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What Motivates Generation Z at Work? Insights into Motivation Drivers of Business Students in Slovakia


Abstract and Figures

Generation Z, born to a globally connected world, is slowly but surely entering their first jobs with their own set of expectations, preferences, and perceptions of the world of work. Similarly to previous generations, members of Generation Z are expected to share some unique characteristics that might bring noticeable changes to organizations in the future. Our study aims to identify and explore the perceptions of Generation Z members regarding the factors of their future work motivation. Using the narrative data collection method of empathy-based stories (MEBS) on a sample of 235 business students we collected 665 unique items that were further analyzed, coded, grouped into a set of 25 factors, and finally organized according to their relationship to three dominant themes (employee, job, and organization) into 5 clusters presenting different intersections of these themes. According to our results, enjoying one´s work, quality of relationship with co-workers, and achieving one´s goals seem to be the most prevalent motivational factors in the eyes of Generation Z. On the other hand, the factors of work load, work-life balance, organization of working time, and job security were far from being given importance. The factors generated in our research can be used for questionnaire construction in further quantitative research on motivational preferences of Generation Z.
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Innovation Management and Education Excellence through Vision 2020
What Motivates Generation Z at Work?
Insights into Motivation Drivers of Business Students in Slovakia
Zuzana Kirchmayer, Faculty of Management, Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia,
Jana Fratričová, Faculty of Management, Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia,
Generation Z, born to a globally connected world, is slowly but surely entering their first jobs with their
own set of expectations, preferences, and perceptions of the world of work. Similarly to previous
generations, members of Generation Z are expected to share some unique characteristics that might bring
noticeable changes to organizations in the future. Our study aims to identify and explore the perceptions
of Generation Z members regarding the factors of their future work motivation. Using the narrative data
collection method of empathy-based stories (MEBS) on a sample of 235 business students we collected
665 unique items that were further analyzed, coded, grouped into a set of 25 factors, and finally organized
according to their relationship to three dominant themes (employee, job, and organization) into 5 clusters
presenting different intersections of these themes. According to our results, enjoying one´s work, quality
of relationship with co-workers, and achieving one´s goals seem to be the most prevalent motivational
factors in the eyes of Generation Z. On the other hand, the factors of work load, work-life balance,
organization of working time, and job security were far from being given importance. The factors
generated in our research can be used for questionnaire construction in further quantitative research on
motivational preferences of Generation Z.
Keywords: Generation Z, motivation, work-related preferences, MEBS, Slovakia.
Every time a new generation enters the workforce it attracts a lot of attention among both academics and
practitioners aiming to understand the new group (Gelbart and Komninos 2012). A “generation” is “an
identifiable group that shares birth years, age, location and significant life events at critical developmental
stages” (Kupperschmidt 2000: 66). Members of the same generational cohort are presumed to adopt
similar mindsets as a result of shared unique cultural, political, and economic experiences (Parry and
Urwin 2011; McCrindle 2014) which leads to different beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, and values of each
generation (Xander et al 2012). As these differences also concern work and work environment (Lyons
and Kuron, 2014), every time a new generation enters the workforce, managers tend to struggle to
understand the new group (Gelbart and Komninos 2012) for understanding their unique motives, attitudes
and personality profiles is crucial for attracting and retaining talented workforce.
Currently, there are three prevailing generations in the workplace Baby Boomers, Generation X, and
Generation Y (Tapscott, 2009); however, Generation Z has already started to enter both colleges and their
first jobs. There is a fair change that this generation, which is considered to be approximately 2 billion big
(McCrindle 2014) will change the world of work noticeably in the upcoming years.
The study presented in this article aims to identify and explore the perceptions of Generation Z members
regarding the factors of their future work motivation. As this generation is only starting to enter the labor
market, there is a lack of research on their work preferences. We aimed to shed some light on their unique
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perception of work motivation, and to form a basis for future research on Generation Z´s motivation at
1 Generation Z entering the workplace
Generation Z characteristics. Generation Z, also referred to as Generation C (connected,
communicating, content-centric, computerized, community-oriented, clicking) (Friedriech et al. 2010)
born between 1995 and 2009 (McCrindle 2014) or 2010 (Seemiller and Grace 2016; Koulopoulos and
Keldsen 2016) is the first generation that came into a globally connected world (Cilliers 2017) where
technology was easily accessible to young people (Turner 2015). During their childhood or early
adulthood, they have experienced unique stimuli such as uncertain economic times with the Global
Financial Crisis followed by economic and social renewal, periods of terrorism and climate change,
growing diversity, spread of worldwide known brands, acceleration of communication in social media,
mobile and smart technologies (McCrindle 2014). They are “globally focused” (McCrindle 2014) as they
are the first generation experiencing globalization and culturally diverse times early in their lives together
with having connection to others from different cultures, backgrounds, and circumstances via social
media. They expect diversity and are concerned with equality (McCrindle 2014; Schwabel 2014; Lanier
Having used technology from the youngest age, members of Genration Z are seen as “digital integrators”
(McCrindle 2014), or “digital natives” (Friedriech et al. 2010; Sidorcuka and Chesnovicka 2017) for
being technically fluent, highly connected, and seamlessly integrating technology into almost all areas of
their lives. They are visually engaged, opting to watch for a video summarizing an issue rather than read
an article on the subject (McCrindle 2014). Although technology is intimately woven into their lives and
many of their social interactions take place on the Internet (Friedrich et al. 2010), when it comes to
communication with managers, they prefer honest in-person communication (Schwabel 2014). Moreover,
they are more concerned with privacy and safety then slightly older Generation Y, and drawn to more
private social networks (Lanier 2017; Roblek et al. 2018).
McCrindle (2014) characterizes Generation Z as the most materially endowed, technological saturated,
globally connected, and formally educated generation our world has ever seen. Further, they are
characterized as realists, materialists, and pragmatics (Freidrich et al. 2010; Lanier 2017). They are
expected to become more educated than any of the previous generations have ever been, with preference
for learner adaptive, engagement focused, and interactive learning environments (McCrindle 2014).
Though often described as multitaskers in popular practitioner literature, recent research indicates that
compared to Generation Y, Generation Z members are less inclined to agree they like multitasking, as
well as less likely to intend to work in a fast-pace environment (Schwabel 2014).
