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Relationship between Self-Esteem and Social Anxiety: Role of Social Connectedness as a Mediator

Relationship between Self-Esteem and Social Anxiety: Role of Social
Connectedness as a Mediator
Mahmooda Fatima, Sadia Niazi, & Saba Ghayas
Department of Psychology,
University of Sargodha,
The present study was designed to investigate the role of social connectedness as a mediator in relation between
self-esteem and social anxiety. A purposive sample of 150 men and 150 women was drawn from Sargodha city.
Urdu translated Social Connectedness Scale-Revised (Fatima, 2014), Urdu Translated Liebowitz Social Anxiety
Scale (Shahid, 2012) and Urdu Translated Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Sardar, 1998), were used to measure
social connectedness, social anxiety and self-esteem respectively. Results revealed that self-esteem positively
and significantly predicted social connectedness and it significantly negatively predicted social anxiety.
Mediation analysis demonstrated that the relationship between self-esteem and social anxiety was fully
mediated by social connectedness. Results also revealed that self-esteem and social connectedness were high in
women than men while level of social anxiety was found to be higher among men as compared to women.
Implications of the research have been discussed.
Keywords: self-esteem, social anxiety, social connectedness, mediation
Self-esteem refers to views and values assigned to self, and
includes individual’s personal feelings toward self that result from
awareness in making judgments on different aspects of the self
(Stryker, 2002). These feelings and their assessments influence the
reactions towards different aspects of life. Terror management
theory proposes that self-esteem plays a vital role in reducing social
anxiety because it performs a buffering role in the life of individuals
(Loudin, Loukas, & Robinson, 2003; Pyszczynski et al., 2004;
Orth, Robins, & Meier, 2009).
People with low self-esteem demonstrate lack of confidence,
uncertainty, and experience negative feelings and maladjustment
more frequently than people with higher self-esteem. Individuals
with low self-esteem usually try to blame others for their failures
rather than taking responsibility for their own actions (Tracy &
Robins, 2003).Ultimately, this results in a tendency to avoid people,
new settings and a general social disconnectedness leading to
increased rates of social anxiety (Biemans, Halteren, Dijk,
Rijckenberg, & Poortinga, 2008). It has been reported that people
with low self-esteem are less friendly with reduced communications
to other people making it possible to develop adequate and close
relationships (e.g., family, friends and romantic relationships), and
are emotionally less expressive, revealing less information about
themselves (Cuming & Rapee, 2010).Social anxiety is a
multidimensional construct, which can arise from discrepancies in
others and one’s own perception about themself.
Studies show that social connectedness is strongly associated
with the level of self-esteem (Ashida & Heaney, 2008). Twenge and
Campbell (2002) reported a negative relation between social
connectedness and levels of anxiety. Social networks and social ties
have positive role in decreasing symptoms of emotional misery
including depression and anxiety, by making individual more
involved in their society (Williams & Galliher, 2006).
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Saba
Ghayas, Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, University of
Sargodha (Pakistan), Email:
Relationships and associations with others leads one to a sense of
being a valuable part of society and motivats them towards building
communities, culture and work for the welfare of others (Capon &
Blakely, 2007). Giordano and Lindstorm (2010) suggest that high
level of social connectedness improves physical and psychological
wellbeing. It leads to good relationships with others that provide
social support and satisfaction, which ultimately decreases different
types of psychological problems. Social connectedness is important
for development; individuals feel supported with a sense of
association and connectedness in their surroundings, which is one of
the essential psychological need required for better psychological
development and well-being (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Social
connectedness is negatively linked with anxiety and shields impact
of anxiety, as it creates confidence in individuals to deal with others
and with social settings ultimately reducing their level of anxiety
(Mashek, Stuewig, Furukawa & Tangney, 2006). It has been
recognized that individuals with close social ties and close relations
have protective buffer against anxiety (Stevenson & Zimmerman,
Lee, Dean and Jung (2008) proposed that social connectedness
plays a significant role of mediator in the relationship between self-
esteem and social anxiety. Research gives idea that people who are
sociable and participate in community will probably take part in
voluntary activities and help other people. Social disconnectedness
create anxiety, individual’s feels uneasiness in social settings and
have a fear of judgment and evaluation. It makes them unable to
move and work legitimately in their community.
According to Biemans et al. (2008), high self-esteem leads
individuals to feel confident and as a result they can effectively deal
with the all the type of situations, ultimately decreasing the chances
of social anxiety. Self-esteem works as a sociometery that provides
an individual with a sense of being loved and appreciated by people.
Therefore, when they feel less valued they feel less socially
connected, which leads to isolation, lonliness and social anxiety.
Previously it is consistently proved that self-esteem and social
connectedness help in decreasing different type of mental health
problems (Dang, 2014; Foster et al., 2017; Lee, Draper, & Lee,
Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology
2017, Vol. 15, No.2, 12-17
Men and women differ in the way they value their self, and
develop and shape relationships. Women compare themselves with
others women more than men and this might reduce their level of
self-esteem (Martinez & Dukes, 1991; Rapee & Spence, 2004;
Sotelo, 2000). On similar lines, girls report larger fears, more
separation anxiety, and elevated levels of generalized anxiety as
compared to men (Angold, 2002). Women twice than men undergo
depression and anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety
disorder, social anxiety disorder, and phobias (Kessler, 1994).
