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Comparative performance of six mint genotypes for yield and quality

  • Bangabandhu sheikh mujibur Raman agricultural University, Bangladesh,gazipur


Mint Yield, Dry matter, Oil content
Ann. BangladeshAgric. (2016) 20(t E 2); 107-il3
Keywords: Mint yield, dry matter, oil content.
Mint (Mentha sp.), commonly known as
pudina is a perennial plant that belongs to
the family Lamiaceae and has approximately
25 species (Harley and Brighton, lgi.l.).
The major species are peppermint (Mentha
piperita), spearmint (M. spicata), wild mint
(M artensis), pennyroyal (M. pulegium),
and berg mint (M citrate). Peppermint
and spearmint are the most commercially
exploited species of mint (Sharangdhar,
2008). Mint is native to the Mediterranean and
Western Asia, mints interbreed often makes it
difficult for even an expert to distinguish all
the varieties. All mints contain the volatile oil
menthol, which gives mint that characteristic
cooling, cleansing feeling (Curci, 2012).
Mint is also rich in Vitamins A and C and
also contains smaller amounts of Vitamin B..
ISSN 1025-482X (Print)
2521-5477 (Online)
The chemical compound menthol, which is
obtained from mint oil, is well known for its
healing properties on the chest and respiratory
system (Anon., 2Ol2).
Mint is a storehouse of medicinal properties.
It is an air freshener, mouth freshener, antacid,
helps in digestive problems, soothes frayed
neryes and may even cure cancer. Many people
due to rare chances ofside effects prefer herbal
remedies and their safer products. Mint is
widely used in commercially manufactured
products, cooking and medicine for its aromatic
and flavoursome qualities. Peppennint, one of
the most popular species of the mint plant,
can be found in toothpaste, chewing gum,
mouthwash, soaps, sweets, balms or creams,
cough medicine, etc. (Alvi et al., 2001).It is
used in medicine, and cosmetic industry all
over the world including Bangladesh.
M. A. Hoque. and T. N. Sigma
An experiment was conducted at the research field and laboratory of the Department
of Horticulture, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural university
(BSMRAU) during June to December 2014 to evaluate comparative performance of
six mint (Mentha sp) genotypes for high yield and quality. cuttings of previously
selected six genotypes of mint (viz., Mp-1, Mp-4, Mp-5, Mp-9, Mp-1g, and Mp-19)
were used as plant materials. The highest canopy diameter was recorded from Mp_4
(7315.3 cm2) followed by that from Mp-9 (i213.4 cm2). plant height ranged from 49.1
to 76.3 cm. The highest foliage yield (2.93 kg/m,) was recorded from Mp-1, which was
closely followed by that from Mp-9 (2.73 kglmr) and Mp-4 (2.66 kglmr). More or less
similar results were obtained in case of dry matter. The highest oil content was found in
MP-9 (2.3%), which was statistically similar to that of Mp -4 (2.1%) and Mp-5 (2.1%).
Therefore, MP-1 may be selected for foliage production, Mp-4 for oil yield, and Mp-9
for both foliage and oil production.
Department of Horticulture, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipw 1706,
Bangladesh. -Corresponding author: azizttl@,bsmra:u
The United States is the world's main
producer of mint oil, which is extracted
mainly by steam distillation and solvent
extraction (Gupta, 1991). In Asia, India,
Afghanistan, and Pakistan are main producers
of mint (Sharangdhar, 2008). Considering the
importance of this high value profitable crops
and world demand, recently, Afghanistan has
completed a project on mint with the help
of ICARDA. They have collected several
genotypes of mint and selected high yielding
cultivar that yielded 13.75 tons per hectare
foliage compared to a yield range of 5.35-
11.40 tons per hectare in other cultivars. It was
calculated a net average proflt of US$ 8,515/
ha and that was much higher than average
income from opium poppies. They have also
produced mint oil, mint water, and dried
rnint and sold in domestic and international
market under the project activities using
simple distillation plant. Moreover, they have
trained and engaged 6,340 female members of
different families in producing different mint
products from which the females earned for
their families and help towards empowetment
In Bangladesh, mint is grown scattered all
over the country. Although, it has immense
impoftance and demand in different cosmetic
and medicine industries as well as to the
consumers, but there is no statistics available
in this country about area and production
of mint. Presently. mint oil is imported
from abroad for using in industries. The
Department of Horticulture, BSMRAIJ has
collection of 22 genotypes of mint, which
were collected through a MoST funded
project in the year 2012-13 from different
parls of Bangladesh (Iloque, 2013). These
collected genotypes have been maintained and
comparative performance of six mint genotypes
characterized in the previous years, and six
genotypes have been selected as promising for
cultivation. Moreover, in-vitro propagation
protocol has also been developed from those
project activities. Therefore, it is needed to
evaluate those promising genotypes of mint
and standardize their production package.
