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Pro-technological and functional characterization of lactic acid bacteria to be used as starters for hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) sourdough fermentation and wheat bread fortification

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Abstract

Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) flour, spontaneously fermented dough, and type I sourdough. Isolates were identified and further selected based on pro-technological, nutritional and functional properties. Lactobacillus plantarum/s5, Pediococcus acidilactici/s5, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides/s1 were used as mixed starter to produce hemp sourdough. Significant decreases of the concentration of phytic acid, condensed tannins, and total saponins were observed during fermentation. The in vitro protein digestibility increased up to 90%. Experimental wheat breads were made adding 5% to 15% (w/w) hemp sourdough to the formula, characterized, and compared to baker's yeast wheat bread manufactured without hemp sourdough. The use of hemp sourdough improved the textural features of wheat bread, without adversely affect the sensory profile. Proportionally to the fortification with hemp sourdough, protein digestibility of the breads increased, while the predicted glycemic index significantly decreased (87 vs 100%). This work demonstrated that the fermentation with selected starters improved nutritional functionality of hemp flour, allowing its large-scale use in different food applications, meeting the consumers and producers request for novel fermented baked goods with a well-balanced nutritional profile.

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... The release of antioxidant peptides [9], as well as the degradation of antinutritional factors [10,11], have largely been reported as being part of the activity of specific microbial groups, with lactic acid bacteria being the main actors. Indeed, they have widely been used as cell factories to improve the nutritional and functional features of plant-derived food matrices [10][11][12]. ...
... Ad hoc selected lactic acid bacteria [12] might act as (i) activators of endogenous proteolytic and cell-wall-degrading enzymes responsible for primary proteolysis and fibers hydrolysis, respectively [15][16][17]; (ii) cell factories for the release of antioxidant peptides through the complex proteolytic system [9], (iii) improvers of phenolic profiles [18,19]; and (iv) responsible for the decrease in antinutritional factors [11,12]. ...
... Ad hoc selected lactic acid bacteria [12] might act as (i) activators of endogenous proteolytic and cell-wall-degrading enzymes responsible for primary proteolysis and fibers hydrolysis, respectively [15][16][17]; (ii) cell factories for the release of antioxidant peptides through the complex proteolytic system [9], (iii) improvers of phenolic profiles [18,19]; and (iv) responsible for the decrease in antinutritional factors [11,12]. ...
Article
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Although the hemp seed boasts high nutritional and functional potential, its use in food preparations is still underestimated due to scarce technological properties and the presence of several anti-nutritional factors. Here, an optimization of a biotechnological protocol aimed at improving the antioxidant properties and the protein digestibility of the whole hemp seed has been proposed. Processing based on the use of commercial food grade enzymes and ad hoc selected lactic acid bacteria was tested and the phenolic and protein profiles were investigated through an integrated approach including selective extraction, purification, and identification of the potentially active compounds. The influence of the bioprocessing on the antioxidant activity of the hemp was evaluated both in vitro and on human keratinocytes. The lactic acid bacteria fermentation was the best method to significantly improve the antioxidant potential of the hemp through intense proteolysis which led to both the release of bioactive peptides and the increase in the protein digestibility. Moreover, changes in the phenolic profile allowed a significant protective effect against oxidative stress measured on the human keratinocyte cell line.
... At the same time, roasting is the most common thermal treatment applied to oilseeds before oil extraction (Hama 2017). For example, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used to release antioxidant peptides and degrade anti-nutritional factors (Brown et al. 2017;Gänzle 2020;Nionelli et al. 2018). The roasting of edible seeds modifies the phenolic profile and promotes the breakage of the bonds between the phenolic compounds and cell wall, thereby increases the release of bound phenolic and flavonoid compounds (Dewanto et al. 2002). ...
... Despite its good nutritional and phytochemical value, analogously to the hempseed meal, hempseed flour has been found to contain a significant amount of antinutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, and condensed tannins, which negatively affect the protein and mineral absorption when included into the diet, thus impairing the aforementioned nutritional benefits of hempseed flour Russo andReggiani 2013, 2015). For this reason, some strategies, mainly the fermentation processes or enzymatic treatment, have been tested on hempseed flour to obtain a nutritionally ameliorated product (Nionelli et al. 2018;Setti et al. 2020). ...
... Nionelli and co-authors set up a biotechnological process to produce a hempseed flour sourdough suitable as wheat bread's fortifying agent, improving its nutritional and healthy properties (Nionelli et al. 2018). Particularly, three LAB strains were identified, selected, and isolated from (i) hempseed flour dough (i.e., a mixture of hempseed flour and tap water), (ii) hempseed flour dough spontaneously fermented at 30 C for 24 h, and (iii) type I hempseed flour sourdough (i.e., hempseed flour dough spontaneously fermented and consecutively refreshed cyclically by nine "black-slopping" steps). ...
... Higher concentration of total phenols was found in sS compared to rS; this difference may be due to the increased activity of cell wall degrading enzymes and enzyme active microbes occurring during germination (Katina et al., 2007;Laitila et al., 2006). Decreases of ANFs in flours of different origin have largely been achieved with sourdough fermentation Nionelli et al., 2018;Rizzello et al., 2010aRizzello et al., , 2012Rizzello et al., , 2016. Trypsin inhibitors and tannins are, among other ANFs, responsible for the low bioavailability of grains proteins. ...
... Trypsin inhibitors and tannins are, among other ANFs, responsible for the low bioavailability of grains proteins. According to the results reported for fermented legumes Curiel et al., 2015), cereals (Roger et al., 2015) and other non-wheat flours (Nionelli et al., 2018) microbial activities and, especially, LAB fermentation consistently decreased the levels of condensed tannins. Together with the proteolityc activity of the LAB, this may explains the increase of the protein digestibility. ...
... TIA decreased during fermentation more in sS than rS, thus confirming a contribution of the germination on the degradation of the trypsin inhibitors. The TIA decrease was already observed in fermented cereals, legumes (Starzyńska-Janiszewska and Stodolak, 2011), milling by-products (Rizzello et al., 2010a), pseudocereals (Rizzello et al., 2016) and other non-conventional flours (Nionelli et al., 2018), depending on the specific capability of the LAB strains involved in fermentation (Waters et al., 2015). ...
Article
In recent years, recommendations on whole grains consumption have been added to the overall dietary guidelines of many countries around the world. Despite the many benefits on human health, whole grains contain several anti-nutritional factors which decrease their nutritional quality leading to a poor use in human diet. Here, an integrate biotechnological approach, combining germination and sourdough fermentation with selected lactic acid bacteria, was set-up in order to improve the functional and nutritional quality of wheat, barley, chickpea, lentil and quinoa grains. Sourdough fermentation with Lactobacillus rossiae LB5, Lactobacillus plantarum 1A7 and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DE9 further enhanced the nutritional and functional features of sprouted flours by means of increased peptides, free amino acids and γ‑aminobutyric acid concentrations, and decreased phytic acid, condensed tannins, raffinose and trypsin inhibitory activity. Sensory appreciable wheat breads fortified with the fermented sprouted flours were manufactured and characterized, showing high protein digestibility and low starch availability.
... In all HSF fermented samples, microbial growth was massive and higher than in the standard samples. Microbial growth after sourdough fermentation was higher than in the recent study by Nionelli et al., [21], probably due to the high adaptation ability of the strains we used as they were isolated from a sourdough ecosystem (wheat sourdough). The optimal performance of the strains was confirmed by the better acidification observed in this study than in the previous study [21]. ...
... Microbial growth after sourdough fermentation was higher than in the recent study by Nionelli et al., [21], probably due to the high adaptation ability of the strains we used as they were isolated from a sourdough ecosystem (wheat sourdough). The optimal performance of the strains was confirmed by the better acidification observed in this study than in the previous study [21]. An efficient dough acidification is an important characteristic of fermentation, since it inhibits spoilage microbes and increases bread loaf homogeneity and flavor. ...
... Moreover, HSF addition to the dough directly fermented with S. cereviase LBS provided the maximum production of ethanol, the most important descriptor for an efficient leavening process. The lower acetic acid loads observed in our study compared to the previous one [21] were probably due to the shorter fermentation time and the use of GF flours, which are generally considered less fermentable than wheat. Although the content of 2-butanone-3-hydroxy, which is essential for the structure and a pleasant aroma of the bakery product [22] decreased in HSF bread due to baking loss, it was still higher than in standard breads. ...
Article
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Hemp seed flour represents a potential ingredient for protein enrichment of gluten-free bakery products, the nutritional value of which could be further increased by fermentation with sourdough or with beneficial lactic acid bacteria strains. In this study, a metabolomic approach was used to evaluate the effect of hemp seed flour addition and sourdough fermentation on the production of flavoring and health-related volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a gluten-free bread. Multivariate analysis of VOCs provided an in-depth description of the effects of hemp seed flour addition and sourdough fermentation on flavoring and bioactive compounds. In particular, an increased concentration of antimicrobial compounds, a larger spectrum of bioactive VOCs and a typical flavoring profile was evidenced in comparison to standard products. Furthermore, an increase of fermentation metabolites was observed in comparison to a standard dough, relating to abundances of 2-butanone-3-hydroxy, acetic acid, ethanol, and 1,4-butanediol. This study provides new insights on the evolution of flavoring and bioactive hemp seed flour constituents during sourdough fermentation, evidencing their retention in baked goods, and describes a new approach that could guide the formulation of innovative, fermented food with enhanced nutritional value.
... Aiming at increasing the microbial diversity, starters were selected among 9 LAB strains previously isolated from matrices (raw or spontaneously fermented quinoa, hemp, chickpea and wheat germ) with different chemical composition and sharing either most of the functional compounds and ANF with legumes. Lactobacillus plantarum T0A10 (Rizzello et al., 2016), L. plantarum 18S9, Pediococcus acidilactici 10MM0, Leuconostoc mesenteroides 12MM1 (Nionelli et al., 2018), L. plantarum LB1, Lactobacillus rossiae LB5 , L. plantarum MRS1, MR10 and Lactobacillus brevis MRS4 , belonging to the Culture Collection of the Department of Soil, Plant and Food Sciences (University of Bari, Italy) were found to be the most best performing strains when used for the fermentation of their own food matrices (Nionelli et al., 2018;Rizzello et al., 2010Rizzello et al., , 2014aRizzello et al., , 2016 and thus were used in this study (Supplementary Table S1). ...
... Aiming at increasing the microbial diversity, starters were selected among 9 LAB strains previously isolated from matrices (raw or spontaneously fermented quinoa, hemp, chickpea and wheat germ) with different chemical composition and sharing either most of the functional compounds and ANF with legumes. Lactobacillus plantarum T0A10 (Rizzello et al., 2016), L. plantarum 18S9, Pediococcus acidilactici 10MM0, Leuconostoc mesenteroides 12MM1 (Nionelli et al., 2018), L. plantarum LB1, Lactobacillus rossiae LB5 , L. plantarum MRS1, MR10 and Lactobacillus brevis MRS4 , belonging to the Culture Collection of the Department of Soil, Plant and Food Sciences (University of Bari, Italy) were found to be the most best performing strains when used for the fermentation of their own food matrices (Nionelli et al., 2018;Rizzello et al., 2010Rizzello et al., , 2014aRizzello et al., , 2016 and thus were used in this study (Supplementary Table S1). ...
... Kinetics of growth and acidification were determined as reported by Nionelli et al. (2018). The pH was determined on-line by a pHmeter (Model 507, Crison, Milan, Italy) with a food penetration probe. ...
