Norway determined the relative importance of 27 characteristics for
fighter pilot performance. Sufficient agreement was found across the fighter
pilots of the three countries. The average ranking of the 27 characteristics studied
found that aggressiveness ranked the seventh most important characteristic
(Carretta, 1993).
Arm-hand steadiness
(Psychomotor abilities)
Capability to keep the hand or arm steady
while moving or holding the arm or hand in
one position.
Precise arm-hand position movements
using minimum strength and speed,
including steadiness during movement.
Arm-Hand posture is imperative for pilots for the control of aircraft altitude and
for resisting movement when experiencing spatial disorientation, a common
vestibular illusion that can occur during flight (Pu et al., 2012).
Assertiveness
(Interactive/social
skills)
Capability of being confident and self-
assured, without aggression, taking
responsibility.
Military aviation
43 subject matter experts (experienced fighter pilots) from the United States,
Canada and Norway determined the relative importance of 27 characteristics for
fighter pilot performance. Sufficient agreement was found across the fighter
pilots of the three countries. The average ranking of the 27 characteristics studied
found that assertiveness ranked the twentieth most important characteristic
(Carretta, 1993).
Job analysis of 141 European civilian airline pilots, consisting of 49 captains, 92
first officers, 81 short-haul pilots, 56 long-haul pilots, 75 hybrid pilots, and 62
glass cockpit aircraft pilots, who were examined using the F-JAS (Fleishman,
1992). Relevant factors found included time sharing, spatial orientation, selective
attention, perceptual speed, number facility, memorisation, visualisation, rate
control, control precision, response orientation, multi-limb coordination, reaction
time, auditory attention, speech recognition, night vision, far vision, glare
sensitivity, depth perception, peripheral vision, map reading, reading plans, stress
resistance, co-operation, communication, decision making, situational awareness,
leadership, self awareness, resistance to premature judgement, behavioural
flexibility, resilience, assertiveness, motivation, social sensitivity and oral fact
finding (Goeters et al., 2004).
Attention allocation
(Cognitive abilities)
Determination of the importance of
information relative to other information,
based upon what has previously been
important and what is currently important.
Attentional and working memory limitations impact upon situational awareness
in aviation settings. Developing sufficient long-term memory stores, automaticity
of actions (as a result of training and experience) and goal-directed processing
are necessary to overcome these limitations. Automaticity reduces the necessity
for attentional allocation in certain situations (Endsley, 1999).
Attention (Cognitive
abilities)
Selective concentration upon specific
information.
Attentional and working memory limitations impact upon situational awareness
in aviation settings. Developing sufficient long-term memory stores, automaticity
of actions (as a result of training and experience) and goal-directed processing
are necessary to overcome these limitations (Endsley, 1999).
Auditory Attention
(Sensory abilities)
Capability to focus on a single sound while
inhibiting other distracting sounds.
Job analysis of 141 European civilian airline pilots, consisting of 49 captains, 92
first officers, 81 short-haul pilots, 56 long-haul pilots, 75 hybrid pilots, and 62
glass cockpit aircraft pilots, who were examined using the F-JAS (Fleishman,
1992). Relevant factors found included time sharing, spatial orientation, selective
attention, perceptual speed, number facility, memorisation, visualisation, rate
control, control precision, response orientation, multi-limb coordination, reaction
time, auditory attention, speech recognition, night vision, far vision, glare
sensitivity, depth perception, peripheral vision, map reading, reading plans, stress
resistance, co-operation, communication, decision making, situational awareness,
leadership, self awareness, resistance to premature judgement, behavioural
flexibility, resilience, assertiveness, motivation, social sensitivity and oral fact
finding (Goeters et al., 2004).
Automaticity
(Cognitive abilities)
Patterns and habits that form automatic
responses.
Automaticity (automatic processing) from experience and training results in less
attention allocation while providing good performance (Endsley, 1999).
Behaviour flexibility
(Interactive/social
skills)
Adaptive behavioural changes of an
organism in response to changes in the
environment.
Job analysis of 141 European civilian airline pilots, consisting of 49 captains, 92
first officers, 81 short-haul pilots, 56 long-haul pilots, 75 hybrid pilots, and 62
glass cockpit aircraft pilots, who were examined using the F-JAS (Fleishman,
1992). Relevant factors found included time sharing, spatial orientation, selective
attention, perceptual speed, number facility, memorisation, visualisation, rate
control, control precision, response orientation, multi-limb coordination, reaction
time, auditory attention, speech recognition, night vision, far vision, glare
sensitivity, depth perception, peripheral vision, map reading, reading plans, stress
resistance, co-operation, communication, decision making, situational awareness,
leadership, self awareness, resistance to premature judgement, behavioural
flexibility, resilience, assertiveness, motivation, social sensitivity and oral fact
finding (Goeters et al., 2004).
Category flexibility
(Cognitive abilities)
Capability to combine or group objects or
ideas using self-generated or given sets of
rules.
The extended Fleishman job analysis survey F-JAS found that in the ratings of 141
pilots category flexibility was found to be normal in its relevance to civilian
aviation (Fleishman, 1997).
Communication
(Interactive/social
skills)
The broad exchange of relevant
information (in a variety of methods, eg
verbal or non-verbal).
Job analysis of 141 European civilian airline pilots, consisting of 49 captains, 92
first officers, 81 short-haul pilots, 56 long-haul pilots, 75 hybrid pilots, and 62
glass cockpit aircraft pilots, who were examined using the F-JAS (Fleishman,
1992). Relevant factors found included time sharing, spatial orientation, selective
attention, perceptual speed, number facility, memorisation, visualisation, rate
control, control precision, response orientation, multi-limb coordination, reaction
time, auditory attention, speech recognition, night vision, far vision, glare
sensitivity, depth perception, peripheral vision, map reading, reading plans, stress
resistance, co-operation, communication, decision making, situational awareness,
leadership, self awareness, resistance to premature judgement, behavioural
flexibility, resilience, assertiveness, motivation, social sensitivity and oral fact
finding (Goeters et al., 2004).
Control (Psychomotor
abilities)
Motor control, operation of small
equipment.
Job analysis of 141 European civilian airline pilots, consisting of 49 captains, 92
first officers, 81 short-haul pilots, 56 long-haul pilots, 75 hybrid pilots, and 62
glass cockpit aircraft pilots, who were examined using the F-JAS (Fleishman,
1992). Relevant factors found included time sharing, spatial orientation, selective
attention, perceptual speed, number facility, memorisation, visualisation, rate
control, control precision, response orientation, multi-limb coordination, reaction
time, auditory attention, speech recognition, night vision, far vision, glare
sensitivity, depth perception, peripheral vision, map reading, reading plans, stress
resistance, co-operation, communication, decision making, situational awareness,
leadership, self awareness, resistance to premature judgement, behavioural
flexibility, resilience, assertiveness, motivation, social sensitivity and oral fact
finding (Goeters et al., 2004).
