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An Annotated List of Cartilaginous Fishes (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii, Holocephali) of the Coastal Waters of Sakhalin Island and the Adjacent Southern Part of the Sea of Okhotsk

Authors:
  • Altai branch of Russian Federal Research Institute Of Fisheries and Oceanography

Abstract

An annotated list of cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii, Holocephali) is given for the first time in the 200-year history of studying the ichthyofauna of Sakhalin Island and adjacent waters of the southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk (including the coast of Hokkaido Island) and the northern Sea of Japan. The list includes 43 species in two classes, eight orders, 16 families, and 25 genera. Information on nature conservation status, English and Latin names, depths of habitat, and distribution within the coastal waters of Sakhalin are presented. For a number of species caught off the coast of Sakhalin and in the adjacent waters, information is provided on collection specimens confirming their presence in the region under study. For a number of species of the Rajiformes order (Arctoraja parmifera, A. smirnovi, A. simoterus), the modern ranges and taxonomic status are being refined in the light of new data. The taxonomic status of the so-called “disputed” taxa is discussed as well as the validity of the species considered in the Bathyraja matsubarai complex. Based on the study of the collections, Arctoraja simoterus, previously unknown in the waters of Russia, as well as Myliobatis tobijei, caught in the Bering Sea, has been discovered, which significantly expands the range of this species to the north.
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ISSN 0032-9452, Journal of Ichthyology, 2018, Vol. 58, No. 2, pp. 158–180. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2018.
Original Russian Text © Yu.V. Dyldin, A.M. Orlov, 2018, published in Voprosy Ikhtiologii, 2018, Vol. 58, No. 2, pp. 154.
An Annotated List of Cartilaginous Fishes (Chondrichthyes:
Elasmobranchii, Holocephali) of the Coastal Waters of Sakhalin
Island and the Adjacent Southern Part of the Sea of Okhotsk
Yu. V. Dyldina, * and A. M. Orlova, b, c, d
aTomsk State University (TSU), Tomsk, 634050 Russia
bRussian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (VNIRO), Moscow, 107140 Russia
cSevertsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences (IPEE), Moscow, 119071 Russia
dDagestan State University (DSU), Makhachkala, 367000 Russia
*e-mail: yurydyldin@gmail.com
Received May 29, 2017
AbstractAn annotated list of cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii, Holocephali) is given for
the first time in the 200-year history of studying the ichthyofauna of Sakhalin Island and adjacent waters of
the southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk (including the coast of Hokkaido Island) and the northern Sea of
Japan. The list includes 43 species in two classes, eight orders, 16 families, and 25 genera. Information on
nature conservation status, English and Latin names, depths of habitat, and distribution within the coastal
waters of Sakhalin are presented. For a number of species caught off the coast of Sakhalin and in the adjacent
waters, information is provided on collection specimens confirming their presence in the region under study.
For a number of species of the Rajiformes order (Arctoraja parmifera, A. smirnovi, A. simoterus), the modern
ranges and taxonomic status are being refined in the light of new data. The taxonomic status of the so-called
“disputed” taxa is discussed as well as the validity of the species considered in the Bathyraja matsubarai com-
plex. Based on the study of the collections, Arctoraja simoterus, previously unknown in the waters of Russia,
as well as Myliobatis tobijei, caught in the Bering Sea, has been discovered, which significantly expands the
range of this species to the north.
Keywords: cartilaginous fishes, Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii, Holocephali, annotated list, Sakhalin
Island, Northwestern Pacific, Sea of Okhotsk
DOI: 10.1134/S0032945218020042
INTRODUCTION
Cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes) in marine
sediments are known from the upper Devonian and
existed more than 350 million years ago (Gubanov
et al., 1986). In a number of countries, sharks and
skates serve as the most valuable object of fishing.
Meat and fins are widely used for food purposes. The
skin goes to the manufacture of footwear and haber-
dashery, and the fat obtained from the liver is a most
valuable raw material for perfumery and the pharma-
ceutical industry (Maksimov, 1970; Gubanov et al.,
1986). These fish are characterized by slow rates of
growth and maturation and low fecundity (Maksimov,
1970; Gubanov et al., 1986), which should be taken
into account when organizing the exploitation of their
stocks in order to prevent overfishing. Specific species
(Carcharodon carcharias, Isurus oxyrinchus), which
occur near the coast of Sakhalin, are extremely dan-
gerous for humans.
Modern knowledge of cartilaginous fishes has not
yet fully formed and is now cumulative and descrip-
tive. Nevertheless, in recent years, the interest in this
group noticeably increased, which, in particular, was
reflected in the description of new species. Thus, from
2008 to early 2017, 196 new species of cartilaginous
fishes were described, with the largest number in the
Carcharhiniformes, Rajiformes, and Myliobatiformes
orders (Eschmeyer and Fong, 2017). Another example
of interest in cartilaginous fishes are various special-
ized databases, among which the largest and most
authoritative is “Shark-References: Bibliography
Database” (Pollerspöck and Straube, 2017). Cartilag-
inous fish are attracting increased interest from inter-
national conservation organizations and fishery man-
agement organizations (CITES, CMS, FAO, IUCN,
etc.), which is partly due to a sharp decrease in the
number of some commercial species because of over-
fishing due to high demand for products from sharks
and skates in Asian markets.
JOURNAL OF ICHTHYOLOGY Vol. 58 No. 2 2018
AN ANNOTATED LIST OF CARTILAGINOUS FISHES 159
To date, approximately 40 species of sharks, 59 spe-
cies of skates, and seven species of chimaeras (the total
number of cartilaginous fishes is 106 species) are
known in the waters of Russia and the surrounding
waters, with the maximum species diversity in the Far
Eastern waters of Russia (Borets, 2000; Grigorov and
Orlov, 2013; Parin et al., 2014; Dyldin, 2015). Never-
theless, the degree of study of the cartilaginous fishes
of the waters of Sakhalin and the adjacent waters
remains extremely low, and the published information
is fragmentary and largely erroneous. Until now, there
is no general list of cartilaginous fishes registered in
the waters of Sakhalin, as, indeed, for all the marine
fish of this region. The difficulty in drawing up such a
list is partly due to the fact that a number of reports for
representatives of this group indicate information on
the geographic distribution of only a general nature,
for example, the Sea of Japan or the Sea of Okhotsk
(Borets, 2000; Parin, 2001; Grigorov and Orlov, 2013;
Parin et al., 2014; Tuponogov and Kodolov, 2014),
and there is information on the occurrence in the
waters of Sakhalin only in rare cases (Ueno, 1971;
Sokolovsky et al., 2007; Parin et al., 2014; Dyldin,
2015). In a recent report on the cartilaginous fishes of
Russia and adjacent waters (Dyldin, 2015), 22 species
of cartilaginous fishes are indicated directly for the
waters of Sakhalin, but the information is very general
without reporting data on distribution limits, habitats,
occurrence, commercial significance, collection spec-
imens, recent rare records, etc.
The purpose of this work is to continue the revision
of the whole ichthyofauna of the waters of Sakhalin,
which began with a series of four publications on
freshwater and coastal brackish-water fish species
without taking into account marine species (Dyldin
and Orlov, 2016a, 2016b, 2017a, 2017b).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The views on the macrosystematic of cartilaginous
fishes in modern ichthyology vary considerably.
According to some authors (Rass and Lindberg, 1971;
Nelson, 2006), Elasmobranchii and Holocephali are
considered in the rank of subclasses in the Chondrich-
thyes class. In a later work by Nelson et al. (2016), one
Chondrichthyes class is also accepted, but Elasmo-
branchii is already indicated in the rank of the infra-
class within the Euselachii subclass (sharks, rays, and
related fossils), and the Holocephali subclass is left in
the same rank. According to another opinion (van der
Laan et al., 2014; Eschmeyer and Fong, 2017), which
the authors adhere to, Elasmobranchii and Holoceph-
ali are two separate classes. In this paper, the basic
classification of higher taxa from class to family is
adopted in accordance with the latest developments of
Eschmeyer and Fong (2017) and van der Laan et al.
(2014). Type locality and synonymy are given in accor-
dance with a number of recent publications (Dyldin,
2015; Last et al., 2016a; Weigmann, 2016; Catalog of
Fishes..., 2017).
Critically analyzed literature sources (books, publi-
cations, dissertations), electronic catalogs and data-
bases, such as Catalog of Fishes (Catalog of Fishes...,
2017), Global Biodiversity Information Facility
(GBIF, 2017), and FishBase (FishBase..., 2017), per-
sonal reports of colleagues, and materials of our own
multiyear research in the Northwestern Pacific were
the basis of this work. The work also provides the data
on the samples (the place of capture and specific
name) of cartilaginous fishes from the studied region
and adjacent waters, kept in the collections of scien-
tific institutes in Russia, Japan and the United States:
Kholmsk Museum of Sea Fauna, Kholmsk, Sakhalin
Island, Russia (KhMSF); Zoological Institute of the
Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia
(ZIN RAN); the Fish Collection of Kyoto University,
Kyoto, Japan (FAKU); Museum of Tokyo University
of Fisheries, Tokyo, Japan (MTUF); Fish Collection
of Hokkaido University, Hokkaido, Japan (HUMZ);
Fish Collection of the National Museum of Nature
and Science, Tokyo, Japan (NSMT); the National
Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution,
Washington, D.C., United States (USNM).
Data on each species is presented according to the
following scheme. Each species is assigned its own
serial number and the name is given in Latin (scien-
tific name) and English. The Latin name is accompa-
nied by the author(s) and the year of the original
description. The English name is given in accordance
with the published work (Dyldin, 2015) or the Internet
resource FishBase (FishBase..., 2017). The scientific
name is followed by the date of the original description
with a type locality, and, only if necessary, synonymy,
since earlier the synonymy of the cartilaginous fish of
Russia and adjacent waters is detailed in the work of
the first author (Dyldin, 2015).
The zoogeographical characteristics are mainly
given in accordance with the latest developments of
FAO (2017) and Eschmeyer et al. (2017), which
adopted the following zoogeographical categories:
Arctic, North Pacific, Northwestern Pacif ic etc.,
including such general categories as cosmopolitan and
circumglobal.
To describe the local distribution of cartilaginous
fish within the waters of Sakhalin on the basis of
hydrological and climatic conditions, its coastal water
area is conditionally divided into the following
regions: northern, southern, northeast, southeast,
northwest and southeast (Dyldin and Orlov, 2016a).
In addition, in order to exclude erroneous information
on the distribution of a species within the waters of
Sakhalin Island, we give the range mainly based on the
data specified for specimens kept in various museums
around the world (indicating the numbers and loca-
tions of storage under the heading “Samples”), as well
160
JOURNAL OF ICHTHYOLOGY Vol. 58 No. 2 2018
DYLDIN, ORLOV
as in accordance with the original descriptions and
other authoritative sources that are trustworthy.
Depending on the ecological features, the species
were referred to exclusively marine (M.) or to marine
but also marked in brackish waters—marine, brackish-
water (M., Br.). Information on the depths of habitat
is presented according to the latest data (Weigmann,
2016) with some additions indicated in the text. By the
degree of abundance, there were numerous, common,
rare, or very rare species.
For most species, taxonomic and other informa-
tion is additionally listed under the heading “Note.
For each valid species, information on the conser-
vation status (if any) is provided in accordance with
criteria of the Red List of the International Union for
Conservation of Nature (IUCN). To characterize the
conservation status of species, the following categories
are adopted: Extinct, Extinct in the Wild, Critically
Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable, Near Threat-
ened, Least Concern, Data Deficient, Not Evaluated
(IUCN, 2012, 2015, 2017).
The following designations are accepted in the
work: * according to our and literary data for the
Sakhalin waters, the species is not noted but is known
from the adjacent water areas of the southern part of
the Sea of Okhotsk; ** was indicated in the past for the
studied region but, in the light of new data, it is not
observed at present off the coast of Sakhalin and adja-
cent waters, where it is replaced by other species or,
possibly, it was incorrectly identified in the past; ? the
taxonomic status or identification is doubtful or the
area is not clear, and also in cases where the informa-
tion on distribution, abundance, etc. needs clarifica-
tion.