Article
Aiming at meeting recent consumers requirements in terms of high nutritional value and functional foods, the cereal food industry has proposed the use of legumes as wheat substitutes due to the high contents of proteins with high biological value and dietary fibers. Nevertheless, legumes contain several anti-nutritional factors which may limit the bio-availability of several nutrients. In this study, an integrate biotechnological approach, combining a thermal treatment ("gelatinization") and fermentation with selected lactic acid bacteria, was set-up in order to improve the functional and nutritional quality of red and yellow lentils, white and black beans, chickpeas and peas flours. Gelatinization carried out at pilot-plant level on legume grains before milling, affected the nutritional properties of the flours by the increase of protein digestibility, resistant starch formation, the decrease of trypsin inhibitors, although negatively affecting the antioxidant activity. Fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum MRS1 and Lactobacillus brevis MRS4 further enhanced the nutritional properties of processed legume flours through the increase of free amino acids concentration and protein digestibility, the degradation of phytic acid, condensed tannins and raffinose, and the decrease of the trypsin inhibitory activity and starch hydrolysis index. Moreover, fermentation also contributed to the increase of the radical scavenging activity of both raw and processed legumes.
... The release of antioxidant peptides [9], as well as the degradation of antinutritional factors [10,11], have largely been reported as being part of the activity of specific microbial groups, with lactic acid bacteria being the main actors. Indeed, they have widely been used as cell factories to improve the nutritional and functional features of plant-derived food matrices [10][11][12]. ...
... Ad hoc selected lactic acid bacteria [12] might act as (i) activators of endogenous proteolytic and cell-wall-degrading enzymes responsible for primary proteolysis and fibers hydrolysis, respectively [15][16][17]; (ii) cell factories for the release of antioxidant peptides through the complex proteolytic system [9], (iii) improvers of phenolic profiles [18,19]; and (iv) responsible for the decrease in antinutritional factors [11,12]. ...
... Ad hoc selected lactic acid bacteria [12] might act as (i) activators of endogenous proteolytic and cell-wall-degrading enzymes responsible for primary proteolysis and fibers hydrolysis, respectively [15][16][17]; (ii) cell factories for the release of antioxidant peptides through the complex proteolytic system [9], (iii) improvers of phenolic profiles [18,19]; and (iv) responsible for the decrease in antinutritional factors [11,12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although the hemp seed boasts high nutritional and functional potential, its use in food preparations is still underestimated due to scarce technological properties and the presence of several anti-nutritional factors. Here, an optimization of a biotechnological protocol aimed at improving the antioxidant properties and the protein digestibility of the whole hemp seed has been proposed. Processing based on the use of commercial food grade enzymes and ad hoc selected lactic acid bacteria was tested and the phenolic and protein profiles were investigated through an integrated approach including selective extraction, purification, and identification of the potentially active compounds. The influence of the bioprocessing on the antioxidant activity of the hemp was evaluated both in vitro and on human keratinocytes. The lactic acid bacteria fermentation was the best method to significantly improve the antioxidant potential of the hemp through intense proteolysis which led to both the release of bioactive peptides and the increase in the protein digestibility. Moreover, changes in the phenolic profile allowed a significant protective effect against oxidative stress measured on the human keratinocyte cell line
... [47] For instance, koumiss therapy has demonstrated promising medical benefits to the consumer. [48] Readers are referred to a review by Diez-Gutiérrez et al. [44] for in-depth understanding about the role of LAB to enhance health of consumer. ...
... ↑ Flavanols, isoflavone aglycones, and gallic acid ↓ β-glucosidase and esterase activities, isoflavone glycosides [45,51,52] B. amyloliquefaciens and LAB mediated fermentation ↑ Aglycones, phenolic content, total free amino acids and free radical scavenging ability [49] Fermentation with Bacillus subtilis ↓ Beta-conglycinin, glycinin, TI and sucrose-binding proteins. ↑ antioxidant activity ↑ Total free amino acids [46][47][48] Rhizopus spp. Neurospora crassa and saccharomyces cerevisiae mediated fermentation ↑ Total free amino acids ↑ Antioxidant activity ↓Glycinin ↓β-conglycinin ↓TI and flatulence-causing oligosaccharides [50,78] Monascus purpureus or Aspergillus oryzae mediated fermentation ↓ Isoflavone content † Antioxidant activities [79] Fava bean Fermentation of fava beans by LAB ↑ Free amino acids (FAA) ↓ Phytic acid ↓ Oligosaccharides [15,80] Lactobacillus plantarum mediated fermentation ↓ Vicine and convicine ↓ TI and tannins † Total phenols and phytic acid content ↑ FAA [8,43,80] Leuconostoc spp. ...
... These breads received more organoleptic scores for acidic taste and smell. [33,48] Effect of fermentation on lentils (Lens culinaris Medikus) and mung beans (Vigna radiata L.) ...
Article
Legume seeds are a potential protein source from plants. It has been reported that regular consumption of legumes in diet can ameliorate many serious cardiovascular diseases. Its addition in substantial amount; however, is restricted due its poor textural characteristics and substantial anti-nutritional factors (ANFs). Various methods to degrade ANFs and proteins have been adopted such as soaking, cooking, and germination. Bio-degradation by microorganisms; however, has attained popularity due to its innocuous effect on environment and health of body. Therefore, this review shall aim at the information about the impact of fermentation on the degradation of proteins and ANFs of the most popular legume seeds world wide, which will provide a comprehensive compendium to the researchers working on fermentation of cereals and legumes. Moreover, minerals availability and the production of different functional compounds after legume seeds fermentation shall be highlighted in this review article. In conclusion, the fermentation ability to improve functional properties majorly depends on the metabolic activities of the microorganisms involved in the process of fermentation. However, to produce nutritious products at commercial level from legumes requires proper fermentation of legume seeds and use of composite of cereals and legumes.
... Aiming at investigating a wide microbial diversity, starters were selected among 100 LAB strains (Supplementary Table S1) previously isolated from matrices with different chemical composition and sharing either most of the functional compounds and anti-nutritional factors with maize milling by-products. In detail, LAB strains belonging to the Culture Collection of the Department of Soil, Plant and Food Science (University of Bari, Italy) were previously isolated from raw or spontaneously fermented wheat, quinoa, hemp, hop, and wheat germ (Rizzello et al., 2010Nionelli et al., 2014Nionelli et al., , 2018aPontonio et al., 2015;Mamhoud et al., 2016) (Supplementary Table S1). Strains were routinely cultivated on modified de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium (mMRS, maltose and fresh yeast extract were added to MRS at 1 and 5%, respectively, and the final pH was 5.6) until the late exponential phase of growth was reached (ca. ...
... Strains were routinely cultivated on modified de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium (mMRS, maltose and fresh yeast extract were added to MRS at 1 and 5%, respectively, and the final pH was 5.6) until the late exponential phase of growth was reached (ca. 8 h), as previously determined by the analysis of the kinetics of growth (Rizzello et al., 2010Nionelli et al., 2014Nionelli et al., , 2018aPontonio et al., 2015;Mamhoud et al., 2016). ...
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Although recognized as important sources of functional compounds, milling by-products are often removed from the cereal kernel prior milling process. Indeed, the high presence of fiber in bran and the co-presence of lipids and lipase in germ are often considered as downsides for breadmaking. In this work, Lactobacillus plantarum T6B10 and Weissella confusa BAN8 were used as selected starters to ferment maize milling by-products mixtures made with heat-treated or raw germ and bran. The effects on the biochemical and nutritional features as well as the stability of the milling by-products were investigated. Lactic acid bacteria metabolisms improved the free amino acids and peptides concentrations and the antioxidant activity and caused a relevant phytic acid degradation. Moreover, fermentation allowed a marked decrease of the lipase activity, stabilizing the matrix by preventing oxidative processes. The use of fermented by-products as ingredients improved the nutritional, textural and sensory properties of wheat bread. Fortified breads (containing 25% of fermented by-products) were characterized by a concentration in dietary fiber and proteins of ca. 11 and 13% of dry matter, respectively. Compared to the use of the unfermented ones, the addition of pre-fermented by-products to bread caused a significant increase in protein digestibility (up to 60%), and a relevant decrease of the starch hydrolysis index (ca. 13%). According to the results, this study demonstrates the potential of fermentation to convert maize bran and germ, commonly considered food wastes, into nutritive improvers, meeting nutritional and sensory requests of modern consumers.
... The danger of consuming many oxalates comes from their ability to bind calcium, thus increasing the risk of kidney stones in some people. Oxalates consumption is linked to pathologic conditions such as hyperoxaluria, urolithiasis, renal failure, cardiomyopathy, and cardiac conductance disorders [332]. Several LAB species can degrade oxalates in vitro and in vivo. ...
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Toxic ingredients in food can lead to serious food-related diseases. Such compounds are bacterial toxins (Shiga-toxin, listeriolysin, Botulinum toxin), mycotoxins (aflatoxin, ochratoxin, zearalenone, fumonisin), pesticides of different classes (organochlorine, organophosphate, synthetic pyrethroids), heavy metals, and natural antinutrients such as phytates, oxalates, and cyanide-generating glycosides. The generally regarded safe (GRAS) status and long history of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as essential ingredients of fermented foods and probiotics make them a major biological tool against a great variety of food-related toxins. This state-of-the-art review aims to summarize and discuss the data revealing the involvement of LAB in the detoxification of foods from hazardous agents of microbial and chemical nature. It is focused on the specific properties that allow LAB to counteract toxins and destroy them, as well as on the mechanisms of microbial antagonism toward toxigenic producers. Toxins of microbial origin are either adsorbed or degraded, toxic chemicals are hydrolyzed and then used as a carbon source, while heavy metals are bound and accumulated. Based on these comprehensive data, the prospects for developing new combinations of probiotic starters for food detoxification are considered.
... phenols, anthocyanins and carotenoids). 47,100,101 Because of their nutritional potential, the consumption of wholegrain cereals as well as the enrichment of breads with various edible seeds are increasingly being demanded due to the health benefits associated with their use, even if large amounts of fibres are known to negatively modify dough and bread properties, production processes and staling-related phenomena. 3,26,27,[102][103][104] In this context Hemdane et al. published an interesting review about the impact of wheat bran on breadmaking, the bran properties possibly involved and the various technological strategies to counteract the detrimental effects of wheat bran on breadmaking. ...
Article
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As widely accepted, the quality decay of freshly baked bread that affects product shelf life is the results of a complex multifactorial process that involves physical staling, together with microbiological, chemical, and sensorial spoilage. In this context, this paper provides a critical review of the recent literature about the main factors affecting shelf life of bread during post‐baking. An overview of the recent findings about the mechanism of bread staling was firstly provided. Afterwards, the effect on staling induced by baker's yeasts and sourdough as well as by the extra‐ingredients commonly utilized for bread fortification was also addressed and discussed. As inclusion/exclusion criteria, only papers dealing with wheat bread and not with long‐life bread nor gluten free bakery products were taken into consideration. Despite recent developments in international scientific literature, the whole mechanism that induce the bread staling is far from being completely understood and the best analytical methods to be adopted to measure and/or describe in depth this process appears still debated. In this topic, the effect induced on bread shelf life by the use of biological leavening agents (baker's yeasts and sourdough) as well as by some extra‐ingredients included in the bread recipe have been individuated as two key issues to be addressed and discussed in terms of their influence on the kinetics of bread staling. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... The direct selection of starter microorganisms from the substrate to be fermented is considered an important feature in guaranteeing the rapid adaptation, intense acidification, and positive influence on the nutritional and technological properties of a specific matrix [50,51]. The peptidase activity of LAB, which is a strain-dependent property [52,53], is responsible for the production of peptides and amino acids that affect bread quality as taste-active, flavor precursors, or bioactive compounds [54]. ...