Moller, Fouladi, MaCarthy and Hatch (2003) found women report
higher levels of social connectedness than men. Women and girls
were very likely to describe them as “connected self” including
response to others on their own terms caring and interdependence
(Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberger, & Tarule, 1986).
Study of Lee and Robins (1998) found that social connectedness
is positively correlated with self-esteem and negatively correlated
with anxiety. Moreover their findings revealed that same
relationships were found among men and women. The present study
aimed at exploring relationship between self-esteem and social
anxiety and furthermore the mediating role of social connectedness.
In Pakistan, a large number of researches have been directed on
aforementioned variables i.e., role of self-esteem in producing
social anxiety in adolescents (Bano, et al., 2013), self-esteem of
students and their perception of teacher behaviour (Ismail &
Majeed, 2011), relationship of low self-esteem deficits with
tendency to suicide (Rizwan, 2010), level of anxiety in high school
students (Deb, Chatterjee, & Walsh, 2010). However, these
variables are not studied in combination. Also studies on self-
esteem, social anxiety and social connectedness have been
conducted (Bano & Ahmad, 2013; Ismail & Majeed, 2011; Rizwan,
2010), however all previous studies explored only direct effect of
variables on the social anxiety but not an indirect effect. Keeping
this in view the present research aims to investigate these variables
in combination and relationship between them.
The present study aimed at assessing the relationship among self-
esteem, social connectedness and social anxiety. Its salient goal is to
examine the mediating role of social connectedness in relationship
between self-esteem and social anxiety. The selection of mediator
was made on the basis of literature which provides evidence for
covariates of relationship between variables of present study. This
model was already explored by Lee, Dean and Jung (2008) but
current study helped in getting idea about the relationship of these
variables regarding Pakistani population who have a different
cultural context.
These objectives are based on the review of literature and are
briefly phrased as follows:
1. To assess the relationship between self-esteem, social
connectedness and social anxiety.
2. To find out the mediating role of social connectedness in
predicting social anxiety on the basis of self-esteem and social
3. To measure gender differences in all variables of the study.
Based on literature above (e.g. Biemans et al., 2008; Lee, Dean &
Jung, 2008) we hypothesize that self-esteem would significantly
negatively predict social anxiety and social connectedness
significantly and negatively predict social anxiety. In other words,
part of social anxiety would be mediated and explained by social
connectedness. Self-esteem would significantly positively predict of
social connectedness. On the basis of literature (Angold, 2002;
Martinez & Dukes, 1991; Rapee & Spence, 2004) it is hypothesized
that there would be significant gender differences in the variables of
current study.
A convenient sample comprised of 150 men & 150 women taken
from Sargodha city. Married and unmarried participants both were
given equal representation in the sample. All men were
professionals and were working in public and private sector; while
working (n=50) and non-working (n=100) both were given
representation. Age of the participants ranged from 22 to 55 years
(M=38.00, SD=7.10) and had a minimum of eight years of school
Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). Urdu version of
Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (Sardar, 1998) was used to measure
levels of self-esteem in the participants. The scale comprised 10-
items having 4-point Likert-type scale i.e., “1=strongly agree
“4=strongly disagree”. The item no 1, 2, 4, 6, 7 are positive items
and 3, 5, 8, 9, 10 are reversely scored items. Scale demonstrated
good reliability and validity. Indices of test-re-test reliability ranged
from .82 to .88 and reported range of Cronbach’s alpha is .77 to .88
(Rosenberg, 1965). Internal consistency of Urdu translated scale
was .86 (Sardar, 1998)
Social Connectedness Scale-Revised (SCS-R). Social
connectedness was measured by Urdu version of SCS-R (Fatima,
2014). The scale comprised of 20 items using a 6-point Likert-type
scale in which response format is from 1=strongly disagree to
6=strongly agree. Scores range from 20 to 120. The reported
reliability coefficient of SCS-R is .94 (Lee, 2001). Reliability of
Urdu translated version was .89 (Fatima, 2014)
Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Liebowitz (1987)
designed LSAS with 24-items. In the current study Urdu version of
LSAS was used (Shahid, 2012). It is commonly used as self-report
measure of social anxiety; it contains items depicting different
social situations. For each situation individual rates their level of
anxiety. Items are divided into two subscales: Social Interaction and
Performance Situation. The overall score is calculated by summing
the scores on six subscales (total fear, total avoidance, and fear of
social situations, fear of performance situations, avoidance of social
situations and avoidance of performance situations). Alpha
reliability for LSAS total score was reported to be .96 and the
reliability of the Urdu version was alpha = .87.
In order to collect the data participants were contacted at various
places for instance, their residence, and workplace etc. They were
briefed about the main purpose of study. After taking their informed
consent questionnaires were given to the willing participants. All
the queries regarding questionnaire and research purpose were are
solved and they were requested for accurate response.
