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Possible loss of some species of the family Lamiaceae from the flora of Bangladesh

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Abstract

p>Present investigation assesses 25 Lamiaceous taxa as possibly Extinct (EX) from the flora of Bangladesh due to various anthropogenic activities. The study based on long term field investigation, examination of preserved herbarium specimens at different national and international herbaria and consultation of relevant floristic literature. These taxa have been previously reported from the area of Bangladesh about 70 to 200 years ago. Since then there have been no subsequent reports of occurrence and no collected specimens are available at any herbaria. Furthermore, this species could not be relocated from elsewhere in Bangladesh. Among these 25 taxa, Leucas mollissima Wall . ex Benth. (=L. decemdentata (Willd.) Sm.) and Elsholtzia incisa Benth. (=E. stachyodes (Link.) Raizada and Saxena) have been reported from the area about 193 and 77 years ago respectively. 18 species (72%) have been reported from Sylhet; of which, 13 species, viz. Aphanochilus blandus Benth. (= Elsholtzia blanda (Benth.) Benth.), Gomphostemma lucidum Wall. ex Benth., G. melissifolium (Roxb.) Wall. ex Benth., Plectranthus hispidus Benth. (= Isodon hispidus (Benth.) Murata), Plectranthus gerardianus Benth. (= Isodon lophanthoides (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) Hara), Leucas vestita Benth., Orthosiphon incurvus Benth., Phlomis rugosa Benth. (= Paraphlomis javanica (Blume) Prain), Geniosporum strobiliferum Wall. ex Benth. (= Platostoma coloratum (D. Don) A.J. Paton), Geniosporum parviflorum Benth. (= Platostoma palustre (Blume) A. J. Paton), Pogostemon parviflorus Benth., Dysophylla strigosa Benth. (= Pogostemon strigosus (Benth.) Benth.), and Scutellaria discolor Wall. ex Benth. were named based on type specimens collected from area by Wallich‟s collectors, and Microtoenia griffithii Prain was named based on Griffith‟s collection from East Bengal (current Bangladesh) Sinne loco . Enumeration of these possibly extinct taxa is prepared with data on habit, habitat, phenology, global distribution, recorded localities, specimens examined, and notes with some photographs of type/herbarium specimens. J. Biodivers. Conserv. Bioresour. Manag. 2017, 3(2): 19-34 </p
J. biodivers. conserv. bioresour. manag. 3(2), 2017
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POSSIBLE LOSS OF SOME SPECIES OF THE FAMILY LAMIACEAE FROM THE FLORA
OF BANGLADESH
Rashid, M. H. and S. Ahmed
Plant Systematics Lab., Department of Botany, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331, Bangladesh
Abstract
Present investigation assesses 25 Lamiaceous taxa as possibly Extinct (EX) from the flora of
Bangladesh due to various anthropogenic activities. The study based on long term field investigation,
examination of preserved herbarium specimens at different national and international herbaria and consultation
of relevant floristic literature. These taxa have been previously reported from the area of Bangladesh about 70
to 200 years ago. Since then there have been no subsequent reports of occurrence and no collected specimens
are available at any herbaria. Furthermore, this species could not be relocated from elsewhere in Bangladesh.
Among these 25 taxa, Leucas mollissima Wall. ex Benth. (=L. decemdentata (Willd.) Sm.) and Elsholtzia incisa
Benth. (=E. stachyodes (Link.) Raizada and Saxena) have been reported from the area about 193 and 77 years
ago respectively. 18 species (72%) have been reported from Sylhet; of which, 13 species, viz. Aphanochilus
blandus Benth. (=Elsholtzia blanda (Benth.) Benth.), Gomphostemma lucidum Wall. ex Benth., G.
melissifolium (Roxb.) Wall. ex Benth., Plectranthus hispidus Benth. (=Isodon hispidus (Benth.) Murata),
Plectranthus gerardianus Benth. (=Isodon lophanthoides (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) Hara), Leucas vestita Benth.,
Orthosiphon incurvus Benth., Phlomis rugosa Benth. (=Paraphlomis javanica (Blume) Prain), Geniosporum
strobiliferum Wall. ex Benth. (=Platostoma coloratum (D. Don) A.J. Paton), Geniosporum parviflorum Benth.
(=Platostoma palustre (Blume) A. J. Paton), Pogostemon parviflorus Benth., Dysophylla strigosa Benth.
(=Pogostemon strigosus (Benth.) Benth.), and Scutellaria discolor Wall. ex Benth. were named based on type
specimens collected from area by Wallich‟s collectors, and Microtoenia griffithii Prain was named based on
Griffith‟s collection from East Bengal (current Bangladesh) Sinne loco. Enumeration of these possibly extinct
taxa is prepared with data on habit, habitat, phenology, global distribution, recorded localities, specimens
examined, and notes with some photographs of type/herbarium specimens.
Key words: Lamiaceae, Flora, Extinct, Bangladesh.
INTRODUCTION
Global biodiversity has been decreasing at an alarming rate and referred to as “biodiversity crisis”.
Tropical forests has also been seriously imperiled by anthropogenic activities including deforestation
and habitat destruction (Novacek and Cleland 2001, Brook et al. 2003). Human impact on nature has
reached at such a high proportion that the world is today witnessing an unprecedented rate of species
loss. Many more species are disappearing from the nature before their discovery and determination. The
1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants revealed that about 34,000 (12.5%) of the world‟s vascular
plant species are at risk of extinction (Walter and Gillett 1998). Later the 2004 IUCN Red List includes
11,824 species of plants, of which 8,321 are threatened. Pitman and Jorgensen (2002) stated if following
IUCN criteria for proper assessment is done, about 50% of world‟s flora might be threatened at risk of
extinction. However, only about 4% of the described plant species have been evaluated so far, of which
about 3% are threatened (Baillie et al. 2004). The IUCN threatened Plants Unit at the Royal Botanical
Gardens, Kew, has produced a global data of 50,000 plant species, of which around 20,000 species fall
under threatened categories. However, the „biodiversity crisis‟ created by human civilization has
resulted in drastic reduction and extinction of biodiversity due to disappearance of habitats, pollution
and over-exploitation. Over the past half a billion years, the world lost perhaps one species per million
each year whereas the current annual rate of extinction is estimated to be 1,000 to 10,000 times faster.