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The bacterial community profile of cricket powder highlighted the presence of four main genera: Bacteroides spp., Parabacteroides spp., Lactococcus spp., and Enterococcus spp. The spontaneous fermentation of cricket powder allowed for the isolation and characterization of seven lactic acid bacteria strains belonging to six species: Latilactobacillus curvatus, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, Latilactobacillus sakei, Lactococcus garvieae, Weissella confusa, and Enterococcus durans. The strains were characterized and selected according to different technological properties. L. plantarum CR L1 and L. curvatus CR L13 showed the best performance in terms of general aminopeptidase activity, acidification, and growth rate in MRS broth and in dough with cricket powder and wheat flour, as well as robustness during consecutive backslopping. Thus, they were used as starter-mixed to produce sourdough to manufacture bread fortified with 20% cricket powder. The addition of cricket powder led to a significant increase of protein (up to 94%) and lipid content, from 0.7 up to 6 g/100 g of bread. Spontaneous fermentation represents a source of microbial diversity that can be exploited in order to obtain potential starters for food with innovative ingredients. Edible insects powder can be successfully added in leavened baked goods to enhance their nutritional value.
... The use of mixtures of strains, each one selected for a different biochemical and/or technological trait, was previously proved effective to get optimal sourdough fermentation (Rizzello et al., 2016;Nionelli et al., 2018;Montemurro et al., 2019). Thus, we assembled Leuc. ...
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Our study proposed date seeds flour (DSF) as an innovative ingredient for sourdough bread production through sustainable bio-recycling. We isolated autochthonous lactic acid bacteria and yeasts from DSF and DSF-derived doughs to build up a reservoir of strains from which to select starters ensuring rapid adaptation and high ecological fitness. The screening based on pro-technological criteria led to the formulation of a mixed starter consisting of Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, which allowed obtaining a mature type I sourdough after consecutive refreshments, in which an aliquot of the durum wheat flour (DWF) was replaced by DSF. The resulting DSF sourdough and bread underwent an integrated characterization. Sourdough biotechnology was confirmed as a suitable procedure to improve some functional and sensory properties of DWF/DSF mixture formulation. The radical scavenging activity increased due to the consistent release of free phenolics. Perceived bitterness and astringency were considerably diminished, likely because of tannin degradation.
... Aiming at selecting strains to be used as mixed starter for bran fermentation, the pro-technological and functional features of LAB were evaluated when singly inoculated in their own isolation matrix (wheat, quinoa, hemp and hop flours and wheat germ) (Nionelli et al., , 2018a(Nionelli et al., , 2018bPontonio et al., 2015;Rizzello et al., 2010aRizzello et al., , 2016. Cells were harvested by centrifugation (10,000 ×g, 10 min, 4°C), washed twice in 50 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, and re-suspended in tap water. ...
Article
Aiming at meeting the recommendations of the World Health Organization regarding the total fiber daily intake, an integrate biotechnological approach, combining xylanase treatment and lactic acid bacteria fermentation of milling by-products from pigmented wheat varieties, hull-less barley and emmer was proposed. The effects on the biochemical and nutritional features were investigated. Enhanced radical scavenging activity, increased concentrations of free amino acids (up to three times) and peptides and optimal in vitro protein digestibility (up to ca. 87%) value as well as relevant phytic acid degradation were achieved during bran fermentation. The main nutritional features of each matrix were enhanced and distinguished. Fortified breads were characterized by a concentration in total dietary fibers and protein of ca. 7 and 13% of dry matter, respectively. Compared to wheat bread the addition of pre-fermented brans caused a significant increase in protein digestibility (up to 79%), and a relevant decrease of the predicted glycemic index (ca. 8%) of the fortified bread. According to the results, this study demonstrates the potential of xylanase treatment and lactic acid bacteria fermentation to be used as suitable strategy to include bran in breadmaking, meeting both nutritional and sensory requests of modern consumers.
... It improved the rheology features without adversely affecting the sensory profile. Proportionally to fortification, the protein digestibility of the breads increased, and the predicted glycaemic index markedly decreased (Nionelli et al. 2018). The fermentation with P. acidilactici and P. pentosaceus of hulled and not hulled hempseed positively influenced the level and ratio among polyunsaturated fatty acids (Bartkiene et al. 2016). ...
Article
In the era of fighting wastes and paying close attention to sustainability and new protein sources, legumes, pseudo-cereals and milling by-products deserve all the efforts for increasing their consumption. Even with obvious peculiarities, a common trait characterizes these heterogeneous matrixes: unquestionable nutritional and functional value combined with some technological, sensory and/or anti-nutritional weaknesses, which unfortunately limit the exploitation and consumption. With the perspective of their use to fortify staple baked goods, we reviewed the main technological, nutritional and functional features of various legumes and pseudo-cereals, and milling by-products. Notwithstanding the potential of other technological solutions, we reported numerous evidences that qualified the sourdough fermentation as the most sustainable and powerful process to exploit the technological, nutritional and functional features of these matrixes and to limit or eliminate weak attributes. Sourdough fermentations tailored for specific matrixes allowed the fortification of staple baked goods with abundant levels of legumes, pseudo-cereals or milling by-products while keeping high consumer acceptance.
... However, sourdough has been used to improve and combat some of these challenges (Arendt, Ryan, & Dal Bello, 2007;Demirkesen, Mert, Sumnu, & Sahin, 2010;Moore, Dal Bello, & Arendt, 2008). The baking and sensory and properties of unconventional flours and legumes has been enhanced with sourdough fermentation, providing nutritious food with attractive flavour and texture, especially in developing countries (Montemurro, Rossana, & Carlo, 2019;Nionelli et al., 2018 to improve their nutritional qualities, given that celiac disease in some cases leads to malnutrition. Although sorghum is a good source of calories and other nutrients but its protein has lower nutritional quality when compared to milk and legume proteins. ...
Article
There is an increasing consumer's demand for functional gluten-free foods since products derived from gluten are involved in celiac disease in genetically susceptible persons. Sorghum is gluten-free but with nutritional and technological challenges. Sourdough fermentation can improve the technological attributes of sorghum. Moreover, incorporation of legumes can improve the cereal's quality to make a nutritionally superior and acceptable product. This study focused on determining the influence of chickpea and cowpea inclusion on the textural, nutritional and sensory characteristics of sorghum sourdough bread (SSB) fermented with Pediococcus pentosaceus. Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) shows that the chickpea-fortified sample (CKPB) had the least hardness (23.91 N and 18.60 N, respectively) on the first and second compression and the highest ash and protein contents (2.72 g/100 g sample and 7.17 g/100 g sample, respectively). The specific volumes of legume-fortified SSBs were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher compared to control bread. The legume-fortified SSBs were more acceptable by the consumers with CKPB showing highest overall acceptability (7.36). The quality of the SSBs were improved with legume addition and generally, chickpea-fortified SSB had the best technological and physicochemical characteristics signifying that it could be a promising alternative to chemical dough additives and a preferred product for gluten-intolerant individuals.
... and Penicillium spp. indicator strains were determined for a chickpea sourdough [28], whereas a TTA value of 43.4 was obtained for a hemp sourdough fermented for 24 h at 30 °C [92]. ...
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... The increase after the trypsin digestion was around 15% between CF and PHF or PRF. Some studies reported an increase of the IVPD after LAB fermentation of plant protein (Çabuk et al., 2018;Nionelli et al., 2018). By hydrolyzing proteins into more soluble and small products, the fermentation can impact positively the IVPD (Joye, 2019). ...
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The objective of this study was to develop probiotic beverages, enriched with plant proteins, with high nutritional value. A rice-based beverage fermented with a specific probiotic formulation comprised Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2 has been enriched with a combination of pea and rice proteins (PR) or pea and hemp proteins (PH) at 13 and 11% total protein, respectively. These protein associations have been selected because their amino acid ratio was >1, as recommended by the FAO. The beverage enriched with protein significantly increased its viscosity by more than 10 times thanks to the enrichment, while the fermentation reduced it by 50% for PR and 20% for PH. In vitro protein digestibility results showed that the protein enrichment and the fermentation treatment significantly increased digestibility values of the beverages with value of 72.7% for fermented PR beverage and 61.4% for unenriched fermented control beverage (p ≤ 0.05). Peptide profiles of PR and PH enriched beverages indicated that the fermentation led to a reduced level of high molecular weight (HMW) peptides of about 60% and an increase of low molecular weight (LMW) peptides by over 50%. Therefore, both the fermentation and the enrichment in protein increased the nutritional value of the rice-based beverages. Practical Application Good quality of probiotics formulation and high-protein products are in increasing demand and plant proteins as an alternative of animal protein are popular. This study has permit to develop rice-based commercial probiotic beverages enriched in a combination of pea and rice or pea and hemp proteins in order to obtain a complete protein in terms of amino acids composition. The lactic acid fermentation and the enrichment with a plant protein combination led to a better protein digestibility of beverage.
... Other cereal flours used for sourdough production are, for instance, barley (Zannini et al. 2009;Mariotti et al. 2014;Harth, Van Kerrebroeck, and De Vuyst 2016;Sadeghi et al. 2016; Bartkiene et al. 2017;Pejcz et al. 2017;Montemurro et al. 2019;Palla et al. 2020), millet (Vogelmann et al. 2009;Akinola and Osundahunsi 2017;Adisa et al. 2019;Nami et al. 2019), oat (Hüttner, Dal Bello, and Arendt 2010;Bartkiene et al. 2017;Lu et al. 2019;Hajinia, Sadeghi, and Mahoonak 2021), sorghum (Gassem 1999;Galle et al. 2010Galle et al. , 2011Svensson et al. 2010;Sekwati-Monang, Valcheva, and Gänzle 2012), and einkorn (Çakır, Muhammet, and Durak 2020). Although the flour is usually of cereal origin, also flours from pseudocereals (e.g., amaranth, buckwheat, and quinoa), legumes (e.g., beans, chickpeas, lentils, and lupine), and alternative seeds (e.g., acorn, chestnut, chia, flaxseed, hempseed, and sunflower) are used (Vogelmann et al. 2009;Bartkiene et al. 2011Bartkiene et al. , 2013Bartkiene et al. , 2014Bartkiene et al. , 2016Moroni et al. 2012;Aponte et al. 2013Aponte et al. , 2014Torino et al. 2013;Rizzello et al. 2014Rizzello et al. , 2015Curiel et al. 2015;Fritsch et al. 2016;Coda et al. 2017b;Rinaldi et al. 2017;Sáez et al. 2017Sáez et al. , 2018Nionelli et al. 2018;Montemurro et al. 2019;Venturi et al. 2019;Franco et al. 2020;Galli et al. 2020;Gunduz et al. 2020;Maidana et al. 2020;Nissen, Bordoni, and Gianotti 2020;Purabdolah et al. 2020). All these studies on alternative cereal flours refer mainly to laboratory-made sourdoughs that are initiated with the flour and sterile water and that may or may not relate or lead to bakery practice. ...