Generation Z research areas. Up to the present, existing research on Generation Z has focused mainly
on these areas: (1) unique factors associated with Generation Z that actually made the emerging
generation different from the previous ones (Friedrich 2010; McCrindle 2014; FTI Consulting 2014); (2)
digital fluency of Generation Z members, patterns in their use of smart technologies, social network
platforms, etc. (Roblek et al. 2018); (3) their purchasing preferences and consumption behavior (Nagy
2017; Özkan and Solmaz 2017, Meret et al. 2018); (4) how the Generation Z characteristics would affect
the educational process and the altered role of teachers (Seemiller and Grace 2016; Cilliers 2017); and
finally (5) the business aspect i.e. how Generation Z might affect the employment practices and human
resources (HR) management in organizations (Schwabel 2014; Bencsik et al. 2016; Kubátová, J. 2016;
Nieżurawska et al. 2016; Kirchmayer and Fratričová 2017, Meret et al. 2018).
Work preferences of Generation Z. In 2014, the first worldwide study on the workplace preferences of
Generation Z (ages 16 to 20 at that time) was presented. According to the study, the three most important
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work motivators for Generation Z are opportunities for advancement, more money, and meaningful work
(Schwabel 2014). Two years later, Kubátová (2016) replicated Schwabel´s study in the Czech republic
and came to similar results - respondents in her research mentioned the same motivators, just in a
different order of importance (more money, meaningful work, and opportunities for advancement).
Kirchmayer and Fratričová´s (2017) research on career preferences of Generation Z university students in
Slovakia showed that in search for a future employer, nature of job and work-life balance were the most
important factors. Also, Generation Z expected their jobs to yield internal satisfaction and considered
reward (together with work-life-balance) a strong factor of both job retention and work satisfaction.
Another research was conducted by Meret et al. (2018) on a sample of high school students mainly from
Italy and some East European countries. According to their results, when choosing a job, the most
important factors for Generation Z students were possibilities for learning and development, trust, and job
security. As far as trust within workplace is concerned, Lazanyi and Bilan (2017) researched it in
Hungary and came to a conclusion that the workplace behavior of Generation Z employees differed from
that of older generations, and that respect and trust towards superiors had to be earned through
professional excellence.
And finally, the results of Sidorcuka and Chesnovicka´s (2017) research on perception of existing
methods of attraction and retention of employees in Latvia indicate that Generation Z employees are not
looking for life-long employment, put forward their specific values, expect their employer to meet their
needs in terms of flexible working hour and flexible jobs where their individuality can be applied, are
attracted by company reputation, innovation, speed of change, platform for education and promotional
advancement, and specific fringe benefits.
The results of these studies seem to correspond to a certain level. However, they mostly resulted from
questionnaire surveys where respondents were given a set of factors to assess. Although the results
present an important contribution to understanding Generation Z´s perception of existing work-related
attitudes, they might not reveal the unique motivators and preferences of the generation.
2 Research Design and Methodology
Our primary aim was to explore the factors of work motivation among Generation Z business students in
Slovakia. The arrangement of this study is based on the work of Kultalahti and Viitala who examined the
perceptions of Generation Y concerning what makes work motivating (Kultalahti and Viitala 2014). It is
our understanding underlined by a number of academic studies (e.g. De Hauw and De Vos 2010, Hays
2013; Kultalahti and Viitala 2015; Dziewanowska et al. 2016) that the motivational patterns of
Generation Y (or Millenials) at work have been profoundly described including the mechanisms through
which these patterns operate. As a result, we moved on to focus on empirical research exploring work
motivation among Generation Z.
The substance of our research lies at the intersection of two of the three research areas on Generation Z as
outlined in the introduction of this paper i.e. description of unique factors characterizing Generation Z
and the employment of research findings into HR practice. Essentially, we wanted to identify unique
motivation drivers that Generation Z associates with their future work. We assume that a deeper
understanding of factors that drive work motivation of Generation Z can be highly beneficial for
employers by enabling insights into the needs and preferences of the generation shortly emerging at the
Our main research question was: What are the factors which Generation Z students consider motivating at
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In our research, we adopted the data collection method of empathy-based stories (MEBS) which is
sometimes referred to as passive role-playing (Kultalahti and Viitala 2014) and we performed data
collection among management students at Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Management.
MEBS, generally attributed to Eskola (1998) is based on role-playing and is typically used in sociology.
According to Kultalahti and Viitala (2014), at least two background stories are provided in MEBS and
respondents are asked to interpret, explain or complete them. In the stories, one factor is varied in order to
be able to make comparisons. In data collection that stretched throughout the winter term of 2017/2018,
we followed MEBS as a method of narrative data collection and provided students with both framework
stories, one positive and one negative (i.e. stories of high and low engagement). In this paper, we only
present the results of the positive story. The exact wording of the positive story was used as based on
Kultalahti and Viitala’s 2014 paper; the story was translated to Slovak language, and the name Sami was
changed to Samuel, which is a prevalent Slovak male name.
Positive story: Imagine that one day Samuel comes home from work. He feels truly motivated and he has
a lot of energy to work. It is nice to go to work in the morning and Samuel is always looking forward to
the next working day. Why does Samuel feel this motivated and so enthusiastic?
While aware that Generation Z grew up with technology at their hands, we insisted that data collection
was performed on paper. We wanted to make sure to arrange for conditions of data collection as much
alike for all respondents as possible. Providing extra time after seminars for respondents who wanted to
participate, we tried to eliminate disturbances and impact of situational factors that possibly go with
electronic data collection. Both stories were printed on one sheet, leaving enough space for respondents to
express their understanding of why the suggested situation was happening.
The data sample includes 235 Generation Z members who completed interpretations of both positive and
negative stories. As for the positive stories (which are only dealt with in this paper), most respondents’
narratives included actual reasons they felt could bring about Samuel’s feelings. On average, a respondent
provided 3 different reasons to explain Samuel’s current state of motivation. All collected items have
been listed for further analysis, generating a list of 722 items in total.
Items which were recorded by a single respondent but were equal in content or representing the same
theme have only been coded once, thus excluding 57 items from the list. Most typically, the items which
were recorded twice by a single person and thus excluded were related to the theme of “work enjoyment”.
Finally, after excluding duplicated items, the total sample accounted for 665 items. Using content
analysis, we have coded all of these items into a set of 25 unique factors, each of them comprising items
that were equal or similar in terms of their meaning. The list of factors and their general descriptors can
be found in Table 2 in the results section of this paper.