RESULTS
History of the Study of Cartilaginous Fishes in the Waters
of Sakhalin Island and Adjacent Waters
The first scientific information relating to the car-
tilaginous fishes of the coastal waters of Sakhalin
belongs to Schmidt (1904) who first indicated the only
species of Raja binoculata for Aniva Bay (the southern
part of Sakhalin Island) and preserved a specimen in
the collection of the Zoological Institute of the Rus-
sian Academy of Sciences. The famous “Albatross”
North Pacific Expedition visited the southwestern
part of Sakhalin in 1906, where a collection of fish was
collected in the Tatar Strait, including several speci-
mens of skates that were subsequently identified as
Arctoraja smirnovi and Bathyraja isotrachys and are still
kept in the National Museum of Natural History,
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., United
States. Somewhat later, Tanaka (1908) indicated
Squalus mitsukurii for Aniva Bay. Berg (1911), on the
basis of the collection built by Schmidt in 1901 kept in
the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of
Sciences, indicated Bathyraja interrupta as a possible
species for the southwestern part of the island and
Squalus acanthias, for Aniva Bay. Jordan et al. (1913)
indicated R. binoculata for the southern part of Sakha-
lin Island. Soldatov and Pavlenko (1915) described a
new Raja smirnovi species from the waters of Peter the
Great Bay (Sea of Japan), which later appeared to be
widespread near the shores of Sakhalin. Soldatov and
Lindberg (1930) summed up the first results of Soviet
studies on the ichthyofauna of the far eastern seas (Sea
of Japan, Sea of Okhotsk, and Bering Sea): they
reported on 22 species of cartilaginous fishes, includ-
ing those from adjacent waters (mainly Japan) but not
yet observed in our seas. However, in this monograph
no new information on the capture of cartilaginous
fish off the coast of Sakhalin has been given. Liu
(1932) described a new Raja pulchra species from the
waters of the Yellow Sea, which later, like R. smirnovi,
appeared to be widespread off the shores of Sakhalin.
Schmidt and Taranetz (1934) indicated the presence
of a hammerhead shark Sphyrna zygaena in the waters
of the mainland coast of the northern part of Tatar
Strait, adjacent to western Sakhalin. Suvorov (1935)
described a new Raja violacea species from the waters
of the Okhotsk coast of Kamchatka, which was later
discovered in the waters of Sakhalin. Taranetz (1937)
summarized the accumulated materials of previous
studies together with possible findings from the adja-
cent waters of Japan and expanded the list of Far East-
ern cartilaginous fishes almost two times compared
with the data of Soldatov and Lindbergh (1930)
(35 species of cartilaginous fishes for the waters of the
Soviet Far East). At the same time, he indicated two
species directly for the waters of Sakhalin: Raja kenojei
for the western part and R. binoculata for Aniva Bay
with the “?” sign.
Isii (1940) presented some information, including
biology and fishing, about several cartilaginous fishes
of the waters of southern Sakhalin, such as Lamna dit-
ropis, Prionace glauca, Squalus suckleyi, Okamejei
kenojei (and its current junior synonym Raja katsukii),
and Bathyraja isotrachys1. In Schmidt’s fundamental
monograph (1950) on the fish of the Sea of Okhotsk,
there is some information about cartilaginous fishes of
Sakhalin and adjacent waters, such as Squalus acan-
thias suckleyi (western Sakhalin), Raja smirnovi (Tatar
Strait), R. violacea (western Kamchatka), and R. bin-
oculata (Aniva Bay). In relation to the latter, the
author suggested that this specimen possibly belongs
to another species. Probatov (1951, 1952) indicated
two species of sharks—Carcharias japonicus and Isurus
glauca—for the first time for the waters of southwest-
ern Sakhalin. In the same period, publications by Ishi-
yama (Ishiyama, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1955, 1958, 1967;
Hubbs and Ishiyama, 1968), specializing in the sys-
tematics of skates, began to be issued. The result of his
research was the description of 12 new species, the
1Scientific names are given in accordance with modern views on
the taxonomy of cartilaginous fishes.
JOURNAL OF ICHTHYOLOGY Vol. 58 No. 2 2018
AN ANNOTATED LIST OF CARTILAGINOUS FISHES 161
description of a number of new subgenera (Okamejei,
Notoraja, etc.) and the Rhinoraja genus. In addition,
he applied a new approach to the study of this group,
which consists of studying both external and internal
characters (the morphology of claspers, egg capsule,
neurocranium, shoulder, and pelvic girdles), which is
still widely used in studies of the taxonomy of skates. A
number of skate species described by Ishiyama (1952,
1958) were subsequently found off the coast of Sakha-
lin and in the southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk (for
example, Bathyraja diplotaenia, B. matsubarai, B. tra-
chouros, Rhinoraja longicauda).
In 1947–1949, ZIN AS USSR and TINRO orga-
nized a joint expedition under the supervision of
G.U. Lindberg under the general name ”Kurilo-
Sakhalin Sea Complex Expedition ZIN–TINRO,”
which existed for 3 years. On the basis of collected
materials (including a collection of cartilaginous
fishes) and literature data, Lindberg (1959) published
a list of fish in the southern part of Sakhalin and the
South Kurils, where he indicated six species of carti-
laginous fishes for the waters of Sakhalin and the adja-
cent southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk: Lamna dit-
ropis, Isurus glaucus (with the “?” sign), Squalus acan-
thias acanthias, Raja kenojei, R. interrupta, and
R. smirnovi. In the same year, the first part of the mul-
tivolume capital work of Lindberg and Legeza (1959)
was published, in which eight species of cartilaginous
species are listed for southern Sakhalin and the south-
ern part of the Sea of Okhotsk: Sphyrna zygaena
(northern part of the Tatar Strait), Carcharhinus gan-
geticus (southwestern Sakhalin), Squalus acanthias
acanthias (southern Sakhalin), Raja kenojei (south-
eastern Sakhalin), R. pulchra (western Sakhalin and
the La Perouse Strait), Breviraja interrupta (south-
western Sakhalin), B. isotrachys (possibly the Sea of
Okhotsk), B. smirnovi (southern Sakhalin).
Ueno (1971) published a list of marine fishes of
Hokkaido Island (Japan) and adjacent waters, in
which 13 species of cartilaginous fishes are indicated
for the waters of the southern part of the Sea of
Okhotsk and southern Sakhalin: Sphyrna zygaena,
Lamna ditropis, Scoliodon walbeehmi, Clyphis glaucus,
Squalus acanthias, Raja pulchra, R. tengu, Breviraja
kenojei, B. smirnovi, B. violacea, B. aleutica, Dasyatis
akajei, Holorhinus tobijei. In the work on the skates of
the Northwestern Pacific and the Bering Sea (Ishi-
yama and Ishihara, 1977), five new species are
described: Bathyraja caeluronigricans, B. notoroensis,
B. lindbergi, B. maculata, and B. minispinosa. Subse-
quently, it was found that all of the listed species occur
either off the coast of Sakhalin or in the adjacent
waters of the southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk (Dyl-
din, 2015). The publication by Ishihara and Ishiyama
(1985) describes two new species of Bathyraja pseudo-
isotrachys and B. hubbsi, the first of which (Bathyraja
bergi [=Bathyraja pseudoisotrachys]) was subsequently
found off the coast of Sakhalin.
Dolganov (1983a) provided descriptions of several
new species (Bathyraja bergi, B. fedorovi, B. tzinovskii)
for the first time. In this case, the description of the
first species is based on a specimen obtained off the
coast of southwestern Sakhalin. In his next publica-
tion, Dolganov (1985) partially duplicated the infor-
mation presented earlier (Dolganov, 1983a) and rede-
scribed the previously described species. Later Dol-
ganov and Tuponogov (1999) published a survey of the
skates of the Far Eastern seas, in which 12 species were
indicated for the Sea of Okhotsk. Nevertheless, none
of Dolganov’s works (1983a, 1983b, 1985, 1987, 2003)
presented any information about the skates that live off
the shores of Sakhalin (with the exception of Berg’s
type specimen of skate). Based on the results of the
expedition of the RV Darvin in 1989, Dudnik and Dol-
ganov (1992) presented some new data on the cartilag-
inous fishes of the Sea of Okhotsk: in particular,
Bathyraja andriashevi, B. tzinovskii, and B. spinosis-
sima were first mentioned for this water area. Bla-
goderov (1993) summarized long-term data on the
distribution and biology of Lamna ditropis in the
Northwestern Pacific, including the waters of Sakha-
lin Island. Two years later, an illustrated review of the
ichthyofauna of the waters of northern Japan (Amaoka
et al., 1995) was issued, which also presented data on
the cartilaginous fishes of the Okhotsk Sea coast of
Hokkaido Island. In 2011 year, the same authors pub-
lish work, but already on the fishes of the Hokkaido
Islands (Amaoka et al., 2011), where also present
information about cartilaginous fishes of the Okhotsk
coast.
At the turn of the century, the “Annotated List of
Fish in the Far Eastern Seas” was published (Borets,
2000), which also contains fragmentary information
on the cartilaginous fishes of the southern part of the
Sea of Okhotsk, but some of the presented data are not
devoid of taxonomic and other errors. Since the 2000s
and up to the present, a number of works have been
published that contain scattered information about
cartilaginous fishes, including new findings from
Sakhalin Island and the adjacent southern part of the
Sea of Okhotsk (Balanov, 2000, 2003; Parin, 2001;
Fedorov et al., 2003; Tokranov et al., 2005; Fadeev,
2005; Gritsenko et al., 2006; Kim, 2007, 2010;
Sokolovsky et al., 2007, 2009, 2011; Velikanov, 2010;
Antonenko et al., 2011; Tuponogov and Kodolov,
2014; Tuponogov and Sny tko, 2014; Romanov, 2015).
Of recent publications, mention should be made of the
work of Grigorov and Orlov (2013), in which the
authors summarized the data on cartilaginous fishes of
Russia, including the Sea of Okhotsk, and the mono-
graph of Parin et al. (2014), which includes informa-
tion on some species of Sakhalin Island and adjacent
waters. Noteworthy is also the publication of the first
author (Dyldin, 2015), where information on 22 two
species of cartilaginous fishes for the waters of Sakha-
lin Island and adjacent waters is given and, besides, a
number of the species, which have not been noted in
162
JOURNAL OF ICHTHYOLOGY Vol. 58 No. 2 2018
DYLDIN, ORLOV
waters of Russia, but findings of which are quite prob-
able, are indicated. We should also separately mention
the list of fish of the Okhotsk Sea waters of the Sire-
toko Peninsula, Hokkaido, Japan (Uchida, 2017),
which is constantly updated and today contains infor-
mation on 19 species of cartilaginous fishes living in
the adjacent waters of the southern part of the Sea of
Okhotsk. In conclusion, paleontological studies on
the cartilaginous fishes of Sakhalin by Nazarkin and
his colleagues (Nazarkin and Malyshkina, 2012;
Nazarkin, 2013, 2014) should also be noted. However,
in this paper, we confine ourselves to the living spe-
cies, and, therefore, we do not quote these works in
the text.
Thus, it is long overdue to systematize and summa-
rize the incomplete and fragmentary data on cartilagi-
nous fishes of Sakhalin in a separate report in accor-
dance with modern nomenclature (International
Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN, 2017)) and
the notions of the taxonomy of this understudied
group.
ANNOTATED LIST OF CARTILAGINOUS
FISHES OF SAKHALIN AND THE SOUTHERN
PART OF THE SEA OF OKHOTSK
I. CLASS ELASMOBRANCHII
Sharks and batoids
The Elasmobranchii class includes sharks and
batoids (rays and skates). According to the latest taxo-
nomic developments (Eschmeyer and Fong, 2017) in
the Elasmobranchii class, there are eight shark orders
(Hexanchiformes, Heterodontiformes, Orectolobi-
formes, Lamniformes, Carcharhiniformes, Squali-
formes, Pristiophoriformes, Squatiniformes) and four
skate orders (Torpediniformes, Rhinopristiformes,
Rajiformes, Myliobatiformes), which include 61 fam-
ilies with a total number of valid species of 1167. At the
same time, approximately 2200 taxa have been
described for all the time, including synonyms and
invalid species.