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Sourdough production is an ancient method to ferment flour from cereals for the manufacturing of baked goods. This review deals with the state-of-the-art of current fermentation strategies for sourdough production and the microbial ecology of mature sourdoughs, with a particular focus on the use of non-flour ingredients. Flour fermentation processes for sourdough production are typically carried out by heterogeneous communities of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. Acetic acid bacteria may also occur, although their presence and role in sourdough production can be criticized. Based on the inoculum used, sourdough productions can be distinguished in fermentation processes using backslopping procedures, originating from a spontaneously fermented flour-water mixture (Type 1), starter culture-initiated fermentation processes (Type 2), and starter culture-initiated fermentation processes that are followed by backslopping (Type 3). In traditional recipes for the initiation and/or propagation of Type 1 sourdough productions, non-flour ingredients are often added to the flour-water mixture. These ingredients may be the source of an additional microbial inoculum and/or serve as (co-)substrates for fermentation. An example of the former is the addition of yoghurt; an example of the latter is the use of fruit juices. The survival of microorganisms transferred from the ingredients to the fermenting flour-water mixture depends on the competitiveness toward particular strains of the microbial species present under the harsh conditions of the sourdough ecosystem. Their survival and growth is also determined by the presence of the appropriate substrates, whether or not carried over by the ingredients added.
... Additionally, considerable reduction (about 80%) of glycemic index on experimental sourdough bread, compared to baker's yeast bread, was achieved by Nionelli et al. [94]. This effect was attributed to biological acidification by LAB, which is one of the main factors that decrease starch hydrolysis rate and index [71]. ...
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Cereal products are staple foods highly appreciated and consumed worldwide. Nonetheless, due to the presence of gluten proteins, and other co-existing compounds such as amylase-trypsin inhibitors and fermentable short-chain carbohydrates in those products, their preference by consumers has substantially decreased. Gluten affects the small gut of people with celiac disease, triggering a gut inflammation condition via auto-immune response, causing a cascade of health disorders. Amylase-trypsin inhibitors and fermentable short-chain carbohydrate compounds that co-exists with gluten in the cereal-based foods matrix have been associated with several gastrointestinal symptoms in non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Since the symptoms are somewhat overlapped, the relation between celiac disease and irritable bowel syndrome has recently received marked interest by researchers. Sourdough fermentation is one of the oldest ways of bread leavening, by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts population, converting cereal flour into attractive, tastier, and more digestible end-products. Lactic acid bacteria acidification in situ is a key factor to activate several cereal enzymes as well as the synthesis of microbial active metabolites, to positively influence the nutritional/functional and health-promoting benefits of the derived products. This review aims to explore and highlight the potential of sourdough fermentation in the Food Science and Technology field.
... The number of newly described Lactobacillus species is constantly rising, from 152 to more than 190 in the last few years, and their biotechnological suitability needs to be considered [6,7]. Thus, intense scientific research is conducted using strains of the genus Lactobacillus in fields such as wine fermentation [8], sourdough fermentation [3,9], or cocoa bean fermentation [10]. There are several studies available describing the effects of media components or special auxotrophies of Lactobacillus strains resulting in different cell morphologies during cultivation. ...
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Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely applied microorganisms in food, feed, and beverage applications, where they can provide essential functionality for product modification, increase product shelf life, or act as beneficial organisms after consumption. Among these, strains of the genus Lactobacillus are often used as starters, probiotics, or biopreservatives. For all these types of bacterial preparations, a transportable shelf-stable form of concentrated bacteria, preserving their intrinsic properties, is essential for commercial distribution. Former studies revealed a relationship between the culture medium, cellular morphology, and the robustness of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (name derived from North Carolina Food Microbiology) cultures. Due to these insights, a multitude of Lactobacillus strains representative of the genus were screened regarding their sensitivity to thermal medium pretreatment possibly accompanied by the alteration of their chemical composition, such as the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs). This study reveals a quite diverse and different growth behavior of those strains in the form of altered or non-altered cell concentrations and the size distributions of the populations, whereby five strains of the L. delbrueckii group in particular showed increased cell concentrations combined with decreased mean cell volumes. The results are of both scientific and industrial relevance, as they highlight the necessity to consider and understand the effects of media sterilization for the applied production strain.
... Fermentation is one of the most efficient and inexpensive processes that can be used to accomplish this task (for recent reviews, see ref. [159][160][161][162][163][164]. It has been successfully applied to numerous plant materials, including cereals, maize, and sprouted flours 165,166 as well as legumes, [167][168][169] by exploiting the microbial activity of naturally occurring or inoculated LAB and fungi. ANFs can thus be transformed into more easily assimilated compounds (e.g., proteins), and/or trapped micronutrients can be freed. ...
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... I56, Leuconostoc mesenteroides 12MM1, I57, Weissella confusa KAS3, and NEY6, all belonging to the Culture Collection of the Department of Soil, Plant and Food Sciences (University of Bari, Italy) were used to ferment BSG. All the strains were previously used as starters for fermentation and characterized for pro-technological properties (growth and acidification performances, as well as the ability to increase antioxidant activity) as expressed in their own food isolation matrix (wheat, wheat germ quinoa, hop, hemp, faba bean, chickpea, carrots) (Di Cagno et al., 2008;Rizzello et al., 2010Rizzello et al., , 2016Pontonio et al., 2015;Mamhoud et al., 2016;Nionelli et al., 2018). ...
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Brewers’ spent grain (BSG) is the major by-product of the brewing industry which remain largely unutilized despite its nutritional quality. In this study, the effects of fermentation on BSG antioxidant potential were analyzed. A biotechnological protocol including the use of xylanase followed by fermentation with Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (Lactobacillus plantarum) PU1, PRO17, and H46 was used. Bioprocessed BSG exhibited enhanced antioxidant potential, characterized by high radical scavenging activity, long-term inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and protective effect toward oxidative stress on human keratinocytes NCTC 2544. Immunolabelling and confocal laser microscopy showed that xylanase caused an extensive cell wall arabinoxylan disruption, contributing to the release of bound phenols molecules, thus available to further conversion through lactic acid bacteria metabolism. To clarify the role of fermentation on the antioxidant BSG potential, phenols were selectively extracted and characterized through HPLC-MS techniques. Novel antioxidant peptides were purified and identified in the most active bioprocessed BSG.
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The effect on bread-making quality of the addition of sourdough fermented by Leuconostoc citreum YMC08 strain (YMC08) was evaluated. Two kinds of sourdough were prepared by mixing flour, sterilized water and YMC08 with or without sucrose. The addition of sourdough to bread dough increased not only the specific volume and softness of the bread, but also the amount of organic acids and total free amino acids compared to without sourdough addition. These increases were more pronounced in breads containing sourdough prepared by adding sucrose (LCS) than in those containing sourdough prepared without adding sucrose (LC). The difference between LC and LCS may depend on the increase of gassing power of dough and/or dextran production by YMC08. In addition, the contents of saccharides and acetic acid in LCS significantly decreased and increased, respectively, compared with those in LC. These were caused by sucrose addition at the time of sourdough preparation, which might affect the metabolism of saccharides and organic acids by lactic acid bacteria.
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The information from this study may provide opportunities for industrial application of sorghum seed flour as a useful bakery ingredient and a suitable alternative source of functional compounds to whole wheat flour. The chemical composition of sorghum was evaluated compared to that of wheat whole flour, showing high contents of mineral and fibers. Next were evaluated the dough rheological properties of flour mixtures using Mixolab equipment, "Chopin+" protocol. Finally, six bread samples were obtained from wheat flour with addition of sorghum seed flour in various percentages, in which three samples were fortified with Lactobacillus plantarum compared to the other three bread samples without the addition of any lactic acid bacteria. All six bread sample were compared to a control bread sample with wheat flour type 550. The results show the fat and raw fiber were higher in sorghum compared to whole wheat flour. Also, the content of magnesium, potassium, and iron were much higher than in whole wheat flour. A significant improvement of the sensorial characteristics was observed in bread samples in which lactic acid bacteria was used.
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To explore the effect of commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the quality of traditional “Wanergao” for reasonable consuming guidance, the dominant microbes, physicochemical property, free amino acid content, texture, and sensory properties during fermentation of “Wanergao” were illustrated in this paper. Compared with the samples in the control group, “Wanergao” samples in the two groups that were subjected to S. cerevisiae inoculation had weaker acidity (the pH values dropped from 4.39 ± 0.08 to 4.36 ± 0.07 and 4.36 ± 0.07 within 2 h during fermentation), higher fermenting rate (volume increased from 100 ± 1.31 to 305 ± 4.61 and 316 ± 4.93 mL separately within 3 h), and the dominant lactic acid bacteria and yeast being leukonid and S. cerevisiae. More amylose, ethanol, and free amino acid were detected in “Wanergao” produced with S. cerevisiae inoculation compared with “Wanergao” produced by sourdough. The two kinds of “Wanergao” presented various hardness (2318 ± 112, 2279 ± 103), springiness (0.76 ± 0.03, 0.71 ± 0.03), chewiness (1.43 ± 0.05, 1.41 ± 0.06), and cohesiveness (0.68 ± 0.03, 0.62 ± 0.03) after fermentation. The result of sensory analysis revealed that “Wanergao” in the S. cerevisiae group had higher elasticity, aroma, and restoring force. The experiment demonstrated that “Wanergao” produced by using S. cerevisiae is a kind of fermented rice product with rich fragrance, high amount of nutrients, and strong elasticity.
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With an increasing demand for gluten‐free foods, there has been an interest in the utilization of nonconventional ingredients to improve the nutritional quality, sensory attributes, and functionality of gluten‐free products. Hemp (Cannabis sativa subsp. Sativa) is one of these ingredients that have yet to be thoroughly evaluated. The primary objective of this study was to determine the acceptability and consumers’ sensory perceptions of gluten‐free bread (GFB) made with hemp flour. The secondary objective was to assess if the acceptability of the bread changes after 45 days of frozen storage following a partial bake method. The first trial (n = 89) instructed participants to assess six fresh bread samples of varying hemp percentages (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%), using check‐all‐that‐apply questionnaire and a 9‐point hedonic scale. This procedure was repeated for the second trial (n = 81), which used partially baked bread samples of the same composition. Overall, as the percentage of hemp flour increased, the overall liking of the GFB decreased. The 5% hemp incorporation in the fresh bread and the 15% hemp incorporation or less in the partially baked bread did not significantly differ from the control bread (fresh and partially baked, respectively). Attributes found to drive the liking of bread were smooth (only for the frozen bread), porous, moist, and soft, whereas the attributes that led to disliking were yeasty and dense. In future research, partial baking methods should be varied to assess the optimal freezing and baking ratio that are specific for hemp‐based breads. Practical Application The gluten‐free bread (GFB) made with 5% hemp incorporation was not significantly different from the control and was acceptable to consumers. The partially baking method is a suitable method to be used with GFBs incorporated with hemp as it did not affect the consumer acceptability. Additionally, hemp flour incorporation in partially baked GFB was acceptable up to 15%. Consumers prefer GFB with hemp that possesses smooth, porous, moist, and soft attributes.