By 2050, the biodiversity loss is expected to be equivalent to 7% of the World‟s GDP (Braat and ten
J. biodivers. conserv. bioresour. manag. 3(2), 2017
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Brink 2008). A conservative estimate of IUCN threatened plant Units shows that about 60,000 plant
species (25%) would become either extinct or nearly extinct by the 2050 (Uberoi 2010). In the current
wave of multiple threats, humans cannot predict the impact and consequences of plant extinctions. Even
extinction of a single plant species may result in the disappearance of 30 associated species of plants and
wildlife (USDA 1993). Recently, Pimm and Joppa (2015) estimated current plant extinction risk which
is 27-33% while Brummit et al. (2015) presumed 21.44%.
Bangladesh is endowed with high plant resources as it lies in a transition of two mega-biodiversity
hot spots Indo-Himalayas and Indo-Chinese. However, Bangladesh forests are highly vulnerable to
anthropogenic disturbances and climate change (Khan 2003). It has been estimated that out of c.5000
angiosperm species, at least 8-10% are facing threats to extinction due to habitat loss, population
pressure and over-exploitation of natural resources in Bangladesh (Khan 1991, Rahman et al. 2010,
Rashid et al. 2014). Nevertheless, to arrest this process there have been no tangible steps taken (Khan et
al. 2001). Therefore, it has been accentuated by Khan et al. (2001) and Rahman et al. (2010) that the
first and foremost step in this direction is to make complete inventory of the threatened species with
assessment of their conservation status in the flora in order to framing and implementing National
Conservation Strategies.
The importance of inventory of threatened plants in Bangladesh was first focused on by Khan (1991)
with a tentative list of 12 threatened vascular plants. Afterward, in 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened
plants included 24 vascular plant species from Bangladesh. Subsequently, Khan et al. (2001) published
Red Data Book of Vascular plants of Bangladesh with 106 threatened plants. Thereafter, Rahman (2003)
and Rahman et al. (2010) reported 18 and 58 species respectively as threatened in the wild under
different IUCN Categories. However, family wise inventory of the threatened taxa has been initiated for
the first time in Bangladesh by Rahman (2013). He listed 69 species (i.e., 13.27% out of 520) in 13
angiosperm families presumed to be extinct from the flora of Bangladesh.
Lamiaceae (Labiatae), the mint family, is a large family of aromatic herbs and undershrubs
containing many useful plants such as sage (Salvia) and mint (Mentha) known for the wealth of species
with medicinal properties, which have been used since early times (Harley et al. 2004). The family has
cosmopolitan distribution with 236 genera and about 7,173 species (Harley et al. 2004); 233 genera and
about 6,870 species (Heywood et al. 2007); 252 genera and 6,800 species (Judd et al. 2008); 238 genera
and 6,500 species (Mabberley 2008); and is regarded as being one of the most highly evolved plant
families from the viewpoint of floral structure (Hedge 1992). In Bangladesh the family is represented by
86 species under 34 genera (Khanam 2009).
Walter and Gillett (1998) reported 733 Lamiaceous taxa (c.23%) as threatened all over the world.
Ara et al. (2013) assessed Achyrospermum wallichianum (Benth) Benth. ex Hook. f., Gomphostemma
mastersii Benth. ex Hook. f., G. melissifolium Wallich ex Benth., G. velutinum Benth. as Endangered
(EN) and Microtoena griffithii Prain as Critically Endangered (CR) in the flora of Bangladesh.
While assessing the status of occurrence of all recorded Lamiaceous taxa for determination of their
threatened categories, it revealed that 25 taxa have neither been further reported since their first record
nor could be relocated from anywhere in Bangladesh including their recorded collection localities.
Moreover, no representative specimens of these taxa could be found available in any herbaria. Hence,
these taxa are presumed to be lost from the flora of Bangladesh.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Determination of the extinct Lamiaceous taxa has been done through long term repeated
explorations throughout the flora, examination and consultation of the collected herbarium specimens
J. biodivers. conserv. bioresour. manag. 3(2), 2017
21
and relevant literature. Previous collection localities of the Lamiaceous taxa, especially botanically rich
areas of Chittagong, Cox‟s Bazar, Chittagong Hill Tracts districts and greater Sylhet have been explored
extensively.
Herbarium specimens lodged at different international, national and local herbaria have been
examined critically. The relevant and up-to-date floristic literature since Sinclair (1956), such as, Khan
and Afza (1968), Khan and Banu (1972), Alam (1988, 1995)), Khan et al. (1984), Huq and Begum
(1984), Huq and Khan (1984), Naderuzzaman and Islam (1984), Huq (1988), Khan et al. (1994),
Rahman and Hassan (1995), Rahman and Uddin (1997), Yusuf et al. (1997), Dey et al. (1998), Uddin et
al. (1998, 2003), Uddin and Rahman (1999), Rashid et al. (2000), Khan and Huq (2001), Rahman et al.
(2001), Rashid and Mia (2001), Uddin and Hassan (2004, 2010), Khanam and Hassan (2005), Hossain
et al. (2005), Alam et al. (2006), Momen et al. (2006), Khanam and Hassan (2008), Islam et al. (2009),
Khanam (2009), Barbhuiya and Gogoi (2010), Tutul et al. (2010), Arefin et al. (2011), Rahman et al.
(2010, 2012, 2013), Rahman et al. (2010a), Uddin et al. (2013), Rashid and Chowdhury (2013), Uddin
et al. (2015), Arefin et al. (2017) have been consulted to trace the report of collection/occurrence of the
Lamiaceous taxa of Bangladesh. In the result the following Latin words e.g. s.l. (Sinne loco) - without
locality; s.a. (Sinne anno) - without date; anno - in the year, are used.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
According to the present investigation 25 Lamiaceous taxa belonging to 14 genera were not
relocated in their previous recorded localities and or elsewhere in the flora of Bangladesh. Since their
first report between more than 70 years to about 200 years, no specimens are available at any herbaria.
Among these 25 taxa Leucas decemdentata (Willd.) Sm. (L. mollissima Wall. ex Benth.) and Elsholtzia
stachyodes (Link.) Raizada & Saxena (Elsholtzia incisa Benth.) have been reported from the area 193
and 77 years ago, respectively.