Control Precision
(Psychomotor abilities)
Capacity to repeatedly adjust vehicle or
machine controls to specific positions
quickly.
Military aviation
Job analysis of 141 European civilian airline pilots, consisting of 49 captains, 92
first officers, 81 short-haul pilots, 56 long-haul pilots, 75 hybrid pilots, and 62
glass cockpit aircraft pilots, who were examined using the F-JAS (Fleishman,
1992). Relevant factors found included time sharing, spatial orientation, selective
attention, perceptual speed, number facility, memorisation, visualisation, rate
control, control precision, response orientation, multi-limb coordination, reaction
time, auditory attention, speech recognition, night vision, far vision, glare
sensitivity, depth perception, peripheral vision, map reading, reading plans, stress
resistance, co-operation, communication, decision making, situational awareness,
leadership, self awareness, resistance to premature judgement, behavioural
flexibility, resilience, assertiveness, motivation, social sensitivity and oral fact
finding (Goeters et al., 2004).
43 subject matter experts (experienced fighter pilots) from the United States,
Canada and Norway determined the relative importance of 27 characteristics for
fighter pilot performance. Sufficient agreement was found across the fighter
pilots of the three countries. The average ranking of the 27 characteristics studied
found that control precision ranked the eighteenth most important characteristic
(Carretta, 1993).
Coordination
(Psychomotor abilities)
Capability to engage different parts of the
body successfully.
Civilian aviation
43 subject matter experts (experienced fighter pilots) from the United States,
Canada and Norway determined the relative importance of 27 characteristics for
fighter pilot performance. Sufficient agreement was found across the fighter
pilots of the three countries. The average ranking of the 27 characteristics studied
found that psychomotor coordination ranked the thirteenth most important
characteristic (Carretta, 1993).
Cooperation
(Interactive/social
skills)
Collaboration between organisms for
mutual benefit. Effective functioning as a
team member and the contribution of
abilities to the shared goals of that team,
an absence of co-operation.
Military aviation
43 subject matter experts (experienced fighter pilots) from the United States,
Canada and Norway determined the relative importance of 27 characteristics for
fighter pilot performance. Sufficient agreement was found across the fighter
pilots of the three countries. The average ranking of the 27 characteristics studied
found that cooperativeness ranked the seventeenth most important
characteristic (Carretta, 1993).
Job analysis of 141 European civilian airline pilots, consisting of 49 captains, 92
first officers, 81 short-haul pilots, 56 long-haul pilots, 75 hybrid pilots, and 62
glass cockpit aircraft pilots, who were examined using the F-JAS (Fleishman,
1992). Relevant factors found included time sharing, spatial orientation, selective
attention, perceptual speed, number facility, memorisation, visualisation, rate
control, control precision, response orientation, multi-limb coordination, reaction
time, auditory attention, speech recognition, night vision, far vision, glare
sensitivity, depth perception, peripheral vision, map reading, reading plans, stress
resistance, co-operation, communication, decision making, situational awareness,
leadership, self awareness, resistance to premature judgement, behavioural
flexibility, resilience, assertiveness, motivation, social sensitivity and oral fact
finding (Goeters et al., 2004).
Decision making
(Interactive/social
skills and Cognitive
abilities)
Selection of an appropriate action from
several possible alternatives. Evaluation of
information, options and risks.
Job analysis of 141 European civilian airline pilots, consisting of 49 captains, 92
first officers, 81 short-haul pilots, 56 long-haul pilots, 75 hybrid pilots, and 62
glass cockpit aircraft pilots, who were examined using the F-JAS (Fleishman,
1992). Relevant factors found included time sharing, spatial orientation, selective
attention, perceptual speed, number facility, memorisation, visualisation, rate
control, control precision, response orientation, multi-limb coordination, reaction
time, auditory attention, speech recognition, night vision, far vision, glare
sensitivity, depth perception, peripheral vision, map reading, reading plans, stress
resistance, co-operation, communication, decision making, situational awareness,
leadership, self awareness, resistance to premature judgement, behavioural
flexibility, resilience, assertiveness, motivation, social sensitivity and oral fact
finding (Goeters et al., 2004).
Deductive reasoning
(Cognitive abilities)
Capability to apply general rules to a
specific situation or problem.
The extended Fleishman job analysis survey F-JAS found that in the ratings of 141
pilots deductive reasoning was found to be highly relevant to civilian aviation
(Fleishman, 1997).
Depth perception
(Sensory abilities)
Judgement of the distance between the
organism and an object, or judgement of
how close/far away several objects are in
relation to each other and to the self.
Job analysis of 141 European civilian airline pilots, consisting of 49 captains, 92
first officers, 81 short-haul pilots, 56 long-haul pilots, 75 hybrid pilots, and 62
glass cockpit aircraft pilots, who were examined using the F-JAS (Fleishman,
1992). Relevant factors found included time sharing, spatial orientation, selective
attention, perceptual speed, number facility, memorisation, visualisation, rate
control, control precision, response orientation, multi-limb coordination, reaction
time, auditory attention, speech recognition, night vision, far vision, glare
sensitivity, depth perception, peripheral vision, map reading, reading plans, stress
resistance, co-operation, communication, decision making, situational awareness,
leadership, self awareness, resistance to premature judgement, behavioural
flexibility, resilience, assertiveness, motivation, social sensitivity and oral fact
finding (Goeters et al., 2004).
Divided Attention
Processing of multiple information sources,
and/or the engagement with multiple tasks
simultaneously. Multitasking.
43 subject matter experts (experienced fighter pilots) from the United States,
Canada and Norway determined the relative importance of 27 characteristics for
fighter pilot performance. Sufficient agreement was found across the fighter
pilots of the three countries. The average ranking of the 27 characteristics studied
found that divided attention ranked the eleventh most important characteristic
(Carretta, 1993).
Emotional Stability
Capacity to resist negative emotions. Stable
43 subject matter experts (experienced fighter pilots) from the United States,
and resistant to change, consistency of
character.
Canada and Norway determined the relative importance of 27 characteristics for
fighter pilot performance. Sufficient agreement was found across the fighter
pilots of the three countries. The average ranking of the 27 characteristics studied
found that memorisation ranked the twelfth most important characteristic
(Carretta, 1993).
Far vision (Sensory
abilities)
Capacity to see distant details.
Job analysis of 141 European civilian airline pilots, consisting of 49 captains, 92
first officers, 81 short-haul pilots, 56 long-haul pilots, 75 hybrid pilots, and 62
glass cockpit aircraft pilots, who were examined using the F-JAS (Fleishman,
1992). Relevant factors found included time sharing, spatial orientation, selective
attention, perceptual speed, number facility, memorisation, visualisation, rate
control, control precision, response orientation, multi-limb coordination, reaction
time, auditory attention, speech recognition, night vision, far vision, glare
sensitivity, depth perception, peripheral vision, map reading, reading plans, stress
resistance, co-operation, communication, decision making, situational awareness,
leadership, self awareness, resistance to premature judgement, behavioural
flexibility, resilience, assertiveness, motivation, social sensitivity and oral fact
finding (Goeters et al., 2004).