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential use of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis for fermentation of chia, quinoa, and hemp flour for the production of gluten-free bread. The application of non-traditional sourdough made using seed flour, such as hemp, chia, and quinoa for gluten-free bread preparation could improve organoleptic and structural characteristics of gluten-free maize/rice bread. Chia, hemp, and quinoa flour were fermented with L. sanfranciscensis W2, and the non-traditional sourdough obtained was used for gluten-free bread production. The results showed that L. sanfranciscensis W2 can adapt and act on non-traditional substrates such as chia, hemp, and quinoa flour (total count of lactic acid bacteria were 9.76, 10.05, and 8.56 log10 CFU/g, respectively). The results showed that fermentation time and flour type had a significant influence on non-traditional sourdough properties. Non-traditional sourdough had decreased pH, specific volume, and rate of bread staling and increased bread porosity compared with bread made only with chia, quinoa or hemp seed flour. Application of non-fermented chia and hemp flour increased the firmness and the rate of bread staling, whereas use of non-traditional hemp and quinoa sourdough reduced the rate of bread staling. In many cases, chia, hemp, and quinoa flour increased the acceptability of gluten-free maize/rice bread.
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The paper focuses on how to improve the nutritional value of traditional low moisture bakery products from wheat flour by using flour from hemp oilcakes obtained by solvent extraction of oil. It has been considered how to provide enough raw materials in the case of wide use of hemp and products of its processing in the food industry. The main tendencies in cultivating and applying industrial hemp in Ukraine and worldwide have been outlined; the chemical composition of hemp seeds (the plant’s part mainly used in food products) has been analysed and characterised; and it has been suggested how hemp by-products can be used in the bakery technology. It has been studied whether flour from hemp extraction cake can be used in the technology of low-moisture bakery products such as breadsticks. It has been found that 10, 15, and 20% of hemp flour added to wheat flour increase the water absorption capacity of the resulting flour blend by 3, 6, and 13% respectively, in comparison with the control. If hemp flour is included in the formulation of breadstick dough, the slackness of a dough ball increases by 6.1, 7.4, and 11%, and this increase is bigger, the higher the hemp flour content in the formulation is. However, it has been found that if the flour component of the recipe is partly replaced with hemp flour, this changes the growth medium of yeast cells and lactic acid bacteria and thus leads to a 23, 16, and 30% decrease in the amount of carbon dioxide formed during the 180 min fermentation period of the dough. The 6, 16, and 40% increase of titratable acidity in the samples analysed is due to the content of biogenic and oligobiogenic elements in the flour mixture, which satisfy the needs of lactic acid bacteria rather than those of baker’s yeast. The quality assessment of the finished products by their sensory and physicochemical characteristics has shown how promising it is to use hemp flour in the breadstick technology, provided that the recipe and the production parameters are modified to improve the products’ rheological properties and quality.
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Background Sourdough is one of the oldest examples of natural starters, mostly used for making fermented baked goods as an alternative to baker's yeast and chemical leavening. Almost 30 years of research have accumulated showing its performance. Time is mature to elaborate collectively these data and to draw conclusions, which would represent milestones for scientists, industries and consumers. Scope and approach With the scope of highlighting its microbiological, biochemical, technological and nutritional potential, we used “sourdough” as the only keyword and the PRISMA flow diagram to retrieve, select and systematically review 1230 peer reviewed research articles from four databases (Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed and ScienceDirect). Key findings and conclusions The literature states that sourdough baked goods underwent characterization in almost 50 countries and all continents, mainly dealing with salty (breads and substitutes) and sweet products. Converging data defined optimal use conditions, most common microbiological and biochemical characteristics, criteria for selecting and re-using starters, and versatility of sourdough for making baked goods with a relevant number of flour species/varieties and agro-food by-products. Because of the unique microbial composition and functionality, sourdough has claimed as an irreplaceable starter for improving the sensory, rheology and shelf life attributes of baked goods. The most recent literature showed how the sourdough fermentation mainly increased mineral bioavailability, enabled fortification with dietary fibers, lowered glycemic index, improved protein digestibility and decreased the content of anti-nutritional factors. This knowledge is solid for delivering to industries and consumers, and to face new research challenges starting from a consolidated state of the art.
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Bread and bakery products represent the essential constituent of the human diet all over the world. The new trends related to bread-making are focused on two different themes: •development of the new functional bakery products able to satisfy new consumers’ requirements related to a healthy diet, using different functional ingredients; •prolonging the shelf life of these products focusing on the microbial degradation (mold inhibition) and also on the quality degradation (staling process retardation), using conventional and innovative processing and preservation techniques. Some subchapters outline the main sources of functional ingredients used for the obtaining of functional bakery products: cereals (wheat, barley, rice, flax seeds), legumes (soybean, carob, lupine, green lentil), fruit and vegetables (onion, artichoke, mango, goji berry, apple pomace, blackcurrant pomace, banana peel, pumpkin), probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus paracasei), prebiotics (inulin and oligofructose), and others (bee pollen, plantago, pecan nut, cocoa hulls, amaranth, spent coffee grounds). Other subchapters consider the review of the conventional (chemical preservatives, sourdough, and lactic acid bacteria, freezing, modified atmosphere packaging) and innovative technologies (ultra high-pressure treatment, pulsed electric field, ohmic treatment, radiofrequency treatment, active packaging) applied for the shelf life-prolonging. This chapter presents the state of the art in the bread and bakery scientific literature data and trends and innovation in these fields.
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Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a group of highly specialised bacteria specifically adapted to a diverse range of habitats. They are found in the gut of humans and other animals, in many food fermentations, and on plants. Their natural specialisation in close relation to human activities make them particularly interesting from an industrial point of view. They are relevant not only for traditional food fermentations, but also as probiotics, potential therapeutics and cell factories for the production of many different products. Many new tools and methods are being developed to analyse and modify these microorganisms. This review shall give an overview highlighting some of the most striking characteristics of lactic acid bacteria and our approaches to harness their potential in many respects – from home made food to industrial chemical production, from probiotic activities to the most modern cancer treatments and vaccines.
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There is a growing need for gluten-free bakery products with an improved nutritional profile. Currently, gluten-free baked goods deliver low protein, fiber, and mineral content and elevated predicted glycaemic index (pGI). Olive cake (OC), a by-product from virgin olive oil extraction, is an excellent natural source of unsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber and bioactive molecules, including polyphenols and tocopherols. In this framework, this study aimed at using two selected lactic acid bacteria and a yeast for increasing the antioxidant features and the phenol profile of the gluten-free breadsticks fortified with OC with the perspective of producing a functional food. Control (CTR) samples were prepared and compared with fermented ones (fCTR). Samples were added with either non-fermented OC (nfOC) or fermented for 12 and 20 h (fOC-12 and fOC-20). Our results showed that the predicted glycemic index (pGI) was influenced by both OC addition and sourdough fermentation. In fact, the lowest value of pGI was found in fOC-12, and hydrolysis index and pGI values of samples with OC (fOC-12 and nfOC) were statistically lower than fCTR. Both OC addition and fermentation improved the total phenol content and antioxidant activity of breadsticks. The most pronounced increase in hardness values was observed in the samples subjected to sourdough fermentation as evidenced both from texture profile analysis and sensory evaluation. Moreover, in most cases, the concentration of the detected volatile compounds was reduced by fermentation. Our work highlights the potential of OC to be upcycled in combination with fermentation to produce gluten-free breadsticks with improved nutritional profile, although additional trials are required to enhance textural and sensory profile.
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The increase in the world population, together with the new trends toward the plant consumption, as well as the concern for the environment and the revolution in the food industry, has made hemp one of the most promising substrates to be used as an ingredient in the upcoming years. Nutritionally, it is very suitable for human consumption, both in macro and micronutrients, and at an environmental level it is a very interesting alternative due to the low impact it has. Currently, very little literature is available on hemp protein, when compared to other commonly used substrates. In this review, we aimed to summarized its definition, origin, nutritional profile, safety issues, technological modification by processing, bioactive peptides derived from it, impact of its inclusion in matrices and market situation among other topics. It is important to mention how the information available on hemp increases every year, and there are already products on the market that include it in their composition, giving relevance to this substrate with much to be exploited today. Not only hemp protein is suitable for human consumption, but also its production is environmentally sustainable, and further research has to be carried out in the near future.
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Flax and hemp contain significant quantities of high quality oil in their seeds (rich in omega-3 and omega-6). These essential fatty acids have been shown to reduce inflammation and help prevent some chronic disease (hearh disease and arthritis). As a consequence of this, there is an increasing demand of these healthy oils by food industry. Oil extraction makes available flours which can be considered new sources of protein and fiber. In this study, we evaluate six varieties of each specie (flax and hemp) to characterize the protein component of the seeds. To do this we set up experimental field trials for two consecutive years (2011-2012) in Italy in two different locations of Lombardy region: Treviglio and Cavriana. All the analyses were carried out on the remaining meal after chemical extraction of oil. The protein content in the six genotypes of flaxseed meal (FSM) was, on average 360 g kg-1 dry matter (DM). There were not differences between site and year of cultivation except genotype Valoal. It showed a protein content higher in 2011 (about 360 g kg-1 DM) respect to 2012 (about 340 g kg-1 DM) in both experimental fields. The protein content in hempseed meal (HSM) was, on average 340 g kg-1 DM. Substantial differences were evident between years of cultivation. In 2012, protein concentration was higher (360 g kg-1) respect to first year (340 g kg-1) for all hemp varieties and in the two experimental fields. Amino acid (AA) profile was obtained of the hydrolyzed protein of six genotypes of flax and hemp. The AA content was determined on hydrolyzed protein by HPLC analysis. Flax showed a good content of threonine and histidine (4.7 and 6.0 g 100 g-1protein, respectively) which was higher respect to hemp (3.3 and 2.9 g 100 g-1 protein, respectively). Plant storage proteins are often poor in lysine (cereals) or sulfurated AA (legumes). Hemp protein showed a discrete quantity of lysine (4.2 g 100 g-1 protein) that resulted higher respect to flax (2.8 g 100 g-1 protein) but lower than soybean (6.0 g 100 g-1 protein). Instead, methionine content of flax and hemp (2.6 and 2.4 g 100 g-1 protein, respectively) proteins were significantly higher respect to soybean (1.2 g 100 g-1 protein). Moreover, flax and hemp proteins were extremely rich in arginine (8.0 and 12.0 g 100 g-1 protein, respectively). This is interesting since young mammals have a high dietary requirement for arginine due to its role as a nitrogen carrier in tissue proteins and its key role in gastrointestinal growth and development. We also monitored the presence of some antinutritional compounds in flours as they can reduce the protein digestibility. The concentration of condensed tannins, trypsin inhibitors, and saponins were to acceptable levels. Instead, phytic acid deserve attention being about 5% and 7% dry weight in FSM and HSM, respectively. In conclusion, FSM and HSM could be new rich protein sources with an interesting AA profile rich in arginine and with a good content of sulfurated AA.
Article
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Hempseed meal from three dioecious and three monoecious varieties has been evaluated for content and quality of the protein and for the concentration of antinutritional compounds. Hemp seeds were obtained from plants grown in two experimental fields for two consecutive years (2011-2012). For all the varieties, hempseed meal resulted in a rich source of protein (34% mean content) with an amino acid profile extremely rich in arginine and slightly poor in lysine. Differences between dioecious and monoecious varieties were observed in the content of antinutritional compounds. They were more concentrated in monoecious varieties in comparison with those dioecious. The concentration of phytic acid in hempseed meal deserves attention in both groups, being 63 and 75.4 g • kg −1 of dry matter in dioecious and monocieous varieties, respectively. The results show that, besides the recognized value of hemp oil, also the hempseed cake could find application in animal feed as a substitute of other cakes (soybean, rapeseed). From this point of view, the dioecious varieties showing lower contents of antinutritional compounds with respect to the monoecious varieties would be preferred.