1. ORDER HEXANCHIFORMES,
1913—Cow sharks
1. Family HEXANCHIDAE Gray, 1851—Cow sharks
1. G en us NOTORYNCHUS Ayres, 1855
1. * (M.) Notorynchus cepedianus
(Péron, 1807)—Broadnose sevengill shark
Squalus cepedianusron, 1807, p. 337 (Adventure
Bay, Tasmania, Australia).
Almost circumglobally, with the exception of the
North Atlantic. Sakhalin: it can probably be observed
along the southeastern and southwestern coasts,
including Aniva Bay. It is known most closely to the
island for the southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk,
near the northern and eastern part of Hokkaido
Island, Japan (Nagasawa and Torisawa, 1991; Imai
et al., 2005; Grigorov and Orlov, 2013).
Marine. Lives at depths of 0–570 m. There is no
reliable information about captures in the waters of
Russia.
N o t a t i o n. Dangerous for humans, there are
several cases of attack, including by those kept in
aquariums. When being captured, it behaves extremely
aggressively (Compagno, 1984; Gubanov, 1993). It
was documentarily recorded (two specimens in the
HUMZ collection) near the northern and eastern part
of Hokkaido Island, Japan (Imai et al., 2005). Earlier
(Dyldin, 2015) there was a typo: with reference to Imai
et al. (2005), it was stated that the capture of this spe-
cies has no confirmation for Hokkaido Island.
S a m p l e s: HUMZ no. 95297—off eastern Hok-
kaido, Japan; HUMZ no. 98336—off Yukuru, Wak-
kanai, Hokkaido, Japan.
Conservation status: IUCN (Data Defi-
cient).
2. ORDER ORECTOLOBIFORMES Compagno,
1973—Carpet sharks
2. Family RHINCODONTIDAE Müller et Henle,
1841—W hale shar ks
2. Genus RHINCODON Smith, 1829
2. * (M.) Rhincodon typus Smith, 1828—Whale
shark
Rhincodon typus Smith, 1828, p. 2 (Table Bay,
South Africa, southeastern Atlantic).
In temperate, mainly warm waters of all oceans. It
was observed most closely to the island in 2012 in early
October in the southern part of the Okhotsk Sea near
Monbetsu, Hokkaido Island, Japan (Tomita et al.,
2014).
Marine. Lives at depths of 0–1928 m. It is not
observed in the waters of Russia.
N o t a t i o n. Safe for humans (Gubanov, 1993).
S a m p l e s: HUMZ no. 215293 (preserved pecto-
ral, pelvic and caudal fins)—44°2250 N 143°2144E,
southern Sea of Okhotsk, off Monbetsu, Hokkaido,
Japan.
Conservation status: IUCN (Vulnerable).
In order to protect this species, a special international
conference was convened in 2005. In 1999, it was listed
in Appendix II of CMS (Convention on Migratory
Species), and in Appendix II of CITES in 2002
(Camhi et al., 2009).
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AN ANNOTATED LIST OF CARTILAGINOUS FISHES 163
3. ORDER LAMNIFORMES Garman,
1885—Mackerel sharks
3. Family LAMNIDAE Bonaparte,
1835—Mackerel sharks
3. Genus CARCHARODON Smith, 1838
3. (M., Br.) Carcharodon carcharias (Linnaeus,
1758) – Great white shark
Squalus carcharias Linnaeus, 1758, p. 235 (“in
Europa”).
In all oceans, with the exception of the Arctic. It
occurs mainly in temperate waters. Sakhalin: the
southwestern part and Aniva Bay (Velikanov, 2010;
Dyldin and Orlov, 2016a).
Marine, brackish-water. Lives at depths of 0–1200 m.
Rare.
N o t a t i o n. Of all the species of sharks, it is con-
sidered to be the most dangerous; often attacks on
humans are not provoked, and attacks on small boats
with fatal consequences are known (Compagno, 1984;
Gubanov et al., 1986; Gubanov, 1993; Ebert and Steh-
mann, 2013).
C o n s e r v a t i o n s t a t u s: IUCN (Vulnerable).
Currently, it is protected in some regions (for example,
Australia, South Africa, Namibia, Malta, United
States); it was included in Appendix I of CITES in
2012 (Fergusson et al., 2009; Ebert and Stehmann,
2013). In the Mediterranean Sea, it is Endangered
(Cavanagh and Gibson, 2007).
4. Genus ISURUS Raf ines que, 1810
4. ? (M.) Isurus oxyrinchus Rafinesque,
1810—Shortfin mako
Isurus oxyrinchus Raf i nes que , 1810, p. 12, pl. 13,
Fig. 1 (Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea).
Oxyrhina glauca Müller et Henle, 1839, p. 69 (Java,
Indonesia).
Everywhere in tropical and temperate waters.
Sakhalin: the southern part (Probatov, 1952, Lind-
berg, 1959, with the “?” sign, as Isurus glauca).
Marine. Lives at depths of 0–750 m. Rare.
N o t a t i o n. Along with C. carcharias, it is a dan-
gerous for humans, and there are cases of attacks on
boats (Gubanov et al., 1986; Gubanov, 1993). Type
specimens are unknown. Writing the species name as
“oxyrhinchus” or “oxyrhynchus” is mistaken (Catalog of
Fishes…, 2017). According to Dolganov (2009), the
indication of Probatov (1952) about the finding of this
species (by several specimens) off southwestern
Sakhalin near Antonovo village is based on incorrect
identification, since the indicated sizes (>4 m) are not
characteristic of it and, most likely, the findings refer
to the white shark C. carcharias. However, at the pres-
ent time, it is impossible to confirm or disprove this
assumption, and Dolganov’s statement (2009) con-
cerning the maximum length of the shortfin mako is
controversial, since there are reports in the literature
that it can reach a length of 7 m (Lindberg and Legeza,
1959, as Isurus glauca) or nearly 6 m (Weigmann,
2016). To confirm the occurrence of this species in the
waters of Sakhalin, documentary evidence is required.
C o n s e r v a t i o n s t a t u s: IUCN (Vulnerable).
5. Genus LAMNA Cu vi er, 1816
5. (M., Br.) Lamna ditropis Hubbs et Follett,
1947—Salmon shark
Lamna ditropis Hubbs et Follett, 1947, p. 194 (at La
Jolla, California, United States).
Northern Pacific and, possibly, the adjacent Arc-
tic. Sakhalin: probably along all the coasts, including
Aniva Bay (Blagoderov, 1993; Mel’nikov, 1997; Rad-
chenko et al., 2002; Velikanov, 2006; Velikanov and
Mukhametov, 2011; Dyldin, 2015; Dyldin and Orlov,
2016a).
Marine, brackish-water, including estuaries and
lower reaches of large rivers. Lives at depths of 0–375
m. Common. It is often caught as by-catch, but is not
used for commercial purposes.
N o t a t i o n. Potentially dangerous for humans,
there is a registered case of a nonfatal attack on a
human (Wright, 2011).
Conservation status: IUCN (Least Con-
cern).
4. Family CETORHINIDAE Gill,
1861—Basking sharks
6. Genus CETORHINUS Blainville, 1816
6. (M.) Cetorhinus maximus (Gunnerus, 1765)—
Basking shark
Squalus maximus Gunnerus, 1765, p. 33, pl. 2
(northern Norway).
Occurs in all oceans, but mainly in temperate and
Arctic waters. Sakhalin: the southern part (Fadeev,
2005). It is also observed in the southern part of the
Sea of Okhotsk off Hokkaido, where the recent cap-
ture dates from 2010 (Murakami et al., 2011).
Marine. Lives at depths of 0–1264 m. Rare.
N o t a t i o n. Safe for humans, but the impressive
size of this species (up to 12 m) is likely to pose a dan-
ger to small boats. Type specimens are unknown (Cat-
alog of Fishes…, 2017).
Conservation status: IUCN (Vulnerable).
In some territorial waters, it is protected by law and is
listed in CITES Appendix II. For the Northern Pacific
and Northeast Atlantic regions, where abundance has
been significantly eroded by targeted fishing, the con-
servation status is currently estimated to be under
threat of extinction. If up to 6000 specimen were
fished throughout the 1920s–1970s within the Pacific
waters of Canada and the United States, then only 13
observations have been confirmed off the coast of
164
JOURNAL OF ICHTHYOLOGY Vol. 58 No. 2 2018
DYLDIN, ORLOV
Canada since 1996, and the entire population in this
region is estimated to be approximately 321–535 spec-
imens (Compagno, 2002; Fowler, 2005; Camhi et al.,
2009; Fisheries…, 2011; Kyne et al., 2012; Ebert and
Stehmann, 2013).
5. Family ALOPIIDAE Bonaparte,
1838—Thresher sharks
7. G en us ALOPIAS Raf ine squ e, 1810
7. * (M., B r.) Alopias vulpinus (Bonnaterre, 1788)—
Thintail thresher
Squalus vulpinus Bonnaterre, 1788, p. 9 (Mediter-
ranean Sea).
Circumglobal up to temperate and cold waters.
Sakhalin: perhaps the southeastern part and Aniva
Bay, where it can penetrate both from the Sea of Japan
and from the Pacific waters of Hokkaido Island. In the
waters of Russia, it is unknown. It was recorded most
closely to the waters of Sakhalin in 2004 in the south-
ern part of the Sea of Okhotsk off Hokkaido Island,
Japan (Uchida, 2017). It is also known in the Sea of
Japan (Shinohara et al., 2014).
Marine, brackish-waters. Lives at depths of 0–650 m.
N o t a t i o n. Safe for humans (Gubanov, 1972,
1993).
S a m p l e s: HUMZ no. 179891 – off Usujiri,
southeastern coast of Oshima Peninsula, Hokkaido,
Japan.
C o n s e r v a t i o n s t a t u s: IUCN (Vulnerable).
4. ORDER CARCHARHINIFORMES Garman,
1913—Ground sharks
6. Family TRIAKIDAE Gray, 1851—Hound sharks
8. Genus TRIAKIS Müller et Henle, 1838
8. * (М.) Triakis scyllium Müller et Henle,
1839—Banded hound shark
Triakis scyllium Müller et Henle, 1839, p. 63, pl. 26
(Japan).
Northwestern Pacific. Sakhalin: specified for the
island in the Gubanov’s guide (1993). In addition, it is
known in Japan (from Hokkaido), and in the waters of
Russia by two specimens from the Peter the Great Bay,
the Sea of Japan (Ebert et al., 2009a; Dyldin, 2015),
but it occurs mainly in more southerly waters.
Marine but can also withstand slightly brackish
water. The depths of habitation are 30–150 m. It is an
extremely rare species for the waters of Russia.
N o t a t i o n. Findings from Sakhalin require doc-
umentary evidence, since we did not find any other
information about its capture in the vicinity of Sakha-
lin Island apart from the mention in Gubanov’s (1993)
guide. It is safe for humans (Gubanov, 1993).
Conservation status: IUCN (Least Con-
cern).
7. Family CARCHARHINIDAE Jordan et Evermann,
1896—Requiem sharks
9. Genus CARCHARHINUS Blainville, 1816
9. ? (M., Br.) Carcharhinus plumbeus
(Nardo, 1827)—Sandbar shark
Squalus plumbeus Nardo, 1827, p. 26, 35 (Adriatic
Sea).
? Carcharias (Prionodon) japonicus Temminck et
Schlegel, 1850, p. 302, pl. 133 (Japan).
Circumglobally in tropical and temperate seas.
Sakhalin: the southwestern part (Probatov, 1951, as
Carcharias japonicus; Lindberg and Legeza, 1959).
Marine, brackish-water. Lives at depths of 0–280 m.
Rare.
N o t a t i o n. The presence of this species off the
coast of Sakhalin requires documentary evidence, as
there is no reliable information about the capture of
this species since the 1950s (Dyldin and Orlov, 2016a).
There are no reliable cases of attacks on people (Ebert
and Stehmann 2013), while it is dangerous for humans
according to other sources (Gubanov, 1993). The tax-
onomy of this species is not completely clear. Accord-
ing to recent molecular studies, Western Atlantic pop-
ulations are distinct from the Indo-Pacific ones, and
the name Carcharhinus japonicus (Temminck et
Schlegel, 1850) should be restored for the latter (Ebert
et al., 2013).