Confidentiality of the obtained data was ensured to the participants.
In order to test the hypotheses of current study analysis was
carried out through SPSS. Hierarchical regression analysis was used
to test mediation and t-test was applied to test the hypothesis
regarding gender based differences in all variables.
Table 1
Descriptive, Psychometric Properties and Inter Scale Correlations
of Variables (N = 300)
Note. SE = self-esteem; SC = social connectedness; SA = social
anxiety. Standard deviations appear in parentheses below means.
**p< .01
Table 1 shows satisfactory index of mean, standard deviation,
alpha reliability coefficient and correlation for all the constructs
used in the current study. Table 1 shows that self-esteem and social
connectedness are positively correlated, while both are negatively
correlated with social anxiety.
Table 2
Predictors of Social Anxiety (N = 300)
Predictor Variables
Note. SE = self-esteem; SC = social connectedness
***p< .001
In Table 2 simple linear regression suggested that self-esteem
negatively predicts social anxiety (β = -.52, t = -10.47, p < .001) and
explained 27% variance in social anxiety {R2=.27, F(1, 298) =
109.59, p < .001}, while social connectedness also negatively
predicts social anxiety (β = -.85, t = -27.49, p < .001) and explained
72 % variance in it {R2 =.72, F(1, 298) = 755.86, p < .001}.
Table 3
Self Esteem as a Predictor of Social Connectedness (N = 300)
Predictor Variables
Note. SE = self-esteem
***p< .001
Table 3 indicates that self-esteem positively predicts social
connectedness (β = .57, t = 11.89, p < .001) and explains 32%
variance in social connectedness {R2= .32, F (1, 298) = 141.4, p <
Table 4
Hierarchical Regression for Social Connectedness, Mediating the
Relationship between Self-Esteem and Social Anxiety (N=300).
Step I
Step II
Total R2
***p< .001
Table 4 illustrates meditating impact of social connectedness
between the relationship of self-esteem and social anxiety. For
mediation three conditions must be fulfilled. The first condition is
that self-esteem is showing significant negative prediction of social
anxiety (β = -.52, t = -10.47, p <. 001), {F (1, 298) = 109.59, p <
.001} with 27% variance in social anxiety (R2 = .27). Second
condition is tested in which social connectedness is significantly
predicting social anxiety in negative direction (β = -.85, t = -27.49,
p < .001), {F (1, 298) = 755.86, p < .001}. This model explains
72% variance in social anxiety (R2 = .72.). Last condition is the
prediction of social connectedness by self-esteem which is also
found positively significant (β = .57, t = 11.89, p <. 001), {F (1,
298) = 144.10, p < .001} with 32% variance in social anxiety (R2 =
The final indication of mediation is clear as self-esteem which is
significant predictor of social anxiety (β = -.52, t = -10.47, p< .001)
becomes non-significant predictor of social anxiety (β = -.06, t = -
1.51, p> .05) when social connectedness was entered into the
model. Thus, findings indicate that social connectedness (β = -.82, t
= -21.84, p< .001) fully mediates the relationship among self-
esteem and social anxiety at {∆R2 = .45, F(1, 297) = 476.78, p<
.001}. This meditational model is further determined on the basis of
Sobel’s test (1986) for finding the significance of mediation which
proved to be significant with 55.1% variance in social anxiety
described by self-esteem is attributable to the mediational effect of
social connectedness. The hypothesis is supported that social
connectedness is mediating the relationship among self-esteem and
social anxiety and indirectly predicting social anxiety (Sobel’s Z=-
10.901, p < .001). The figure presented below represents the
mediation analysis with its significant path coefficients.
Table 5
Gender Differences on Study Variables (N=300)
Men(n = 150)
Women(n = 150)
Cohen’s d
Note. SE = self-esteem; SC = social connectedness; SA = social anxiety. Standard deviations appear in parentheses below means.
*p< .001
Figure 1. Social connectedness mediating the relationship between self-esteem and social anxiety.
Table 5 portrays significant gender differences in self-esteem,
social connectedness and social anxiety. Furthermore, the values of
Mean and SD of women and men are reflecting that level of self-
esteem and social connectedness is high in women than men. The
table also showed high level of social anxiety in men as compared
to women.
Analysis of the data revealed that self-esteem negatively
(significantly) predicted social anxiety (See Table 3) and supported
the first hypothesis that self-esteem provides a buffer against
anxiety (Crocker & Park, 2004; Pyszczynski et al., 2004). Results
also supported the second hypothesis that self-esteem significantly
positively predicted social connectedness (See Table 4). The results
are consistent with previous findings on the inter-relationship
between the variables, as Lasgaard and Elklit (2009) reported low
self-esteemed people try to be socially isolated and experience
diminished social connections and support. Alsosocial groups and
social ties have a positive effect on psychological wellbeing
decreasing the anxiety, mental health issues, and other signs of
emotional misery (Donald, Dower, Correa-Velez & Jones, 2006).