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Camelina sativa is an oilseed crop becoming important in North America and Europe for biodiesel production. The use of Camelina flours in animal diet may be limited by antinutritive compounds. The content of glucosinolates, phytic acid, sinapine and condensed tannins was evaluated in twelve accessions of Camelina sativa. All compounds showed sig-nificant differences among genotypes. Only the concentration of glucosinolates in the flour deserves attention, while the content of phytic acid, sinapine and condensed tannins are to acceptable levels. Camelina showed the presence of three different glucosinolates (GSL1, GSL2 and GSL3) in the flour, with differences among genotypes regarding the relative abundance of each glucosinolate. The content of glucosinolates is inversely correlated with that of sinapine. The glu-cosinolate content in Camelina flour has to be reduced to increase the use of this flour in animal diet, but avoiding al-tering the sinapine content.
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The use of hempseed flours in the animal diets may be limited by the presence of antinutritive compounds. The content of phytic acid, condensed tannins, trypsin inhibitors, cyanogenic glycosides and saponins was evaluated in hempseed meal of three italian varieties (dioecious) and three french varieties (monoecious) of Cannabis sativa L. The analysis of variance showed significant differences among varieties for all the antinutritional compounds. The italian and french hemp groups resulted significantly different in the content of phytic acid, trypsin inhibitors and cyanogenic glyco-sides. The concentration of phytic acid in the hempseed flour deserves attention in both groups, while the content of cya-nogenic glycosides deserves attention just in the french varieties, and condensed tannins, trypsin inhibitors and saponins are instead to acceptable levels. The french varieties presented less phytic acid than those italians (-0.55 g Kg -1 of dry matter). The content of phytic acid in hemp varieties resulted inversely correlated with trypsin inhibitors and cyanogenic glycosides. Since the presence of phytic acid in meal may lead to mineral deficiencies over a long period of administration, the phytic acid contents in hempseed flour should be reduced to increase the safety of these flours, but avoiding altering trypsin inhi-bitor and cyanogenic glycoside contents.
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The bacterial ecology during rye and wheat sourdough preparation was described by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Viable plate counts of presumptive lactic acid bacteria, the ratio between lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, the rate of acidification, a permutation analysis based on biochemical and microbial features, the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and diversity indices all together demonstrated the maturity of the sourdoughs during 5 to 7 days of propagation. Flours were mainly contaminated by metabolically active genera (Acinetobacter, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Comamonas, Enterobacter, Erwinia, and Sphingomonas) belonging to the phylum Proteobacteria or Bacteroidetes (genus Chryseobacterium). Their relative abundances varied with the flour. Soon after 1 day of propagation, this population was almost completely inhibited except for the Enterobacteriaceae. Although members of the phylum Firmicutes were present at very low or intermediate relative abundances in the flours, they became dominant soon after 1 day of propagation. Lactic acid bacteria were almost exclusively representative of the Firmicutes by this time. Weissella spp. were already dominant in rye flour and stably persisted, though they were later flanked by the Lactobacillus sakei group. There was a succession of species during 10 days of propagation of wheat sourdoughs. The fluctuation between dominating and subdominating populations of L. sakei group, Leuconostoc spp., Weissella spp., and Lactococcus lactis was demonstrated. Other subdominant species such as Lactobacillus plantarum were detectable throughout propagation. As shown by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae dominated throughout the sourdough propagation. Notwithstanding variations due to environmental and technology determinants, the results of this study represent a clear example of how the microbial ecology evolves during sourdough preparation.
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The fatty acid and natural product content of hemp seed oil was analyzed by GC-MS and LC-MS. The presence of linoleic acid (LA) and -linolenic acid (LNA) were confirmed in their previously reported ratio of 3:1 LA:LNA. The presence of -caryophyllene (740 mg/L), myrcene (160 mg/L), -sitosterol (100-148 g/L) and trace amounts of methyl salicylate was observed in the oil which had not been previously reported. Trace amounts of cannabidiol (CBD) were also detected. Bioassays were performed with the oil to determine its effectiveness as an antimicrobial agent. Some bioactivity was observed during the primary screening. (Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: Website: )
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The effect of adding increasing levels of prebiotic inulin-type fructans (ITFs) (0, 4, 8, 10 and 12%) on the sensory and nutritional quality of gluten-free bread (GFB) was assessed. ITFs can provide structure and gas retention during baking, thus improving GFB quality by yielding better specific volume, softer crumb, improved crust and crumb browning with enhanced sensory acceptance. During baking, approximately one-third of the ITFs was lost. The addition of 12% ITFs to the basic formulation is required in order to obtain GFB enriched with 8% ITFs (4 g of fructans per 50 g bread serving size), levels that can provide health benefits. 12% ITFs-addition level decreased GFB glycemic index (from 71 to 48) and glycemic load (from 12 to 8). Prebiotic ITFs are a promising improver for GFB that can provide nutritional (11% dietary fiber content, low glycemic response) and functional benefits to patients with celiac disease, since ITFs are prebiotic ingredients that can also increase calcium absorption. http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2013/FO/C2FO10283H#!divAbstract
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Three Lactobacillus strains were selected and used together as sourdough starter. Sourdough performances were evaluated for 30days. Three breads were manufactured: wheat sourdough bread (WSB), WSB enriched with oat and rye fibres (WSB-DF) and wheat yeasted bread (WYB) fermented with baker’s yeast alone. WSB-DF and WSB showed higher specific volume and lower firmness than WYB. Sensory analysis showed that WSB-DF and WSB were preferred due to acidulous smell, taste and aroma. Compared to WYB and WSB, WSB-DF had high level of dietary fibre (DF). WYB was used as the control to estimate the hydrolysis index (HI=100). WSB-DF had values of HI lower than WSB (59 vs. 86%). As estimated on 20 volunteers, the value of GI for WSB-DF was ca. 41%. WSB-DF bread manufactured at industrial plant combined low-GI with physiologically significant supply of DF and high standard structure and sensory features.
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Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivation and utilization is an ancient practice to human civilization. There are some controversies on the origin and subsequent spread of this species. Ancient plant DNA has proven to be a powerful tool to solve phylogenetic problems. In this study, ancient DNA was extracted from an archaeological specimen of Cannabis sativa associated with archaeological human remains from China. Ribosomal and Cannabis specific chloroplast DNA regions were PCR amplified. Sequencing of a species-specific region and subsequent comparison with published sequences were performed. Successful amplification, sequencing and sequence comparison with published data suggested the presence of hemp specific DNA in the archeological specimen. The role of Humulus japonicus Sieb. et Zucc. in the evolution of Cannabis is also indicated. The identification of ancient DNA of 2500 years old C.sativa sample showed that C.sativa races might have been introduced into China from the European–Siberian center of diversity.
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Lactobacillus plantarum LB1 and Lactobacillus rossiae LB5, isolated from wheat germ and selected based on the kinetics of acidification, were used as starters for the manufacture of sourdough fermented wheat germ. A bread containing sourdough fermented wheat germ as an ingredient (SFWGB) was compared to breads made with (raw wheat germ bread, RWGB) or without (wheat flour bread, WFB) raw wheat germ. The higher concentration of free amino acids mainly differentiated SFWGB from WFB and RWGB. The in vitro protein digestibility of WFB was the highest, even if sourdough fermentation of wheat germ attenuated the difference. Phytase and antioxidant activities of SFWGB were highest. The specific volume and cell-total areas were also the highest for SFWGB. As determined by texture profile analysis, the values of hardness, resilience and fracturability of breads containing wheat germ were lower than those found in WFB. The crust lightness showed a decrease from WFB to SFWGB. As determined by sensory analysis, SFWGB had mainly acid taste and flavour and resulted more salty. Sourdough fermented wheat germ is an ingredient able to enhance nutritional, texture and sensory properties of bread.
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Phenolics were extracted from green lentil seeds with 80% (v/v) aqueous acetone, and the resultant extracts were further separated on a Sephadex® LH-20 column. Fraction I, comprising low-molecular-weight phenolics, was eluted from the column with 95% (v/v) ethanol. Fraction II, consisting predominantly of tannins, was obtained using acetone:water (1:1; v/v) as the mobile phase. Phenolic compounds present in the preparations showed antioxidant and radical-scavenging properties as revealed by a β-carotene-linoleate model system, the total antioxidant activity (TAA) method, the DPPH scavenging activity assay, and a reducing power assay. Data from these tests showed the greatest efficacies coming from the tannins (i.e., fraction II); the mean TAA of the tannin fraction was 6.09 μmol Trolox eq./mg fraction (d.w.), whereas the crude extract and fraction I showed 0.75 and 0.33 μmol Trolox eq./mg extract or fraction (d.w.), respectively. The content of total phenolics in fraction II was the highest (338 mg catechin eq./g fraction, d.w.), and the tannin content, as determined by the vanillin/HCl method and expressed as absorbance units at 500 nm per 1 g, was 252. Twenty compounds (hydroxycinnamates, procyanidins, gallates, flavonols, dihydroflavonols, dihydrochalcones) were identified in the crude extracts by HPLC-PAD and HPLC–ESI-MS techniques. Catechin and epicatechin glucosides, procyanidin dimers, quercetin diglycoside, and trans-p-coumaric acid were the dominant phenolics in green lentils.
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DNA from 124 strains of Heterobasidion annosum was amplified using the core sequence of the M13 minisatellite region as primer. The strains were derived from 11 S-, 8 P- and 1 F-intersterility group populations originating in Scandinavia, Germany and Italy. Following electrophoresis the banding patterns of all isolates were compared and 23 fragments were scored. Average band-sharing indices (ABSI) were used to compare genetic diversity within and between populations. Genetic similarity of populations decreased with increasing geographical distance in the S group. In both the S and P intersterility groups, ABSI values were higher within than among populations (70·3 ± 2·3 s.d. and 66·4 ± 2·2, respectively in the S group and 77·0 ± 2·3 and 75·0 ± 2·4, respectively in the P group) indicating local differentiation. The higher values in the P than in the S group indicate that the P group is less variable. ABSI was much lower between S and P group populations (49·2 ± 2·5) than within either group. This result demonstrates the large divergence between these two intersterility groups. In the F population ABSI was higher (68 ± 3·1) than for the comparisons with the S- (50·1 ± 1·6) and P-groups (44·0 ± 2·4). By using discriminant analysis, the agreement between geographical population affiliation and that inferred from banding patterns of amplified DNA was 20·8% within the S group, and 14·9% within the P group. Chi-square test of the discriminant analysis indicated regional differentiation in the S but not in the P intersterility group. The agreement between methods was 98·4% when strains were classified to intersterility group by pairing tests or amplified DNA profiles. Results are consistent with a high degree of exchange between populations of the same intersterility group but low exchange between intersterility groups.
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The study of the microbiotas of 19 Italian sourdoughs used for the manufacture of traditional/typical breads allowed the identification, through a culture-dependent approach, of 20 and 4 species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts, respectively. Numerically, the most frequent LAB isolates were Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis (ca. 28% of the total LAB isolates), Lactobacillus plantarum (ca. 16%), and Lactobacillus paralimentarius (ca. 14%). Saccharomyces cerevisiae was identified in 16 sourdoughs. Candida humilis, Kazachstania barnettii, and Kazachstania exigua were also identified. As shown by principal component analysis (PCA), a correlation was found between the ingredients, especially the type of flour, the microbial community, and the biochemical features of sourdoughs. Triticum durum flours were characterized by the high level of maltose, glucose, fructose, and free amino acids (FAA) correlated with the sole or main presence of obligately heterofermentative LAB, the lowest number of facultatively heterofermentative strains, and the low cell density of yeasts in the mature sourdoughs. This study highlighted, through a comprehensive and comparative approach, the dominant microbiotas of 19 Italian sourdoughs, which determined some of the peculiarities of the resulting traditional/typical Italian breads.
