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Supplementary Materials for
Diversity-biomass relationship across forest layers: implications for niche
complementarity and selection effects (https://rdcu.be/MwvV)
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-018-4144-0
Sylvanus Mensah, Ben du Toit, Thomas Seifert
Published online 24 April 2018
DOI : 10.1007/s00442-018-4144-0
This PDF file includes:
Electronic Supplemental Material 1
Electronic Supplemental Material 2
Electronic Supplemental Material 3
Electronic Supplemental Material 4
Electronic Supplemental Material 5
Electronic Supplemental Material 6
Electronic Supplemental Material 7
Electronic Supplemental Material 1
Figure 1 Schematic diagram showing the typical layers in the Mistbelt forests: sub-canopy trees
species (black); canopy tree species (red) and emergent trees species (blue). The emergent species
can be temporarily growing in the sub-canopy and canopy layers whereas canopy species can be
temporarily growing in the sub-canopy
Figure 2 Species-accumulation curve for sub-canopy, canopy and emergent species. H: Shannon-
wiener index; D: Simpson diversity index
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0510 15 20 25 30
Species richness
Sub-canopy
H = 2.66
D = 0.91
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0510 15 20 25 30
Number of plots
Canopy
H = 1.39
D = 0.61
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0510 15 20 25 30
Emergent
H = 1.61
D = 0.67
Electronic Supplemental Material 2.
Table 1 Species names, canopy position and Importance value index (IVI). SC: sub-canopy; C:
canopy; E: emergent; RFr: relative frequency; RDe: relative density; RDom: relative dominance.
Species are ordered based on decreasing IVI index
Species
RFr
RDe
RDo
IVI
Xymalos monospora (Harv.) Baill. ex Warb.
9.62
20.83
17.41
47.87
Syzygium gerrardii Burtt Davy
7.45
15.85
23.75
47.06
Cussonia sphaerocephala Strey
5.62
3.61
9.68
18.91
Combretum kraussii Hochst.
4.17
6.1
5.97
16.25
Cassipourea malosana (Baker) Alston
5.08
6.32
1.41
12.82
Trichilia dregeana Sond.
2.56
3.15
6.97
12.69
Nuxia congesta R. Br. ex Fresen.
3.03
2.38
3.95
9.36
Kraussia floribunda Harv.
4.85
3.83
0.49
9.17
Croton sylvaticus Hochst.
2.35
1.78
5.02
9.16
Ochna arborea Burch. ex DC.
4.62
3.5
0.95
9.07
Cryptocarya transvaalensis Burtt Davy
3.29
1.79
3.2
8.28
Nuxia floribunda Benth.
1.97
2.05
3.4
7.43
Rinorea angustifolia (Thouars) Baill.
1.66
3.73
1.07
6.46
Oxyanthus speciosus DC
3.14
2.7
0.56
6.39
Aphloia theiformis (Vahl) Benn.
2.06
1.32
1.29
4.66
Curtisia dentata (Burm. f.) C.A. Sm.
1.87
1.08
1.67
4.62
Ochna holstii Engl.
2.6
1.6
0.39
4.6
Kiggelaria africana L.
1.76
1.09
1.69
4.54
Oricia bachmannii (Engl.) I. Verd.
2.71
1.26
0.39
4.35
Drypetes gerrardii Hutch.
1.63
1.81
0.85
4.3
Brachylaena transvaalensis Phill. & Schweick. p.p.
1.12
0.65
2.46
4.24
Peddiea africana Hook.
2.35
1.59
0.2
4.15
Podocarpus latifolius (Thunb.) R. Br. ex Mirb.
2.49
0.71
0.82
4.02
Rothmania capensis Thunb.
2.43
1.26
0.27
3.96
Prunus africana (Hook. f.) Kalkman
1.56
0.6
1.65
3.81
Ficus craterostoma Warb. ex Mildbr. & Burret
2.01
0.85
0.89
3.75
Pterocelastrus rostratus Walp.