The present study revealed social connectedness fully mediated
self-esteem and social anxiety. These results are in line with the
results of study conducted by William and Gallaher (2006), as their
findings revealed that social connectedness play an important role
in connecting self-esteem with mental health of participants.
Similarly, previously it was maintained that social connectedness is
positively linked with self-esteem and negatively related to social
anxiety (Lee, Dean & Jung, 2008). Similarly other studies reported
that social connectedness improved self-esteem (Cacioppo &
Hawkley, 2003), reducing levels of social anxiety (Ashida &
Heaney, 2008). In contrast, low level of social connectedness, has
multiple negative outcomes for example, higher level of social
isolation, lead to greater signs of social anxiety and lower level of
self-esteem, in contrast to individuals with larger social networks
(Kim & Subramanian, 2006). People who are more involved in their
community services, interact with others have positive impact on
their personalities. Social involvement decreases their level of
social anxiety and also enhances their self-esteem (Mitchell &
LaGory, 2002). Yousaf and Li (2015) conducted a research on
Pakistani sample and reported that people in this culture had a keen
desire to belong to others in order to evaluate them favourably. This
tendency can be driving force for increasing self-esteem and
decreasing self-anxiety.
Results of the present study revealed significant gender
differences in social connectedness, social anxiety and self-esteem.
These findings are supported by pertinent literature (Sprecher,
Brooks, & Avogo, 2013). Bosak, Neff, and Schyns, (2004) reported
that men valued high self-esteem in each and every life matters such
as achievement and job satisfaction as compared to women. Keller,
Meier, Gross and Semmer (2013) suggested that self-esteem enable
people to use a variety of skills and attribute accomplishments to
them. Men are generally considered dominating and achievement-
oriented as compared to women, who are nurturing and socially
sensitive, and are caring with kind attributes. These attributes make
them socially connected more than men (Sczesny, Bosak, Neff, &
Schyns, 2004). Similarly, Moller, Fouladi, MaCarthy and Hatch
(2003) suggested that women reported higher levels of social
connectedness than men because they have sharing nature so have
more friends than men. On the other hand Azher, Khan, and Salim
(2014) reported high level of social anxiety in men than women.
Conclusions, Limitation and Implications
Since the study is based on a correlational design, so causal
connection among study variables cannot not be assumed. In future
research, true experimental research design should be utilized to
study causal relationships between these variables. As the measures
used in the current study were self- report, so it might cause social
desirability so it is suggested for future researchers to add some
measure of social desirability to control this element.
The present study has several implications for research and
practice. The present study clarified the role of social connectedness
in relation between self-esteem and social anxiety. These findings
can help counsellors and psychologists, dealing with socially
anxious people in various fields of life. They can design various
interventions or strategies to enhance self-esteem by guiding people
to improve their social involvement, and enable people to ultimately
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... There is a propensity that low self-esteems makes people more anxious in many social situations. Such as people having poor self-esteem most frequently avoid social interactions, which impedes the expansion in their social networks, which are considered essential for one's wellbeing by sharing and collaborating (Fatima et al., 2017). Further, the individuals with poor self-esteem frequently seek approval from others to have better feeling about themselves. ...
... Several empirical studies revealed that self-esteem is significantly but negatively associated with social anxiety. For instance, in the context of Pakistan, Fatima et al. (2017) examined the link between social anxiety and self-esteem and found a negative correlation with certain demographic variations. Additionally, gender differences significantly influencing this relationship, as the effect was stronger in men. ...
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Social media’s technological developments have made it possible to extensively share visual content such as photos and videos to represent idealized beauty. Many studies conclude negative effects of Instagram on Social anxiety. However, the mechanism through which Instagram affects psychological wellbeing of youngsters is not studied adequately. Using Street's (2003) three-stage model of interactive media use, quantitative research methodology was designed. A survey of university youngsters (N=384) through a set of questions is conducted. Study followed a cross-sectional non-experimental research approach. Mediation path from Instagram usage to social anxiety was analyzed statistically applying Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Investigations revealed that the direct relationship of Instagram usage with social anxiety was not significant. However, Instagram usage was linked to social anxiety through mediating factors. Social comparison as a proximal outcome and self-esteem as intermediate outcome were the mediating factors supported mediation framework. Gender and age were found insignificant in the relationship between the youngsters’ Instagram usage and social anxiety. Finding would be helpful in developing a practical mechanism to cope with mental health issues of youngsters due to the use of online spaces in digital age. Keywords: Instagram use, Three-stage model, Social comparison, Self-esteem, Social anxiety
... They may also feel misunderstood and have difficulty relating to other people (Lee & Robbins, 1995). When this state is persistent and generalized, it is psychologically disturbing and potentially debilitating, with consequences such as the inability to maintain relationships and avoidance of social activities for fear of rejection (Eraslan-Capan, 2016;Fatima et al., 2017;Tomova et al., 2021). ...
... Some of the main consequences ensuing from social anxiety are observed in the interactions with others, negatively affecting the establishment and maintenance of positive relationships, the integration and participation in social groups, as well as acceptance by others (Rubin et al., 2009), which impacts the development of the sense of belonging, acknowledgement and satisfaction with the quality of relationships that the person establishes. Along these lines, there are numerous studies that support the negative relationship between social connectedness and social anxiety (Fatima et al., 2017;Kavanagh et al., 2017;Savci & Aysan, 2019). ...