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Sourdough fermentation is a cereal fermentation that is characterized by the formation of stable yeast/lactic acid bacteria (LAB) associations. It is a unique process among food fermentations in that the LAB that mostly dominate these fermentations are heterofermentative. In the present study, four wheat sourdough fermentations were carried out under different conditions of temperature and backslopping time to determine their effect on the composition of the microbiota of the final sourdoughs. A substantial effect of temperature was observed. A fermentation with 10 backsloppings (once every 24 h) at 23°C resulted in a microbiota composed of Leuconostoc citreum as the dominant species, whereas fermentations at 30 and 37°C with backslopping every 24 h resulted in ecosystems dominated by Lactobacillus fermentum. Longer backslopping times (every 48 h at 30°C) resulted in a combination of Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus plantarum. Residual maltose remained present in all fermentations, except those with longer backslopping times, and ornithine was found in almost all fermentations, indicating enhanced sourdough-typical LAB activity. The sourdough-typical species Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis was not found. Finally, a nonflour origin for this species was hypothesized.
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The drivers for the establishment and composition of the sourdough microbiota, with particular emphasis on lactic acid bacteria, are reviewed and discussed. More than 60 different species of lactobacilli were identified from sourdoughs, showing the main overlapping between sourdough and human intestine ecosystems. The microbial kinetics during sourdough preparation was described by several studies using various methodological approaches, including culture-dependent and -independent (e.g., high throughput sequencing), and metabolite and meta-transcriptome analyses. Although the abundant microbial diversity harbored by flours, a succession of dominating and sub-dominating populations of lactic acid bacteria suddenly occurred during sourdough propagation, leading to the progressive assembly of the bacterial community. The contribution of all the potential sources (house microbiota, flour, types of flours and additional ingredients) for contaminating lactic acid bacteria was compared with the aim to find overlapping or specific routes that affect the sourdough microbiota. Once established and mature, pros and cons regarding the stability of the sourdough lactic acid bacteria biota were also reviewed, showing contradictory results, which were mainly dependent on the species/strains.
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Bread and flour-based foods are an important part of the diet for millions of people worldwide. Their complex nature provides energy, protein, minerals and many other macro- and micronutrients. However, consideration must be taken of three major aspects related to flour and bread. The first is that not all cultures consume bread made from wheat flour. There are literally dozens of flour types, each with their distinctive heritage, cultural roles and nutritive contents. Secondly, not all flours are used to make leavened bread in the traditional (i.e., Western) loaf form. There are many different ways that flours are used in the production of staple foods. Thirdly, flour and breads provide a suitable means for fortification: either to add components that are removed in the milling and purification process or to add components that will increase palatability or promote health and reduce disease per se. Flour and Breads their Fortification in Health and Disease Prevention provides a single-volume reference to the healthful benefits of a variety of flours and flour products, and guides the reader in identifying options and opportunities for improving health through flour and fortified flour products. Examines those four and break related agents that affect metabolism and other health-related conditions. Explores the impact of compositional differences between flours, including differences based on country of origin and processing technique. Includes methods for analysis of flours and bread-related compounds in other foods.
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Soybeans (SB) are recognized as a storehouse of nutrients. This chapter focuses on the composition of minor compounds or phytochemicals. Soybeans contain many bioactive minor components that are lipids, proteins, or carbohydrate in nature or low-molecular weight phenolics or saponins, etc. The chapter discusses these minor components. Although much research has been conducted on isolated components and many health benefits have been demonstrated, the interactions, synergism, or antagonism among various minor compounds and interactions between the minor and major components in soybeans are not yet fully understood. Extracting and concentrating these minor compounds may provide a convenient source for expected beneficial effects; however, the cost associated with the processing may be prohibitive. Increasing the consumption of whole soy foods may allow to gain not only the health, but also the economic benefits of this relatively inexpensive food.
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The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of grape seed flour (GSF) addition at the levels of 3, 5 and 7 g/100 g on the rheological behavior of the dough obtained from four types of wheat flour differentiated from a quality point of view. The rheological properties of the dough, substituted with GSF from the Aligoté variety, were recorded in the Mixolab device. The substitution has the effect of decreasing the Falling Number index simultaneously with the increase of the substitution level. The effects on the rheological properties are: the decrease of the dough's opposed torque, the increase of the dough's stability, the increase of the gelatinization temperature and the increase of the dough's opposed torque at the starch gelling, obviously improving the rheological properties of the dough, obtained from these flour mixtures. The results demonstrate the potential GSF in development composite flours. This article brings into discussion the changes occurring as a result of the substitution of wheat flour with grape seed flour (GSF) in the rheological characteristics of wheat flour dough. The effects of the substitution level of basic wheat flour with GSF on the rheological properties of dough show that GSF can be an excellent source of food ingredient, which technological functionality is worth observing. This study can contribute to the development of new bread-making products, improving their quality and providing health benefits.
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Sourdough fermentation is one of the oldest food biotechnologies, which has been studied and recently rediscovered for its effect on the sensory, structural, nutritional and shelf life properties of leavened baked goods. Acidification, proteolysis and activation of a number of enzymes as well as the synthesis of microbial metabolites cause several changes during sourdough fermentation, which affect the dough and baked good matrix, and influence the nutritional/functional quality. Currently, the literature is particularly rich of results, which show how the sourdough fermentation may affect the functional features of leavened baked goods. In the form of pre-treating raw materials, fermentation through sourdough may stabilize or to increase the functional value of bran fractions and wheat germ. Sourdough fermentation may decrease the glycaemic response of baked goods, improve the properties and bioavailability of dietary fibre complex and phytochemicals, and may increase the uptake of minerals. Microbial metabolism during sourdough fermentation may also produce new nutritionally active compounds, such as peptides and amino acid derivatives (e.g., γ-amino butyric acid) with various functionalities, and potentially prebiotic exo-polysaccharides. The wheat flour digested via fungal proteases and selected sourdough lactobacilli has been demonstrated to be probably safe for celiac patients.
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Cereal-based foods represent a very important source of biological as well as of cultural diversity, as testified by the wide range of derived fermented products. A trend that is increasingly attracting bakery industries as well as consumers is the use of non-conventional flours for the production of novel products, characterised by peculiar flavour and better nutritional value. Lactic acid bacteria microbiota of several non-wheat cereals and pseudo-cereals has been recently deeply investigated with the aim of studying the biodiversity and finding starter cultures for sourdough fermentation. Currently, the use of ancient or ethnic grains is mainly limited to traditional typical foods and the bread making process is not well standardised with consequent negative effects on the final properties. The challenge in fermenting such grains is represented by the necessity to combine good technology and sensory properties with nutritional/health benefits. The choice of the starter cultures has a critical impact on the final quality of cereal-based products, and strains that dominate and outcompete contaminants should be applied for specific sourdough fermentations. In this sense, screening and characterisation of the lactic acid bacteria microbiota is very useful in the improvement of a peculiar flour, from both a nutritional and technological point of view.
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The purpose of the project was to study how conventional and ecological farming systems and different dough kneading intensity affected the baking properties of wholemeal flour, and how those properties affected the taste and consistency of wholemeal bread. Sensory evaluations were performed with respect to wholemeal tin loaves from winter wheat. The dough from each wheat sample was divided into two parts. One part was subjected to low kneading intensity, the other to high kneading intensity. High kneading intensity refers to standard commercial practices. Wholemeal from the conventional farming system had a higher protein content than wholemeal from ecological farming systems. Wholemeal from the conventional farming system resulted in bread with a large volume and a high degree of elasticity while wholemeal from ecological farming systems resulted in a dry bread. High kneading intensity generally resulted in a dry and less elastic bread which had a significantly stronger tinge of grey on the surface of the slice.
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The protein constituents and thermal properties of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) protein isolate (HPI) as well as 11S- and 7S-rich HPIs (HPI-11S and HPI-7S) were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and different scanning calorimetry (DSC), and their amino acid composition and in vitro digestibility were also evaluated, as compared to soy protein isolate (SPI). SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the edestin (consisting of acidic and basic subunits, AS and BS) was the main protein component for HPI and HPI-11S, while HPI-7S was composed of the BS of edestin and a subunit of about 4.8kDa. DSC analysis characterized thermal transition of the edestin component and the possible present form of different subunits. Except lysine and sulfur-containing amino acids, the essential amino acids of various HPIs met the suggested requirements of FAO/WHO for 2–5year old infants. The proportion of essential amino acids to the total amino acids (E/T) for HPI (as well as HPI-11S) was significantly higher than that of SPI. In an in vitro digestion model, various protein constituents of various HPIs were much easily digested by pepsin plus trypsin, to release oligo-peptides with molecular weight less than 10.0kDa (under reduced condition). Only after pepsin digestion, in vitro digestibility of HPIs was comparable to that of SPI, however after pepsin plus trypsin digestion, the digestibility (88–91%) was significantly higher than that (71%) of SPI (P
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Samples of legume seeds, cereals and cereal by-products (n=113) grown in south-western Germany and originating from different cultivars and harvest years were analyzed for phytase activity, total phosphorus (P) and phytate P. Phytase activities determined by means of a direct incubation method were lowest in legume seeds and oats (262–496U/kg dry matter), intermediate in cereals (except oats) (2323–6016U/kg DM) and highest in cereal by-products (9241–9945U/kg DM). However, the application of an extraction procedure for the determination of phytase activities in legume seeds resulted in values below the detection limit of 50U/kg. On average, about 0.67 of total P in legume seeds, cereals and their by-products is bound to phytate. There was a significant influence (P
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In an attempt to develop healthy dietary adjuncts, soymilk was fermented simultaneously with Streptococcus thermophilus 14,085 and Bifidobacterium infantis 14,603 at 37 °C for 24 h. It was found that lactic fermentation reduced the content of saponins and phytates, which possess antinutritional activity, and enhanced the total phenolic content as well as antitumor cell proliferation effect of soymilk against HT-29 and Caco-2 cells. The original antitumor cell component, starter organisms, and antitumor cell bioactive principles formed in soymilk during fermentation, might all have contributed to the enhanced antitumor activity of fermented soymilk. The antiproliferative effect of the extracts varied with extraction solvent. Extracts obtained from fermented soymilk with 80% methanol exhibited the highest suppression effect on the proliferation of HT-29 and Caco-2 cells. This study further stresses the potential of developing soymilk as a healthy dietary adjunct possessing enhanced anticancer activity through the use of lactic fermentation.
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Several parameters of the vanillin assay were examined to determine which must be most closely controlled to ensure accuracy and reproducibility. A 20-min extraction in methanol was found to be adequate. When corrected for background color, the modified vanillin assay was found to give nearly identical values with those obtained with the regular vanillin assay, except with group II sorghum. The reactions of tannin and catechin, the usual standard, with vanillin were found to differ markedly in reaction kinetics. Assays of purified tannin showed that use of catechin equivalents overestimates tannin content The assay was found to be extremely temperature dependent. Revised procedures for the vanillin assay are presented which give excellent reproducibility.