2.02
1.34
0.18
3.54
Maytenus spp
1.09
1.58
0.63
3.3
Rawsonia lucida Harv. & Sond.
1.15
1
0.32
2.48
Ocotea kenyensis Robyns & R. Wilczek
1.05
0.34
0.33
1.73
Trimeria grandifolia (Hochst.) Warb.
1.28
0.35
0.07
1.71
Podocarpus falcatus (Thunb.) R. Br. ex Mirb.
1
0.4
0.21
1.6
Bersama tysoniana Oliv.
1.09
0.29
0.06
1.45
Eugenia natalitia Sond.
0.74
0.52
0.11
1.38
Calpurnia aurea Baker
0.67
0.53
0.05
1.24
Calodendrum capense Thunb.
0.56
0.19
0.38
1.13
Ilex mitis (L.) Radlk.
0.7
0.18
0.11
1
Dombeya burgessiae Gerrard ex Harv. & Sond.
0.42
0.26
0.18
0.86
Mimusops obovata Pierre ex Engl.
0.33
0.15
0.34
0.82
Halleria lucida L.
0.56
0.17
0.09
0.81
Zanthoxylum davyi (I. Verd.) P.G. Waterman
0.44
0.16
0.18
0.78
Rapanea melanophloeos (L.) Mez
0.49
0.15
0.04
0.68
Celtis africana Burm. f.
0.42
0.09
0.15
0.65
Olea capensis L.
0.28
0.18
0.03
0.48
Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook. f. ex Benth.
0.28
0.16
0.02
0.46
Diospyros whyteana (Hiern) F. White
0.28
0.16
0.03
0.46
Zanthoxylum capense (Thunb.) Harv.
0.33
0.11
0.01
0.46
Pavetta galpinii Bremek.
0.33
0.1
0.02
0.45
Pleurostylia capensis Oliv.
0.28
0.09
0.03
0.39
Chionanthus peglerae (C.H. Wright) Stearn
0.19
0.06
0.01
0.25
Electronic Supplemental Material 3
Floristic composition
Fifty tree species, belonging to 46 genera and 33 families were inventoried. The most diversified
families were Rutaceae and Rubiaceae, with five and four species, respectively. They were
followed by Stilbaceae and Celastraceae which had three species each, while Myrtaceae,
Lauraceae, Achariaceae, Ochnaceae, Podocarpaceae and Oleaceae had two species each. In terms
of relative basal area, the most dominant families were Myrtaceae (12.72 %), Monimiaceae
(8.32%), Araliaceae (6.05%), Meliaceae (3.71%) and Stilbaceae (3.69%). Altogether, the most
dominant species based on the Importance Value Index (IVI; Curtis and McIntosh 1951) were, in
order of importance, Xymalos monospora (Harv.) Baill. ex Warb., Syzygium gerrardii Burtt Davy,
Cussonia sphaerocephala Strey, Combretum kraussii Hochst, Cassipourea malosana (Baker)
Alston, Trichilia dregeana Sond, Nuxia congesta R. Br. ex Fresen, Kraussia floribunda Harv.,
Croton sylvaticus Hochst, and Ochna arborea Burch. ex DC.
Formula for calculation of IVI
IVI was calculated by summing up the species relative frequency, relative density and relative
basal area.




where ni, fi and ci are respectively the density, frequency and basal area of the ith species.