C o n s e r v a t i o n s t a t u s: IUCN (Vulnerable).
10. Genus PRIONACE Cantor, 1849
10. (M.) Prionace glauca
(Linnaeus, 1758)—Blue shark
Squalus glaucus Linnaeus, 1758, p. 235 (“in
Oceano Europeo”).
In tropical and temperate waters. Sakhalin: the
southern part (Isii, 1940). It is also observed in the
adjacent waters of the Sea of Okhotsk, including its
southern part off the coast of Hokkaido, Japan (Naga-
sawa and Torisawa, 1991; Ivanov and Sukhanov, 2010;
Uchida, 2017).
Marine. Rare. Lives at depths of 0–1000 m. In
more southerly regions, for example, in Japan, it is an
object of fishing.
N o t a t i o n. There are known cases of attacks on
people (Gubanov, 1993). Type specimens are
unknown (Catalog of Fishes…, 2017). In the summer
time, it was noted by Isii (1940) for the southern part
of Sakhalin Island, where individuals of this species,
when approaching the shore, follow the shoals of
salmon and mix with L. ditropis. To date, the presence
of this species in the waters of southern Sakhalin
requires documentary evidence. However, its occur-
rence here is quite probable, since it was observed in
the adjacent waters of the Pacific coast of the South
Kurils and the Okhotsk coast of Hokkaido Island as
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AN ANNOTATED LIST OF CARTILAGINOUS FISHES 165
well as in Peter the Great Bay, the Sea of Japan, Russia
(Nagasawa and Torisawa, 1991; Savinykh, 1998;
Sokolovsky et al., 2007, 2011; Shinohara et al., 2012;
Uchida, 2017).
Conservation status: IUCN (Near
Threatened).
11. G e n u s RHIZOPRIONODON Whitley, 1929
11. * (M., Br.) Rhizoprionodon acutus
(Rüppell, 1837)—Milk shark
Carcharias acutus Rüppell, 1837, p. 65, pl. 18, Fig. 4
(Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea).
Carcharias (Scoliodon) walbeehmi Bleeker, 1856,
p. 353 (Bintan Island, Riau Islands, Indonesia).
Circumglobally in the tropical zone up to moderate
waters. Sakhalin: perhaps the southeastern part. It was
observed most closely to the island in the southern
part of the Sea of Okhotsk (Ueno, 1971, as Scoliodon
walbeehmi; Nagasawa and Torisawa, 1991); also
occurs in the Sea of Japan (Shinohara et al., 2014). In
the waters of Russia, it is not reported.
Marine, brackish-water. Lives at depths of 0–200 m.
N o t a t i o n. A lectotype is designated for this spe-
cies (Klausewitz, 1960). It is safe for humans.
Conservation status: IUCN (Least Con-
cern).
8. Family SPHYRNIDAE Bonaparte 1840—
Hammerhead sharks
12. Genus SPHYRNA R afin esque, 1810
12. * (M., Br.) Sphyrna zygaena
(Linnaeus, 1758)—Smooth hammerhead
Squalus zygaena Linnaeus, 1758, p. 234 (Mediter-
ranean Sea and Atlantic).
Circumglobally, mainly in temperate and tropical
waters. Sakhalin: it may easily be noted near the
southwestern and southeastern coasts. It was observed
most closely to the waters of Sakhalin in the southern
part of the Sea of Okhotsk, including the coast of
Hokkaido, and in the Sea of Japan off the mainland
coast up to the northern part of the Tatar Strait (49°17′
N) (Schmidt and Taranetz, 1934; Lindberg and
Legeza, 1959; Ueno, 1971; Nagasawa and Torisawa,
1991; Borets, 2000; Novikov et al., 2002; Fadeev,
2005; Grigorov and Orlov, 2013; Dyldin, 2015).
Marine, brackish-water. Lives at depths of 0–200 m.
It is rare in the waters of Russia.
N o t a t i o n. Potentially dangerous, several cases
of attacks on humans with fatal outcomes were
recorded, but other allied species of hammerheads
(Compagno, 1984; Ebert and Stehmann, 2013) may
be involved in the attacks since attacks are usually
recorded in warm waters.
C o n s e r v a t i o n s t a t u s: IUCN (Vulnerable).
5. ORDER SQUALIFORMES Goodrich,
1909—Dogfish sharks
9. Family SOMNIOSIDAE Jordan,
1888—Sleeper sharks
13. G enus SOMNIOSUS L esu eur, 1818
13. ( M .) Somniosus pacificus Bigelow et Schroeder,
1944—Pacific sleeper shark
Somniosus pacificus Bigelow et Schroeder, 1944,
p. 35 (Sagami Sea, Japan).
North Pacific and the adjacent Arctic. Sakhalin:
the eastern part and Aniva Bay, the Sea of Okhotsk
(Balanov, 2000; Ebert et al., 2009b; Velikanov, 2010;
Kim, 2010; Orlov and Baitalyuk, 2014; Tuponogov
and Kodolov, 2014; Dyldin, 2015), the Tatar Strait
(Fedorov et al., 2003).
Marine. Lives at depths of 0–2008 m. Common in
the southeastern part of the island. It is usually noted
in by-catch; however, only the liver is of commercial
interest, and meat is not used because of certain toxic-
ity (Orlov, 2017).
N o t a t i o n. Safe, no data on attacks on humans.
Conservation status: IUCN (Data Defi-
cient).
10. Family SQUALIDAE de Blainville,
1816—Dogfish sharks
14. Genus SQUALUS Linnaeus, 1758
14. (M., Br.) Squalus suckleyi (Girard, 1855)—North
Pacific spiny dogfish
Spinax (Acanthias) suckleyi Girard, 1855, p. 196
(Hood Channel, Puget Sound, Washington, United
States).
North Pacific and the adjacent Arctic. Sakhalin:
along all the coasts, including Aniva and Terpeniya
bays (Isii, 1940; Schmidt, 1950; Lindberg, 1959; Lind-
berg and Legeza, 1959; Fadeev, 1960, 2005; Ueno,
1971; Velikanov, 2010; Tup onogov and Kodolov, 2014;
Orlov, 2012; Orlov et al., 2012; Dyldin, 2015).
Marine, brackish-water, observed in the brackish
lagoons of the island, is also known in the brackish
lakes of Hokkaido Island and the estuary zone of the
rivers of Primorskii krai (Ueno, 1971; Barabanshchi-
kov and Magomedov, 2002). Lives at depths of 0–1236 m.
Common, numerous. Promising commercial target;
the fishery is not developed. In the past, in the south-
ern part, including Aniva and Terpeniya bays, there
was specialized Japanese fishery (Isii, 1940).
N o t a t i o n. A type location according to an
established neotype (Ebert et al., 2010). Safe for
humans (Gubanov, 1993). In the past, for the waters of
Sakhalin and the entire North Pacific region, it was
indicated as Squalus acanthias Linnaeus, 1758, or as a
subspecies of the latter S. a. suckleyi (Schmidt, 1950;
Lindberg and Legeza, 1959; Sokolovsky et al., 2007,
2011). Based on the revision (Ebert et al., 2010), the
166
JOURNAL OF ICHTHYOLOGY Vol. 58 No. 2 2018
DYLDIN, ORLOV
validity of S. suckleyi has recently been restored.
Tanaka (1908), on the basis of two captures, gives
another species for the coast of Korsakov (Aniva Bay,
southern part of Sakhalin)Squalus mitsukurii Jordan
et Snyder, 1903—which is quite probable, since the
latter was observed in the Pacific waters of Hokkaido
and near the Korean Peninsula (Dyldin, 2015). How-
ever, more recent information on the occurrence of
this species in Sakhalin is absent (apparently, it was
simply ignored), and, therefore, it is not included in
our list. Berg (1911) suggested that Squalus mitsukurii,
indicated for Aniva Bay (Tanaka, 1908), should be
referred to Squalus acanthias Linnaeus, 1758, as the
geographical variation of the latter. Probably, there-
fore, later Russian researchers did not take it into
account, following the authoritative opinion of Berg.
However, it should be noted that Berg (1911) did not
perform a comparative analysis between these two
species but was guided by a brief description of Tanaka
(1908).
S a m p l e s: KhMSF no. KP-225. P-152—Tatar
Strait; ZIN RAN no. 14999—La Perouse Strait, Cape
Soya, Hokkaido Island, Japan; HUMZ nos. 131195,
131288, 133559 (all as Squalus acanthias)—off Shari,
Okhotsk Sea, Hokkaido, Japan.
Conservation status: IUCN (Least Concern).
6. ORDER RAJIFORMES Muller et Henle,
1841—Sk ates
According to a recent revision, based on the results
of genetic and morphological analysis (Last et al.,
2016a), this group includes 291 species in four fami-
lies. Representatives of two families are found off the
coast of Sakhalin. In our work, we are guided by the
results of this revision. However, since we followed
Eschmeyer and Fong (2017) in constructing our sys-
tem, we do not include tribes within the families indi-
cated by Last et al. (2016a). In addition, we prelimi-
nary leave Arctoraja in the rank of a separate genus,
which was previously considered as a subgenus (Orr
et al., 2011; Spies et al., 2011). Comments on this sub-
ject are available in recent articles (Dyldin, 2015;
Weigmann, 2016).
11. Family RAJIDAE de Blainville, 1816—Skates
15. Genus AMBLYRAJA Malm, 1877
15. ** (M.) Amblyraja hyperborea
(Collett, 1879)— Arctic skate
Raja hyperborea Collett, 1879, p. 7 (155 km west of
Spitzbergen).
Occurs mainly in Arctic waters as well as near-bor-
der cold waters of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans.
Sakhalin: the southeastern part (Balanov, 2003). It is
also indicated for the northern part of the Sea of
Okhotsk (Fedorov et al., 2003).
Marine. Lives at depths of 167–3167 m. Rare.
N o t a t i o n. The presence of this species in the
Sea of Okhotsk (Fedorov et al., 2003) and, in particu-
lar, off the coast of Sakhalin (Balanov, 2003) raises
some doubt and requires documentary confirmation.
Most likely, this species is absent in the Far Eastern
seas of Russia (Grigorov and Orlov, 2013), since it is
widespread only in the Arctic seas (Mecklenburg et al.,
2016).
C o ns er v a ti on s ta tus: IUCN (Least Concern).
16. Genus BERINGRAJA Ishihara, Treloar, Bor,
Senou et Jeong, 2012
16. (M., Br.) Beringraja pulchra
(Liu, 1932)—Mottled skate
Raja pulchra Liu, 1932, p. 162, Figs. 10, 10a (Tsing-
tao, China).
Northwestern Pacific. Sakhalin: eastern and south-
western parts, including the waters of Moneron Island
and Terpeniya and Aniva bays (Lindberg and Legeza,
1959; Jeong, 1999; Kim, 2007; Antonenko et al.,
2011), La Perouse Strait (Lindberg and Legeza, 1959).
Marine, brackish-water, brackish lakes of the
Okhotsk Sea side of Hokkaido Island (Ueno, 1971).
Lives at depths of 5–700 m. Common. Fished as by-
catch; may have some commercial interest, since its
stocks off the coast of western Sakhalin are estimated
to exceed 500 t (Antonenko et al., 2011).
N o t a t i o n. A number of authors (Lindberg and
Legeza, 1959; Sokolovsky et al., 2007; Antonenko
et al., 2011; Grigorov and Orlov, 2013; Panchenko
et al., 2016) consider mottled skate in the Dipturus or
Raja genus; however, according to a recent revision
(Ishihara et al., 2012), it should be considered in the
Beringraja genus based on the results of morphological
and genetic analyzes (Last et al., 2016a).
S a m p l e s: ZIN RAN no. 35390, 35391—south-
ern Sakhalin, ZIN RAN no. 35395—La Perouse
Strait; HUMZ no. 99210—Horonai, Okhotsk coast of
Hokkaido, Japan; HUMZ nos. 131142, 131193,
132502—off Shari, Okhotsk Sea, Hokkaido, Japan;
FAKU nos. 201459–201461, 201465, 201466–201471,
201472, 201473, 201474, 201475, 201476—Kitami-
Yamato bank, southern Sea of Okhotsk off northeast-
ern Hokkaido, Japan.