Finger dexterity
(Psychomotor abilities)
Capability for precise and coordinated
manipulation, grasping or assembly of
(usually small) objects using the fingers of
one or both hands.
The extended Fleishman job analysis survey F-JAS found that in the ratings of 141
pilots finger dexterity was found to be normal in its relevance to civilian aviation
(Fleishman, 1997).
Flexibility of closure
(Cognitive abilities)
Identification and detection of patterns
within distracting elements.
Military aviation
Commercial pilots (N=258) and matched, non-pilot controls completed a series of
cognitive, perceptual and verbal tests to examine what common skills existed in
commercial pilots. Found that the pilots performed significantly higher when
tested on flexibility of closure (Boehm-Davis et al., 1997).
43 subject matter experts (experienced fighter pilots) from the United States,
Canada and Norway determined the relative importance of 27 characteristics for
fighter pilot performance. Sufficient agreement was found across the fighter
pilots of the three countries. The average ranking of the 27 characteristics studied
found that flexibility of closure ranked the fourteenth most important
characteristic (Carretta, 1993).
Fluency of ideas
(Cognitive abilities)
Capability to produce ideas on a topic.
Military Aviation
The extended Fleishman job analysis survey F-JAS found that in the ratings of 141
pilots fluency of ideas was found to be normal in its relevance to civilian aviation
(Fleishman, 1997).
Glare sensitivity
(Sensory abilities)
Capacity to detect objects when in the
presence of bright light and glare.
Job analysis of 141 European civilian airline pilots, consisting of 49 captains, 92
first officers, 81 short-haul pilots, 56 long-haul pilots, 75 hybrid pilots, and 62
glass cockpit aircraft pilots, who were examined using the F-JAS (Fleishman,
1992). Relevant factors found included time sharing, spatial orientation, selective
attention, perceptual speed, number facility, memorisation, visualisation, rate
control, control precision, response orientation, multi-limb coordination, reaction
time, auditory attention, speech recognition, night vision, far vision, glare
sensitivity, depth perception, peripheral vision, map reading, reading plans, stress
resistance, co-operation, communication, decision making, situational awareness,
leadership, self awareness, resistance to premature judgement, behavioural
flexibility, resilience, assertiveness, motivation, social sensitivity and oral fact
finding (Goeters et al., 2004).
Hearing sensitivity
(Sensory abilities)
Capability to detect differences between
sounds of varying pitch and intensity.
The extended Fleishman job analysis survey F-JAS found that in the ratings of 141
pilots hearing sensitivity was found to be normal in its relevance to civilian
aviation (Fleishman, 1997).
Inductive reasoning
(Cognitive abilities)
Capacity to combine information to form
conclusions, general rules, or to connect
seemingly unrelated information.
The extended Fleishman job analysis survey F-JAS found that in the ratings of 141
pilots inductive reasoning was found to be normal in its relevance to civilian
aviation (Fleishman, 1997).
Information ordering
(Cognitive abilities)
Capability to arrange information and/or
actions into a specific order and/or pattern
based upon a given rule or set of rules. For
example, number patterns.
Military aviation
43 subject matter experts (experienced fighter pilots) from the United States,
Canada and Norway determined the relative importance of 27 characteristics for
fighter pilot performance. Sufficient agreement was found across the fighter
pilots of the three countries. The average ranking of the 27 characteristics studied
found that information ordering ranked the fifteenth most important
characteristic (Carretta, 1993).
Leadership
(Interactive/social
skills)
Social influence involving the enlisting and
support of the aid of others. Involves the
activation, monitoring and capacity to
motivate the team.
Military aviation
43 subject matter experts (experienced fighter pilots) from the United States,
Canada and Norway determined the relative importance of 27 characteristics for
fighter pilot performance. Sufficient agreement was found across the fighter
pilots of the three countries. The average ranking of the 27 characteristics studied
found that leadership ranked the twenty-sixth most important characteristic
(Carretta, 1993).
Job analysis of 141 European civilian airline pilots, consisting of 49 captains, 92
first officers, 81 short-haul pilots, 56 long-haul pilots, 75 hybrid pilots, and 62
glass cockpit aircraft pilots, who were examined using the F-JAS (Fleishman,
1992). Relevant factors found included time sharing, spatial orientation, selective
attention, perceptual speed, number facility, memorisation, visualisation, rate
control, control precision, response orientation, multi-limb coordination, reaction
time, auditory attention, speech recognition, night vision, far vision, glare
sensitivity, depth perception, peripheral vision, map reading, reading plans, stress
resistance, co-operation, communication, decision making, situational awareness,
leadership, self awareness, resistance to premature judgement, behavioural
flexibility, resilience, assertiveness, motivation, social sensitivity and oral fact
finding (Goeters et al., 2004).
Manual dexterity
(Psychomotor abilities)
Manipulation, grasp and assembly of
objects using a hand, hands, or hand and
arm.
The extended Fleishman job analysis survey F-JAS found that in the ratings of 141
pilots manual dexterity was found to be normal in its relevance to civilian aviation
(Fleishman, 1997).
Mathematical
reasoning (Cognitive
abilities)
Capability to apply the correct
mathematical formula or method to solve a
problem.
The extended Fleishman job analysis survey F-JAS found that in the ratings of 141
pilots mathematical reasoning was found to be normal in its relevance to civilian
aviation (Fleishman, 1997).
Memorisation
(Cognitive Abilities)
Mental process in which information is
stored in memory for later recall.
Military aviation
43 subject matter experts (experienced fighter pilots) from the United States,
Canada and Norway determined the relative importance of 27 characteristics for
fighter pilot performance. Sufficient agreement was found across the fighter
pilots of the three countries. The average ranking of the 27 characteristics studied
found that memorisation ranked the second most important characteristic
(Carretta, 1993).
Job analysis of 141 European civilian airline pilots, consisting of 49 captains, 92
first officers, 81 short-haul pilots, 56 long-haul pilots, 75 hybrid pilots, and 62
glass cockpit aircraft pilots, who were examined using the F-JAS (Fleishman,
1992). Relevant factors found included time sharing, spatial orientation, selective
attention, perceptual speed, number facility, memorisation, visualisation, rate
control, control precision, response orientation, multi-limb coordination, reaction
time, auditory attention, speech recognition, night vision, far vision, glare
sensitivity, depth perception, peripheral vision, map reading, reading plans, stress
resistance, co-operation, communication, decision making, situational awareness,
leadership, self awareness, resistance to premature judgement, behavioural
flexibility, resilience, assertiveness, motivation, social sensitivity and oral fact
finding (Goeters et al., 2004).