Following the first level of coding and composition of factors, we proceeded to the process of grouping
the 25 factors into clusters based on the nature of each factor on the list. In the pattern of factors
following content analysis, we have identified three main themes, namely the employee (jobholder), the
job with all features attached to it, and finally the organization as the immediate environment in which
both the job and the jobholder operate. Working on these themes and their intersections, five factor
clusters were identified (Fig. 1).
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Fig 1. A brief model of factor clusters
3 Research Results
Having generated the list of unique factors possibly accounting for Samuel’s positive motivation, we
were able to calculate item frequency for individual factors as depicted in Table 1 below (for the
complete list of the factors, see also Table 2). The most prevalent item provided by 64.7% of respondents
to clarify Samuel’s work motivation and enthusiasm in the entire dataset was the theme of Samuel
enjoying his work (22.9% of all items). This factor comprises a whole range of items expressing feelings
of having good time at work, enjoying oneself and doing what one likes to do.
Second down the list, 36.6% of respondents (12.9% of items) mentioned Samuel’s co-
workers/colleagues/peers as a potential source of his enthusiasm. The Slovak word used in the original
transcripts was “kolektív” which semantically includes peers including those outside one’s immediate
working team. Accordingly, the idea that Samuel enjoys the qualities of his peers can easily be interpreted
in broader context as the quality of work climate.
The third major theme was reward, included in the stories of 34.5% of respondents, and accounted for
12.2% of all items. Mostly, it was seen in terms of financial reward typically base salary or total cash
with no reference to benefits (25.1% of respondents; 8.9% of items). Next, 6.8% of Generation Z
members (2.4% of all items) saw the reason of Samuel´s motivation in “being adequately rewarded for
his performance”, or “having a job, in which he is valued and rewarded accordingly”, i.e. accenting both
emotional and material feedback regarding their performance and mentioning variable pay. Finally, total
package including employee benefits was mentioned in 2.6% stories (i.e. 0.9% of items).
Achievement was another major factor listed by 33.6% of respondents (11.9% of items). All items
suggesting that Samuel perhaps feels good after he has achieved any sort of work-related goal were coded
under the achievement factor. A typical narrative in this case included a description of Samuel solving a
major problem, completing a project or simply accomplishing a task. In order to distinguish between
regular performance achievement and career advancements (especially upward career moves) all
narratives speaking of promotion have been excluded from this factor and coded under career
advancement. Interestingly, promotion, which has been mentioned by 11.9% of respondents (in 4.2% of
collected items) as an underlying reason for Samuel’s enthusiasm seems to be a much less prevalent
theme than achievement of a major performance in one’s current job.
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Both having a job that enables Samuel to grow and develop, as well as, recognition was mentioned by
11.5% of respondents (4.1% of items). Next, the quality of the workplace in general i.e. an enjoyable
working environment has been appreciated by 10% of respondents in 3.6% of items, followed by having a
good leader (9% of stories; 3.3% of items); and having a work of interest (9% of stories; 3% of items).
Some respondents also believed that the reason for Samuel´s work motivation is not tied to work itself or
the organization he is part of, but rather to the fact, that he is in a good mood and having a good day in
general (7.2% of respondents; 2.6% of items), or to the level of his private happiness (6.8% of
respondents; 2.4% of all items). Suggestions that Samuel´s work has an impact, as he is doing something
that really matters, were mentioned in 6% of stories (2.1% of all items).
As for the least prevalent factors (<3% of items), the list is rather prominent, confirming a wide range of
factors occurring within the original set of items. Surprisingly, the factors of work load, work-life
balance and organization of working time were far from the most often quoted reasons of Samuels’s
motivation, each accounting for less than 1% of items. In fact, the widely discussed theme of work-life
balance has only been brought about by a single respondent in this study. Also, the factor of job security
seems to be none of an issue when speaking of factors crucial for motivation (0.3% of total items).
Table 1: Most prevalent positive (motivating) factors emerging from the respondents´ stories
of items
of respondents
Enjoys work
Career advancement
Personal development
Work of interest
Good day
Private happiness
Remaining factors total (including
freedom at work, work load, work-life
balance, flexible working time, etc.)
each item
each item
On closer inspection, data insight has portrayed a certain pattern among individual factors that enabled us
to group similar factors into clusters based on their underlying characteristics. Eventually, further
elaboration on clusters enabled us to identify five different clusters as shown in Table 2 and Figure 2. To
start with, the cluster of work-person fit deals with the compatibility of the employee with the nature of
the job, thus largely affecting employee motivation. Factors comprised in this cluster, especially the
factor of work enjoyment, were most prevalent in original narratives provided by respondents. Secondly,
the work-related cluster embraces factors attached to the job such as reward, workplace, work
organization, career options or personal development. Factors related to achievement or performance
evaluation are gathered in the achievement cluster, while the cluster of relationships at work deals with
all kinds of peer-relations and leadership. The fifth cluster (out of work) comprises a whole range of
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factors that do not relate to work, such as state of private life or other external factors outside work. All
the remaining factors were classified as “other”.
Table 2: Factors and clusters of motivation
Factors and clusters of
% prevalence
Number of items
Work person fit
Cluster factors breakdown:
Enjoys work
I love what I do
Work of interest
My job is my hobby
I feel that I have an important
Dream job
I do what I have always wanted to do
Work motivates
It’s my job itself what drives me
Work life balance
My job leaves me enough space to do
my hobbies or be with my family
Work related cluster
Cluster factors breakdown:
I have a good compensation package, I
feel rewarded for what I do
Personal development
My job enables me to grow
I have a pleasant workplace
Freedom at work
I can be creative and organize work
Work load
I have just enough work to do
Lack of stress
I don’t feel stress and pressure at work
Work time
I am flexible in terms of my working
Organizational culture
My organization has a culture which I
Job security
I am not afraid of losing my job
My organization is a good employer
Achievement cluster
Cluster factors breakdown:
I have achieved my objective(s)
Career advancement
I have been promoted
My manager has acknowledged my
Relationships at work cluster
Cluster factors breakdown:
I have a good team/peers/co-workers
I have a good boss
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Factors and clusters of
% prevalence
Number of items
Out of work factors cluster
Cluster factors breakdown:
Good day
I am in a good mood
Private happiness
I feel happy in my private life
Positive outlook
I feel optimistic
I live a happy life
Other factors
Note: To characterize individual factors in this table, we used the first-person nominative so to briefly
describe the factor from the respondents’ point of view.