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The feeling of social connectedness is an extremely important factor for the psychosocial well-being of individuals. Experiencing closeness, belonging, and mutual acknowledgement with the people who are part of the social circle, contributes to the establishment and maintenance of positive and stable relationships over time, as well as numerous benefits regarding the quality of life and mental health of individuals. In order to contribute to the field of study of interpersonal relationships, this study aims to adapt and validate the Social Connectedness Scale for Argentinean adults. The sample consisted of 399 individuals between the ages of 18 and 79 who completed the scale which was previously translated and submitted to expert judges. The results confirmed the one-dimensional structure of the scale, invariant by sex, with good internal consistency (ω = .92). Furthermore, evidence of convergent and discriminant validity was provided through correlations with measures of extroversion (rp=.37) and social anxiety (rp = -.61). It is concluded that the measures provided by the Argentinean version of the social connectedness scale are both valid and reliable to be used in research, as well as in clinical settings in Argentinean population.
... Other studies support our findings reporting a negative link of self-esteem with anxiety [83,84]; and depression with physical activity [2] of university students in Pakistan. It is in line with the finding that positive feelings, lifestyle, high status, motivation, personal mobility and high quality of life can be achieved through regular physical activity [37]. ...
... For instance, a few studies have reported that low self-esteem leads to depression and anxiety [85,86]; while higher self-concept is associated with lower anxiety of university students in Pakistan [87]. Similarly, a study conducted with the general population in Pakistan [83] claims that self-esteem is negatively related to anxiety. Conversely, despite its positive effects on physical and mental health, self-criticism creates negative thinking, anxiety, and depression [88]. ...
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The present study examined the role of self-enhancement and self-criticism in the relationship between physical activity and anxiety. A total of 305 students from Chinese universities, ranging in age from 18 to 36, completed a questionnaire package comprising a physical activity questionnaire, a self-enhancement strategies scale, a level of self-criticism scale, and a short form of state and trait anxiety scale. Findings highlighted that physical activity had a significant negative correlation with anxiety (r = -0.31, p < 0.01), a significant positive association with self-enhancement (r = 0.43, p < 0.01), and a significant negative relationship with self-criticism (r = -0.14, p < 0.05). It was also found that anxiety was significantly predicted by self-enhancement (-0.21, p < 0.01) and self-criticism (0.44, p < 0.01). Moreover, the mediation model supports the mediation of self-enhancement and self-criticism between physical activity and anxiety in university students. The findings suggest that interventions aimed at promoting physical activity and enhancing the self-system should be worthy strategies for reducing students' anxiety.
... However, in Pakistan, the culture of competition in schools, which is the antithesis of collaboration, can lead to students feeling alienated and mistrustful, promoting social anxiety (Ansari, 2022;Ansari & Rizvi, 2023). Unfortunately, there are no additional courses or programmes offered in schools in Pakistan to promote social adaptability, indicating a lack of supportive practices in this area (Ansari, 2022;Ansari & Rizvi, 2023;Fatima et al., 2017). ...
This paper presents a scoping review of existing literature published between 2010 and 2022 on the role of schools in promoting social capabilities among students. It aims to map the evidence regarding the school programmes or interventions that are practised across the globe to promote psycho‐socio‐emotional skills among students. The review indicates a broad scope of social interventions with limited evidence on interventions promoting social capabilities. Notably, both formal and non‐formal programmes are being offered in schools to foster social–emotional learning, self‐awareness (e.g., self‐regulation, resilience and forgiveness in attitude, and mental health awareness), and pro‐social behaviour development (e.g., positive behaviour, mindfulness, management and support, parental involvement, mentorship, sports and animal protection). This review highlights substantially encouraging effect of interventions for promoting social capabilities among students. However, the short‐term nature of programmes hardly allows the sustainability of acquired skills and behaviours among students. Additionally, the review identified a contextual gap in developing countries, including Pakistan. Therefore, it suggests the integration of such programmes in school policies and curricula, after contextualising, to ensure their regularity and sustaining psycho‐socio‐emotional skills. This recommends the development, and execution of an intervention that encompasses all the components of social capabilities collectively, along with examining its efficacy. Context and implications Rationale of the review This scoping review aims to capture the scope and map the existing evidence regarding school‐based interventions to promote psycho‐socio‐emotional development among students. Why new findings matter The review provided valuable insights into the significance and necessity of psycho‐socio‐emotional development for students, which is essential in today's world. The lack of evidence from developing countries is found that needs critical attention. The findings contribute to the future of holistic development through the contextual adaptation of practiced interventions in developing contexts like Pakistan. Implications for researchers and policymakers The emerging findings imply the need for understanding the importance of developing psycho‐socio‐emotional skills collectively among students as part of the school experience. The implications extend to various stakeholders, including policymakers and school practitioners, who need to prioritise the holistic development of students throughout their formal education. Furthermore, this review is a call for researchers to develop, implement and evaluate the effectiveness of such interventions tailored to the specific needs of developing contexts, where there is currently a lack of evidence of school‐based initiatives.