Motivation
(Interactive/social
Source of behaviour, desire to influence or
change behaviour. Development and
Military aviation
43 subject matter experts (experienced fighter pilots) from the United States,
Canada and Norway determined the relative importance of 27 characteristics for
skills)
regulation of behaviour and effort to
achieve a goal.
fighter pilot performance. Sufficient agreement was found across the fighter
pilots of the three countries. The average ranking of the 27 characteristics studied
found that achievement motivation ranked the third most important
characteristic (Carretta, 1993).
Job analysis of 141 European civilian airline pilots, consisting of 49 captains, 92
first officers, 81 short-haul pilots, 56 long-haul pilots, 75 hybrid pilots, and 62
glass cockpit aircraft pilots, who were examined using the F-JAS (Fleishman,
1992). Relevant factors found included time sharing, spatial orientation, selective
attention, perceptual speed, number facility, memorisation, visualisation, rate
control, control precision, response orientation, multi-limb coordination, reaction
time, auditory attention, speech recognition, night vision, far vision, glare
sensitivity, depth perception, peripheral vision, map reading, reading plans, stress
resistance, co-operation, communication, decision making, situational awareness,
leadership, self awareness, resistance to premature judgement, behavioural
flexibility, resilience, assertiveness, motivation, social sensitivity and oral fact
finding (Goeters et al., 2004).
Multi-limb co-
ordination
(Psychomotor abilities)
Coordination of two or more limb.
Job analysis of 141 European civilian airline pilots, consisting of 49 captains, 92
first officers, 81 short-haul pilots, 56 long-haul pilots, 75 hybrid pilots, and 62
glass cockpit aircraft pilots, who were examined using the F-JAS (Fleishman,
1992). Relevant factors found included time sharing, spatial orientation, selective
attention, perceptual speed, number facility, memorisation, visualisation, rate
control, control precision, response orientation, multi-limb coordination, reaction
time, auditory attention, speech recognition, night vision, far vision, glare
sensitivity, depth perception, peripheral vision, map reading, reading plans, stress
resistance, co-operation, communication, decision making, situational awareness,
leadership, self awareness, resistance to premature judgement, behavioural
flexibility, resilience, assertiveness, motivation, social sensitivity and oral fact
finding (Goeters et al., 2004).
Near vision (Sensory
abilities)
Capacity to see close range details.
The extended Fleishman job analysis survey F-JAS found that in the ratings of 141
pilots near vision was found to be normal in its relevance to civilian aviation
(Fleishman, 1997).
Night vision (Sensory
abilities)
Capability to see in low light conditions.
Job analysis of 141 European civilian airline pilots, consisting of 49 captains, 92
first officers, 81 short-haul pilots, 56 long-haul pilots, 75 hybrid pilots, and 62
glass cockpit aircraft pilots, who were examined using the F-JAS (Fleishman,
1992). Relevant factors found included time sharing, spatial orientation, selective
attention, perceptual speed, number facility, memorisation, visualisation, rate
control, control precision, response orientation, multi-limb coordination, reaction
time, auditory attention, speech recognition, night vision, far vision, glare
sensitivity, depth perception, peripheral vision, map reading, reading plans, stress
resistance, co-operation, communication, decision making, situational awareness,
leadership, self awareness, resistance to premature judgement, behavioural
flexibility, resilience, assertiveness, motivation, social sensitivity and oral fact
finding (Goeters et al., 2004).
Number facility
(Cognitive Abilities)
Capability for correct and quick addition,
subtraction, multiplication and division.
Military aviation
43 subject matter experts (experienced fighter pilots) from the United States,
Canada and Norway determined the relative importance of 27 characteristics for
fighter pilot performance. Sufficient agreement was found across the fighter
pilots of the three countries. The average ranking of the 27 characteristics studied
found that number facility ranked the nineteenth most important characteristic
(Carretta, 1993).
Job analysis of 141 European civilian airline pilots, consisting of 49 captains, 92
first officers, 81 short-haul pilots, 56 long-haul pilots, 75 hybrid pilots, and 62
glass cockpit aircraft pilots, who were examined using the F-JAS (Fleishman,
1992). Relevant factors found included time sharing, spatial orientation, selective
attention, perceptual speed, number facility, memorisation, visualisation, rate
control, control precision, response orientation, multi-limb coordination, reaction
time, auditory attention, speech recognition, night vision, far vision, glare
sensitivity, depth perception, peripheral vision, map reading, reading plans, stress
resistance, co-operation, communication, decision making, situational awareness,
leadership, self awareness, resistance to premature judgement, behavioural
flexibility, resilience, assertiveness, motivation, social sensitivity and oral fact
finding (Goeters et al., 2004).
Oral/verbal
comprehension
(Cognitive Abilities)
Capability to understand verbal
information.
Military aviation
Commercial pilots (N=258) and matched, non-pilot controls completed a series of
cognitive, perceptual and verbal tests to examine what common skills existed in
commercial pilots. Found that the pilots performed significantly higher when
Understanding of verbal words and
sentences.
tested on verbal comprehension, although the difference between average scores
was small (Boehm-Davis et al., 1997).
43 subject matter experts (experienced fighter pilots) from the United States,
Canada and Norway determined the relative importance of 27 characteristics for
fighter pilot performance. Sufficient agreement was found across the fighter
pilots of the three countries. The average ranking of the 27 characteristics studied
found that oral comprehension ranked the twenty-second most important
characteristic (Carretta, 1993).
Oral expression
(Cognitive abilities)
Use of understandable words of sentences
in communication with others.
Capability to verbally communicate
information to others.
Military aviation
43 subject matter experts (experienced fighter pilots) from the United States,
Canada and Norway determined the relative importance of 27 characteristics for
fighter pilot performance. Sufficient agreement was found across the fighter
pilots of the three countries. The average ranking of the 27 characteristics studied
found that oral expression ranked the twenty-fourth most important
characteristic (Carretta, 1993).
Perceptual speed
(Cognitive Abilities)
Capability to compare differences and
similarities among numbers, pictures,
objects, letters or patterns quickly, either
from presented stimuli or from memory.
Military aviation
43 subject matter experts (experienced fighter pilots) from the United States,
Canada and Norway determined the relative importance of 27 characteristics for
fighter pilot performance. Sufficient agreement was found across the fighter
pilots of the three countries. The average ranking of the 27 characteristics studied
found that perceptual speed ranked the fifth most important characteristic
(Carretta, 1993).
Job analysis of 141 European civilian airline pilots, consisting of 49 captains, 92
first officers, 81 short-haul pilots, 56 long-haul pilots, 75 hybrid pilots, and 62
glass cockpit aircraft pilots, who were examined using the F-JAS (Fleishman,
1992). Relevant factors found included time sharing, spatial orientation, selective
attention, perceptual speed, number facility, memorisation, visualisation, rate
control, control precision, response orientation, multi-limb coordination, reaction
time, auditory attention, speech recognition, night vision, far vision, glare
sensitivity, depth perception, peripheral vision, map reading, reading plans, stress
resistance, co-operation, communication, decision making, situational awareness,
leadership, self awareness, resistance to premature judgement, behavioural
flexibility, resilience, assertiveness, motivation, social sensitivity and oral fact
finding (Goeters et al., 2004).