18 species (64%) have been listed from Sylhet by Nathaniel Wallich. Of which, following eight
species viz. Elsholtzia blanda (Benth.) Benth., Gomphostemma lucidum Wall. ex Benth., G.
melissifolium (Roxb.) Wall. ex Benth., Isodon hispidus (Benth.) Murata. (Plectranthus hispidus Benth.),
I. lophanthoides (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) Hara (Plectranthus gerardianus Benth.), Orthosiphon
incurvus Benth., Paraphlomis javanica (Blume) Prain (Phlomis rugosa (Benth.) Prain), and Platostoma
palustre (Blume) A. J. Paton (Geniosporum parviflorum Benth.) are named based on type specimens
collected from Sylhet by Wallich or his collectors. However, G. melissifolium is also recorded by Roxb.
(1832) and Hook. f. (1885) from the same locality. Moreover, G. lucidum, Platostoma palustre, and
Scutellaria discolor are reported from East Bengal (Current Bangladesh) as well by Grifffith without
citing any specific localities; and distributions of O. incurvus are also known from Rangamati and Cox‟s
Bazar. The last specimen of this species was collected from Cox‟s Bazar in 1920 by J. M. Cowan.
Anisochilus pallidus Wall. ex Benth., Colquhounia coccinea Wall., G. lucidum Wall. ex Benth.,
Isodon coetsa (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) Kudo, Microtoenia griffithii Prain, Pogostemon cruciatus
(Benth.) Kuntze, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don are only known from Griffith‟s collection from East
Bengal (current Bangladesh - without citing specific localities). William Griffith made exploration in
this area during 1835-36. Since then there have been neither further reports of occurrence of these
species in Bangladesh nor any specimen available at any herbaria. However, earlier G. lucidum is named
by Wallich based on type specimen collected from Sylhet in 1822.
Hooker (1885), Heinig (1925) and Mukerjee (1940) reported Elsholtzia stachyodes (Link.) Raizada
and Saxena (E. incisa Benth.) from Chittagong; Gomphostemma parviflorum var. farinosum Prain is
only known from the single specimen collected by Cowan (1920) from Chittagong; and Orthosiphon
J. biodivers. conserv. bioresour. manag. 3(2), 2017
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rubicundus (D. Don) Benth. is reported from Chittagong by Heinig (1925). There have been no further
reports of occurrence of these taxa since their last record and no specimen is available in any herbaria.
Considering the IUCN criteria (IUCN 2012) these 25 taxa have been assessed as possibly lost from
the flora of Bangladesh.
Enumeration of the possibly extinct Lamiaceous taxa of Bangladesh
Anisochilus pallidus Wall. ex Benth., Pl. As. Rar. 2:18 (1830). Prain (1903); Khanam and Hassan
(2008); Khanam (2009). Fig. 1a
An erect herb up to 1m high. Habitat: Forest areas; Fl. & Fr.: October to March.
Global distribution: Nepal, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Laos, Vietnam, China (Khanam and Hassan 2008).
Recorded localities: East Bengal (Bangladesh) Sine loco; Status of occurrence: Possibly Extinct (EX).
Specimen examined: East Bengal (Bangladesh): s.l., sine anno (s.a.), Griffith s.n. (CAL).
Conservation status: This species is only known from Griffith‟s collection from East Bengal (current
Bangladesh - specific locality is not cited) lodged at Central National Herbarium Kolkata (CAL).
William Griffith‟s exploration was made in this area during 1835-36. Since then there has been no
further report of occurrence of this species in Bangladesh and no specimen is available at any herbaria.
Moreover, this species could not be relocated or collected from elsewhere Bangladesh.
Colquhounia coccinea Wall., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 13: 608 (1822). Khanam and Hassan (2008);
Khanam (2009). Fig. 1b
A tall shrub, up to 3m high. Habitat: Forest areas; Fl. & Fr.: During winter season.
Global distribution: India, Myanmar, Nepal, Bhutan, Thailand, Tibet, (Khanam and Hassan 2008).
Recorded localities: East Bengal (Bangladesh) Sine loco; Status of occurrence: Presumed Extinct (EX).
Specimen examined: East Bengal (Bangladesh): s.l., s.a., Griffith 4028 (CAL).
Conservation status: The species is only known from Griffith‟s collection from East Bengal (current
Bangladesh - specific locality is not cited) preserved at Central National Herbarium Kolkata (CAL).
William Griffith made the exploration in the area during 1835-36. Since then there has been no further
report of occurrence and no collection at any herbaria. Furthermore, this species could not be relocated
or collected from elsewhere Bangladesh.
Elsholtzia blanda (Benth.) Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec. 162 (1833). Khanam & Hassan (2008); Khanam
(2009). Aphanochilus blandus Benth. (1830). Fig. 1c
An undershrub or herb, 60 to 100cm high. Habitat: Edges of forests; Fl. & Fr.: March to September
Global distribution: Continental Southeast Asia, Nepal, India, Myanmar, Thailand, South China and
Malaysia (Khanam and Hassan 2008).
Recorded localities: Sylhet; Status of occurrence: Possibly Extinct (EX).
Specimens examined: Sylhet (Sillet): anno 1829, Wallich, Wall. Cat. n. 1550/b (Syntypes K000881697!,
E00301391!, E00301392!)
Conservation status: This species is only known from Wallich‟s type specimen collected by Francis de
Silva from Sylhet in 1829. Since then there has been no further report of its occurrence in Bangladesh
and no specimen is available at any herbaria. Moreover, this species could not be relocated or collected
from its recorded locality or from elsewhere Bangladesh.
Elsholtzia flava (Benth.) Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec. 161 (1833). Khanam & Hassan (2008); Khanam
(2009). Aphanochilus flavus Benth. (1829). Fig. 1d
A shrub, 100-150cm high. Habitat: Edges of forests; Fl. & Fr.: October to June
J. biodivers. conserv. bioresour. manag. 3(2), 2017
23
Global distribution: Pakistan, India and Nepal (Khanam & Hassan 2008).
Recorded localities: Sylhet; Status of occurrence: Presumed Extinct (EX).
Specimens examined: Sylhet (Sillet): anno 1829, Francis de Silva, Wall. Cat. n.1550 (E00301390!).
Conservation status: This species is only known from Wallich‟s specimen collected by Francis de Silva
from Sylhet in 1829. Since then there has been no further report of its occurrence in Bangladesh and no
specimen is available at any herbaria. Furthermore, this species could not be relocated or collected from
its recorded locality or from elsewhere Bangladesh.
Elsholtzia stachyodes (Link.) Raizada & Saxena, Ind. For. 92: 309 (1966). Khanam and Hassan (2008);
Khanam (2009). Hyptis stachyodes Link. (1822). Elsholtzia incisa Benth. (1833); Hooker, f. (1885);
Heinig (1925); Mukerjee (1940).