... The low self-esteem can increase social anxiety for several reasons. Firstly, individuals with decreased self-esteem often have less interactions with others, impeding the development of friendly relationships that are important for one's wellbeing [14]. Secondly, the people with the lower self-esteem tend to depend on extrinsic social approval for a better sense of self. ...
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Social media not only have been proven to cause unhappiness, but it can also lead to development of mental health issues like stress or depression when used too much or without caution. The present study was aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and behavior of the individuals regarding consequences of Instagram and WhatsApp usage on mental health. The web link of the online questionnaire was disseminated and data was collected for 15 days (16th to 30th January 2022). A total of 632 participants gave consent and took part in this survey. Majority of the participants (76.3%) don't think that WhatsApp use can violate their privacy but 54.6% users have knowledge regarding its negative effects on health and lifestyle. Interestingly, 57% participant refuses to stop using WhatsApp even after knowing the negative effects. Majority of respondents reported that they didn't get influenced about the “stuff” on Instagram. However, 31.80% participants accepted that their feelings get influenced by the number of "likes" they get, and 44.4% participant stated that Instagram have effect on their mood and 19.3% respondents reported that they feel pressure to fit into a certain image on social media. Even, 21.2% participants accepted that they face mental issues because of Instagram use. A small proportion of Instagram users in Jazan reported that it has negative impact on mental health. Majority of the participants are not willing to stop use of WhatsApp even after knowing the adverse effects. It is advisable for social media users to create a social-media free slot in daily routine if they feel sad, lonely or depressed after using social media apps.
... Self-esteem is one of the most important issues in mental health, which is one of the most important and basic characteristics of each person's personality and affects other personal aspects of human beings. The lack of self-esteem will cause other aspects of personality to grow or become out of balance and may be the cause of shyness, aggression, fear and various mental illnesses such as depression (Fatima, Niazi & Ghayas 2017). Self-esteem means a person's confidence in their own worth or abilities. ...
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One of the critical crises observed in human society, especially in the so-called advanced and industrial societies, is the spiritual crisis. Spirituality in various types of cultural and religious concepts is considered a spiritual path one in which can achieve something like a high level of consciousness, wisdom or union with God. In addition, self-esteem is a sense of worth. This feeling comes from the sum of our thoughts, feelings, emotions and experiences throughout life. Dignity also means honour and pride, which has been mentioned many times in the Qur’an. In contrast to dignity, there is humiliation, which means lack of dignity in which one simply accepts defeat. Religious teachings, especially Islamic teachings, do not summarise dignity as wealth, luxury and the enjoyment of material possibilities, but interprets dignity as spirituality, and liberation from the shackles of worldliness, which give Muslims a moral identity. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating role of moral identity between spiritual intelligence and self-esteem of Muslims. The statistical population includes 834 Muslim employees working in 20 branches of one Iranian university. Necessary data were collected by standard questionnaires. Pearson’s correlation coefficient and regression analysis in SPSS software (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) were used to analyse the data. According to the results of the analysis, there is a positive relationship between spiritual intelligence and self-esteem of Muslims. There is also a positive relationship between moral identity and self-esteem. Furthermore, moral identity plays a mediating role in the relationship between spiritual intelligence and self-esteem, and it strengthens this relationship. Contribution: The present study proves the mediating role of ethical identity on the relationship between spiritual intelligence and self-esteem in an Islamic society.
... Self-esteem implied both direct and indirect effects mediated by self-compassion on social anxiety. In similar vein, Fatima et al. (2017) reported that the relationship between self-esteem and social anxiety was mediated by social connectedness, a measure that is similar to common humanity-the subscale of self-compassion, and was previously found to correlate positively with self-compassion (Neff et al., 2007). Our findings are also broadly congruent with Marshall et al. (2015) results which showed that the longitudinal effect of self-esteem on mental health depended on self-compassion. ...
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Fear of evaluation and a negative view of the self are the core aspects of social anxiety. Self-compassion and self-esteem are two distinct positive attitudes toward the self, which are positively related to each other, well-being and good psychological functioning. It is less clear, however, how they interplay in socially anxious individuals and if self-compassion may reduce the negative effect of low self-esteem on social anxiety. The current research aimed at evaluating the directional links between those constructs to check if self-compassion mediates the effect of self-esteem on social anxiety. In this study, 388 adult participants with elevated social anxiety completed measures of self-compassion, self-esteem and social anxiety. As expected, both self-esteem and self-compassion correlated negatively with social anxiety and positively with one another, with lower self-esteem being a stronger predictor of social anxiety. Importantly, self-compassion partially mediated the relationship between self-esteem and social anxiety. These findings suggest that self-compassion partially explains the negative effects of deficits in self-esteem on social anxiety. Practical implications of the research are discussed.