Peripheral vision
(Sensory abilities)
Capability of an organism to detect
movement of objects to the side while
looking directly ahead.
Job analysis of 141 European civilian airline pilots, consisting of 49 captains, 92
first officers, 81 short-haul pilots, 56 long-haul pilots, 75 hybrid pilots, and 62
glass cockpit aircraft pilots, who were examined using the F-JAS (Fleishman,
1992). Relevant factors found included time sharing, spatial orientation, selective
attention, perceptual speed, number facility, memorisation, visualisation, rate
control, control precision, response orientation, multi-limb coordination, reaction
time, auditory attention, speech recognition, night vision, far vision, glare
sensitivity, depth perception, peripheral vision, map reading, reading plans, stress
resistance, co-operation, communication, decision making, situational awareness,
leadership, self awareness, resistance to premature judgement, behavioural
flexibility, resilience, assertiveness, motivation, social sensitivity and oral fact
finding (Goeters et al., 2004).
Rate control
(Psychomotor abilities)
Capability of an organism to time its own
movements (or the movement of
equipment/machinery/vehicles) in
anticipation of changes in direction and/or
speed of moving objects within the
environment.
Military aviation
Job analysis of 141 European civilian airline pilots, consisting of 49 captains, 92
first officers, 81 short-haul pilots, 56 long-haul pilots, 75 hybrid pilots, and 62
glass cockpit aircraft pilots, who were examined using the F-JAS (Fleishman,
1992). Relevant factors found included time sharing, spatial orientation, selective
attention, perceptual speed, number facility, memorisation, visualisation, rate
control, control precision, response orientation, multi-limb coordination, reaction
time, auditory attention, speech recognition, night vision, far vision, glare
sensitivity, depth perception, peripheral vision, map reading, reading plans, stress
resistance, co-operation, communication, decision making, situational awareness,
leadership, self awareness, resistance to premature judgement, behavioural
flexibility, resilience, assertiveness, motivation, social sensitivity and oral fact
finding (Goeters et al., 2004).
43 subject matter experts (experienced fighter pilots) from the United States,
Canada and Norway determined the relative importance of 27 characteristics for
fighter pilot performance. Sufficient agreement was found across the fighter
pilots of the three countries. The average ranking of the 27 characteristics studied
found that rate control ranked the twenty-third most important characteristic
(Carretta, 1993).
Reaction time
The time between the presentation of a
Job analysis of 141 European civilian airline pilots, consisting of 49 captains, 92
(Psychomotor abilities)
stimulus and a motor response to that
stimulus.
Speed of response to a stimulus.
first officers, 81 short-haul pilots, 56 long-haul pilots, 75 hybrid pilots, and 62
glass cockpit aircraft pilots, who were examined using the F-JAS (Fleishman,
1992). Relevant factors found included time sharing, spatial orientation, selective
attention, perceptual speed, number facility, memorisation, visualisation, rate
control, control precision, response orientation, multi-limb coordination, reaction
time, auditory attention, speech recognition, night vision, far vision, glare
sensitivity, depth perception, peripheral vision, map reading, reading plans, stress
resistance, co-operation, communication, decision making, situational awareness,
leadership, self awareness, resistance to premature judgement, behavioural
flexibility, resilience, assertiveness, motivation, social sensitivity and oral fact
finding (Goeters et al., 2004).
Reasoning (Cognitive
abilities)
The logical consideration of information.
Civilian aviation
Commercial pilots (N=258) and matched, non-pilot controls completed a series of
cognitive, perceptual and verbal tests to examine what common skills existed in
commercial pilots. Found that the pilots performed significantly higher when
tested on logical reasoning (Boehm-Davis et al., 1997).
43 subject matter experts (experienced fighter pilots) from the United States,
Canada and Norway determined the relative importance of 27 characteristics for
fighter pilot performance. Sufficient agreement was found across the fighter
pilots of the three countries. The average ranking of the 27 characteristics studied
found that reasoning ranked the fourth most important characteristic (Carretta,
1993).
Resilience
(Interactive/social
skills)
Psychological resilience, capability for the
adaptation of an organism to adverse
conditions (for example, adaptation to
negative social conditions).
Job analysis of 141 European civilian airline pilots, consisting of 49 captains, 92
first officers, 81 short-haul pilots, 56 long-haul pilots, 75 hybrid pilots, and 62
glass cockpit aircraft pilots, who were examined using the F-JAS (Fleishman,
1992). Relevant factors found included time sharing, spatial orientation, selective
attention, perceptual speed, number facility, memorisation, visualisation, rate
control, control precision, response orientation, multi-limb coordination, reaction
time, auditory attention, speech recognition, night vision, far vision, glare
sensitivity, depth perception, peripheral vision, map reading, reading plans, stress
resistance, co-operation, communication, decision making, situational awareness,
leadership, self awareness, resistance to premature judgement, behavioural
flexibility, resilience, assertiveness, motivation, social sensitivity and oral fact
finding (Goeters et al., 2004).
Resistance to
premature judgement
(Interactive/social
skills)
Capacity for rational thought and the
capability to withhold judgement.
Suspension of judgement when
information is missing.
Job analysis of 141 European civilian airline pilots, consisting of 49 captains, 92
first officers, 81 short-haul pilots, 56 long-haul pilots, 75 hybrid pilots, and 62
glass cockpit aircraft pilots, who were examined using the F-JAS (Fleishman,
1992). Relevant factors found included time sharing, spatial orientation, selective
attention, perceptual speed, number facility, memorisation, visualisation, rate
control, control precision, response orientation, multi-limb coordination, reaction
time, auditory attention, speech recognition, night vision, far vision, glare
sensitivity, depth perception, peripheral vision, map reading, reading plans, stress
resistance, co-operation, communication, decision making, situational awareness,
leadership, self awareness, resistance to premature judgement, behavioural
flexibility, resilience, assertiveness, motivation, social sensitivity and oral fact
finding (Goeters et al., 2004).
Response
orientation/orienting
response
(Psychomotor abilities)
Immediate response to changes in the
environment (for example, a flash or loud
noise).
Deciding upon a movement in response to
different signals within the environment,
including the speed at which the correct
response begins.
Military aviation
Job analysis of 141 European civilian airline pilots, consisting of 49 captains, 92
first officers, 81 short-haul pilots, 56 long-haul pilots, 75 hybrid pilots, and 62
glass cockpit aircraft pilots, who were examined using the F-JAS (Fleishman,
1992). Relevant factors found included time sharing, spatial orientation, selective
attention, perceptual speed, number facility, memorisation, visualisation, rate
control, control precision, response orientation, multi-limb coordination, reaction
time, auditory attention, speech recognition, night vision, far vision, glare
sensitivity, depth perception, peripheral vision, map reading, reading plans, stress
resistance, co-operation, communication, decision making, situational awareness,
leadership, self awareness, resistance to premature judgement, behavioural
flexibility, resilience, assertiveness, motivation, social sensitivity and oral fact
finding (Goeters et al., 2004).