C o n s e r v a t i o n s t a t u s: IUCN (Vulnerable).
17. G e n u s DIPTURUS Raf inesque, 1810
17. * (M.) Dipturus tengu (Jordan et Fowler,
1903)—Acutenose skate
Raja tengu Jordan et Fowler, 1903, p. 654, Fig. 8
(Matsushima Bay, Sendai, Japan).
Northwestern Pacific. Sakhalin: probably in the
continental slope in the southeastern part. In addition,
it is also observed in the Pacific waters of northern
Japan near Hokkaido Island (Amaoka et al., 1989;
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AN ANNOTATED LIST OF CARTILAGINOUS FISHES 167
Jeong and Ishihara, 2009; Shinohara et al., 2009). It is
noted in the southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk off
the coast of Hokkaido (Ueno, 1971).
M a r i n e. Lives at depths of 45–400 m (Weigmann,
2016) or at 300–400 m according to other data (Jeong
and Ishihara, 2009). Throughout the whole range, it is
a very rare species (Jeong and Ishihara, 2009).
C o ns e rva t io n s tat us: IUCN (Data Deficient).
18. Genus OKAMEJEI Ishiyama, 1958
18. (M.) Okamejei kenojei (Müller et Henle, 1841)—
Ocellate spot skate
Raja kenojei Müller et Henle, 1841, p. 149 (Naga-
saki market, Japan).
Raja katsukii Tanaka, 1927, p. 662, pl. 154,
Figs. 426−428 (off Province Echizen, western coast
of Aomori Prefecture, Japan).
Northwestern Pacific. Sakhalin: southeast and
southwest, including Aniva Bay (Issii, 1940; Lindberg,
1959; Lindberg and Legeza, 1959; Ueno, 1971;
Sokolovsky et al., 2007), the northwestern part
(Taranetz, 1937).
Marine. Lives at a depth of 20–230 m. Common.
N o t a t i o n. For this species, Boeseman (1947)
selected a lectotype. In the past, some authors (Berg,
1911; Lindberg, 1959; Lindberg and Legeza, 1959)
mentioned the ocellate spot skate as Raja kenojei or
R. (Okamejei) kenojei. Antonenko et al. (2011) believe
that the indication of this species by Taranetz (1937)
for the northern part of the Tatar Strait near Aleksan-
drovsk-Sakhalinsky should be attributed to Beringraja
pulchra.
C o ns e rva t io n s tat us: IUCN (Data Deficient).
12. Family ARHYNCHOBATIDAE Fowler,
1934 – Softnose skates
19. Genus ARCTORAJA Ishiyama, 1958
19. ** (M.) Arctoraja parmifera
(Bean, 1881)— Alaska skate or armored skate
Raia parmifera Bean, 1881, p. 157 (Il iuliuk,
Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, United
States).
North Pacific and the adjacent Arctic. Sakhalin:
eastern and western parts, including Aniva Bay (Bala-
nov, 2000; Velikanov and Stominok, 2004; Kim,
2004, 2007, 2010; Antonenko et al., 2007; Davis et al.,
2007; Grigorov et al., 2015).
Marine. Lives at depths of 17–1840 m. Common,
locally numerous.
N o t a t i o n. Distribution, including in the waters
of Sakhalin, requires further study, since the range of
this species is limited to the Northeastern Pacific, the
Bering Sea, and the adjacent Arctic according to a
number of authors (Taranetz, 1937; Stevenson et al.,
2007, 2008; Orr et al., 2011; Dyldin, 2015; Mecklen-
burg et al., 2016). In addition, other researchers also
did not include this species in the ichthyofauna of the
waters of Sakhalin and adjacent areas in the past
(Taranetz, 1937; Schmidt, 1950; Lindberg, 1959;
Lindberg and Legeza, 1959; Orr et al., 2011), and indi-
cated A. smirnovi (Soldatov et Pavlenko, 1915) instead
of it. Probably, the inclusion of the waters of Sakhalin
Island and adjacent areas in the range of A. parmifera
is due to the fact that A. smirnovi and some other allied
species (for example, A. simoterus (Ishiyama, 1967))
have been wrongly synonymized with A. parmifera
without the comparative analysis of the type material
(Dolganov, 1983, 2001; Dolganov and Korolev, 2006).
Nevertheless, before conducting a detailed revision of
the Far Eastern skates using the data of morphological
and genetic analyses, we attribute all the above-men-
tioned findings of A. parmifera in the waters of Sakha-
lin to Arctoraja smirnovi.
Based on the results of molecular genetic studies,
Orr et al. (2011) attributed the armored skate to the
Arctoraja subgenus, Dyldin (2015) considers it in the
Arctoraja genus, and Last et al. (2016a) adhere to the
generally accepted opinion and give this species in the
Bathyraja genus.
C o ns er v a ti on s ta tus: IUCN (Least Concern).
20. (M.) Arctoraja smirnovi (Soldatov et Pavlenko,
1915)—Smirnov’s skate
Raja smirnovi Soldatov et Pavlenko, 1915, p. 162,
pl. 5 (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan, Russia).
Northwestern Pacific. Sakhalin: southwestern and
southeastern part, including Terpeniya Bay, Tatar
Strait, Aniva Bay near Korsakov (Schmidt, 1904,
1950; Gratsianov, 19 07; Berg, 1911, Soldatov and
Lindberg, 1930; Lindberg, 1959; Lindberg and
Legeza, 1959; Brinkman, 1971; Ueno, 1971; Ishihara
and Orlov, 2009; Orr et al., 2011; our data).
Marine. Lives at depths of 100–1125 m. Common.
N o t a t i o n. In the past, a number of authors
(Dolganov, 1983b; Dolganov and Tuponogov, 1999;
Mecklenburg et al., 2002; Dolganov and Korolev,
2006), without studying the type material and ana-
tomical features, in the absence of molecular data, and
only on the basis of visual external morphological sim-
ilarity considered the Smirnov’s skate as a synonym of
Arctoraja parmifera. As a result, the range of the latter
was artificially expanded to the southern part of the
Sea of Okhotsk and the Sea of Japan and the Pacific
waters of northern Japan. At present, the majority of
specialists (Novikov et al., 2002; Orr et al., 2011; Dyl-
din, 2015; Tohkairin et al., 2015; Last et al., 2016a;
Mecklenburg et al., 2016; Uchida, 2017) rightly recog-
nize the considered species as valid. Some authors
(Orr et al., 2011) attribute it to the Arctoraja subgenus,
others (Dyldin, 2015) attribute it to the Arctoraja
genus. Formerly, they were usually included in the
168
JOURNAL OF ICHTHYOLOGY Vol. 58 No. 2 2018
DYLDIN, ORLOV
Breviraja or Raja genus (Schmidt, 1904; Lindberg and
Legeza, 1959; Nakabo, 2002), while they are now
mostly included in the Bathyraja genus (Last et al.,
2016a). In the past, a number of authors (Gratsianov,
1907; Berg, 1911; Soldatov and Lindberg, 1930), based
on the erroneous initial identification of the specimen
ZIN RAN no. 12603 by Schmidt (1904), indicated the
big skate Raja binoculata Girard, 1855, for the south-
ern part of the island (Aniva Bay off Korsakov), which,
according to modern data (Dyldin, 2015), is common
in the Bering Sea and the Northeastern Pacific. Sub-
sequently, this specimen was reidentified as Raja
smirnovi (Lindberg, 1959; Lindberg and Legeza,
1959). Schmidt (1950) believed that the skate he found
in Aniva Bay belongs, most likely, to one of the species
previously described by Japanese researchers, and not
to R. binoculata. It should also be noted that, accord-
ing to Kim (2007), almost all Rajiformes in the waters
of Sakhalin before 1997 were identified as one A. par-
mifera species. Later on, with a more detailed study, it
turned out that there are at least five species of skates
just off eastern Sakhalin.
S a m p l e s: ZIN RAN no. 12603—Korsakov,
Aniva Bay, southern Sakhalin, 1901. Originally,
Schmidt (1904) identified this specimen as Raja bin-
oculata, while Lindberg and Legeza (1959) later
reidentified d it as Breviraja smirnovi. However, this
specimen probably still belongs to another species and
requires further study, since the minimum depth
where the Smirnov’s skate lives is 100 m, which does
not correspond to the conditions off the waters off
Korsakov in Aniva Bay with a maximum depth of 20–
40 m. ZIN RAN no. 35385—southern Sakhalin, 48.8° N
143.6° E; no. 35386—25 miles southeast off Cape Svo-
bodnyy, Sea of Okhotsk, off southeastern Sakhalin
Island; USNM no. 170485—Tatar Strait, off south-
western coast of Sakhalin Island; HUMZ no.
103372—off Terpeniya Bay, Sakhalin; HUMZ no.
58997—East of Sakhalin, 47.7167° N 144.1667° E;
HUMZ nos. 152269, 152271, 152273, 152284, 152305,
152311, 152312, etc.— off Utor o, Hok kaido, Ok hot sk
Sea; HUMZ nos. 120238, 120325, 126278, etc.—Sea
of Okhotsk; HUMZ no. 124022—Kitami-Yamato
bank, Sea of Okhotsk, Hokkaido; FAKU nos. 200793,
201462, 201464—Kitami-Yamato bank, southern Sea
of Okhotsk off northeastern Hokkaido, Japan.
Conservation status: IUCN (Least Concern).
21. * (M.) Arctoraja simoterus (Ishiyama, 1967)—
Hokkaido skate
Breviraja (Arctoraja) simoterus Ishiyama, 1967,
p. 62, Figure (Muroran, Hokkaido, Japan).
Northwestern Pacific. Previously A. simoterus was
unknown for the waters of Russia and was indicated
only for the adjacent waters (Dyldin, 2015). Neverthe-
less, specimens of this species from the waters of the
Northern Kurils are found in the HUMZ collection
(see below), which makes it possible for the first time
to add it to the list of ichthyofauna of Russia. Sakhalin:
perhaps the southeastern part. It was found most
closely to the waters of the island in the southern part
of the Sea of Okhotsk near Hokkaido (Orr et al., 2011).
Marine. Lives at depths of 96–540 m.
N o t a t i o n. In the past, some authors (Mecklen-
burg et al., 2002; Dolganov and Korolev, 2006), on the
basis of the analysis of external morphology without
studying the type material considered it as a junior
synonym of Bathyraja parmifera (Bean , 1881). The
results of detailed morphological studies (Orr et al.,
2011) have proven the validity of this species, on the
basis of which it is now recognized as an valid species
(Orr et al., 2011; Spies et al., 2011; Dyldin, 2015; Last
et al., 2016a) in the Arctoraja subgenus (Orr et al.,
2011) or the Arctoraja genus (Dyldin, 2015).
S a m p l e s: HUMZ nos. 126747, 126791—North-
ern Kuril Islands.
C o n ser v a ti on s tat u s: IUCN (Not Evaluated).
20. Genus BATHYRAJA Ishiyama, 1958
22. (M.) Bathyraja abyssicola (Gilbert, 1896)—
Deepsea skate
Raja abyssicola Gilbert, 1896, p. 396, pl. 20 (off
Queen Charlotte Island, British Columbia, Canada,
52°3930 N 132°3800 W).
North Pacific. Sakhalin: near the southeastern part
on the continental slope (Balanov, 2003). Known in
the adjacent waters of the Sea of Okhotsk (Dudnik and
Dolganov, 1992; Cook and Zorzi, 2015).
Marine. Lives at depths of 362–2906 m.? Rare.
S a m p l e s: HUMZ nos. 120001, 120222,
126420—Sea of Okhotsk; HUMZ nos. 124192,
124193, 12420 4—Kitami-Yamato bank, Sea of
Okhotsk, Japan.
Conservation status: IUCN (Data Deficient).
23. (M.) Bathyraja aleutica
(Gilbert, 1896)—Aleutian skate
Raja aleutica Gilbert, 1896, p. 397, pl. 21 (north of
Sannak Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, United States).