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University students, as emerging adults, have autonomy as one of their central developmental tasks. Parents need to provide an autonomy-supportive environment to encourage students to act based on their volition, benefiting their psychological well-being. This study aims to explore the effect of parental autonomy support on psychological well-being by the mediation of autonomy satisfaction. 227 university students in Indonesia (21.6% male, 78.4% female) aged 18-24 years old (M = 20.73; SD = 0.93) participated in the study and completed an online survey. We used three validated Indonesian version questionnaires: Parental Autonomy Support, Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction and Frustration, and Psychological Well-Being. The result shows that autonomy satisfaction fully mediated the relationship between parental autonomy support and psychological well-being. This finding supported the self-determination theory framework and implied the importance of parental autonomy support in enhancing university students' psychological well-being, especially in pandemic situations.
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The purpose of this study was to compare self-compassion in athletes with and without exposed exercise addiction. The research method was a descriptive and causal-comparative. The statistical population consisted of the sports team of University of Tehran. Initially, status of all students was assessed based on Exercise Addiction Scale (Griffiths et al. 2004), and 25 athletes with exposed (Score 24 or above) and 20 athlete without exposed exercise addiction (Grade 12 or lower) were identified according to guidelines of this scale. In addition, subjects were asked to complete Eating Disorders Scale (Stice et al. 2000) because of their high Comorbidity with exercise addiction. Then five athlete were excluded because of eating disorder symptoms. Finally, 20 athlete with exposed exercise addiction were selected and compared through Self-Compassion Scale (Rice et al. 2011). One way ANOVA results reveled that mean scores of self-compassion characteristic of the students with exposed are significantly lower than students without exposed exercise addiction . The findings of this study indicated the need to consider self-compassion characteristic as a risk factors of exercise addiction phenomenon, and they have many applications in the field of preventive and therapeutic interventions of use behaviors.
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ABSTRAK: Kecemasan sosial merupakan ketakutan berlebihan dan penghindaran terhadap situasi sosial. Kecemasan sosial dapat mempengaruhi kehidupan emosi seseorang hingga dapat memunculkan perilaku maladaptif, emosi negatif yang berlebihan, dan dapat memunculkan gangguan mental lainnya. Seseorang yang mengalami kecemasan sosial akan melakukan perilaku tertentu untuk menjaga diri tetap pada zona aman dan nyamannya. Mungkin berada di zona nyaman akan membuat orang tersebut merasa aman. Namun, apabila seseorang secara terus menerus menghindari lingkungan sosialnya maka hal itu hanya akan memperburuk kecemasan yang dimiliki. Workbook ini membantu seseorang yang memiliki kecemasan sosial untuk lebih memahami kecemasan yang dimiliki dan belajar secara bertahap menghadapi kecemasan sosial tersebut. ABSTRACT: Social anxiety is excessive fear and avoidance of social situations. Social anxiety can affect a person's emotional life so that it can lead to maladaptive behavior, excessive negative emotions, and can lead to other mental disorders. Someone who experiences social anxiety will perform certain behaviors to keep themselves in their safe and comfortable zone. Maybe being in a comfort zone will make the person feel safe. However, if a person continuously avoids his social environment, it will only exacerbate the anxiety he has. This workbook helps someone who has social anxiety better understand their anxiety and learn to gradually deal with it.
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The objective of this study was to investigate not only the prevalence of internet addiction among the male and female students in the University of Sargodha but also the relationship between internet addiction and anxiety level of students. There were 300 students, from Masters’ classes, as sample, selected through cluster sampling. Internet Addiction Scale (I.A.S) and Beck Anxiety Scale were used as assessment tools for data collection. Data was analyzed using mean, standard deviation, T-test and regression analysis. The results showed that prevalence of internet is more in male students than female students. Regression analysis showed a positive and significant relation between internet addiction and anxiety level among University students. Key Words: Internet addiction, anxiety, students, University of Sargodha.
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Youth who feel connected to people and institutions in their communities may be buffered from other risk factors in their lives. As a result, increasing connectedness has been recommended as a prevention strategy. In this study, we examined connectedness among 224 youth (ages 12–15), recruited from an urban medical emergency department, who were at elevated risk due to bullying perpetration or victimization, or low social connectedness. Regression analyses examined multiple domains of connectedness (family, school, peer, community) in relation to adjustment. Youth who felt more connected to parents reported lower levels of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, non-suicidal self-injury, and conduct problems, higher self-esteem and more adaptive use of free time. Youth who felt more connected to their school reported lower levels of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, social anxiety, and sexual activity, as well as higher levels of self-esteem and more adaptive use of free time. Community connectedness was associated with less social anxiety but more sexual activity, and peer connectedness was not related to youth adjustment in this unique sample. Findings suggest that family and school connectedness may buffer youth on a trajectory of risk, and may therefore be important potential targets for early intervention services.