Considering the above facts, the present
investigation has been undertaken to evaluate
the selected six mint genotypes with a view
to flnding out suitable one for commercial
Materials and Methods
The experiment was conducted at the research
fleld of the Department of Horliculture,
BSMRAU, Gazipur during June 2014 to
December 2014. Six selected mint genotypes
were evaluated to select the best adapted
one(s) to the local environmental conditions
for high yield and quality. In this regard,
cuttings of previously selected genotypes of
mint viz., MP-1, MP-4, MP-5. MP-9, MP-l8,
and MP-19 were used as plant materials. The
upper portions of the aerial stem with at least
five nodes were used as planting materials.
The experiment was designed following the
Randomized Complete Block Design with
three replications, where the cuttings were
planted at a spacing of 45 cm x 45 cm on
05 June 2014. Before planting, plots were
ferlilized @ 120 kg N/ha, 50 kg P/ha, and 40
kg K/ha (Rahman, 2014).lrrigation, weeding,
and other intercultural operations were done
as per necessity to raising a good crop. The
unit plot size was 1.8 m x 1.2 m. Harvesting
was done at 60,90, and 120 DAP. Data on
growth habit, canopy diameter, plant height,
branch density, main stem diameter, stem
color, stem hair, hair density, leaf length, leaf
width, leaf color, leaf shape, foliage yield,
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and brar
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M. A. Hoque and T. N. Sigma
dry matter and oil content were recorded.
Data on different qualitative parameters
were collected following draft descriptor
list of Mentlta piperita L. (Anon., 2}ll).
Soxhlet apparatus was used to extract mint oil
according to the method described by Almeida
et al. (2012), where n-hexene was used as
solvent. The collected data were analyzed
using MSTATC-C program and means were
separated using DMRT.
Results and Discussion
Grou,th habit, canopy diameter, plant height,
and branch density in different genotypes of
mint are presented in Table 1. Among six
studied genotypes, flve genotypes produced
spreading type and only one produced erect
type plant. Canopy diameter in the genotypes
varied signiflcantly. Canopy diameter was
recorded highest in the genotype }r',p-4 (7315.3
cm2), which was statistically similar with the
canopy diameter of MP-9 (7213.4 cm2) but
significantly differed from other genotypes.
Canopy diameter is an important criterion
for a crop as it determines the spacing of that
particular crop. Crop that has higher canopy
needs higher spacing for producing maximum
yield. Canopy diameter was the lowest in the
genotype MP-1 (1819.0 cm2). plant height
among the genotypes also varied significantly
and ranged from 49.1 cm (Mp-18) to l6.3cm
(MP-4). The highest plant height was found
in the genotype MP-4 (76.3 cm), which was
statistically similar with the height of Mp-9
(66.3 cm), but significantly differed from
others. Hoque (2013) also reported to have
more or less similar plant height (25.7 cm
to 84.3 cm), which authenticated the present
findings. Islam et al. (2003) reported to have
a variable plant height using different levels
of NPK fertilizers. Branch density also varied
among the genotypes. The highest plant
density (7.0) was recorded in the genotype
MP-19 and the lowest branch density (3.0)
was recorded in the genotypes Mp-4, Mp-
9, and MP-18 (Table l). Branch density is
an important factor as higher branch density
ensures higher amount of leaves, which is
expected in a leafi, crop like mint.