Reference
Curtis JT, McIntosh RP (1951) An upland forest continuum in the prairie-forest border region of
Wisconsin. Ecology 32:476496. doi: 10.2307/1931725
Electronic Supplemental Material 4
Abbreviations for the species displayed in Fig. 2
Apth: Aphloia theiformis; Bety: Bersama tysoniana; Brtr: Brachylaena transvaalensis; Caca:
Calodendrum capense; Caau: Calpurnia aurea; Cama: Cassipourea malosana; Ceaf: Celtis
africana; Chpe: Chionanthus peglerae; Clan: Clausena anisata; Cokr: Combretum kraussii; Crsy:
Croton sylvaticus; Crtr: Cryptocarya transvaalensis; Cude: Curtisia dentata; Cusp: Cussonia
sphaerocephala; Diwh: Diospyros whyteana ; Dobu: Dombeya burgessiae; Drge: Drypetes
gerrardii; Euna: Eugenia natalitia; Ficr: Ficus craterostoma; Halu: Halleria lucida; Ilmi: Ilex
mitis; Kiaf: Kiggelaria africana; Krfl: Kraussia floribunda; Masp: Maytenus spp; Miob:
Mimusops obovata; Nuco: Nuxia congesta; Nufl: Nuxia floribunda; Ocar: Ochna arborea; Ocho:
Ochna holstii; Ocke: Ocotea kenyensis; Olca: Olea capensis; Orba: Oricia bachmannii ;Oxsp:
Oxyanthus speciosus; Paga: Pavetta galpinii; Peaf: Peddiea africana; Plca: Pleurostylia capensis;
Pofa: Podocarpus falcatus; Pola: Podocarpus latifolius; Praf: Prunus africana; Ptro:
Pterocelastrus rostratus; Ralu: Rawsonia lucida; Rame: Rapanea melanophloeos; Rian: Rinorea
angustifolia; Roca: Rothmania capensis; Syge: Syzygium gerrardii; Trdr: Trichilia dregeana;
Trgr: Trimeria grandifolia; Xymo: Xymalos monospora; Zaca: Zanthoxylum capense; Zada:
Zanthoxylum davyi.
Electronic Supplemental Material 5
Figure 1 Aboveground biomass, species richness and tree density per plot for sub-canopy, canopy
and emergent species layers
AGB
Species richness
Stem density
AGB Species richness Stem density
0
10
20
30
2.5
5.0
7.5
10.0
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
Value
Layer
Sub-canopy
Canopy
Emergent
Electronic Supplemental Material 6
Table 1 Results of linear mixed-effect model showing the effects of species richness, forest layer,
stem density and their interactions on aboveground biomass; Est: coefficient estimates; SE:
standard errors; df: degree of freedom
Est
SE
df
t
P
Fixed effects
(Intercept)
4.47
1.34
77.85
3.33
0.001
Richness
3.27
1.48
77.46
2.21
0.030
Density
1.30
0.60
76.88
2.17
0.033
Emergent
3.60
1.44
77.1
2.50
0.014
Sub-canopy
-2.12
1.43
76.96
-1.48
0.142
Richness: Density
-1.04
0.61
77.25
-1.71
0.091
Richness: Emergent
-3.22
1.64
77.13
-1.97
0.053
Richness: Sub-canopy
-3.31
1.58
77.59
-2.10
0.039
Density: Emergent
-1.02
0.64
76.6
-1.59
0.116
Density: Sub-canopy
0.23
0.66
76.73
0.34
0.735
Richness: Density: Emergent
1.15
0.67
76.73
1.73
0.089
Richness: Density: Sub-canopy
1.07
0.64
77.43
1.66
0.101
Random effects
(variance)
Plot
0.00
Slope
0.05
Aspect
0.00
Elevation
0.00
Residuals
0.33
R square (%)
Marginal
84.89
Conditional
86.86
Electronic Supplemental Material 7
Table 1 Results of simple linear models describing the relationship between species richness and
aboveground biomass for each forest layer. Est.: coefficient estimate; SE: standard error.
Sub-canopy layer
Canopy layer
Emergent layer
Est.
SE
P
Est.
SE
P
Est.
SE
P
Intercept
3.96
0.45
<0.001
7.28
0.29
<0.001
8.61
0.27
<0.001
Species richness
1.58
0.29
<0.001
1.05
0.27
<0.001
0.45
0.23
0.075
R Square (%)
49.80
35.28
8.88
Figure 1 Relationship between tree species richness and aboveground biomass (AGB) for sub-
canopy, canopy and emergent species
2
4
6
8
10
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
ln(Species richness)
ln(AGB; kg)
Layer
Sub-canopy
Canopy
Emergent

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