Work-person fit
Relationships at work
Out of work
Fig 2. Percentage of factor clusters for positive work motivation
4 Discussion
Our study aimed to identify and list motivation drivers that Generation Z associates with their future
work, and thus generate items for further studies regarding work-related decisions and motivation of
Generation Z. According to our study, Generation Z members attribute work motivation to a wide range
of job-related, organization-related, and employee-related factors, originating both in and out of the work
reality. Though majority of the factors has already been mentioned in research regarding previous
generations (e.g. Dries et al. 2008; De Hauw and De Vos 2010; Hays 2013; Kultalahti and Viitala 2014;
Kultalahti and Viitala 2015; Dziewanowska et al. 2016), the frequency of their occurrence as well as the
explanations given by our respondents indicate some unique patterns that are worth further investigation.
In line with previous research our results indicate, that having a meaningful job one really enjoys is a vital
factor for Generation Z´s motivation. Being assessed as crucial in many studies on Generation Z
(Schwabel 2014; Kubátová 2016; Kirchmayer and Fratričová 2017), and actually being mentioned by 152
out of 235 respondents of our study, it has to be researched more in deep in the future. It is important to
reveal what associations Generation Z members have with this statement and thus reveal what it actually
16,3% Good day
Private happiness
Positive outlook
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means for members of Generation Z to “have a meaningful job” or “do what they love”. Understanding
what exactly makes a job meaningful and enjoyable for Generation Z is important also for understanding
their possible future career patterns. Potentially, a number of attributes can contribute to the feeling of
enjoying one’s work. At this stage we are unable to tell whether work joy for Gen Z is powered by
personal growth, an effective use of their natural competencies and talents or something else. A thorough
second-level research is clearly needed to reveal further relations between the work motivation factors
identified in this study.
It is also interesting that job security was mentioned only minimally by our respondents (2 out of 235),
unlike in the study by Meret et al. (2018), where it ranked among the most important factors when
choosing a job. It seems that job security might not be a prevalent motivational factor for Generation Z
after all. This result might be related to Generation´s Z lack of enthusiasm about long-term or life-long
employment (Schwabel 2014; Sidorcuka and Chesnovicka 2017), but it might also indicate, that for
Generation Z, the work life can easily turn into an incessant chase for a job they will love, without feeling
inclined to stay once the current job stops to yield internal satisfaction.
On the other hand, what Generation Z does seek is financial security. In our previous study on a different
sample of Generation Z members (Kirchmayer and Fratričová, 2017), reward was identified as one of the
most important factors of both retention and job satisfaction. The results of this study suggest that
Generation Z members tend to consider mainly base salary when describing motivational reward package.
Variable pay was mentioned to a much smaller extent, and it was mostly linked to the need to be seen and
acknowledged for one´s work. Surprisingly, benefits were left out by a majority of our respondents.
Work-life balance and flexibility seem to be an important issue in studies where this item was listed in a
questionnaire (e.g. Sidorcuka and Chesnovicka 2017; Kirchmayer and Fratričová 2017), however, in our
research it was not mentioned by respondents at all; 24 respondents indicated it is important to have a
“pleasant workplace” and 9 respondents mentioned the need to organize work themselves, but none of
these narratives was explicitly linked to time or space flexibility. In this regard, our findings are not
unique, Meret et al. (2018) have come to a similar conclusion that young people seem to give less
importance to these factors ever. However, this result should be interpreted very carefully as it may result
from students´ limited experience with work reality; they might not be able to imagine that once entering
the work reality, it will affect the amount of their free time and thus do not see the need for flexible
working conditions yet. Only time will tell whether these preferences will remain the same after more
generation Z members enter their full-time jobs.
Our main goal was to explore the perceptions of Generation Z regarding the factors of their future work
motivation. Our research aims to identify and understand the motivational patterns of Generation Z rather
than quantify the effect of established motivation variables on the generation. Thus, instead of relying on
standard data collection procedures, we preferred to adopt a method that is largely unconventional both in
terms of field-relatedness (MEBS has rarely been used in management research so far) as well as regional
practice (to our best knowledge, MEBS has not yet been used in qualitative research in management in
the region of Central Europe). The potential of a qualitative empirical survey into Generation Z work
motivation, as perceived by the authors, is a chance to produce a set of truly unique factors that might be
behind the scene, on the minds and in the hearts of Generation Z thus affecting their motivations.
Although MEBS results (or at least the positive part of the stories which is dealt with here) have not
indicated any new breakthrough motivation variables, a considerable discrepancy has been revealed in
terms of the importance of these variables and the emphasis or importance that is placed on them. Results
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of our study indicate that factors that are traditionally emphasized in relation to work motivation of
Generation Z such as work-life balance, importance of flexible working time actually seem to sit at the
bottom of the list. Much more time and energy will have to be invested in the future to validate or reject
these findings.
Obviously, this study also has a number of limitations that need to be mentioned. First of all, while
passive role-playing (MEBS) has generated plentiful ideals and material for future research, we need to
keep in mind that respondents were essentially writing about the feelings of an imaginative stranger. A
major limitation here is the fact that perhaps the projection of one’s beliefs and motives on to that
imaginary stranger is not perfect. Another restraint is the data sample: while we managed to work with
235 respondents, the sample is still very small to make any sort of generalization. Further validation is
clearly needed to support our conclusions from this study.
We would like to thank Patrícia Šiková for valuable assistance with data collection.
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... The paper contributes to the literature in several ways. First, it responds to the call that employer and work preferences of Generation Z still remain empirically underexplored and provides some empirical evidence (Kirchmayer, Fratričová, 2020). Second, as the paper analyses employer attractiveness, literature on this phenomenon is extended. ...
... Regarding Social value, the current research demonstrated that it was highly relevant for Generation Z (M =4.21) when making the decision about the employer attractiveness. Such results are in line with the research of Kirchmayer and Fratričová (2020) where quality of relationships with co-workers was proved to be a motivational factor for Generation Z. Finaly, the research revealed that Generation Z appreciated the opportunity to apply expertise and convey knowledge to others, in a customer-oriented and humanitarian workplace (M = 3.71). Thus, possibility to share and apply knowledge in sustainable surroundings might serve as a factor for attracting Generation Z. ...