A slender herb, up to 1m high, strongly aromatic. Habitat: The edges of rain forest; Fl. & Fr.: July to
October
Global distribution: India, Nepal and Myanmar, Thailand (Khanam and Hassan 2008).
Recorded localities: Chittagong; Status of occurrence: Possibly Extinct (EX)
Specimens examined: No specimen is available at any herbaria.
Conservation status: This species was reported from Chittagong by J. D. Hooker in 1885, Heinig in 1925
and lastly in 1940 by Mukerjee. Since Mukerjee (1940) there has been no further report of occurrence of
this species in Bangladesh and no specimen is available at any herbaria. Moreover, this species could not
be relocated or collected from its recorded locality or from elsewhere Bangladesh.
Gomphostemma lucidum Wall. ex Benth., Pl. As. Rar. 2: 12 (1830). Hook. f. (1885); Khanam and
Hassan (2008); Khanam (2009). Fig. 1e
A robust herb about 1-1.2m high. Habitat: Along slopes of hills; Fl. & Fr.: September to April.
Global distribution: India (Khanam and Hassan 2008).
Recorded localities: Sylhet; Status of occurrence: Presumed Extinct (EX).
Specimens examined: East Bengal (Bangladesh): s.l., s.a., Griffith 4038 (CAL); Sylhet (Sillet): s.a.,
Francis de Silva, Wall. Cat. n. 2156/2 (Type K001115340!).
Conservation status: This species is only known in Bangladesh from Wallich‟s type specimen collected
by Francis de Silva from Sylhet in 1822 and Griffith‟s collection from East Bengal (current Bangladesh
- specific locality is not cited) during 1835-36. Since then there has been no further report of occurrence
of this species in Bangladesh and no specimen is available at any herbaria. Furthermore, this species
could not be relocated or collected from its recorded locality or from elsewhere Bangladesh.
Gomphostemma melissifolium Wall. ex Benth., Pl. As. Rar. 2:12 (1830). Khanam and Hassan (2008);
Khanam (2009). Prasium melissifolium Roxb. (1832). Fig. 2f
A prostrate or scandent herb, 0.5-2.5m high. Habitat: Slope of hills and near the stream in forests; Fl.
& Fr.: September to April
Global distribution: India (Khanam and Hassan 2008).
Recorded localities: Sylhet; Status of occurrence: Probably Extinct (EX).
Specimens examined: Sylhet (Sillet): anno 1824, Wallich, Wall. Cat. n. 2157 (Isotypes K000928178!,
BM000521976!, G00189095!).
Conservation status: This species is only known from type specimen collected by Francis de Silva from
Sylhet and listed in Wallich‟s catalogue. Subsequently, Roxb. (1832) and Hooker (1885) also reported
the species from the same locality. Since Hooker (1885) there has been no further report of its
J. biodivers. conserv. bioresour. manag. 3(2), 2017
24
occurrence in Bangladesh and no specimen is available at any herbaria. Moreover, this species could not
be relocated or collected from its recorded locality or from elsewhere Bangladesh.
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
Fig. 1. Plant type: a. Aniosochilus pallidus (K000674759), b. Colquhounia coccinea (K001115081), c. Elsholtzia blanda
(E00301392), d. Elsholtzia flava (P00737619), e. Gomphostemma lucidum (K001115340), f. Gomphostemma
melissifolium (K000928178), g. I. coetsa (BM000521976), h. Syntype of I. hispidus (K 001067854), i. Isodon
lophanthoides (K001067881), j. Leucas ciliata (K000929541), k. Leucas decemdentata (K001115011), l. Leucas
vestita (K001114953).
J. biodivers. conserv. bioresour. manag. 3(2), 2017
25
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
Fig. 2. Plant type: a. Mirotoena griffithii (K000928194), b. Syntype of Orthosiphon incurvus (K001116954), c. Orthosiphon
rubicundus (K000911655), d. Lectotype of Paraphlomis javanica (K000898661), e. Platostoma coloratum
(BM000950317), f. Syntype of Platostoma palustre (K000674619), g. Pogostemon cruciatus (K000848031), h.
Pogostemon strigosus (K000848028), i. Syntype of Scutellaria discolor (K000820798) and j. Teucrium quadrifarium
(K000821617).
J. biodivers. conserv. bioresour. manag. 3(2), 2017
26
Gomphostemma parviflorum var. farinosum Prain, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 3: 253 (1891).
An erect herb, 2.5-3.0m high. Habitat: Waste places; Fl. & Fr.: September to August
Global distribution: India and China (Khanam and Hassan 2008).
Recorded localities: Chittagong; Status of occurrence: Possibly Extinct (EX).
Specimens examined: Chittagong: Matamori, M. R. Range, 29.09.1920, J. M. Cowan, 855 (E).
Conservation status: this taxon is only known in Bangladesh from the single specimen preserved at
Herbarium, Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh (E) collected by J. M. Cowan in 1920 from Chittagong.
Since then there has neither been any specimen nor its further report from Bangladesh is available. This
could not be relocated or collected from its recorded locality or from elsewhere Bangladesh.
Isodon coetsa (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) Kudô, Mem. Fac. Sci. Agr. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 2: 131 (1929).
Khanam and Hassan (2008); Khanam (2009). Plectranthus coetsa Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don (1825). Fig. 1g
An erect, perennial, strongly aromatic undershrub, 1.0-2.5cm high. Habitat: Hilly region; Fl. & Fr.:
September to December.
Global distribution: India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Bangladesh (Khanam and Hassan 2008).
Recorded localities: East Bengal (Bangladesh) Sine loco; Status of occurrence: Probably Extinct (EX).
Specimens examined: East Bengal (Bangladesh): s.l., s.a., Griffith 3959 (CAL).
Conservation status: This species is first known from William Griffith‟s collection from East Bengal
(now Bangladesh) deposited at Central National Herbarium Kolkata (CAL). However, specific
collection locality and date are not mentioned on the herbarium sheet. Griffith‟s exploration was made in
the area during 1835-36. Since then there has been no further report of in Bangladesh and no specimen
preserved at any herbaria. This species could not be relocated or collected from elsewhere Bangladesh.
Isodon hispidus (Benth.) Murata, Act. Phytotax. Geobot. 24: 82 (1969). Khanam and Hassan (2008);
Khanam (2009). Plectranthus hispidus Benth. (1831). Hook. f., (1885). Fig. 1h
A stout herb, 1.0-2.5cm high. Habitat: Evergreen forests; Fl. & Fr.: September to February.