43 subject matter experts (experienced fighter pilots) from the United States,
Canada and Norway determined the relative importance of 27 characteristics for
fighter pilot performance. Sufficient agreement was found across the fighter
pilots of the three countries. The average ranking of the 27 characteristics studied
found that memorisation ranked the ninth most important characteristic
(Carretta, 1993).
Risk Taking
Undertaking an action in the hope of a
43 subject matter experts (experienced fighter pilots) from the United States,
potential outcome, given the chance for an
undesirable result.
Canada and Norway determined the relative importance of 27 characteristics for
fighter pilot performance. Sufficient agreement was found across the fighter
pilots of the three countries. The average ranking of the 27 characteristics studied
found that risk-taking ranked the sixteenth most important characteristic
(Carretta, 1993).
Selective Attention
(Cognitive abilities)
Capability of processing or reacting to a
specific stimuli while suppressing irrelevant
information when several stimulus occur
simultaneously.
Targeting of specific information while
inhibiting the processing of other
information.
Concentration upon a task without
distraction.
Military aviation
2000 flight cadets of Israeli air force, presented with 48 auditory messages
(composed of digit names and strings of words) in a dichotic listening task of
selective attention. Participants to detect digit names and consider channel
relevance. Omissions, intrusions and switching errors were recorded. Significantly
lower errors after two-years of training. Low correlations with other tests in pilot
selection battery, indicating independent dimensions (Gopher, 1982).
43 subject matter experts (experienced fighter pilots) from the United States,
Canada and Norway determined the relative importance of 27 characteristics for
fighter pilot performance. Sufficient agreement was found across the fighter
pilots of the three countries. The average ranking of the 27 characteristics studied
found that selective attention ranked the eighth most important characteristic
(Carretta, 1993).
Job analysis of 141 European civilian airline pilots, consisting of 49 captains, 92
first officers, 81 short-haul pilots, 56 long-haul pilots, 75 hybrid pilots, and 62
glass cockpit aircraft pilots, who were examined using the F-JAS (Fleishman,
1992). Relevant factors found included time sharing, spatial orientation, selective
attention, perceptual speed, number facility, memorisation, visualisation, rate
control, control precision, response orientation, multi-limb coordination, reaction
time, auditory attention, speech recognition, night vision, far vision, glare
sensitivity, depth perception, peripheral vision, map reading, reading plans, stress
resistance, co-operation, communication, decision making, situational awareness,
leadership, self awareness, resistance to premature judgement, behavioural
flexibility, resilience, assertiveness, motivation, social sensitivity and oral fact
finding (Goeters et al., 2004).
Self Awareness
(Interactive/social
skills)
Capacity for introspection and the
organisms’ recognition that it is separate
from the environment and other
organisms. Self-assessment of an
organisms’ own skills against norms or past
behaviour.
Job analysis of 141 European civilian airline pilots, consisting of 49 captains, 92
first officers, 81 short-haul pilots, 56 long-haul pilots, 75 hybrid pilots, and 62
glass cockpit aircraft pilots, who were examined using the F-JAS (Fleishman,
1992). Relevant factors found included time sharing, spatial orientation, selective
attention, perceptual speed, number facility, memorisation, visualisation, rate
control, control precision, response orientation, multi-limb coordination, reaction
time, auditory attention, speech recognition, night vision, far vision, glare
sensitivity, depth perception, peripheral vision, map reading, reading plans, stress
resistance, co-operation, communication, decision making, situational awareness,
leadership, self awareness, resistance to premature judgement, behavioural
flexibility, resilience, assertiveness, motivation, social sensitivity and oral fact
finding (Goeters et al., 2004).
Situational awareness
Perception or awareness of events within
Review of 200+ military aviation incidents, situational awareness was determined
(Interactive/social
skills)
the environment, an understanding of their
meaning and an understanding of how they
will change in future.
“The perception of the elements in the
environment within a volume of time and
space, the comprehension of their meaning
and the projection of their status in the
near future” (Endsley, 1988).
Can further be split into geographical
situational awareness, spatial/temporal
situational awareness, system situation
awareness, environmental situational
awareness, and tactical situational
awareness.
to be the main causal factor (Hartel, Smith & Prince, 1991).
43 subject matter experts (experienced fighter pilots) from the United States,
Canada and Norway determined the relative importance of 27 characteristics for
fighter pilot performance. Sufficient agreement was found across the fighter
pilots of the three countries. The average ranking of the 27 characteristics studied
found that situational awareness ranked the most important characteristic
(Carretta, 1993).
Job analysis of 141 European civilian airline pilots, consisting of 49 captains, 92
first officers, 81 short-haul pilots, 56 long-haul pilots, 75 hybrid pilots, and 62
glass cockpit aircraft pilots, who were examined using the F-JAS (Fleishman,
1992). Relevant factors found included time sharing, spatial orientation, selective
attention, perceptual speed, number facility, memorisation, visualisation, rate
control, control precision, response orientation, multi-limb coordination, reaction
time, auditory attention, speech recognition, night vision, far vision, glare
sensitivity, depth perception, peripheral vision, map reading, reading plans, stress
resistance, co-operation, communication, decision making, situational awareness,
leadership, self awareness, resistance to premature judgement, behavioural
flexibility, resilience, assertiveness, motivation, social sensitivity and oral fact
finding (Goeters et al., 2004).
Social sensitivity
Accurate perception and comprehension of
Job analysis of 141 European civilian airline pilots, consisting of 49 captains, 92
(Interactive/social
skills)
the behaviour, motivations and emotions
of other individuals.
first officers, 81 short-haul pilots, 56 long-haul pilots, 75 hybrid pilots, and 62
glass cockpit aircraft pilots, who were examined using the F-JAS (Fleishman,
1992). Relevant factors found included time sharing, spatial orientation, selective
attention, perceptual speed, number facility, memorisation, visualisation, rate
control, control precision, response orientation, multi-limb coordination, reaction
time, auditory attention, speech recognition, night vision, far vision, glare
sensitivity, depth perception, peripheral vision, map reading, reading plans, stress
resistance, co-operation, communication, decision making, situational awareness,
leadership, self awareness, resistance to premature judgement, behavioural
flexibility, resilience, assertiveness, motivation, social sensitivity and oral fact
finding (Goeters et al., 2004).
Sound localisation
(Sensory ability)
Capability to detect the direction of which
a sound originated.
The extended Fleishman job analysis survey F-JAS found that in the ratings of 141
pilots sound localisation was found to be normal in its relevance to civilian
aviation (Fleishman, 1997).