Conference Paper
The influence of intellectualization on the labor market has been investigated in the article. It was identified that under the present-day conditions, intellectualization is a factor of both constructive and destructive structural changes in the economy. It was revealed that in relation to the labor market intellectualization leads to reduction or complete disappearance of demand for certain professions and to the reduction in the number of jobs and soaring unemployment rate. Despite this, the intellectualization of the economy determines the development of new positions that requires the formation of new professional competencies of employees. Self-regulatory mechanisms have already been launched in the labor market and accelerated structural changes in the economy (in particular, caused by the intensive development of the gig economy). The existing analytical scenarios of possible events have been analyzed and due to this, disparities in the labor market has been determined. It is vital to make changes in institutional support (contracts, social guarantees, etc.), improve tools of state labor market regulation, foster dialogue, and public-private partnership to overcome, as well as equalize structural disparities in the economy.
... Like Generation Yers, Gen Z prefers using the Internet to communicate with others because of their interest in the new technology. Individuals of Gen Z can typically be located where the advantages of being hooked up to the Internet are available (Kirchmayer and Fratricova, 2020). Concerning the impact of technologies on the workplace networks, Lanier (2017) indicates that the inclusion of necessary online communication tools and technologically competent managers leads to a high level of satisfaction and motivation among Generation Z employees. ...
Purpose The proliferation of information technology (IT) and IT-enabled devices has brought various challenges for modern organizations. These challenges are aggravated by the fact that the employees of different generations have a varying degree of expertise and ethical orientation regarding technology. This study has two primary objectives to have an in-depth understanding of technology-related ethical behavior of a diverse workforce. First, it aims to develop a valid and reliable scale to measure technology-oriented ethical behavior. Second, it investigates variations in technology-oriented ethical behavior among Generation X (pre-millennial), Generation Y (millennial) and Generation Z (post-millennial) using the scale. Design/methodology/approach The study is conducted in two steps. The first step, a techno-ethical scale, is developed with the help of the six steps of scale development proposed by Churchill (1979). These steps include exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), reliability analysis (composite reliability) and validity analysis (convergent and divergent validity). In the second step, intergenerational variation in different factors of technology-oriented ethical behavior among generation X, Y and Z employees is explored with the help of ANOVA and mean plots. Findings The study suggests a four-dimensional techno-ethical scale comprising fourteen statements. These four dimensions of the scale are the invasion of the right of privacy, defamation, self-enrichment and loafing during office hours. The scale is reported to have adequate reliability and validity estimates. Results also recommend statistically significant variations in all four dimensions of technology-oriented ethical behavior among pre-millennial, millennial and post-millennial. Also, except for self-enrichment, the mean values progressively increase from pre-millennial to post-millennial. Even for self-enrichment, the mean value is highest for post-millennial. Originality/value This study is one of the pioneer studies that explore ethical orientation towards technology usage of three generations of employees.
... Another study reveals that achievement is one of the highest motivational factors that can escalate job satisfaction among generation Z's workers (Baldonado, 2018). In addition, it was prevailed that in a study conducted by Kirchmayer and Fratričová (2018) on the motivation of Generation Z at the workplace found that 33.6 percent of the respondents believed that achievement is important value to them. This is probable that people, specifically the Generation Z employees will feel good when they are able to meet and achieve any sort of work related-goal in the company . ...
Conference Paper
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Job hopping behaviour especially among the younger workforce has become a major challenge for Human Resource practitioners to attract and retain top talent workers in the company. Undeniably, the trend of job hopping had led to the problem of a high turnover rate in Malaysia. Job hopping phenomenon has caused damages to the organization as they need to bear a great loss in both financial and non-financial costs. The problem of job hopping occurs because of several factors that spur employee’s motivation to leave their current employment for other job opportunities. This study intends to investigate the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors with job hopping intention among Generation Z. The data was collected from 369 respondents that are currently studying at public and private Higher Educational Institutions (HEI) in the Klang Valley area. The respondents were chosen through convenience sampling methods. Pearson Correlation analysis and Multiple Regression were performed to investigate the relationship and impact between motivational factors and job-hopping intention among Generation Z. Findings of the study revealed that both intrinsic and extrinsic factors namely salary and benefits, interpersonal relationships, working conditions, recognition, career advancement and achievement have relationships to job hopping intention among Generation Z. Findings also indicated that there are only four (4) out of six (6) factors that have significant impact on job hopping intention among Generation Z namely the salary and benefits, working conditions, recognition and achievement. Moreover, the outcome from the regression analysis showed that achievement is the most influential factor in predicting job hopping intention among Generation Z in this study.
Bu çalışmada, Z kuşağının iş yaşamından beklentileri ve yöneticilerin Z kuşağından beklentileri incelenmiştir. Çalışmanın amacı şu an üniversitede olan Z kuşağı bireylerin iş hayatına atılmadan önce neler istediklerini belirlemek, yöneticilerin bu yeni kuşaktan neler beklediğini tespit etmek ve böylece aynı ortamda çalışacak bu iki kuşağın asgari müşterekte buluşabileceği noktaları ortaya koymaktır. Literatürde çok sayıda kuşak çalışması mevcuttur. Bu çalışmanın Z kuşağının yalnızca iş yaşamı ve yöneticiden beklediklerini ve yine yöneticilerin bu kuşaktan beklediklerini ortaya koyan kuşaklararası spesifik bir çalışma olması farklılığını ve önemini ortaya koymaktadır. Araştırmada Pandemi koşulları nedeniyle sınırlı sayıda kişiden mülakat aracılığıyla veri elde edilmiştir. Bu veriler ışığında Z kuşağının çalışmak denince ne anladığı, gelecekteki iş yaşamından ve yöneticilerinden beklentileri ve Pandemi koşullarının iş yaşamı beklentilerine etkisi, yöneticilerin ise Z kuşağı kavramı tanımı ve beklentileri, iş yaşamında neleri değiştireceklerini düşündükleri ve bu kuşağın beklentilerini karşılama potansiyellerine olan inançları ortaya konulmuştur. Bu çalışma ile iş yaşamında karşı karşıya gelmek üzere olan yeni kuşak ile mevcut yöneticilerin birbirlerine uyumlanma ihtiyaçlarının olduğu görülmüştür.