Global distribution: India and Myanmar (Khanam and Hassan 2008).
Recorded localities: Sylhet; Status of occurrence: Presumed Extinct (EX).
Specimens examined: Sylhet (Sillet): anno 1831, Francis de Silva, Wall. Cat. n. 2741 (Syntypes
K001067854!, CAL!).
Conservation status: This species is only known from the type specimen collected from Sylhet in 1831
by Francis de Silva and deposited at Royal Botanic Garden Herbarium Kew (K) and Central National
Herbarium Kolkata (CAL). Since then there has been no further report of its occurrence in Bangladesh
and no specimen is available at any herbaria. Furthermore, this species could not be relocated or
collected from its recorded locality or from elsewhere Bangladesh.
Isodon lophanthoides (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) Hara, Journ. Jap. Bot. 60: 235 (1985). Khanam and
Hassan (2008); Khanam (2009). Hyssopus lophanthoides Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don (1825); Plectranthus
gerardianus Benth. (1830); Plectranthus stocksii Hook.f. (1885). Fig. 1i
A small herb. Habitat: Dry soil inside the forests; Fl. & Fr.: September to February.
Global distribution: Bhutan, India and Myanmar (Khanam and Hassan 2008).
Recorded localities: Sylhet; Status of occurrence: Possibly Extinct (EX).
Species examined: Sylhet: Mont. Sillet (Sylhet), anno 1829, William Bruce., Wall. Cat. n. 2740
(Lectotypes K0011067856!, K001067881!, K001067946!, Isolectotype E00273786!).
J. biodivers. conserv. bioresour. manag. 3(2), 2017
27
Conservation status: This species is only from type specimen collected from Sylhet in 1829. Since then
there has been no further report of its occurrence in Bangladesh and no specimen is available at any
herbaria. Moreover, this species could not be relocated or collected from its recorded locality or from
elsewhere Bangladesh.
Leucas ciliata Benth., Pl. As. Rar. 1: 61 (1830); Khanam and Hassan (2008); Khanam (2009). Fig. 1j
Local name: Shetodron.
A tall robust herb, up to 0.3-1.0m high. Habitat: Waste marshy places; Fl. & Fr.: April to December
Global distribution: Nepal, Bhutan, India and Myanmar (Khanam and Hassan 2008).
Recorded localities: Sylhet; Status of occurrence: Probably Extinct (EX).
Specimens examined: Sylhet: anno1829, Wall. Cat. n. 2046/B (K000929541).
Conservation status: This species is only from single specimen collected from Sylhet in 1829, preserved
at the Royal Botanic Garden Kew Herbarium (K). Since then there is neither its report of occurrence in
Bangladesh nor any specimen found at any herbaria. Furthermore, this species could not be relocated or
collected from its recorded locality or from elsewhere Bangladesh.
Leucas decemdentata (Willd.) Sm., Cycl. 20 (2): 6 (1812). Fig. 1k
Phlomis decemdentata Willd. (1800); Leucas mollissima Wall. ex Benth. (1830). Khanam and Hassan
(2008); Khanam (2009).
A slender herb with straggling branches. Habitat: Dry soil, along roadside; Fl. & Fr.: January to July.
Global distribution: India, Malaysia, China and Sri Lanka (Khanam and Hassan 2008).
Recorded localities: Sylhet; Status of occurrence: Presumed Extinct (EX).
Specimens examined: Sylhet: Pandoah Hill, December 1824, Wall. Cat. n. 2054/2 (K001115011).
Conservation status: This species is only known from Wallich‟s specimen collected from Pandoah hill,
Sylhet in 1824. Since then there has been no further report of its occurrence in Bangladesh and no
specimen is available at any herbaria. Moreover, this species could not be relocated or collected from its
recorded locality or from elsewhere Bangladesh.
Leucas vestita Benth., Pl. As. Rar.1: 61 (1830). Khanam and Hassan (2008); Khanam (2009). Fig. 1l
A tall herb. Habitat: Dry soil in grasslands; Fl. & Fr.: January to July.
Global distribution: India.
Recorded localities: Sylhet; Status of occurrence: Possibly Extinct (EX).
Specimens examined: Sylhet (Sillet): May 1826, Francis de Silva, Wall. Cat. n. 2039/a (Type
K001114953!).
Conservation status: This species is only known from Wallich‟s collection from Sylhet by Francis de
Silva in May 1826; housed at the Royal Botanic Garden Kew Herbarium (K), and Central National
Herbarium Kolkata (CAL). Since then there has been no further report of its occurrence in Bangladesh
and no specimen is available at any herbaria. Furthermore, this species could not be relocated or
collected from its recorded locality or from elsewhere Bangladesh.
Microtoena griffithii Prain, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 59(2): 310 (1896). Khanam and
Hassan (2008); Khanam (2009). Fig. 2a
An erect herb, up to m high, glabrescent. Habitat: Waste places; Fl. & Fr.: October to June.
Global distribution: India (Assam) (Khanam and Hassan 2008).
Recorded localities: East Bengal (Bangladesh) Sine loco; Status of occurrence: Presumed Extinct (EX).
J. biodivers. conserv. bioresour. manag. 3(2), 2017
28
Specimens examined: East Bengal (Bangladesh): s.l., s.a., Griffith 4059 (Type K000928194!).
Conservation status: The species is only known from Griffith‟s collection from East Bengal (current
Bangladesh - specific locality is not cited) preserved at Royal Botanic Garden Herbarium Kew (K) and
Central National Herbarium Kolkata (CAL). William Griffith‟s exploration was made in the area during
1835-36. Since then there has been no further report of occurrence in Bangladesh and no specimen is
available at any herbaria. Moreover, this species could not be relocated or collected from elsewhere
Bangladesh.
Orthosiphon incurvus Benth., Pl. As. Rar. 2:15 (1830). Khanam and Hassan (2008); Khanam (2009). Fig. 2b
An undershrub or shrub, up to 1m high. Habitat: Dry soil in forest areas; Fl. & Fr.: March to October.
Global distribution: India, Sikkim, Myanmar, and Nepal (Khanam and Hassan 2008).
Recorded localities: Cox‟s Bazar, Rangamati and Sylhet; Status of occurrence: Presumed Extinct (EX).
