A Question for Scientists in Tissue Physiology
Independent Researcher, UK
*Corresponding author: S Foote, Independent Researcher, UK, Tel: 07972537513; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received date: March 06, 2018; Accepted date: April 11, 2018; Published date: April 18, 2018
Copyright: © 2018 Foote S. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use,
distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
is short informal article is intended to raise the issue of evidence
for a signicant oversight, in the published studies about a particular
tissue growth restriction. ese studies currently fail to consider a
growth control that according to the accepted science
must play a central role. So here I would like to ask scientists if there is
any evidence that this particular tissue is a special case and so not
subject to this widely accepted fundamental
According to the accepted science, all normal (non-cancerous)
tissue growth in vivo, is ultimately restricted by the external resistance
based growth control .
According to this, external pressure based growth controls have an
overruling action upon all normal (non-cancerous) tissue growth
. It does not matter what is driving new tissue growth
certain degree of external resistance will switch this o.
As demonstrated in the study linked above, increased external
pressure restricts new growth, and reduced external pressure allows
increased new growth.
Hair follicles regularly go through a cycle of regression then re-
enlargement "within" the dermal tissue. Research in this eld seeks to
understand why the size of the hair follicles created by this process can
vary greatly and in particular why the new follicle growth is oen
severely restricted. Yet nowhere in the published studies is there any
consideration of the normal pressure based spatial growth controls that
according to the accepted science must apply in this situation (Figure
Figure 1: Hair growth stages.
Hair production is closely linked to the size enlarging anagen
follicles ultimately achieve, and the oen restricted growth of follicles
is known to be responsible for the common cases of hair loss (Figures 2
Figure 2: Scalp hair types.
Figure 3: Time-lapse: Miniaturization of hair follicles in baldness.
Once the inuence of pressure based external growth controls are
considered in changes in follicle size and hair growth, a clear common
factor is identied in the recognised data in the eld. I discuss this and
its wider implications in my main article with further references .
To sum this up, the indication is that hair follicles have evolved in
mammals, to have their maximum size potential adjusted by small
pressure changes in the dermal tissue. is has important purpose in
evolution as I discuss in my article.
Journal of Tissue Science &
Engineering Foote, J Tissue Sci Eng 2018, 9:1
Perspective Open Access
J Tissue Sci Eng, an open access journal
Volume 9 • Issue 1 • 1000217
In the modern Human condition, all the factors known to increase
hair follicle size and hair production, all reduce external tissue pressure
by one action or another. is includes Minoxidil, anti-inammatories,
low level lasers and lately Latanoprost. is drug was actually
developed to reduce tissue pressure in cases of Glaucoma .
All the known changes in the surrounding dermal tissue in cases of
hair follicle miniaturisation are fully consistent with increased tissue
uid pressure, as in lymphedema. ese include signicant
inammatory changes, hypoxia, increased brotic tissue formation,
and signicantly increased sweating capacity [4-7].
is external inuence also explains why certain transplantation
procedures succeed, whilst others fail. In my opinion assumptions have
been made about the results of hair transplantation, as I argue with
references in my main article. Most of the current cell based research is
based upon one of these assumptions. It is thought that because large
so called androgen resistant follicles survive in bald areas when
transplanted, cells from these will also grow large new follicles in bald
e big dierence here is that in transplantation the follicles are
"already" large; they are not required to grow in the bald scalp
conditions. Any cell based treatment requires the follicles produced to
enlarge in the higher pressure conditions of the bald scalp, and these
follicles will not be immune to the normal pressure based spatial
Spatial growth controls are overruling. It does not matter if hair
follicles are created or modied to initiate growth, or increase their
internal growth potential, if external pressure conditions dictate
otherwise, the expected growth will not happen.
is factor impacts negatively upon all the current research
intended to create new hair follicles, initiate existing follicle
enlargement, or boost the amount of follicle enlargement in Humans.
is indicated scalp condition in humans, also explains why the results
and mouse studies in this eld, and are just not relevant to
the Human condition.
In my opinion this currently overlooked dermal interaction, also
oers an important insight into mammalian and modern Human
evolution and disease. is includes the indication for a signicant role
of the male hormone Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), in lymphatic
function and Female susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. is
indication could be easily tested by those in the position to do so, as I
describe in my main article.
Scientists in tissue engineering are aware of the inuence of spatial
considerations in the development and guidance of new tissue growth
. Hence the use of scaolds to inuence this process .
e indication here that hair follicles have evolved to use variable
spatial conditions in their growth cycle, suggests they may be
convenient as an
model for further study in tissue engineering.
So given the important implications of this growth control in this
context, I would repeat my basic question to scientists. Is there any
evidence that hair follicle enlargement is not signicantly inuenced
by the normal pressure based spatial growth controls?
3. Blume-Peytavi U, Lönnfors S, Hillmann K, Garcia-Bartels N (2012) A
randomized double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study to assess the
ecacy of a 24 week topical treatment by latanoprost 0.1% on hair growth
and pigmentation in healthy volunteers with androgenetic alopecia. J Am
Acad Dermatol 66: 794-800.
4. Swezey L (2011) Lymphedema – Overview and etiology.
5. Zampell JC, Yan A, Elhadad S, Avraham T, Weitman E, et al. (2012)
CD4(+) cells regulate brosis and lymphangiogenesis in response to
lymphatic uid stasis. PLoS One 7: e49940.
6. Goldman BE, Fisher DM, Ringler SL (1996) Transcutaneous PO2 of the
scalp in male pattern baldness: A new piece to the puzzle. Plast Reconstr
Surg 97: 1109-1116.
7. Cabanac M, Brinnel H (1988) Beards, baldness and sweat secretion. Eur J
Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 58: 39-46.
8. Chan BP, Leong KW (2008) Scaolding in tissue engineering: General
approaches and tissue-specic considerations. Eur Spine J 17: 467-479.
Citation: Foote S (2018) A Question for Scientists in Tissue Physiology. J Tissue Sci Eng 9: 217. doi:10.4172/2157-7552.1000217
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J Tissue Sci Eng, an open access journal
Volume 9 • Issue 1 • 1000217