North Pacific. Sakhalin: the eastern part (Balanov,
2000; Tokranov et al., 2005; Davis et al., 2007; Kim,
2007; Tuponogov and Kodolov, 2014). It is also
observed in the adjacent waters of the Sea of Okhotsk
and its southern part (Ueno, 1971; Davis et al., 2007;
Ivanov and Sukhanov, 2010; Uchida, 2017). Based on
the wide bathymetric range, it also may be found in
Aniva Bay and off the southwest coast of the island.
Marine. Lives at depths of 15–1602 m. Common.
Represents potential commercial interest as by-catch.
N o t a t i o n. This species was included in the Bre-
viraja, Raja, or Rhinoraja genus (Dyldin, 2015).
JOURNAL OF ICHTHYOLOGY Vol. 58 No. 2 2018
AN ANNOTATED LIST OF CARTILAGINOUS FISHES 169
S a m p l e s: HUMZ no. 152417—off Utoro, Shari,
Okhotsk Sea, Hokkaido, Japan; HUMZ nos. 120261,
120311, 126279—Sea of Okhotsk; HUMZ nos.
124 0 97, 124126, 124 251, 124133, 12 4312—Kitami-
Yamato bank, Sea of Okhotsk, off Hokkaido, Japan.
Conservation status: IUCN (Least Concern).
24. (M.) Bathyraja bergi Dolganov, 1983—Berg’s
skate, bottom skate
Bathyraja bergi Dolganov, 1983a, p. 70 (in key),
Fig. 95 (off Kholmsk, southwestern coast of Sakhalin
Island, Russia).
Northwestern Pacific. Sakhalin: the southeastern
and western parts, probably, Aniva Bay as well (Berg,
1911 as Raja interrupta; Lindberg, 1959 as R. inter-
rupta; Lindberg and Legeza, 1959 as Bathyraja inter-
rupta; Ueno, 1971 as B. interrupta; Tuponogov and
Kodolov, 2014). According to some data, it occurs at
depths of 70 m (Tuponogov and Kodolov, 2014; Weig-
mann, 2016) or from 38 m according to other sources
(Panchenko et al., 2016); so there is a distinct possibil-
ity of findings in Aniva Bay, where the maximum
depth is 110 m.
Marine. Lives at depths of 70–900 m (Weigmann,
2016) and 38–538 m in the Sea of Japan (Panchenko
et al, 2016). Not numerous.
N o t a t i o n. In the past, it was indicated for the
southern part of Sakhalin under the name Raja inter-
rupta or Bathyraja interrupta (Berg, 1911; Lindberg,
1959; Lindberg and Legeza, 1959). This species was
first described by Berg (1911) by a specimen obtained
by Schmidt in 1901 off the coast of southwestern
Sakhalin, which he subsequently transferred to ZIN
RAS. Berg (1911) at that time only suggested that this
species can be identified as B. interrupta and gave a
complete description of this specimen (ZIN RAN
no. 12602). Subsequently, the description of Berg
(1911) and this specimen itself served Dolganov
(1983a) to description a new species. He repeatedly
described this species as a new one in a later publica-
tion (Dolganov, 1985), but the date of the original
description is considered to be in accordance with the
previous publication (Dolganov, 1983a).
S a m p l e s: ZIN RAN no. 12602 (Bathyraja bergi
holotype)—west coast of Sakhalin, Kholmsk
(Mauka); ZIN RAN no. 35382—southern Sakhalin
(in the work of Lindberg and Legeza (1959), along
with a specimen of ZIN RAN no. 12602, it is defined
as B. interrupta); it is also known from the adjacent
waters of Hokkaido (Japan) and the Pacific side of
Iturup; HUMZ no. 103614—off Muroran, Pacific
coast of Hokkaido, Japan; HUMZ no. 161900—off
Iturup Island; HUMZ no. 105320—Kushiro, Pacific
coast of Hokkaido, Japan; HUMZ nos. 152418,
154845, 154846, 154847—off Utoro, Shari, Hokkaido,
Okhotsk Sea; HUMZ nos. 109515, 109516, 109751—
Usujiri, Minamikayabe, Hokkaido, Japan; HUMZ
no. 107849—off Sekinai, Kumaishi, Hokkaido;
MTUF no. 26071—off Monbetsu, Sea of Okhotsk,
Hokkaido, Japan.
C o ns er v a ti on s ta tus: IUCN (Least Concern).
25. * (M.) Bathyraja diplotaenia
(Ishiyama, 1952)—Dusky-pink skate
Breviraja diplotaenia Ishiyama, 1952, p. 15, pl. 2,
Fig. 5 (Hokkaido, Japan).
Northwestern Pacific. Sakhalin: probably on the
continental slope off the southeast coast. It was
observed most closely to the island in the Sea of
Okhotsk and in the Okhotsk Sea waters of Hokkaido
(Shinohara et al., 2012; Grigorov and Orlov, 2013;
Uchida, 2017).
Marine. Lives at depths of 100–1000 m. In the
waters of Russia, it is a rare species.
S a m p l e s: it is known from the adjacent waters of
the southern part of the Okhotsk Sea and the Pacific
coast of Hokkaido: NSMT no. 59390—off Ohmu, Sea
of Okhotsk, Hokkaido, Japan; HUMZ nos. 154837,
154838, etc.—off Kushiro, Pacific coast of Hokkaido,
Japan; HUMZ no. 110309—off Erimo, Hokkaido,
Japan.
C o ns er v a ti on s ta tus: IUCN (Least Concern).
26. (M.) Bathyraja fedorovi Dolganov,
1983—Fedorov’s skate
Bathyraja fedorovi Dolganov, 1983a, p. 74, Fig. 101
(southern Sea of Okhotsk, 44°41 N 146°12 E, Russia).
Northwestern Pacific. Sakhalin: the eastern part
(Orlov and Ishihara, 2009a). The wide distribution of
this species throughout the Sea of Okhotsk, including
the southern part, is also mentioned in other works
(Dolganov, 1985; Fedorov et al., 2003). Described
from the southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk near the
southern Kurils (Dolganov, 1983a, 1985).
Marine. Lives at depths of 447–2025 m. Rare.
N o t a t i o n: redescribed as a new species by Dol-
ganov (1985), but the date of the original description is
considered to be in accordance with an earlier publica-
tion (Dolganov, 1983a).
C o ns er v a ti on s ta tus: IUCN (Least Concern).
27. (M.) Bathyraja isotrachys (Günther, 1877)—
Raspback skate, Challenger’s skate
Raja isotrachys Günther, 1877, p. 434 (Shizuoka,
34°07 N 138°00 E, Japan).
Northwestern Pacific. Sakhalin: southwestern and
eastern part (Issii, 1940; Brinkman, 1971; Jeong, 1999;
Orlov and Tokranov, 2005; Orlov and Ishihara, 2009b;
Tuponogov and Kodolov, 2014).
Marine. Lives at depths of 100–2000 m. Common.
170
JOURNAL OF ICHTHYOLOGY Vol. 58 No. 2 2018
DYLDIN, ORLOV
N o t a t i o n. In the past, it was included in the
Breviraja or Rhinoraja genus. A type locality is repre-
sented according to the work of Ishihara and Ishiyama
(1985).
S a m p l e s: USNM no. 170478—Tatar Strait, off
the southwestern coast of Sakhalin Island; it is also
known in the adjacent waters of the Sea of Okhotsk and
its southern part; HUMZ nos. 120342, 126233,
126291—Sea of Okhotsk; HUMZ no. 124001—Kitami-
Yamato bank, Sea of Okhotsk, off Hokkaido, Japan.
Conservation status: IUCN (Least Concern).
28. * ? (M.) Bathyraja lindbergi Ishiyama et Ishihara,
1977—Commander skate or Lindberg’s skate
Bathyraja lindbergi Ishiyama et Ishihara, 1977,
p. 82, Figs. 14a, 14b (Bering Sea, 57°47 N 173°47 W).
North Pacific. Sakhalin: probably on the continen-
tal slope off the southeastern part. It was observed
most closely to the island in the southern part of the
Sea of Okhotsk off Hokkaido Island, Japan (Uchida,
2017).
N o t a t i o n. A number of authors recognize it as a
valid species (Compagno, 1999, 2005; Ormseth et al.,
2015, Last et al., 2016a; Weigmann, 2016), but some
(Dolganov and Tuponogov, 1999; Sheiko and Fedorov,
2000) consider it as a junior synonym of B. matsubarai.
The results of genetic analysis with the use of the CO1
gene as a marker indicate a very low level of genetic
differences between B. maculata, B. lindbergi, and
B. matsubarai (Coulson et al., 2011; Spies et al., 2011;
Lago et al., 2012), which was shown earlier by USA
specialists (Spies et al., 2006), who recommended the
search for other genetic markers to identify interspe-
cific differences. Before conducting a detailed revision
with the use of new genetic markers, we consider
Lindberg’s skate as a valid species.
Conservation status: IUCN (Least Concern).
29. ? (M.) Bathyraja maculata Ishiyama et Ishihara,
1977—White-blotched skate
Bathyraja maculata Ishiyama et Ishihara, 1977,
p. 80, Figs. 13a, 13b (off northeastern Kamchatka,
Bering Sea, 59°10 N 166°19 E, Russia).
North Pacific. Sakhalin: eastern part (Tokranov
et al., 2005; Tuponogov and Kodolov, 2014) and west-
ern (Sokolovsky et al., 2007). Based on the depths of the
habitat, can probably also be observed in Aniva Bay.
Marine. Lives at depths of 73–1193 m. It is also
necessary to specify the abundance and population
size of this species off the coast of Sakhalin.
N o t a t i o n. Morphological features of the white-
blotched skate do not cause doubts about the validity
of this species. However, the results of genetic analysis
with the use of the CO1 gene as a marker indicate a
very low level of genetic differences between B. macu-
lata, B. lindbergi, and B. matsubarai (Coulson et al.,
2011; Spies et al., 2011; Lago et al., 2012), which was
previously identified by USA specialists (Spies et al.,
2006), who recommended the search for other genetic
markers to identify interspecific differences.
C o ns er v a ti on s ta tus: IUCN (Least Concern).
30. (M.) Bathyraja matsubarai (Ishiyama, 1952)—
Dusky-purple skate or Matsubara’s skate
Breviraja matsubarai Ishiyama, 1952, p. 10, pl. 1,
Fig. 3 (off Erimo Peninsula, 41°30 N 143°15 E, Hok-
kaido, Japan).
? Bathyraja caeluronigricans Ishiyama et Ishihara,
1977, p. 74, Figs. 9a, 9b (Off Hachinoche, Japan,
41°00 N 142°00 E).
Northwestern Pacific. Sakhalin: the eastern part,
including Terpeniya Bay (Balanov, 2000; Tokranov
et al., 2005; Kim, 2007, 2010; Tuponogov and Kod-
olov, 2014).
Marine. Lives at depths of 120–2000 m. Common.
May be fished as by-catch.
N o t a t i o n. Synonymy of B. matsubarai includes
close taxa: Purple-black skate B. caeluronigricans Ishi-
yama et Ishihara, 1977, and Notoro skate B. notoroen-
sis Ishiyama et Ishihara, 1977, (Ishihara, 1990; Sheiko
and Fedorov, 2000; Parin, 2001; Orlov et al., 2009b;
Weigmann, 2016). Other authors (Dyldin, 2015; Fish-
Base…, 2017) consider B. caeluronigricans and B. noto-
roensis as valid species. In a recent revision (Last et al.,
2016a), B. notoroensis is indicated as a valid species,
with the remark that its taxonomic status requires
additional research with the inclusion of molecular
data, and only B. caeluronigricans was left in synonymy
with B. matsubarai, which was supported by
Eschmeyer et al. (2017). It is probably necessary to
agree with this opinion before carrying out additional
studies. For this reason, B. notoroensis is further indi-
cated as an independent species with a question mark,
and B. caeluronigricans is given as a junior synonym of
B. matsubarai. It should be noted that, in the work of
the first author (Dyldin, 2015), the B. caeluronigricans
and B. notoroensis taxa are considered as valid species
with remarks that a comparative morphological anal-
ysis of the type material and molecular-genetic studies
are required to clarify their taxonomic status. How-
ever, at the time of preparation of this publication,
unfortunately, the author was not able to get
acquainted with the thesis of Ishihara (1990), in which
B. caeluronigricans and B. notoroensis were syn-
onymized with B. matsubarai. The results of genetic
analysis with the use of the CO1 gene as a marker indi-
cate a very low level of genetic differences between
B. maculata, B. lindbergi, and B. matsubarai (Coulson
et al., 2011; Spies et al., 2011; Lago et al., 2012), which
was shown earlier by USA specialists (Spies et al.,
2006), who recommended the search for other genetic
markers to identify interspecific differences.