Specimens examined: Cox‟s Bazar: Garjania, June, 1920, Cowan 563 (E). Rangamati: Dmagiri S. West,
22.03.1876, Lister 268 (CAL); Kaptai, 07.10.1905, D. Hooper 26097 (E, CAL); Janglibag, 7.10.1905,
D. Hooper 25043 (CAL). Sylhet: anno 1830, William Bruce, Wall. Cat. n. 2725 (Syntypes
K001116954!, K000911667!, BM000588744!); .
Conservation status: Since its last collection in 1920 by J.M. Cowan from Garjania, Cox‟s Bazar there
has been no further report of occurrence and no specimen is available at any herbaria. Furthermore, this
species could not be relocated or collected from its recorded locality or from elsewhere Bangladesh.
Orthosiphon rubicundus (D. Don) Benth., Pl. As. Rar. 2: 14 (1830). Prain (1903); Heinig (1925);
Khanam and Hassan (2008); Khanam (2009). Fig. 2c
Plectranthus rubicundus D. Don (1825).
An erect herb, up to 30-60cm high. Habitat: Forests; Fl. & Fr.: April-June.
Ecology: Growing inside the forests.
Global distribution: India, Myanmar, Nepal (Khanam and Hassan 2008).
Recorded localities: Chittagong; Status of occurrence: Possibly Extinct (EX).
Specimens examined: No specimen is available at any herbaria.
Conservation status: This species is reported from Chittagong by Heinig (1925). Since then there has
been no report of occurrence of this species and no specimen is available at any herbaria. Moreover, this
species could not be relocated or collected from its recorded locality or from elsewhere Bangladesh.
Paraphlomis javanica (Blume) Prain, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 9: 60 (1901).
Leonurus javanicus Blume (1823); Paraphlomis rugosa (Benth.) Prain (1901). Khanam and Hassan
(2008); Khanam (2009); Phlomis rugosa Benth. (1830). Fig. 2d
A small almost glabrous herb. Habitat: Dry soil; Fl. & Fr.: During winter season.
Global distribution: India, China, Thailand, Philippines Malaysia (Khanam and Hassan 2008).
Recorded localities: Sylhet; Status of occurrence: Presumed Extinct (EX).
Specimens examined: Sylhet (Sillet): anno 1829, Wallich, Wall. Cat. n. 2067 (Lectotype K000898661!).
Conservation status: This species is only known from Wallich‟s type specimen collected from Sylhet in
1829 and lodged at the Royal Botanic Garden Kew Herbarium (K). Since then there has been no further
report of its occurrence in Bangladesh and no specimen is available at any herbaria. Furthermore, this
species could not be relocated or collected from its recorded locality or from elsewhere Bangladesh.
J. biodivers. conserv. bioresour. manag. 3(2), 2017
29
Platostoma coloratum (D. Don) A.J.Paton, Kew Bull. 52: 274 (1997).
Geniosporum coloratum (D. Don) Kuntze (1891). Khanam and Hassan (2008); Khanam (2009).
Plectrunthus coloratus D. Don (1825); Geniosporum strobiliferum Wall. ex Benth. (1830). Fig. 2e
An erect herb, up to 1m tall. Habitat: Waste places; Fl. & Fr.: April to October.
Global distribution: India, Bhutan, Nepal, and South-West China (Khanam and Hassan 2008).
Recorded localities: Sylhet; Status of occurrence: Presumed Extinct (EX).
Specimens examined: Sylhet (Sillet): anno 1831, William Bruce, Wall. Cat. N. 2749/B (Holotype
K000674624!, Isotype BM000588749/B!).
Conservation status: This species is only known from Wallich‟s specimen collected from Sylhet in 1830
and lodged at the Royal Botanic Garden Kew Herbarium (K) and Natural History Museum London
(BM). Since then there has been no further report of its occurrence in Bangladesh and no specimen is
available at any herbaria. Moreover, this species could not be relocated or collected from its recorded
locality or from elsewhere Bangladesh.
Platostoma palustre (Blume) A. J. Paton, Kew Bull. 52: 281 (1997).
Mesona palustris Blume (1826); Geniosporum parviflorum Benth. (1830). Khanam and Hassan (2008);
Khanam (2009). Fig. 2f
A slender herb, 30 - 60cm high. Habitat: Along forest area; Fl. & Fr.: March to November
Global distribution: India (Assam) and Myamar (Khanam and Hassan 2008).
Recorded localities: Sylhet; Status of occurrence: Possibly Extinct (EX).
Specimens examined: East Bengal (Bangladesh): s.l., s.a., Griffith 3946/1 (CAL). Sylhet (Sillet): anno
1830, Wallich, Wall. Cat. n. 2750 (Syntypes K000674619!, BM000588478!).
Conservation status: This species is only known from Wallich‟s type specimen collected from Sylhet in
1830 and Griffith‟s collection from East Bengal (current Bangladesh - specific locality is not cited).
William Griffith‟s exploration was done in the area during 1835-36. Since then there has been no further
report of its occurrence in Bangladesh and no specimen is available at any herbaria. Furthermore, this
species could not be relocated or collected from its recorded locality or from elsewhere Bangladesh.
Pogostemon cruciatus (Benth.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 530 (1891). Khanam and Hassan (2008);
Khanam (2009). Dysophylla cruciata Benth. (1830). Fig. 2g
An erect hirsute herb, about 45cm high. Habitat: On dry soil; Fl. & Fr.: October to March.
Global distribution: India, Myanmar and China.
Recorded localities: East Bengal (Bangladesh) Sine loco; Status of occurrence: Presumed Extinct (EX).
Specimen examined: East Bengal (Bangladesh): s.l., s.a., Griffith 3969 (K).
Conservation status: The species is only known from Griffith‟s collection from East Bengal (current
Bangladesh - specific locality is not cited) preserved at the Royal Botanic Garden Kew Herbarium (K).
William Griffith‟s exploration was done in the area during 1835-36. Since then there has been no further
report of occurrence and no collection at any herbaria. Moreover, this species could not be relocated or
collected from elsewhere Bangladesh.
Pogostemon strigosus (Benth.) Benth., Prodr. 12: 155 (1848). Khanam and Hassan (2008); Khanam
(2009). Dysophylla strigosa Benth. (1830). Fig. 2h
An erect herb, 60-80cm high. Habitat: On moist places in forests; Fl. & Fr.: March to June.
Global distribution: India (Khasia) and Myanmar (Khanam and Hassan 2008).