Spatial Orientation
(Cognitive Abilities)
Location of the self, relative to the
environment and objects within the
environment.
Military aviation
43 subject matter experts (experienced fighter pilots) from the United States,
Canada and Norway determined the relative importance of 27 characteristics for
fighter pilot performance. Sufficient agreement was found across the fighter
pilots of the three countries. The average ranking of the 27 characteristics studied
found that spatial orientation ranked the tenth most important characteristic
(Carretta, 1993).
Job analysis of 141 European civilian airline pilots, consisting of 49 captains, 92
first officers, 81 short-haul pilots, 56 long-haul pilots, 75 hybrid pilots, and 62
glass cockpit aircraft pilots, who were examined using the F-JAS (Fleishman,
1992). Relevant factors found included time sharing, spatial orientation, selective
attention, perceptual speed, number facility, memorisation, visualisation, rate
control, control precision, response orientation, multi-limb coordination, reaction
time, auditory attention, speech recognition, night vision, far vision, glare
sensitivity, depth perception, peripheral vision, map reading, reading plans, stress
resistance, co-operation, communication, decision making, situational awareness,
leadership, self awareness, resistance to premature judgement, behavioural
flexibility, resilience, assertiveness, motivation, social sensitivity and oral fact
finding (Goeters et al., 2004).
Speech
Recognition/Perceptio
n (Sensory abilities)
The hearing, interpretation and
understanding of spoken language.
Identification and understanding of human
speech.
Military aviation
Nixon et al., (1998) speech recognition of male and female voices during an
applied research study of aircraft cockpit noise conditions experienced in military
aviation were found to require improvement in any noise condition above normal
cruise noises. Female voices were more difficult to recognise in high noise
conditions than male voices.
Job analysis of 141 European civilian airline pilots, consisting of 49 captains, 92
first officers, 81 short-haul pilots, 56 long-haul pilots, 75 hybrid pilots, and 62
glass cockpit aircraft pilots, who were examined using the F-JAS (Fleishman,
1992). Relevant factors found included time sharing, spatial orientation, selective
attention, perceptual speed, number facility, memorisation, visualisation, rate
control, control precision, response orientation, multi-limb coordination, reaction
time, auditory attention, speech recognition, night vision, far vision, glare
sensitivity, depth perception, peripheral vision, map reading, reading plans, stress
resistance, co-operation, communication, decision making, situational awareness,
leadership, self awareness, resistance to premature judgement, behavioural
flexibility, resilience, assertiveness, motivation, social sensitivity and oral fact
finding (Goeters et al., 2004).
Speed of Closure
(Cognitive Abilities)
Speed at which visual gaps are filled in, in
order to perceive the whole object when
the whole object is not visible (for example,
a square that is missing a side can still be
understood to be a square).
Capability to combine and organise
information into meaningful patterns.
Commercial pilots (N=258) and matched, non-pilot controls completed a series of
cognitive, perceptual and verbal tests to examine what common skills existed in
commercial pilots. Found that the pilots performed significantly higher when
tested on speed of closure (Boehm-Davis et al., 1997).
Premature closure (deciding upon a course of action without the full information
of a situation available) is more likely under stress (Janis, 1982; Keinan, 1987),
Keinan & Friedland, 1987).
Stress resistance
(Interactive/social
skills)
Capacity of the body to respond to the
stressor, adapting to the demands of the
environment to achieve a goal or objective.
Job analysis of 141 European civilian airline pilots, consisting of 49 captains, 92
first officers, 81 short-haul pilots, 56 long-haul pilots, 75 hybrid pilots, and 62
glass cockpit aircraft pilots, who were examined using the F-JAS (Fleishman,
1992). Relevant factors found included time sharing, spatial orientation, selective
attention, perceptual speed, number facility, memorisation, visualisation, rate
control, control precision, response orientation, multi-limb coordination, reaction
time, auditory attention, speech recognition, night vision, far vision, glare
sensitivity, depth perception, peripheral vision, map reading, reading plans, stress
resistance, co-operation, communication, decision making, situational awareness,
leadership, self awareness, resistance to premature judgement, behavioural
flexibility, resilience, assertiveness, motivation, social sensitivity and oral fact
finding (Goeters et al., 2004).
Time Sharing/Dual
task performance
(Cognitive abilities)
When it is required for two tasks to be
performed in rapid succession response
times for the second task are often found
to increase in the time taken as the gap
between the presentation of the two
stimuli/tasks decreases.
Capacity to shift between activities or
information.
Military aviation
Student and instructor pilots. Dual task paradigm using a ground controlled
approach as the primary task and memory search as a subsidiary task (Crosby &
Parkinson, 1979).
43 subject matter experts (experienced fighter pilots) from the United States,
Canada and Norway determined the relative importance of 27 characteristics for
fighter pilot performance. Sufficient agreement was found across the fighter
pilots of the three countries. The average ranking of the 27 characteristics studied
found that time sharing ranked the sixth most important characteristic (Carretta,
1993).
Job analysis of 141 European civilian airline pilots, consisting of 49 captains, 92
first officers, 81 short-haul pilots, 56 long-haul pilots, 75 hybrid pilots, and 62
glass cockpit aircraft pilots, who were examined using the F-JAS (Fleishman,
1992). Relevant factors found included time sharing, spatial orientation, selective
attention, perceptual speed, number facility, memorisation, visualisation, rate
control, control precision, response orientation, multi-limb coordination, reaction
time, auditory attention, speech recognition, night vision, far vision, glare
sensitivity, depth perception, peripheral vision, map reading, reading plans, stress
resistance, co-operation, communication, decision making, situational awareness,
leadership, self awareness, resistance to premature judgement, behavioural
flexibility, resilience, assertiveness, motivation, social sensitivity and oral fact
finding (Goeters et al., 2004).
Visualisation
(Cognitive abilities)
Capability to create a mental
representation of an object in different
positions or rearranged parts.
Military aviation
43 subject matter experts (experienced fighter pilots) from the United States,
Canada and Norway determined the relative importance of 27 characteristics for
fighter pilot performance. Sufficient agreement was found across the fighter
pilots of the three countries. The average ranking of the 27 characteristics studied
found that visualisation ranked the twenty-first most important characteristic
(Carretta, 1993).
Job analysis of 141 European civilian airline pilots, consisting of 49 captains, 92
first officers, 81 short-haul pilots, 56 long-haul pilots, 75 hybrid pilots, and 62
glass cockpit aircraft pilots, who were examined using the F-JAS (Fleishman,
1992). Relevant factors found included time sharing, spatial orientation, selective
attention, perceptual speed, number facility, memorisation, visualisation, rate
control, control precision, response orientation, multi-limb coordination, reaction
time, auditory attention, speech recognition, night vision, far vision, glare
sensitivity, depth perception, peripheral vision, map reading, reading plans, stress
resistance, co-operation, communication, decision making, situational awareness,
leadership, self awareness, resistance to premature judgement, behavioural
flexibility, resilience, assertiveness, motivation, social sensitivity and oral fact
finding (Goeters et al., 2004).