JOURNAL OF ICHTHYOLOGY Vol. 58 No. 2 2018
AN ANNOTATED LIST OF CARTILAGINOUS FISHES 171
S a m p l e s: are known from the adjacent waters of
the Sea of Okhotsk and its southern part: FAKU
no. 201463—Kitami-Yamato bank, southern Sea of
Okhotsk off northeastern Hokkaido, Japan; HUMZ
nos. 152170, 152164—off Utoro, Shari, Hokkaido,
Okhotsk Sea; HUMZ no. 120269—Sea of Okhotsk;
HUMZ nos. 143351, 143353, 143355, 143358,
143364, 143365 (all as B. caeluronigricans, caught at a
depth of 500–700 m)—north to Shiretoko Peninsula,
off Shari-cho, Sea of Okhotsk, Hokkaido, Japan;
no. 124134, 124152 (caught at a depth of 985–1040
m)—Kitami-Yamato bank, Sea of Okhotsk, Hok-
kaido, Japan.
C o ns e rva t io n s tat us: IUCN (Data Deficient).
31. ( M.) Bathyraja minispinosa Ishiyama et Ishihara,
1977—Whitebrow skate
Bathyraja minispinosa Ishiyama et Ishihara, 1977,
p. 83, Fi gs. 15a, 15b (Beri ng Sea , 59°10 N 166°19 E).
North Pacific. Sakhalin: in the continental slope
off the east coast (Tuponogov and Kodolov, 2014). It
was observed in the northern part of the Sea of
Okhotsk (Fedorov et al., 2003) and its southern part
off Hokkaido Island (Uchida, 2017).
Marine. Lives at depths of 150–1420 m (Pien et al.,
2015).
S a m p l e s: known from the adjacent waters of the
Sea of Okhotsk: HUMZ nos. 120042−120044,
126307—Sea of Okhotsk; HUMZ nos. 124111,
124305—Kitami-Yamato bank, Sea of Okhotsk, off
Hokkaido, Japan; HUMZ nos. 134982, 134982—off
Shikotan Island, Kuril Islands.
Conservation status: IUCN (Least Concern).
32. * ? (M.) Bathyraja notoroensis Ishiyama et
Ishihara, 1977—Notoro skate
Bathyraja notoroensis Ishiyama et Ishihara, 1977,
p. 78, Figs. 12a, 12b (of f Notoro Peninsu la, 44°00 N
144°30 E, Japan).
Northwestern Pacific. Sakhalin: probably in the
continental slope off the southeastern part. It was
observed most closely to the island along the Okhotsk
Sea coast of Hokkaido (Ishiyama and Ishihara, 1977;
Nakaya and Shirai, 1992; Shinohara et al., 2012). So
far, it has not been observed in the waters of Russia,
and it is absent in all known reports, including recent
ones (Grigorov and Orlov, 2013; Parin et al., 2014;
Dyldin, 2015), because it was previously considered as
a synonym of B. matsubarai; however, collection spec-
imens of HUMZ from the waters near Iturup Island
make it possible to introduce this species reliably into
the list of ichthyofauna of Russia.
Marine. Lives at depths of up to 600 m (FishBase…,
2017) or from 505 to 1335 m according to the speci-
mens of the HUMZ collection. Rare.
N o t a t i o n. See above for views on the taxonomic
status of this species.
S a m p l e s: are known from adjacent waters:
HUMZ nos. 161816−161820—o Itur up, Kuril
Islands; HUMZ nos. 120141, 120235, 120245, 120247,
120248, 120251, 120252, 120354, etc.—Sea of
Okhotsk; HUMZ no. 124316—Kitami-Yamato bank,
Sea of Okhotsk, off Hokkaido, Japan; HUMZ no.
143359—north to Shiretoko Peninsula, off Shari-cho,
Sea of Okhotsk, Hokkaido.
C o n ser v a ti on s tat u s: IUCN (Not Evaluated).
33. * (M.) Bathyraja trachouros (Ishiyama, 1958)—
Erimo skate
Breviraja (Bathyraja) trachouros Ishiyama, 1958,
p. 329, Fig. 62 (off Erimo Peninsula, Hokkaido, Japan).
Northwestern Pacific. It was noted most closely to
Sakhalin Island in the southern part of the Sea of
Okhotsk off Hokkaido Island (Tohkairin et al., 2015).
It was not previously noted in the waters of Russia
(Grigorov and Orlov, 2013; Parin et al., 2014; Dyldin,
2015); however, collection specimens of HUMZ (see
below) from the waters near Iturup Island and
Kunashir Island (Southern Kurils) allow the supple-
mentation of the list of ichthyofauna of Russia with
this species for the first time.
Marine. Lives at depths of 100–800 m.
N o t a t i o n. In the past, some authors (Dolganov
and Tuponogov, 1999) believed that B. trachouros is a
junior synonym of Bathyraja violacea (Suvorov, 1935).
However, these species differ from each other in the
morphology of claspers (Ishihara et al., 2009). Cur-
rently, B. trachouros is recognized as a valid species by
other authors as well (Nakabo, 2002; Shinohara et al.,
20 0 9; D yl din, 2015; Tohka irin et al., 2015; L ast et al. ,
2016a; Weigmann, 2016).
S a m p l e s: known from the waters adjacent to
Sakhalin: HUMZ no.161924—off Iturup Island, Kuril
Islands; HUMZ no. 154848—off Shikotan Island;
HUMZ no. 126746—North Kurils; FAKU no.
200676—Kitami-Yamato Bank, southern Sea of
Okhotsk, off northeastern Hokkaido, Japan.
C o ns er v a ti on s ta tus: IUCN (Least Concern).
34. ** (M.) Bathyraja trachura (Gilbert, 1892)—
Roughtail skate
Raia trachura Gilbert, 1892, p. 539 (32°4030 N
117°3130 W, Santa Barbara Channel, California,
United States).
North Pacific. Sakhalin: east coast (Fedorov, 2000;
Tuponogov and Kodolov, 2014).
Marine. Lives at depths of 91–2900 m (Weigmann,
2016) or 213–2550 m (FishBase…, 2017).
N o t a t i o n. The presence of this species in the
southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk and near the east-
172
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DYLDIN, ORLOV
ern part of Sakhalin Island requires documentary evi-
dence. In particular, it has never been observed on the
Okhotsk Sea side of Hokkaido Island or in the waters
of Japan as a whole (H. Ishihara, pers. comm), which
makes one doubt the data on its occurrence in the
adjacent part of Sakhalin Island as well, since the main
part of the range lies in the East Pacific, and this spe-
cies is already quite rare in the waters of the northern
Kuril Islands (Orlov and Tokranov, 2005). The mini-
mum depth of this species, by various data, is 91 or 213 m
(Weigmann, 2016; FishBase..., 2017), nevertheless,
there is a sample, no. 103404, f ished in 1984 in the
Gulf of Alaska from a depth of 63 m in the HUMZ
collection. However, it is possible that the indicated
depth is erroneous.
Conservation status: IUCN (Least Concern).
35. (M.) Bathyraja tzinovskii Dolganov,
1983—Creamback skate or Tzinovsky’s skate
Bathyraja tzinovskii Dolganov, 1983a, p. 76 (in
key), Fig. 105 (Pacific coast off Honshu, Japan, 40°12 '
N 143°35' E).
Northwestern Pacific. Sakhalin: eastern part
(Orlov et al., 2009a). It is also observed in the adjacent
waters of the Sea of Okhotsk (Ivanov and Sukhanov,
2010).
Marine. Lives at depths of 1776–2500 m. Rare.
N o t a ti o n: is described in the work of Dolganov
(1985) repeatedly as a new species; the date of the orig-
inal description is considered to be in accordance with
the previous publication (Dolganov, 1983a).
Conservation status: IUCN (Least Concern).
36. (M.) Bathyraja violacea (Suvorov, 1935)—
Okhotsk skate
Raja violacea Suvorov, 1935, p. 433, Fig. 1 (western
coast of Kamchatka, Okhotsk Sea, Russia).
Breviraja abasiriensis Ishiyama, 1952, p. 19, pl. 3,
Fig. 6 (off Abasiri, Okhotsk Sea, Japan).
North Pacific from the northern part of Honshu
Island, Japan, to Vancouver, Canada (Grigorov et al.,
2017). Sakhalin: east coast (Balanov, 2000; Kim, 2010;
Tuponogov and Kodolov, 2014; Grigorov et al., 2017).
Based on the depths of the habitat, it can penetrate
through the La Perouse Strait to the Sea of Japan,
including the southwestern part of the island.
Marine. Lives at depths of 23–1110 m. ? Common.
N o t a t i o n. In the past, some authors (Dolganov
and Tuponogov, 1999) considered Bathyraja trachou-
ros (Ishiyama, 1958) as a junior synonym of this spe-
cies. Later it was found that the former is a valid spe-
cies (see above).
S a m p l e s: known from the waters of the Sea of
Okhotsk and its southern part adjacent to the island:
HUMZ no. 120259—Sea of Okhotsk; no. 152421—off
Utoro, Shari, Okhotsk Sea, Hokkaido, Japan; NSMT
no. 68832—Sea of Okhotsk, off eastern Hokkaido,
Japan; MTUF no. 26170—off Abashiri, Hokkaido,
Japan.
Conservation status: IUCN (Data Deficient).
21. Genus RHINORAJA Ishiyama, 1952
37. * (M.) Rhinoraja kujiensis (Tanaka, 1916)—
Dapple-bellied softnose skate
Raja kujiensis Tanaka, 1916, p. 173 (off Kuji,
Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan).
Northwestern Pacific. Sakhalin: probably off the
southeast coast. It is known most closely to the waters
of the island near the Okhotsk Sea and Pacific coasts
of Hokkaido, in the waters of Paramushir Island, and
the Southern Kurils (Shinohara et al., 2009; Wang
et al., 2009; Ishihara et al., 2012; Uchida, 2017).
Marine. Lives at depths of 450–1000 m. Rare spe-
cies, it is known in the waters of Russia from the waters
of the Kuril Islands (Wang et al., 2009).
S a m p l e s: known from the adjacent waters of the
southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk—HUMZ
no. 143346—Siretoko Peninsula, along coast of Shari-
cho, Shari-gun, Hokkaido, Japan.
C o ns er v a ti on s ta tus: IUCN (Least Concern).
38. * (M.) Rhinoraja longicauda Ishiyama,
1952—White-bellied softnose skate
Rhinoraja longicauda Ishiyama, 1952, p. 25, pl. 4,
Fig. 7 (off Hachinohe to Erimo Peninsula, Japan).
Northwestern Pacific. Sakhalin: probably on the
continental slope in the southeastern part. It was
observed most closely to the waters of Sakhalin in the
southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk, including the
Pacific waters of the Southern Kurils (Parin, 2001;
Orlov and Ishihara, 2009c; Grigorov and Orlov, 2013;
Parin et al., 2014; Dyldin, 2015).
Marine. Lives at depths of 300–1165 m. Rare spe-
cies in the waters of Russia.
S a m p l e s: HUMZ no. 120086—Sea of Okhotsk.
C o ns er v a ti on s ta tus: IUCN (Least Concern).
7. ORDER MYLIOBATIFORMES Compagno,
1973—Stingrays
13. F amil y DASYATIDAE Jordan, 1888—Whiptail
stingrays
22. Genus BATHYTOSHIA Whitley, 1933
39. * (М., Br.) Bathytoshia brevicaudata
(Hutton, 1875)—Short-tail stingray
Trygon brevicaudata Hutton, 1875, p. 317 (Dunedin
Harbor, New Zealand).