The highest diameter of main stem (4.7
mm) were recorded in the genotype Mp-9,
which was statistically similar to Mp-4 (4.5
mm) and MP-18 (4.1 mm), but significantly
differed with other genotypes. Stem color
in the genotypes were purple, violet, purple
Table 1. Growth habit, canopy diameter, plant height, and branch density in six different
genotypes of mint
Genotype Branch densitv
1819.0 c
1315.3 a
3771.0 b
12t3.4 a
2015.0 c
55.5 bc
76.3 a
5s.7 b
66.3 ab
49.1 c
5.0 b
3.0 c
5.0 b
3.0 c
3.0 c
7.0 a
F-value 11.9
,< 13.4
)k 6.6
Means followed by same letter(s) in a column do not differ tigrin;;tly;tDMRT
green, and green. Stem hair was found absent
in all the genotypes except MP-18. Stem hair
density of MP-18 was found dense (Table 2).
Leaf characters of different mint genotypes
are presented in Table 3" Leaf color in MP-4
was dark green, MP-1, and MP-5 was light
green, while in others, it was green. Length
of leaf varied from 4.1to 8.7 cm. The highest
leaf length was found in the genotype MP-4
(B 1 cm), which was statistically similar
with the length of MP-9 (7.6 cm) and MP-18
(8.0cm) but significantly differed from the
others. The highest width of leaf was observed
in the genotype MP-l (2.9 cm) and that was
statistically similar with other genotypes
except MP-5 (2.3 cm). Variable shape of
leaves was produced by different genotypes.
However, leaf shape in MP-18 was lanceolate,
MP-l and MP-5 was ovate-oblong, MP-9 was
ovate-lanceolate, MP-19 was ovate, and in
MP-4 was oblong-lanceolate (Table 3).
Foliage yield, dry matter and oil content
in different mint genotypes are presented
in Table 4. It is revealed from the table that
foliage yield per plant ranged from 312.59 to
536.79. The highest foliage yield per plant
was recorded in the genotype MP-9 (536.79),
3.4 c
4.5 ab
3.2 c
4.1 a
4.1 a
3.9 bc
comparative perfotmance of six mint genofypes
which was statistically similar to the foliage
yieldof MP-1 (519.2g) andMP-4 (483.3g)but
significantly differed from other genotypes.
Likewise, foliage yield (kg/m2) also varied
signiflcantly and ranged from 1.96 kg/m2 to
2.93 kglm2 (Table 4). This differed with a
project completion reporl, where the recorded
foliage yield was found to range from 2.67
kg/m2 to 6.87 kglm2 in different local mint
genotypes (Anon., 2008). The difference in
yield might be due to locality, production
technique, season, management practice. and
prevailing environment. Hoque et al. (2015)
recorded more or less similar yield in different
mint genotypes, which supported the present
findings. Kattimani (2000) recorded to have
aL average of 28.36 mtlha total biomass yield
in mint, where they used 8-9 cm long runner
cuttings bearing 2-3 pair of small leaves as
planting material. Moreover, he used 60 cm
row spacing, which was different from the
present investigation.
Dry matter (%) of leaf in the studied genotypes
also varied signiflcantly. The highest leaf dry
matter was recorded in the genotype MP-1
(19.3%), which was statistically similar to
that of MP-9 (17.5%), MP-18 (l9.loh), and
Purple green
\1 .- :,
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Table 2. Main stem diameter, stem color, stem hair and stem hair density in six different
genotypes of mint
Genotype Stem hair density \IP-,
\ {D
\11 --
\ {D a
\1t __
c\' ,
F-value t2.1
Means followed by same letter(s) in a column do not differ significantly by DMRT
..1 1
M. A. Hoque and T. N. Sigma 111
Table 3' Color, length, width of fully grown leaf and length of petiole in six different mint
Genotype Leaf shape
Light green
Dark green
Light green
8.1 a
7.6 a
8.0 a
2.9 a
2.6 ab
2.8 a
2.6 ab
2.8 a
Color of leaf Length of leaf (cm) Width of leaf (cm)
F-value 9.6
i( t0.2
!gr but
*ith a
t ).67
I mint
ace in
e- and
, have
; rield
'as as
i-l cm
r the
rf dry
\{P- 1
L:.r to
r. and
MP-19 (182%) but signiflcantly differed with
other genotypes (Table 4). Islam (2013) found
variable dry matter in mint by using different
spacings and planting materials. In case of
oil content, a signiflcant variation was found
among the genotypes and it ranged from
l.l to 2.3Yo. The genotype Mp-19 produced
the highest oil content (23%), which was
statistically similar to Mp-4 (2.1%) and Mp-5
(2.1%) and significantly differed from that of
other genotypes. This result slightly differed
from the flndings reported by Islam et al.