The main purpose of this study was to examine the ethicality of future employees’ attitudes toward advancement in the workplace in Slovenia and Lithuania. This study focuses on students representing young adults from Generation Z as future employees in organizations. Using a survey of work-related issues, we collected 212 answers from Slovenian and 159 from Lithuanian' students from business faculties. We used t-tests and regression analyses to obtain results. We found that the future employees in Slovenia see organizationally beneficial behavior and self-indulgent behavior significantly more acceptable for their advancement, than their Lithuanian peers. No differences exist in the perception of destructive behavior among participants from both countries. Substantial differences in the importance of personal values among Generation Z members in both societies, provide a strong support for the divergence nature of Generation Z across cultures. The impact of personal values on the ethicality of different behavior for advancement in the workplace among future employees in both societies is substantial, but biased and follows different patterns. In Slovenia, the dominant role has power, followed by hedonism, benevolence, security, conformity, tradition, and universalism, while in Lithuania, the dominant role belongs to self-direction, followed by tradition, universalism, security, achievement, and power. This study will help us to understand Generation Z values and their perceptions regarding ethicality of advancement in the workplace and enable organizations to manage the behavior of future employees.
This article aims to determine whether and how an increased entry of Generation Z could impact HR work. To answer this, two hypotheses were formulated. Afterward, an extensive literature search was carried out on various databases, with the search results being narrowed down step by step using two selection criteria. The finally selected literature, focusing on German-speaking areas, was then evaluated through qualitative content analysis. First, it was found that the research results on Generation Z are not as uniform as one might assume from the first impression, especially since there is also a tendency in the studies to prefer to interview students. However, it seems that the individual consideration of employees and communication with them will increasingly be demanded by them and thus become the focus of HR work, regardless of whether the employee is a talent or not. This fundamental claim could lead to the fact that the considerations regarding an exclusive or inclusive Talent Management approach are no longer expedient or even rather obstructive, especially since talent management in its current form has apparently not yet arrived at many companies even after more than 20 years. Considering the definition problem of the concept of talent alone, this is not surprising. The advantage of Talent Management over HR Management is that some main tasks from HR management are linked together. However, due to the framework conditions, all employees must be considered individually, and it could make sense to rename inclusive Talent Management to Employee Management. In that case, exclusive Talent Management is understood solely as Talent Management (methodological level), and both terms could be summarized under the generic term Human Resources Management (didactic level). This would result in a hierarchy of terms in which the terms are clearly distinguished from each other. Furthermore, the sharpening of the terms and the concentrated summary of essential aspects of personnel work (see Figure 3) should also make it easier for managers who are inexperienced in personnel work to carry out Human Resources Management. This article aims to contribute to the sharpening of theoretical concepts to facilitate their practical implementation. The article is suitable for entrepreneurs, executives, HR specialists, and academics.
Our society faces such complex challenges that, more and more, it is necessary to implement new business models aimed at achieving social objectives while minimizing environmental consequences, without neglecting profit. A social, economic, and ecological balance is possible through the hybrid companies, promoted from social entrepreneurship, framed within the so-called fourth sector. These hybrid structures require people with particular characteristics and values, which invites us to wonder if the generation recently incorporated into the workplace, Generation Y, or the one that will soon join, Generation Z, will opt for this business model. This chapter shows generations’ characteristics to glimpse whether they fit the type of person that these new formulas of social entrepreneurship require. Even though there is still no evidence enough for a conclusive answer, given that the investigations’ results seem to be influenced by the samples’ origins, certain clues suggest a hopeful future.
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Son yıllarda görülen en büyük kitlesel göç hareketi 2011 yılında Suriye'de ki çatışmaların iç savaşa dönüşmesi ile birlikte yaklaşık 13 milyon Suriyelinin evini terk etmek zorunda kalmasıyla başlamıştır. 6 milyon Suriyeli ülke içinde yer değiştirirken yaklaşık 6 milyon Suriyeli de kendine komşu olan ülkelere sığınmıştır. İç savaştan Türkiye en çok etkilenen ülkelerden biri olmuştur. Savaş sonrası Türkiye'ye göç eden 3.684.835 Suriyeli geçici koruma kapsamına alınmıştır. Suriyeliler yoğun olarak sınır illerde yaşamını devam ettirmenin yanı sıra İstanbul, Ankara, İzmir başta olmak üzere Türkiye'nin 81 ilinde yaşamaktadır. Suriyelilerin Türkiye'ye gelişleri ile beraber uzayan misafirlik süreci ve yardımların yetersiz kalışı Suriyelilerin temel ihtiyaçlarını sağlamak üzere emek piyasasına girişine neden olmuştur. Türkiye'de 32.199 göçmene belirli koşullar altında çalışma izni verilmiştir. Çalışma izni alamayan ya da iznin dışındaki sektör ve illerde çalışanlar kayıt dışı olarak emek piyasasına dâhil olmuşlardır. Suriyeli göçmenler Türkiye'de ağırlıklı olarak tekstil, inşaat, tarım ve ağır sanayi sektörlerinde çalışmaktadır. Türkiye'de istihdamda yer alan bireylerin çoğunluğu Y ve Z Kuşağından oluşmaktadır. Suriyeli göçmenlerin ülkeye yerleşmesi ile birlikte istihdamda yer alması istihdamda bulunan çalışanlar açısından önem arz etmektedir. Bu çalışma, Y ve Z Kuşağının, Suriyelilerin istihdamına yönelik bakış açısını ölçmeyi amaçlamaktadır. Çalışmada seçili üniversitede çalışan 100 Y Kuşağı akademisyen ve 505 Z Kuşağı öğrenci ile anket çalışması yapılmış ve 4 anket geçersiz sayılarak toplamda 601 kişiye ulaşılmıştır. Anket cevapları ile elde edilen veriler yapılan analiz sonuçları ile değerlendirilmiştir.