Recorded localities: Sylhet; Status of occurrence: Possibly Extinct (EX).
J. biodivers. conserv. bioresour. manag. 3(2), 2017
30
Specimens examined: Sylhet (Sillet): anno 1829, Francis de Silva, Wall. Cat. n. 1549 (Type
K000848028!).
Conservation status: This species is only known from Wallich‟s type specimen collected from Sylhet in
1829. Since then there has been neither further report of its occurrence in Bangladesh nor any specimen
is available at any herbaria. Furthermore, this species could not be relocated or collected from its
recorded locality or from elsewhere Bangladesh.
Scutellaria barbata D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 109 (1825).
Scutellaria rivularis Wall. ex Benth. (1831); Khanam and Hassan (2008); Khanam (2009).
An ascending herb, up to 15-20cm high. Habitat: moist places in forests; Fl. & Fr.: October to February.
Global distribution: India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Bangladesh.
Recorded localities: East Bengal (Bangladesh) Sine loco; Status of occurrence: Presumed Extinct (EX).
Specimens examined: East Bengal (Bangladesh): s.l., s.a., Griffith 4018 (CAL). Gangachora,
26.04.1809, S. Coll., Wall. Cat. n. 2140/C (K).
Conservation status: The species is only known from Wallich‟s collection from Gangachora in 1809 and
Griffith‟s collection from East Bengal (current Bangladesh - specific locality is not cited) preserved at
Central National Herbarium Kolkata (CAL). William Griffith made his collections in the area during
1835-36. Since then there has been no further report of its occurrence in Bangladesh and no specimen is
available at any herbaria. Moreover, this species could not be relocated or collected from its recorded
locality or from elsewhere Bangladesh.
Scutellaria discolor Colebr., Pl. As. Rar. 1:66 (1830). Khanam and Hassan (2008); Khanam (2009). Fig. 2i
An an nnual herb, 20-60cm high. Habitat: streams, shady and moist places in forests; Fl. & Fr.:
September to February.
Global distribution: India, China, Thailand, Malaysia and Myanmar (Khanam and Hassan 2008).
Recorded localities: Sylhet; Status of occurrence: Possibly Extinct (EX).
Specimens examined: East Bengal (Bangladesh): s.l., s.a., Griffith 4017 (CAL); Sylhet: anno 1830,
Francis de Silva, Wall. Cat. n. 2134/2 (Syntype K000820798!); 10.10.1872, C. B. Clarke 18504 (CAL).
Conservation status: This species is known from Wallich‟s type specimen collected from Sylhet in
1829. The last report of its occurrence in Sylhet was done by C. B. Clarke from Sylhet in 1872. Since
then there has been no further report of its occurrence in Bangladesh and no specimen is available at any
herbaria. Moreover, this species could not be relocated or collected from its recorded locality or from
elsewhere Bangladesh.
Teucrium quadrifarium Buch.-Ham., Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 108 (1825). Hook. f. (1885); Khanam and Hassan
(2008); Khanam (2009). Fig. 2j
An erect perennial herb, stem hirsute. Habitat: Waste marshy places, forest slopes; Fl. & Fr.: March-June.
Global distribution: India, Indonesia (Sumatra), Myanmar, Nepal and China.
Recorded localities: Sylhet; Status of occurrence: Presumed Extinct (EX).
Specimens examined: Sylhet: anno 1830, Francis de Silva, Wall. Cat. n. 2029 (K000821618).
Conservation status: This species is only known from Wallich‟s collection made by Francis de Silva in
1830 from Sylhet. Since then there has been no further report of its occurrence in Bangladesh and no
specimen is available at any herbaria. Moreover, this species could not be relocated or collected from its
recorded locality or from elsewhere Bangladesh.
J. biodivers. conserv. bioresour. manag. 3(2), 2017
31
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors would like to express sincere thanks to the directors/curators of different herbaria for
making the specimens available, provide the library facilities and to access the type photographs. They
also grateful to the Research and Publication Cell, University of Chittagong for financial assistance.
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Gopalganj district in Bangladesh. Bangladesh J. Plant Taxon. 4(2): 25-36.
... Res.J. Vol.1, Issue, 1. November 2021, pp. [34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48] After cooling, their absorbance was measured at 660 nm (SHIMADZU, UV 1800) by using the vehicle as blank. Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) at the final concentration 100 µg/mL was used as reference drug and treated similarly for determination of absorbance. ...
... Phytopharmacology Research Journal (PRJ) Open accessPhytopharmacol. Res.J. Vol.1, Issue, 1. November 2021, pp.[34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48] ...
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In the context of drug discovery and development, there is an increasing demand for the utilization of plants and their derived compounds in modern medicinal chemistry. This study aims at the investigation of phytochemical constituents and pharmacological properties of Pogostemon strigosus Benth. of the family Lamiaceae. The ethanol extract of the whole plant was fractionated, and then followed by preliminary phytochemical investigation and the evaluations of several pharmacological activities which include anti-atherothrombosis, anti-diarrheal, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anxiolytic, anti-pyretic, neuropharmacological activities using models which includes application of human erythrocytes blood clot test), castor oil-induced diarrheal test, egg albumintest, acetic acid-induced writhing model, swing test, open field, light-dark test, and brewer's yeast induced fever test, respectively. Phytochemical investigation suggests that the ethanol extract of P. strigosus contains alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, oleoresin, glycosides, reducing sugar, steroids, tannins, and terpenoids. Pharmacological evaluation suggest that P. strigosus has significantanti-atherothrombosis, anti-diarrheal, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anxiolytic, anti-pyretic, neuropharmacological effects. The chloroform and n-hexane fractions also showed better anti-inflammatory capacities in the egg albumin (77.51 ± 0.06 and 125.7 ± 0.07 µg/mL, respectively) and human erythrocytes (HRBC) (50.60 ± 0.07 and 30.01 ±0.10 µg/mL, respectively). The ethanol extract of P. strigosus showed the above mentioned pharmacological activities in mice model. P. strigosus may be one of the potential sources of phytotherapeutic lead compounds. Further studies are necessary to characterize the phytochemicals responsible for the observed bioactivities. This report adds credence to the traditional claims about the application of the plant in folkloric medicine.
... Res.J. Vol.1, Issue, 1. November 2021, pp. [34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48] After cooling, their absorbance was measured at 660 nm (SHIMADZU, UV 1800) by using the vehicle as blank. Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) at the final concentration 100 µg/mL was used as reference drug and treated similarly for determination of absorbance. ...