Article
Lupine has the potential to be a new domestic source of vegetable protein due to its comparable quality to the commonly used soy proteins. However, the bioprocessing that take place in the production of wheat bread with non-conventional flours could play an important role. The wholemeal Lupinus angustifolius and Lupinus luteus flours were fermented by bacteriocin-producing strain of Pediococcus acidilactici. The effect of lupine flour supplementation on wheat bread quality, sensory and safety criteria was studied. The lupine additives significantly decreased the quality of bread. The fermented L. luteus flour (10% of flour basis) had a slightly higher positive effect on the specific volume and crumb porosity (5.4%) and lowering of crumb hardness (9.5%) than those of L. angustifolius. In contrary, consumers rated higher for bread with L. angustifolius sourdough, which contributed to a stronger taste score. The levels of tyramine, histamine and putrescine (32.6–215.8, 20.8–96.7 and 33.7–195.2 mg kg−1, respectively) do not present a health risk for consumers due to their relatively low levels in lupine fermented products. Bioprocessing used for wheat bread production with lupine flour additives could improve the nutritional profile of bread without increasing the risk of biogenic amine formation.
Article
Genetic diversity of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis strains isolated from naturally fermented sourdoughs of different origin was evaluated by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Computer-assisted comparison of the RAPD patterns revealed a clear separation of L. sanfranciscensis from other obligately heterofermentative Lactobacillus species closely related or normally present in sourdough. Six clusters, five of them constituted by strains of the same origin, were recognized at a similarity level of 63%. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) results on strains chosen as representative were generally in good agreement with the grouping obtained by RAPD. Both techniques showed a high degree of discriminatory power and indicated the existence of a remarkable genetic polymorphism within the species. Furthermore, the chromosome size of L. sanfranciscensis was estimated by PFGE to be about 1.4 Mb.
Article
The seed of Cannabis sativa L. has been an important source of nutrition for thousands of years in Old World cultures. Non-drug varieties of Cannabis, commonly referred to as hemp, have not been studied extensively for their nutritional potential in recent years, nor has hempseed been utilized to any great extent by the industrial processes and food markets that have developed during the 20th century. Technically a nut, hempseed typically contains over 30% oil and about 25% protein, with considerable amounts of dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. Hempseed oil is over 80% in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and is an exceptionally rich source of the two essential fatty acids (EFAs) linoleic acid (18:2 omega-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 omega-3). The omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (n6/n3) in hempseed oil is normally between 2:1 and 3:1, which is considered to be optimal for human health. In addition, the biological metabolites of the two EFAs, gamma-linolenic acid (18:3 omega-6; GLA) and stearidonic acid (18:4 omega-3; SDA), are also present in hempseed oil. The two main proteins in hempseed are edestin and albumin. Both of these high-quality storage proteins are easily digested and contain nutritionally significant amounts of all essential amino acids. In addition, hempseed has exceptionally high levels of the amino acid arginine. Hempseed has been used to treat various disorders for thousands of years in traditional oriental medicine. Recent clinical trials have identified hempseed oil as a functional food, and animal feeding studies demonstrate the long-standing utility of hempseed as an important food resource.
Article
Lactic acid bacteria strains were identified from wheat germ by 16S rRNA partial sequencing, subjected to RAPD-PCR typing and screened. Lactobacillus plantarum LB1 and Lactobacillus rossiae LB5 were used as starters to produce sourdough fermented wheat germ (SFWG). The chemical and nutritional characteristics of SFWG were compared to those of the raw wheat germ (RWG). Lipase activity in SFWG was ca. 2.6-fold lower than that found in RWG. As shown by SPME/GC/MS analysis, most of the volatile compounds derived from lipid oxidation during storage (40 days) were at markedly lower levels in SFWG compared to RWG. Fermentation of wheat germ increased of ca. 50% the concentration of free amino acids. Glu markedly decreased in SFWG, due to its conversion in GABA. The concentration of the anti-nutritional factor raffinose also decreased in SFWG. The in vitro protein digestibility, the concentration of total phenols, phytase and antioxidant activities were increased by fermentation.
Article
The degradation of the cereal proteins in wheat and rye sourdough fermentations strongly affects the quality of bread. Acidification and the reduction of disulfide bonds of gluten by heterofermentative lactobacilli increase the activity of cereal proteases and substrate accessibility; amino acids are accumulated by strain-specific intracellular peptidases of lactobacilli. Germinated cereals or other proteases enable an extensive degradation of proteins in sourdoughs in fermentation protocols that may be used to develop new products for individuals with gluten intolerance. The increased knowledge on proteolysis in sourdoughs enables a directed optimization of fermentation to improve bread quality.
Article
Cereals, legumes, and tubers that are used for the production of fermented foods may contain significant amounts of antinutritional or toxic components such as phytates, tannins, cyanogenic glycosides, oxalates, saponins, lectins, and inhibitors of enzymes such as alpha-amylase, trypsin, and chymotrypsin. These substances reduce the nutritional value of foods by interfering with the mineral bioavailability and digestibility of proteins and carbohydrates. In natural or pure mixed-culture fermentations of plant foods by yeasts, molds, and bacteria, antinutritional components (e.g. phytate in whole wheat breads) can be reduced by up to 50%; toxic components, such as lectins in tempe and other fermented foods made from beans, can be reduced up to 95%. These reductions in antinutritional and toxic components in plant foods during fermentation are discussed.
Article
Autochthonous lactic acid bacteria from emmer flour were screened based on the kinetic of acidification and used to ferment beverages containing emmer flour, emmer gelatinized flour, and emmer malt at percentages ranging 5-30% (wt/wt). Preliminarily, the concentration of raw flour and malt was selected based on sensory analysis. Different protocols were set up for the manufacture of four different beverages which used Lactobacillus plantarum 6E as the starter. Emmer beverages were mainly differentiated based on the concentration of organic acids, carbohydrates, amino acids, dietary fibers, vitamins, antioxidant and phytase activities, and volatiles and sensory profiles. Wheat flour bread was used as the control to determine the hydrolysis index (HI=100), as an indirect estimation of the glycemic index. The beverage made with 30% (wt/wt) of gelatinized flour showed an HI of 56%, its viscosity was improved by using an EPS-producing strain and it allowed the survival of the potential probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus SP1 at cell density of ca. 5 × 10(8) cfu/ml throughout storage at 4 °C. Among the exploited biotechnological options, this latter beverage could be considered as a promising novel functional food.
Article
The macronutrient composition and the quality of protein of hemp seed and products derived from hemp seed grown in Western Canada were determined. Thirty samples of hemp products (minimum 500 g), including whole hemp seed, hemp seed meal from cold-press expelling, dehulled, or shelled, hemp seed and hemp seed hulls, were obtained from commercial sources. Proximate analysis, including crude protein (% CP), crude fat (% fat) and fiber, as well as full amino acid profiles, were determined for all samples. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) measurements, using a rat bioassay for protein digestibility and the FAO/WHO amino acid requirement of children (2-5 years of age) as reference, were conducted on subsets of hemp products. Mean (±SD) percentage CP and fat were 24.0(2.1) and 30.4(2.7) for whole hemp seed, 40.7(8.8) and 10.2(2.1) for hemp seed meal, and 35.9(3.6) and 46.7(5.0) for dehulled hemp seed. The percentage protein digestibility and PDCAAS values were 84.1-86.2 and 49-53% for whole hemp seed, 90.8-97.5 and 46-51% for hemp seed meal, and 83.5-92.1 and 63-66% for dehulled hemp seed. Lysine was the first limiting amino acid in all products. Removal of the hull fraction improved protein digestibility and the resultant PDCAAS value. The current results provide reference data in support of protein claims for hemp seed products and provide evidence that hemp proteins have a PDCAAS equal to or greater than certain grains, nuts, and some pulses.
Article
One hundred and three strains of lactic acid bacteria, isolated from various food ecosystems, were assayed for β-glucosidase activity toward p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside substrate. Lactobacillus plantarum DPPMA24W and DPPMASL33, Lactobacillus fermentum DPPMA114, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus DPPMAAZ1 showed the highest activities and were selected as the mixed starter to ferment various soy milk preparations, which mainly differed for chemical composition, protein dispersibility index, and size dimension. The soy milk made with organically farmed soybeans (OFS) was selected as the best preparation. All selected strains grew well in OFS soy milk, reaching almost the same values of cell density (ca. 8.5 log cfu/mL). After 96 h of fermentation with the selected mixed starter, OFS soy milk contained 57.0 μM daidzein, 140.3 μM genistein, 20.4 μM glycitein, and 37.3 μM equol. Fermented and nonfermented OFS soy milks were used for the in vitro assays on intestinal human Caco-2/TC7 cells. Fermented OFS soy milk markedly inhibited the inflammatory status of Caco-2/TC7 cells as induced by treatment with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) (1000 U/mL) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (100 ng/mL), maintained the integrity of the tight junctions, even if subjected to negative stimulation by IFN-γ, and markedly inhibited the synthesis of IL-8, after treatment with interleukin-1β (2 ng/mL). As shown by using chemical standards, these effects were due to the concomitant activities of isoflavone aglycones and, especially, equol, which were synthesized in the fermented OFS soy milk preparation.
Article
Lactobacillus plantarum C48 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis PU1, previously selected for the biosynthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), were used for sourdough fermentation of cereal, pseudo-cereal and leguminous flours. Chickpea, amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat were the flours most suitable to be enriched of GABA. The parameters of sourdough fermentation were optimized. Addition of 0.1mM pyridoxal phosphate, dough yield of 160, inoculum of 5 x 10(7)CFU/g of starter bacteria and fermentation for 24h at 30 degrees C were found to be the optimal conditions. A blend of buckwheat, amaranth, chickpea and quinoa flours (ratio 1:1:5.3:1) was selected and fermented with baker's yeast (non-conventional flour bread, NCB) or with Lb. plantarum C48 sourdough (non-conventional flour sourdough bread, NCSB) and compared to baker's yeast started wheat flour bread (WFB). NCSB had the highest concentration of free amino acids and GABA (ca. 4467 and 504 mg/kg, respectively). The concentration of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of NCSB bread was the highest, as well as the rate of in vitro starch hydrolysis was the lowest. Texture analysis showed that sourdough fermentation enhances several characteristics of NCSB with respect to NCB, thus approaching the features of WFB. Sensory analysis showed that sourdough fermentation allowed to get good palatability and overall taste appreciation.
Article
This study aimed at characterizing the lactic acid bacteria microbiota and selecting mixed endogenous starters to be used for sourdough fermentation of spelt or emmer flours. Identification of lactic acid bacteria was carried out by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA, recA, 16S/23S rRNA spacer region and pheS genes. Spelt flour showed the largest biodiversity, while Lactobacillus plantarum dominated in emmer flour. Isolates were subjected to RAPD-PCR analysis and screened based on the kinetics of growth and acidification, quotient of fermentation and liberation of free amino acids (FAA) during sourdough fermentation. After selection, mixed starters were used according to a two-step fermentation process. Wheat flour was fermented by the same starters. Spelt and emmer sourdoughs had slightly higher pH than wheat sourdoughs but titratable acidity, concentration of FAA and phytase activity were higher. Specific volume and crumb grain of emmer and, especially, spelt breads approached those of wheat breads. Sensory analysis confirmed the suitability of spelt and emmer for bread making. The sourdough biotechnology was indispensable to completely exploit the potential of spelt and emmer flours. Results filled up the lack of knowledge on the lactic acid bacteria microbiota and technological performances of spelt and emmer flours.