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Son dönemlerde yaşanan küresel olaylar, hızlı teknolojik gelişmeler ve dijitalleşme, insan hayatının birçok boyutunda önemli etkiler yapmıştır. Bu durum insan ve toplum bazı özelliklere göre aşamalandıran kuşakların geçiş sürelerini de hızlandırmıştır. Kuşak kavramı, aynı dönemde dünyaya gelen, bulunduğu dönemin yaşanan olaylarından etkilenen insan topluluğu olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Her bir kuşağın yaşadığı dönemin etkilerini içeren kendine özgü kültürel değerleri, düşünce yapısı, tutum ve davranış kalıpları bulunmaktadır. Bu nedenle her kuşağı kendi dönem şartları içerisinde ele almak ve incelemek daha doğru bir yaklaşım olacaktır. Kapsamı 1995-2013 yılları arasında doğan kişiler olarak belirlenmiş olan Z kuşağı, dijitalleşme ve teknolojik gelişmişlikler içerisinde dünyaya gelen bir nesildir. Literatür incelendiğinde Z kuşağı üyelerinin iş hayatı için özellikleri; genel olarak bağımsız, özgür çalışmayı seven, bürokrasiden uzak duran, iş-yaşam dengesi gözeterek esnek iş olanakları arayışı içerisinde olan bireyler olarak karakterize edilmiştir. Ancak, unutulmamalıdır ki bunlar sadece tahminlerdir. Çünkü, onların iş hayatı henüz tam olarak aktif halde değildir. Ayrıca yakın zamanda işletmelerde görev almaya başlayan Z kuşağı ve onların iş yaşamına dair yansımalarına ilişkin elimizde yeterli araştırma ve bilimsel çıkarım bulunmamaktadır. Bu nedenle, Z kuşağının iş dünyasındaki güçlü ve zayıf yönlerini tespit etmenin, mevcut iş koşullarına ve rekabete etkilerini belirlemenin çok zor olduğu söylenebilir. Bununla birlikte, gelecek hakkında doğru tahminlerde bulunmak ve yönetim bilimine stratejik bir bakış açısı sağlamak açısından bu belirsizliğin aralanması da gerekmektedir. Z kuşağının yakın gelecekte iş dünyasında artık bir karar verici ve yönetici konumuna geleceği de düşünülürse, bu kuşak içerisinde yer alanların iş dünyasındaki motivasyonları, beklentileri ve davranışsal yaklaşımları hakkında bilgi ihtiyacı daha da önem kazanmaktadır. Diğer taraftan Aralık 2019'da Çin'in Hubei Eyaletinde olan Wuhan'da ortaya çıkan ve tüm dünyaya yayılan Covid-19 salgını, birçok kişinin hastalığa yakalanmasına ve ölümüne neden olmuştur. Tüm dünyanın hiç beklemediği bir anda ortaya çıkan bu pandemi, öngürülemeyen birçok boyutuyla tüm hayatı etkilemeye devam etmektedir. Covid-19 Pandemisi özel hayattan iş hayatına, ekonomiden yaşam tarzına ve kültüre kadar pek çok boyutta etkisini göstermiş, tüm dünyada geleceğe yönelik belirsizlik ve endişelere neden olmuştur. Bu belirsizliklerden ve endişelerden etkilenen önemli topluluklardan biri de Z Kuşağı olarak adlandırılan ve yakın zamanda iş hayatına giren ve girmeye aday olan bireylerdir. Bu açıdan Covid-19 pandemisinin, mevcut çalışanlar üzerinde olduğu gibi iş hayatına yeni yeni girmeye başlayan Z kuşağı üzerinde de pek çok etkisinin olduğu düşünülmektedir. Bu kitabın birinci bölümünde; kuşak kavramı, Z kuşağı ve Z kuşağının özellikleri, diğer kuşaklardan farklılıkları, iş hayatından beklentileri ve davranışsal yaklaşımları, ilgili literatür bağlamında ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. Kitabın ikinci bölümünde ise Covid-19 Pandemisi, pandeminin süreci ve pandeminin Z kuşağı üzerindeki etkilerine değinilmiştir. Kitabın üçüncü ve son bölümünde ise, Z kuşağının iş hayatına ilişkin algıları ve kariyer beklentileri, Covid-19 Pandemisi sonrası için iş hayatına ilişkin algılarını ve beklentilerini ortaya koymak amaçlı Konya ilinde bulunan kamu üniversitelerinin işletme, turizm ve sağlık bilimleri fakültelerinde okuyan 3. ve 4. sınıf lisans bölümlerinde ve yüksek lisans programlarında eğitim gören Z kuşağı temsilcileri üzerine yapılan araştırma sonuçlarına yer verilmiştir. Bu kitapta yer alan çalışmanın verileri, Google Formlar üzerinden oluşturulan bir anket yardımıyla elde edilmiştir. Araştırmanın saha çalışması için 06/01/2021 tarihinde Selçuk Üniversitesi Bilimsel Araştırma ve Yayın Etik Kurulu'ndan yazılı araştırma izni alınmıştır. Çalışmanın yazım sürecinde bilimsel kurallara, etik ve alıntı kurallarına uyulmuştur.
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Generational issues are a perennial favourite. Analysing one’s own generation and comparing it to the next is of great interest to the media and the public alike. With more generations coexisting than ever before – in the home, school, workplace and marketplace – this interest has never been more so than today. Indeed, media coverage on the generations, particularly the younger, emerging generations, abounds in an attempt to appease our desire to better understand and engage with each other: our employees, colleagues, students and children. I am contacted almost daily – by the media, business men and women, and parents – to talk about the generations. With this saturation of media on the generations, identifying what is fact and what is hype and conjecture can be a challenge. While some generational commentary reads much like an astrological chart, genuine research-based generational studies now form an important part of sociology. Yet it is more than an academic discipline. The insights and applications that flow from robust generational analysis is of great value to business leaders, educators and parents. Generational segmentation, like any professional discipline, is only useable when conducted by experts.
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Purpose – This paper presents how contemporary students are self-organizing using smart technologies (ST) and the future social implications of ST. The research model is based on the concepts of the soft system methodology, social systems thinking, innovative smart systems, and cybernetic and knowledge management. Design/methodology/approach – The study contains elements of exploratory and descriptive case studies. Narrative analysis and interpretation of the collected data have been carried out. Findings – Students mostly use ST to save time when studying and in their free time. Students are surprised by how ST developed and are cautious when imagining how the technology will change and affect their lives. They are concerned regarding several ethical dilemmas of using it, such as privacy and spending time with their loved ones and friends. Students perceive their self-organization in the future as very dependent on the availability of ST in institutional settings (e.g., education and business process) as well as their personal lives. Students discuss their present perceptions about what the future will be and note that social system will be more dynamic in terms of socialization, and loss of personal contact with their friends and family is seen as the main threat. Research limitations/implications – The research is qualitative, and the questionnaire was carried out among business students at the Faculty of Economics, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. Practical implications – The paper offers an understanding of the usage of ST among business students. This study provides a road map of a few possible ways for usage of ST among students. The topic is also relevant for human resource managers, technology developers, and marketing strategists for their better understanding of the behaviour of young people using ST in professional or private environments. Social implications - The findings can be useful for professors in identifying different learning methods that are useful for their students. Originality/value – We offer conceptualizations of ST within the social innovation framework and provide a contemporary understanding young people’s ST usage.