Visual colour
discrimination
(Sensory abilities)
Capability to detect and/or match
differences between the shades and
brightness of colours.
The extended Fleishman job analysis survey F-JAS found that in the ratings of 141
pilots visual colour discrimination was found to be normal in its relevance to
civilian aviation (Fleishman, 1997).
Working memory
(Cognitive abilities)
Limited capacity cognitive system
responsible for holding information
temporarily. Capacity to manipulate
information temporarily held.
Attentional and working memory limitations impact upon situational awareness
in aviation settings. Developing sufficient long-term memory stores, automaticity
of actions (as a result of training and experience) and goal-directed processing
are necessary to overcome these limitations (Endsley, 1999).
Written
comprehension
(Cognitive abilities)
Understanding of written sentences and
words.
Capability to read and understand written
information.
Military aviation
43 subject matter experts (experienced fighter pilots) from the United States,
Canada and Norway determined the relative importance of 27 characteristics for
fighter pilot performance. Sufficient agreement was found across the fighter
pilots of the three countries. The average ranking of the 27 characteristics studied
found that written comprehension ranked the twenty-fifth most important
characteristic (Carretta, 1993).
Written expression
(Cognitive abilities)
Capability to communicate information
effectively using written language.
Capability to communicate with others
Military aviation
43 subject matter experts (experienced fighter pilots) from the United States,
Canada and Norway determined the relative importance of 27 characteristics for
fighter pilot performance. Sufficient agreement was found across the fighter
pilots of the three countries. The average ranking of the 27 characteristics studied
using understandable words and
sentences.
found that written-expression ranked the twenty-seventh most important
characteristic (Carretta, 1993).
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Article
Full-text available
Background A considerable percentage of flight crew reports to be fatigued regularly. This is partly caused by irregular and long working hours and the crossing of time zones. It has been shown that persistent fatigue can lead to health problems, impaired performance during work, and a decreased work-private life balance. It is hypothesized that an intervention consisting of tailored advice regarding exposure to daylight, optimising sleep, physical activity, and nutrition will lead to a reduction of fatigue in airline pilots compared to a control group, which receives a minimal intervention with standard available information. Methods/design The study population will consist of pilots of a large airline company. All pilots who posses a smartphone or tablet, and who are not on sick leave for more than four weeks at the moment of recruitment, will be eligible for participation. In a two-armed randomised controlled trial, participants will be allocated to an intervention group that will receive the tailored advice to optimise exposure to daylight, sleep, physical activity and nutrition, and a control group that will receive standard available information. The intervention will be applied using a smartphone application and a website, and will be tailored on flight- and participant-specific characteristics. The primary outcome of the study is perceived fatigue. Secondary outcomes are need for recovery, duration and quality of sleep, dietary and physical activity behaviours, work-private life balance, general health, and sickness absence. A process evaluation will be conducted as well. Outcomes will be measured at baseline and at three and six months after baseline. Discussion This paper describes the development of an intervention for airline pilots, consisting of tailored advice (on exposure to daylight and sleep-, physical activity, and nutrition) applied into a smartphone application. Further, the paper describes the design of the randomised controlled trial evaluating the effect of the intervention on fatigue, health and sickness absence. If proven effective, the intervention can be applied as a new and practical tool in fatigue management. Results are expected at the end of 2013. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register: NTR2722
Book
This book covers the application of psychological principles and techniques to situations and problems of aviation. It offers an overview of the role psychology plays in aviation, system design, selection and training of pilots, characteristics of pilots, safety, and passenger behavior. It covers concepts of psychological research and data analysis and shows how these tools are used in the development of new psychological knowledge. The new edition offers material on physiological effects on pilot performance, a new chapter on aviation physiology, more material on fatigue, safety culture, mental health and safety, as well as practical examples and exercises after each chapter.
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Mindfulness is a way of regulating one's attention that can be cultivated through the practice of meditation. It includes bringing one's complete attention to the experiences occurring in the present moment in a nonjudgmental or accepting way. The empirical literature shows good support for the efficacy of mindfulness training in reducing symptoms and improving well-being in many clinical and nonclinical populations. Furthermore, data also suggest that mindfulness training can also enhance the ability of airline pilots to gauge their readiness to fly.
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Human error continues to be implicated in the vast majority of aviation accidents. Yet, most accident investigation and reporting systems are not currently designed around any theoretical framework of human error. One reason may be the discontinuity between classical theories of human error and the practical application of these theoretical approaches in accident investigation. The Taxonomy of Unsafe Operations presented here bridges the gap between theory and practice by providing field investigators with a user-friendly, common-sense framework from which accident investigations can be conducted and human causal factors classified. This taxonomy draws upon traditional models of human error to account for human accident causal factors, including the condition of operators and supervisory error. A detailed description of the taxonomy is provided, as well as a discussion of the benefits it provides the field of accident investigation and prevention.
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Performances of instructor pilots and student pilots were compared in a dual task paradigm combining a ground controlled approach (GCA) as the primary task and memory search as the subsidiary task. In the first experiment the difference in subsidiary task performance between single and dual conditions was greater for a group of students in the middle phase of T-37B training than for a group of experienced instructor pilots. Between-group differences on the search task were restricted to the y-intercept of the function relating reaction time to memory set size. It was concluded that the effect of experience on the type of flight task examined here is to reduce the processing demands of encoding and (or) responding. In the second experiment a group of student pilots who had just completed T-37B training was run in the same task to determine the sensitivity of the dual task to less disparate amounts of flying experience. The difference in memory search performance between single and dual conditions for the late-phase students was quite similar to that of the instructor pilots and was significantly less than that of mid-phase students. That dual task performance discriminated between student groups differing in only four weeks of training suggests that the dual task paradigm has considerable potential value in providing an objective measure of flight proficiency.
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This book reviews recent efforts to deal with taxonomic issues in the behavioral sciences. Some of the material is based on an extensive research program directed by the first author. The book updates this work and integrates it with recent related research. The program attempted to develop and evaluate systems for describing and classifying tasks that could improve predictions about human performance. Emphasis is on a common task-descriptive language to integrate the human performance research literature and improve generalizations of research findings. The book brings together ideas from such diverse fields as human learning, experimental and differential psychology, task analysis, and human factors technology. These fields in one form or another are concerned with the prediction of human task performance, but there has so far been a lack of communication across these fields. This book provides the needed integration. The effort represents one of the few attempts to bridge the gap between basic research on human performance and the applications of the research to real-world problems. The book deals with conceptual and methodological issues in developing useful taxonomic structures in various areas of the behavioral sciences, and relates these to developments in other sciences. Innovative efforts in areas of human performance are reviewed and evaluated according to a variety of criteria. The world of human tasks is not impossibly diverse and common task dimensions that allow improved predictions of human performance can be identified. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)