(2003). They obtained a range of 0.75- I.g2%
oil content in Mint. This discrepancy might
be due to differences of cultivars, locations,
management practices, nutrient content of
plants, age of plant, and many other factors
(Hoque, 2013). Yaseen et al. (2000) reported
to have low oil production in different
cultivars of mint at closer spacing. Whereas,
Ali et al. (1999) found that plants harvested
repeatedly whenever they attained a height of
15.0 cm produced maximum leaf dry matter
and oil content in mint. Srivastava et al.
(2000) reported that the harvest of immature
or over mafure mint plants gave lower
yields of oil, which had higher percentages
of inferior terpenoids. Vikrant et al. (2004)
obtained maximum mint oil when they applied
nitrogen @160 kg N,4ra. Kumar et al. (1999)
Oil content
Table 4. Foliage yield, dry matter, and oil content in six different mint genotypes
519.2 ab
483.3 ab
312.5 c
536.7 a
2.93 a
2.66 a
1.97 b
2.73 a
1.96 b
19.3 a
16.1 bc
14.5 c
17.5 ab
l9.l a
18.2 ab
1.3 c
2.3 a
1.1 d
Foliage yield/
plant (g) Foliage yield
F-value tl.2
ik 11.5
Means followed by same letter(s) in a column ao not a@
and Vema et al. (2010) also recorded varied
amount of oil in difl'erent types of mint.
On the basis of above results and discussion,
it may be concluded that the genotypes MP-1,
MP-4, MP-9, andMP-19 maybeputto further
evaluation in RYT for release as varieties.
MP-l and MP-19 may be considered for
foliage production and MP-4 and MP-9 may
be considered for oil extraction.
The authors thankfully acknowledge the
Research Wing of Bangabandhu Sheikh
Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University,
Gazipur 1706 for funding through RMC
project to conduct the research work.
Ali, M. S., D. Yazdani, B. H. Naghdi, M. Ahwazi
and F. Nazari. 1999. Effect of nitrogen and
phosphorus fertilizer levels and harvesting
schedule on dry matter and oil yield in
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Almeida, P. P., N. Mezzomo and S. R. S. Ferreira.
2012. Extraction of Mentha spicata L. volatile
compounds: Evaluation of process parameters
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Techno l. 5(2): 548-559.
Alvi, M. N., S. Ahmad and K. Rehman. 2001.
Preparation of menthol crystals from mint-
(Mentha arvensis'). Int. J. Agri. Biol. 3(4):
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information on the nutritional value of mint
and ideas for use. (Available in: http://www. herb-guide/mint.html ;
retrieved on I I /l 0/20 I 4).
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of mint as a viable alternative livelihood in
East and North East of Afghanistan". RALF-
02-11. Ministry of Agriculture, L"rigation and
Livestock (MAIL), and Kabul University.
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Anonymous. 2011. Draft descriptor list Mentha
piperita L. u'orking group on medicinal and
aromatic plants, November 2011 . European
Cooperative Programme for plant Genetic
Resou'ces (ECPGR) Rome, Italy. Pp. 1-10.
Curci, C. 2012. Things you didn't know about
mint but should have (Available in: http://
www. s eni o ry e a r s - c om/mint " hlml, R etriev ed on
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Gupta, R. 1991. Agrotechnology of medicinal
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Medicinal Plant Indttstry. Florida, CRC Press,
USA. Pp. 43 51.
Harley, R. M. and C. A. Brinhton. 1971.
Chromosome numbers in the genus MenthaL.
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Mint (Mentha sp.) genctQpes in Bangladesh".
Minsitry of Science & Technology and
Depafiment of Horticulture, BSMRAU,
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Hoque, M. A., R. Rumman, K. T. Akter, M.
T. I. Choudhury and M. W. Faisal. 2015.
Morphologic al char acterization and evaluation
of twenty two mint genotypes. Research &
Reviews: J. Crop Sci. Technol. 4(1):4-12.
Islam, A., K. T. Osman and M. Rahman. 2003.
Effect of N, P, and K fertilizers on growth
and herb and oil yield of Mentha arvensis in
Bangladesh. J. Medicinal Aromat. Pl. Sci.
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on yield and quality of mint- An unpublished
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Bangabandhu Sheik:h Mujibur Rahman
Agricultural University, Gaziprr 17 06.