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Purpose – This paper aims to show how the relative global status of a country influences its internal country reputation and resulting social cognitions of citizens. Design/methodology/approach – The theories of social identity and collective self-esteem were employed to explain how self-assessment and evaluations of a country’s reputation are regulated by social concepts and vice versa. The structural equation modeling technique was employed to estimate the conjectural relations. Findings – The groups which people belong to are their primary source of pride and self-esteem. But if a country is negatively stereotyped on the global stage, it weakens the ability of people to live their nation’s brand. A formidable nation’s brand can only be constructed if people are deeply involved and committed to it. Practical implications – The results of this study have implications for policymakers, nation’s branding experts and researchers to focus on internal branding of nations. The academicians and researchers should focus more on the internal audiences in their role as a “communication medium” to external audiences. A more purposeful internal branding will promote community strengthening and enable people to act as a mouth piece in communicating a desired experience to external audiences. Originality/value – The existing nations branding literature does not show how relative global status of a country influences self-assessment and evaluations of people’s associations with that country. The present study aims to fill this gap by drawing on the theories of social identity, self-categorization and collective self-esteem to show how people’s self-perception in negatively perceived countries is regulated in relation to their country’s relative global status and its influence on resulting social cognitions.
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The objective of the present study was to investigate the difference in the level of self-esteem among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls. After a detailed literature review, it was hypothesized that there would be a significant difference in the level of self-esteem among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls. The sample of the present study consisted of 260 participants, who were further divided into two groups: clinical group (n= 140) and normal controls (n= 120). The age range of the participants in both the samples were 18 to 25 years (with the mean age of 22.14 years for psychiatric patients and 21.18 years for normal controls), and they belonged to middle socioeconomic status. The clinical group consisted of diagnosed psychiatric patients according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR) criteria and further divided into four subgroups, including patients of (a) schizophrenia (n= 40), (b) major depressive disorder (n= 40), (c) obsessive-compulsive disorder (n= 40), and (d) opioid dependence disorder (n=20). The semi-structured interview form of Institute of Clinical Psychology, University of Karachi, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were used. Descriptive Statistics and one-way ANOVA were applied to analyze and interpret the data in statistical terminology. Results indicate significant differences among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls on the variable of self-esteem (F= 30.513, df= 4, 255, p< .05). The finding has implications for clinical interventions and also suggestsavenues for future research.
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In this paper, we attempt to shed light on the nature of, relevance of, and relationship between global self-esteem and specific self-esteem. We marshal evidence that the two types of self-esteem may have strikingly different consequences, global self-esteem being more relevant to psychological well-being, and specific self-esteem being more relevant to behavior. We use linear structural equation causal modeling to test this hypothesis for the case of global self-esteem (Rosenberg 1979) and specific (academic) self-esteem. Our findings show that, while global self-esteem is more strongly related to measures of psychological well-being, specific (academic) self-esteem is a much better predictor of school performance. Other findings indicate that the degree to which specific academic self-esteem affects global self-esteem, particularly the positive component of global self-esteem, is a function of how highly academic performance is personally valued.
Objective: To investigate risk and protective factors for medically serious suicide attempts among young Australian adults. Method: The study used a case–control design. A clinical sample of 18–24 year olds was recruited via the emergency department of a large public hospital following a suicide attempt (n=95) and was compared to a sample of 18–24 year olds who participated in a population-based survey (n=380). Results: Risk factors for medically serious suicide attempts included early school leaving, parental divorce (males only), distress due to problems with parents (females only), distress due to problems with friends, distress due to the break-up of a romantic relationship, tobacco use, high alcohol use, current depressive symptomatology and a previous diagnosis of depression. Protective factors included social connectedness, problem-solving confidence and locus of control. There was a trend for social connectedness to be more protective among those with high rather than low levels of depressive symptomatology, and among smokers rather than non-smokers. Conclusions: Results are discussed in terms of designing evidence-based suicide prevention activities for young adults.
This study examines the potentially mediated relationship between volunteering and well-being. Using survey data from a random sample (N = 2,990) of the population of the state of Victoria, Australia, three hypotheses were tested: Volunteers will report higher well-being than nonvolunteers; volunteers will report higher self-esteem, self-efficacy, and social connectedness than nonvolunteers; self-esteem, self-efficacy, and social connectedness will mediate the relationship between volunteer status and well-being. Results supported the hypotheses and showed that self-esteem, self-efficacy, and social connectedness were all significant mediators of the volunteering–well-being relationship. Increased social connectedness associated with volunteering was found to be the strongest first step in these pathways. This points to the importance of social connection for well-being, but future research using longitudinal designs is required to further test these relationships and provide the capacity for evidence of causality.
This research aims to study the effect of classifying students on the basis of their past academic records on their self esteem and their perception of teachers as supportive or controlling. The study specifically applies to the Between Class Ability Grouping System and generally applies to normal teaching practices across Pakistan. The research was conducted using data collected from participants of schools in Karachi. Their self esteem measures were recorded and their perception of teacher behavior was recorded. Independent sample t tests were conducted on the data to verify the effect of classification of students on self esteem and teacher perception. The results showed that higher levels of self esteem were recorded in high performers of class that in low performers, (t=7.221, df=56, p=0.05). Moreover, high performers found their teachers as more supportive than low performers, (t=-7.241, df=56, p=0.05), and high performers found their teachers as less controlling than low performers (t=10.509, df=56, p=0.05).