Trygon schreineri Gilchrist, 1913, p. 33, figure (off
the rocks at St. James in False Bay, South Africa).
JOURNAL OF ICHTHYOLOGY Vol. 58 No. 2 2018
AN ANNOTATED LIST OF CARTILAGINOUS FISHES 173
Dasyatis matsubarai Miyosi, 1939, p. 96, Fig. 3 (off
Hyuga Nada, east coast of Miyazaki Prefecture,
Japan).
Urolophoides multispinosus Tokarev in Lindberg et
Legeza, 1959, p. 142, Figs. 89, 90 (Sea of Japan, 140
miles south of Cape Gamov, Russia).
? Circumglobally. Sakhalin: perhaps off the south-
east coast and in Aniva Bay. A shallow-water way of
life allows it, as the water gets warm, to penetrate the
southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk from the Sea of
Japan (where it is not rare) through the La Perouse
Strait as well as from the Pacific waters of Hokkaido.
It was observed most closely to the waters of Sakhalin
in the southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk off Abashiri
(Hokkaido) in October 2007 as evidenced by the
voucher specimen (Nagao et al., 2011, as Dasyatis mat-
subarai). According to the same authors, the previous
finding of the species (without preservation of the
specimen) in the specified area was registered in 2003.
Marine. Lives at depths of 0–480; 0–60 m (for
Dasyatis matsubarai).
N o t a t i o n. According to the latest data, Dasyatis
matsubarai is synonymized with Bathytoshia brevicau-
data (Last et al., 2016b; Catalog of Fishes..., 2017).
S a m p l e s: HUMZ no. 209188 (as Dasyatis mat-
subarai)—Sea of Okhotsk, Abashiri, Hokkaido Island.
Conservation status: IUCN (Least Concern).
14. Family MYLIOBATIDAE Bonaparte,
1835—Eagle rays
23. Genus MYLIOBATIS C uvier, 1817
40. * (M.) Myliobatis tobijei Bleeker,
1854—Japanese eagle ray
Myliobatis tobijei Bleeker, 1854, p. 425 (Nagasaki,
Japan).
Northwestern Pacific. Sakhalin: perhaps the
southeastern part. A shallow-water way of life of this
species (0–220 m), also allows us to suggest findings in
Aniva Bay. It was observed most closely to the waters
of Sakhalin along the Pacific and Okhotsk Sea coasts
of Hokkaido (Ueno and Abe, 1966; Ueno, 1971).
Marine. Lives at depths of 0–60 m. Not observed
in waters of Russia.
N o t a t i o n. Of interest is a specimens of HUMZ
no. 144552 caught in July 1986 in the Bering Sea (the
coordinates of the catch are not indicated). In case of
the absence of a mistake in species identification or
labeling, the range of this species can be significantly
expanded in the northern direction with the inclusion
of the waters of Russia in it. To date, the northernmost
known occurrence of this species is the southern part
of the Okhotsk Sea off Hokkaido (Jeong et al., 2009).
C o ns e rva t io n s tat us: IUCN (Data Deficient).
15. Family MOBULIDAE Gill, 1893—Mobulid rays
24. Genus MOBULA Rafinesque, 1810
41. * (M.) Mobula tarapacana (Philippi, 1892)—
Chilean devil ray
Cephaloptera tarapacana Philippi, 1892, p. 8, pl. 3,
Fig. 2 (12 miles west of Iquique, Tarapacà Province,
Chile).
? Circumglobal in warm waters. Sakhalin: perhaps
the southeastern part and Aniva Bay. It was observed
most closely to the waters of the island in 2011 in the
southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk near Hokkaido
(Tomita et al., 2013). Not registered in the waters of
Russia.
Marine. Lives at depths of 0–1896 m.
S a m p l e s: HUMZ no. 215294—southwestern
Sea of Okhotsk, off Monbetsu, northeastern Hok-
kaido, Japan, 45° N 145° E.
Conservation status: IUCN (Data Deficient).
II. CLASS HOLOCEPHALI—Chimaeras
One order Chimaeriformes with three families
(Callorhinchidae, Chimaeridae and Rhinochimaeri-
dae) and 52 valid species belong to the Holocephali
class (Eschmeyer and Fong, 2017). In Sakhalin waters,
two species of the family Chimaeridae were observed.
8. ORDER CHIMAERIFORMES Patterson,
1965—Chimaeras
16. Family CHIMAERIDAE Rafinesque,
1815— Shortnose ch imaeras, ratfishes
25. Genus HYDROLAGUS Gill, 1862
42. (M.) Hydrolagus barbouri (Garman, 1908)—
Nine-spot chimaera or Barbour’s chimaera
Chimaera barbouri Garman, 1908. P. 255 (Aomori,
near Tsugaru Strait, Japan).
Northwestern Pacific. Sakhalin: on the continental
slope off the southeastern part (Kim, 2000; Balanov,
2003).
Marine. Lives at depths of 250–1100 m. Rare.
Conservation status: IUCN (Data Deficient).
43. ? (M.) Hydrolagus purpurescens
(Gilbert, 1905)—Purple chimaera
Chimaera purpurescens Gilbert, 1905, p. 582,
Fig. 231 (Vicinity of Kauai Island, Hawaiian Islands).
West Pacific, including the waters of the Hawaiian
Islands. Sakhalin: on the continental slope off the
southeastern part (Poltev and Sheiko, 2007, as Hydro-
lagus cf. purpurescens).
Marine. Lives at depths of 920–1951 m. Very rare.
Conservation status: IUCN (Data Deficient).
174
JOURNAL OF ICHTHYOLOGY Vol. 58 No. 2 2018
DYLDIN, ORLOV
CONCLUSION
According to the data of Borets (2000), 83 species
of cartilaginous fish are found in the Far Eastern
waters of Russia (the Bering Sea, the Sea of Okhotsk
and the Sea of Japan and the Pacific waters of Kam-
chatka and the Kuril Islands) and the adjacent waters
of Japan and Alaska (United States). Sheiko and
Fedorov (2000) indicate up to 27 species in the waters
of Kamchatka and adjacent waters, including disputed
ones and those observed in the near-border waters. In
the northern part of the Sea of Okhotsk, there are 17
species (Fedorov et al., 2003), 23 species in the waters
of Primorye (Sokolovsky et al., 2011), and 25 species
in the Russian part of the Sea of Japan (Sokolovsky et al.,
2007). In the waters of Sakhalin, the largest number of
cartilaginous fishes was observed not only in compar-
ison with other regions of the Far East of Russia
(Kamchatka, Primorye, Northern Kurils) but also in
comparison with the entire Arctic (five species) and
the European part of Russia (for example, the Barents
Sea with 22 species and the Black Sea with nine spe-
cies) (Vasil’eva, 2007; Dolgov, 2011; Mecklenburg
et al., 2016). The highest occurrence of cartilaginous
fishes in the waters of Sakhalin in comparison with the
adjacent water areas is partly due to the fact that
Sakhalin is washed by two seas: the Sea of Okhotsk and
the Sea of Japan. Along the east coast of the island,
there is a continental slope, within which there are a
number of deep-sea species that do not occur in the
Sea of Japan. At the same time, a number of pelagic
species can approach the shores of Sakhalin both from
the Sea of Japan and from the Pacific Ocean as the
water gets warm.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We are grateful to our colleagues Hajime Ishihara
(W & I Associates Corporation, Yokohama, Japan)
and James Orr (Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Seat-
tle, United States) for valuable advice and useful com-
ments.
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Translated by S. Avodkova
... taxonomic status or identification is questionable, as well as in cases if the information on distribution, abundance, etc. requires clarification; i, introduced species; ICZN (2021), the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature; IUCN Red List, Red List of Threatened Species of the International Union for Conservation of Nature; RBSO, Red Data Book of the Sakhalin Oblast. (Dyldin & Orlov 2018). Marine, brackish. ...
... Remarks. The record closest to Sakhalin is from the southern Sea of Okhotsk (Ueno 1971-as Scoliodon walbeehmi;Nagasawa & Torisawa 1991); the species is also known from the Sea of Japan (Shinohara et al. 2014 (Fadeev 1960;Orlov et al. 2012;Dyldin & Orlov 2018). Marine, brackish. ...
... -in part as Sebastodes ciliatus, 1950Lindberg 1959;Ueno 1971;Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987;Snytko 2001;Barsukov 2003;Velikanov et al. 2007;Voronina & Volkova 2007;Shuntov et al. 2014;Dyldin et al. 2018aDyldin et al. , 2020aShelekhov et al. 2020;Orrell 2020 (Gudkov 2010); southwest coast north to northern Tatar Strait (Shuntov et al. 2014). Closest records to Sakhalin from southern Sea of Okhotsk near Hokkaido, Japan (Dyldin et al. 2018a(Dyldin et al. , 2020aKawai 2020 (Schmidt , 1950Taranetz 1937a;Lindberg 1959;Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987;Ueno, 1971;Shuntov et al. 2014;Dyldin & Orlov 2017;Dyldin et al. 2018Dyldin et al. , 2020aOrrell 2020). Marine, brackish. ...
Article
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Based on a critical analysis of scientific publications for the last 200 years and on the collected specimens, a complete annotated list of both typical freshwater ichthyofauna of Sakhalin Island, with the inclusion of marine species that can be found in brackish coastal waters, is reported for the first time. The annotated list includes 226 species classified in three classes, 26 orders, 68 families, 29 subfamilies, and 148 genera. For 160 species, information is provided on collection samples deposited in various museums around the world, 36 of which are type specimens. For each species, conservation status (according to IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and the Red Book of the Sakhalin region), zoogeographic characteristics (distribution within Sakhalin Island and globally), abundance and commercial value are given. For a number of species, more detailed information on synonymy and nomenclature is provided. The study area is located in the western North Pacific and includes the entire coast of Sakhalin Island in the Sea of Okhotsk and the northern Sea of Japan, as well as the adjacent Sea of Okhotsk coast of northern Hokkaido, Japan.
... data 2019). The species is considered common in the southeast of Sakhalin Island (Dyldin and Orlov 2018). ...
... The liver oil is used but in most places the meat is not used as it contains toxins, similar to that of the Greenland Shark (Dyldin and Orlov 2018). Despite the toxins, the meat of this species is consumed fresh in Taiwan as a replacement for Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus) meat as it has a similar consistency (Wang and Yang 2004). ...
Technical Report
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Somniosus pacificus, Pacific Sleeper Shark
... data 2019). The species is considered common in the southeast of Sakhalin Island (Dyldin and Orlov 2018). ...
... The liver oil is used but in most places the meat is not used as it contains toxins, similar to that of the Greenland Shark (Dyldin and Orlov 2018). Despite the toxins, the meat of this species is consumed fresh in Taiwan as a replacement for Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus) meat as it has a similar consistency (Wang and Yang 2004). ...
... The Banded Houndshark is endemic to the Northwest Pacific where it occurs in Russia (Vladivostok and southern Kuril Islands), Japan, Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of Korea, Taiwan, and China (Ebert et al. 2013a, Dyldin andOrlov 2018). Its presence in the Philippines is uncertain and requires verification. ...
... data 2019). It is infrequently landed in Taiwan (Ebert et al. 2013b) and is a rare species in Russia (Dyldin and Orlov 2018) which is at the northern extent of its range. ...
... The Raspback Skate is demersal on mid-continental and insular slopes at depths of 370-2,000 m, commonly at 650-1,400 m (Last et al. 2016, Dyldin and Orlov 2018, Orlov and Tokranov 2019). Depth range is wider in Japan (450-1,480 m) compared to western Kamchatka (650-1,200 m) (Dolganov 1985, Ishihara 1990). ...
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The current status of type specimens of Myxiniformes, Lamniformes, Carcharhiniformes, Squaliformes, Torpediniformes, Rajiformes, Chimaeriformes, and Acipenseriformes in the ZUMT collection were investigated with recourse to original descriptions, information tags on specimens, and/or the ZUMT specimen ledger. Introduction The current designation and status of type specimens in the fish collection, preserved in the Department of Zoology, The University Museum, The University of Tokyo (ZUMT) collection is now under review. The present list is a summary of type specimens of