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Mobile phones play a very important role in our life. Mobile phone sales have been soaring over the last decade due to the growing acceptance of technological innovations, especially by Generations Y and Z. Understanding the change in customers' requirement is the key to success in the smartphone business. New, strong mobile phone models will emerge if the voice of the customer can be heard. Although it has been widely known that country of origin has serious impact on the attitudes and purchase decisions of mobile phone consumers, there lack substantial studies that investigate the mobile phone preference of young adults aged 18-25, members of late Generation Y and early Generation Z. In order to investigate the role of country of origin in mobile phone choice of Generations Y and Z, an online survey with 228 respondents was conducted in Hungary in 2016. Besides the descriptive statistical methods, crosstabs, ANOVA and Pearson correlation are used to analyze the collected data and find out significant relationships. Factor analysis (Principal Component Analysis) is used for data reduction to create new factor components. The findings of this exploratory study support the idea that country of origin plays a significant role in many respects related to young adults' mobile phone choice. Mobile phone owners with different countries of origin attribute crucial importance to the various product features including technical parameters, price, design, brand name, operating system, and memory size. Country of origin has a moderating effect on the price sensitivity of consumers with varied net income levels. It is also found that frequent buyers of mobile phones, especially US brand products, spend the most significant amount of money for their consumption in this aspect.
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Along with globalization, the structure of markets has changed. In today's markets, it is necessary to analyse the consumers’ profile in order to appeal to consumers or compete with other companies and survive against them. Today's changing consumer structure reveals the differentiation of consumption habits as well. The Generation Z, which is included in the young age profile of the consumer segment, represents the year 1995 and beyond. This generation is also known as the mobile generation. They are interested in more technology than their predecessors (Generation X and Y), and they are actualizing their social lives more and more through smart devices such as mobile phone, tablets. This situation has also changed the perception of time and space in consumption habits. The shopping mall culture that emerged with globalization is now taking its place to Internet shopping. Ads made via social media and shopping made by these ads are among the preferences of Generation Z. In this study, we focus on changing the general consumption habits and the role of the Generation Z’s profile in these habits. For this purpose, questionnaires developed for our study were applied to 200 people who are members of the relevant Generation Z. And the data obtained from the field are evaluated by reliability and factor analysis. Findings are interpreted as the Generation Z Consumption Scale.
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Generation Z is currently starting to enter the world of work. The present study reports preliminary findings of research that aims to explore career preferences of Generation Z university students in Slovakia. The primary objective was to elaborate on the existing theoretical and empirical work on Generation Y by examining the extent to which factors that have been recognized as determinants of Generation Y’s work-related expectations also matter to Generation Z. Based on the sample of 237 university students the results suggest that in search for a future employer, nature of job and work-life balance are the most important factors. Work-life balance is an important factor in terms of career expectations as well as job retention. Also, Generation Z expect their jobs to yield internal satisfaction and consider reward a strong factor of both job retention and work satisfaction. While these findings to some extent identify the overlaps between career preferences of both generations, further research is needed to explore potential unique career expectations of Generation Z.
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The goal of this article is to present work-related attitudes of a sample of Czech Generation Z and their comparison to the results of an international research study. Currently, there are three important trends influencing the labor market: (1) the origin and development of a ubiquitous working environment, (2) the thriving of coworking centers, and (3) Generation Z's entering the labor market. Instead of traditional jobs, the bearers of human capital tend to choose independent work in an online environment, and often work in coworking centers. Using self-determination theory, we substantiate why they thrive better this way. Based on the results of an international research project focused on work attitudes among Generation Z and the results of a replication study we carried out in the Czech Republic, we attest that members of Generation Z may prefer independent virtual work in coworking centers, too. The total amount of available human capital, the lack of which is pointed out by companies, may grow thanks to new ways of working. Companies, which can use human capital of independent workers, gain a competitive advantage.
Trust is an interpersonal phenomenon influencing social, institutional and even societal processes. Although various cultures can be characterised with different levels of trust, the members of various cultures cannot be considered identical regarding their levels of trust. Different generations have different levels of trust. What is more, the level of trust is influenced by other variables, such as gender, social embeddedness and educational background. Present article aims to analyse the work-related values of generation Z to find out to what extent do they trust their superiors and peers, and how they are embedded in their workplaces. It endeavours to call attention to generational differences regarding trust, and indicates how workplaces should address this phenomenon. In the paper, the data of the World Values Survey: Wave 5 has been compared with the results of a primary (online questionnaire based) research on a sample of 399 students in higher education with at least 6 months of work experience and analysed with SPSS 20 program. The results indicate that the workplace behaviour of generation Z employees is radically different from that of older generations’; hence managers have to put conscious effort in fostering good interpersonal relations of colleagues. The results also indicate that respect and trust towards superiors are not automatic; they have to be earned through professional excellence. © 2017, Czestochowa University of Technology. All rights reserved.
Nowadays, organizations face the co-presence of three generations of workers (“baby boomers”, Xers and Yers). However, another generation will join the workforce in the next years: the generation Z. Accordingly, companies must be able to understand their characteristics and expectations, in order to manage their generation mix. This study aims to fulfill a consistent gap in the extant literature, also providing important managerial implications, when formulating three propositions: (a) there are specific aspects which Zers give more importance when choosing their job; (b) the use of technology and the typology of technological devices characterize the digital employee experience of the generation Z; and (c) the entry of the new generation of workers has an impact on diversity management practices within organizations. After a comprehensive review of the literature, we analyze and discuss the results of a survey among 298 young people, belonging to the generation Z. The findings reveal both a universal profile of the future generation of workers, together with their digital behaviors.