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R. P. Bansal and S. Sharma. 1999. Screening
r3 !:
Sl-iai.,: _-
Slir ,..,
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Full-text available
Mint (Mentha spicata L.) is a European aromatic plant, with its essential oil used in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is important for natural products, because it is residue free and preserves thermolabile compounds and product characteristics. The aim of this work was to obtain mint essential oil by sub-/supercritical extraction, with and without modifier and in different operational conditions, by hydro-distillation and by Soxhlet with different solvents. The results indicated the SFE highest yield (2.38%w/w) was obtained at 50°C and 300bar, with the crossover of yield isotherms occurring between 140 and 170bar. When using a cosolvent for SFE, the ethanol showed the highest yield, compared to ethyl acetate. The mint essential oil was rich in compounds with therapeutic activities and several substances of industrial interest, such as carvone, cineol, and pulegone, presenting also good antioxidant activity performance. KeywordsMint–Supercritical fluid extraction–Chemical profile–Antioxidant activity
The result of a field experiment conducted in western Uttar Pradesh at J. V. (P. G.) College, Baraut on Japanese mint showed that nitrogen application significantly enhanced the oil yield of Japanese mint. Cutting management also had significant effect on oil yield, where harvesting done 130 days after planting gave maximum oil yield with all the levels of nitrogen. Maximum profit of Rs. 43236 was recorded at 160 kg N/ha at 130 days after planting. It has also given highest B:C ratio of 3.60 and link relative index of 3.42. An application of 120 kg N/ha and harvesting at 130 days after planting gave a profit of Rs. 34440/ha with B:C ratio of 3.12 and link relative index of 2.89 as the second best treatment, whereas control (no nitrogen) recorded lowest value of profit, B:C and link relative index.
The essential oil yields and expression of related characters were compared for seven cultivar genotypes of menthol mint Mentha arvensis using two methods of planting in the winter rabi - summer season (October to July) in a subtropical agroclimatic environment. The crops of all the cultivars were planted in the field by (1) sowing of suckers on 2 January and (2) transplanting germinated pieces of sucker at different times between 17 March to 14 April. Staggering of transplanting time up to 7 April did not affect oil yields and the related plant growth properties of mint crops. The oil yields of the crops planted on 14 April were lower by about 30%. In the early sucker planted crops, the oil yields were about 30% higher than those obtained from the transplanted crops Of 17 March to 7 April and about double that obtained from crops transplanted on 14 April. The oil yields from the crops of the superior genotype Kosi were equal to or higher than the corresponding means of all genotypes under both planting methods. The oil yield from the crops of Kosi genotype obtained by sucker sowing method was estimated as 333 kg ha-1. The corresponding average yield from the crops of this genotype obtained by transplanting of germinated suckers between 17 March and 7 April was about 293 kg ha-1 and that from the crop transplanted on 14 April was 218 kg ha-1. With the Kosi genotype, the latter two types of transplanted mint crops gave oil yields lower only by about 12% and 33% compared with the long-duration sucker-sown crop. It is concluded that a crop of mustard (brassica), Bengalgram (chickpea) or wheat sown between October and November and harvested between early March to middle of April could be taken before cropping of the Kosi genotype of M. arvensis by plantlet transplanting. These results demonstrate the potential of the following rotation of crops in the sub-tropical environments: from June/July/August to October/November (kharif cropping season), rice, maize, sorghum or pigeonpea; from November/December to February/March, mustard and Bengalgram or from November/December to April (rabi cropping season), wheat; from March/April to June/July (zaid cropping season), transplanted menthol mint.
One hundred and fifty-seven chromosome numbers of a range of taxa from both hemispheres are reported in the genus Mentha. Plants of both wild and cultivated origin have been sampled, including hybrids, some of which have been synthesized from known parents. Some of the causes of the great taxonomic complexity of the group are discussed and the need for accurate and unambiguous identification of the plant material is stressed. There is a critical review of the chromosome numbers in relation to their taxonomy, with a discussion on probable basic numbers. The most useful areas of future research are indicated.
A guide to mint with information on the nutritional value of mint and ideas for use
  • Anonymous
Anonymous. 2012. A guide to mint with information on the nutritional value of mint and ideas for use. (Available in: http://www. herb-guide/mint.html ; retrieved on I I /l 0/20 I 4).