... Phytopharmacology Research Journal (PRJ) Open accessPhytopharmacol. Res.J. Vol.1, Issue, 1. November 2021, pp.[34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48] ...
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The present article focuses the status of angiosperm plant diversity of Nijhum Dweep, a small Island in the Bay of Bengal close to Hatiya channel. From the analysis of the data a total of 152 plant species belonging to 56 families has been recorded. Among the recorded species, tree is represented by 66, shrub by 15, herbs by 58 and 13 by climbers. Of the species recorded from the area 51% species represented by 11 families and 49% represented by 45 families. Fabaceae appears to be largest in the Dicotyledones having 10 species whereas Poaceae is the largest in Monocotyledones having 12 species. Analysis confirmed that 68% of the recorded species found to be medicinal and 32% are used for other than medicinal purposes. Data analysis also showed that homesteads supported maximum plants followed by road side, cultivated land, mangrove and mangrove meadows. Collected data revealed that the occurrence of seven species namely Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Diospyros blancoi, Derris trifoliata, Heliotropium curassavicum, Tamarix gallica, Typha elephentanea and Sarcolobus carinatus in the study area might be rare. Dolichandrone spathacea, a threatened of plant species of Bangladesh, was also found in this mangrove forest area. Through observations and discussion with local people, a number of threats to plant diversity have been identified. Finally, a number of possible conservation measures have been suggested for the management of angiosperm plant diversity of Nijhum Dweep. Asiat. Soc. Bangladesh, Sci. 41(1): 19-32, June 2015
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Enumeration of trees in the Rajshahi city was carried out from July 2018 to June 2019. A total of 140 species belonging to 48 families were encountered. The major families of tree species were Caesalpiniaceae, Mimosaceae and Moraceae. Among total number of the species, 42 plants were found to be wild and 8 plants were newly acclimatized. Besides this 18 "Star Tree" have also been found. On the basis of uses, 52 trees as ornamental, 39 trees as edible fruits and 21 as timber yielding plants were found. Alangium salviifolium (L.f.) Wangerin, Haldina cordifolia (Roxb.) Ridsdale, Artocarpus lacucha Buch.-Ham, Grevillea robusta A.Cunn ex R.Br, Putranjiva roxburghii Wall. and Suregada multiflora (A.Juss.) Baill found vulnerable in the study area. However, the present work will be helpful to the researcher for the estimation of tree species diversity in the Rajshahi City.
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p>The study focuses the plant diversity in different habitats, status and percentage distribution of plants in Sonadia Island, Moheshkhali, Cox’s Bazar of Bangladesh. A total of 138 species belonging to 121 genera and 52 families were recorded and the species were categorised to tree (56 species), shrub (17), herb (48) and climber (17). Poaceae represents the largest family containing 8 species belonging to 8 genera. Homestead vegetation consists of 78% species followed by roadside (23%) and cultivated land (10%), mangroves (9%), sandy beaches (4%) and wetland (1%). The major traditional use categories were timber, food and fodder, fuel, medicine and fencing where maximum plant species (33% of recorded) were traditionally being used for food and fodder. Keywords: Plant Diversity; Ecologically Critical Area; Sonadia Island; Mangroves. Bangladesh J. Plant Taxon. 24 (1): 107–116, 2017 (June)</p
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Plants provide fundamental support systems for life on Earth and are the basis for all terrestrial ecosystems; a decline in plant diversity will be detrimental to all other groups of organisms including humans. Decline in plant diversity has been hard to quantify, due to the huge numbers of known and yet to be discovered species and the lack of an adequate baseline assessment of extinction risk against which to track changes. The biodiversity of many remote parts of the world remains poorly known, and the rate of new assessments of extinction risk for individual plant species approximates the rate at which new plant species are described. Thus the question 'How threatened are plants?' is still very difficult to answer accurately. While completing assessments for each species of plant remains a distant prospect, by assessing a randomly selected sample of species the Sampled Red List Index for Plants gives, for the first time, an accurate view of how threatened plants are across the world. It represents the first key phase of ongoing efforts to monitor the status of the world's plants. More than 20% of plant species assessed are threatened with extinction, and the habitat with the most threatened species is overwhelmingly tropical rain forest, where the greatest threat to plants is anthropogenic habitat conversion, for arable and livestock agriculture, and harvesting of natural resources. Gymnosperms (e.g. conifers and cycads) are the most threatened group, while a third of plant species included in this study have yet to receive an assessment or are so poorly known that we cannot yet ascertain whether they are threatened or not. This study provides a baseline assessment from which trends in the status of plant biodiversity can be measured and periodically reassessed.
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Not available.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/bjpt.v20i2.17401Bangladesh J. Plant Taxon. 20(2): 255-257, 2013
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The study aimed at inventorying of threatened plant species of Bangladesh to determine their status of occurrence for emphasizing the setting-up of national conservation strategies and sustainable management. Complete inventory of two families, the Apocynaceae and Vitaceae, has been made and recognized 28 threatened species facing environmental threats, and need sustainable conservation management. The study was based on long-term field investigation, survey of relevant floristic literature and examination of herbarium specimens. An enumeration of threatened taxa is prepared with updated field data on conservation status to include into Red Data Book of Bangladesh.
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How many flowering plant species are there? Where are they? How many are going extinct, and how fast are they doing so? Interesting in themselves, these are questions at the heart of modern conservation biology. Determining the answers will dictate where and how successfully conservation efforts will be allocated. Plants form a large taxonomic sample of biodiversity. They are important in themselves and directly determine the diversity of many other taxonomic groups. Inspired by conversations with Peter Raven, we set out to provide quantitative answers to these questions. We argue that there are 450,000 species, two thirds of which live in the tropics, a third of all species are at risk of extinction, and they are going extinct 1000 to 10,000 times the background rate. In obtaining these results, we point to the critical role of dedicated taxonomic effort and biodiversity monitoring. We will only get a good answer to the age-old question of “how many species are there?” when we understand the population biology and social behavior of taxonomists. That most missing species will be found in biodiversity hotspots reaffirms their place as the foci of extinction for decades to come. Important, but not yet addressed, are future studies of how long plant species take to become extinct in habitat fragments. These will deliver not only better estimates of extinction rates, but also the critical timeframe of how quickly one needs to act to prevent extinctions.
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Cambridge Core - Natural Resource Management, Agriculture, Horticulture and forestry - Mabberley's Plant-book - by David J. Mabberley