Article

Regional Differences in Intelligence in 22 Countries and their Economic, Social and Demographic Correlates: A Review

Authors:
  • Ulster Institute for Social Research
  • Ulster Institute for Social Research
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Abstract

Differences in intelligence have previously been found to be related to a wide range of inter-individual and international social outcomes. There is evidence indicating that intelligence differences are also related to different regional outcomes within nations. A quantitative and narrative review is provided for twenty-two countries (number of regions in parentheses): Argentina (24 to 437), Brazil (27 to 31), British Isles (12 to 392), to 79), Spain (15 to 48), Switzerland (47), Turkey (12), the USA (30 to 3100), and Vietnam (61). Between regions, intelligence is significantly associated with a wide range of economic, social, and demographic phenomena, including income (r unweighted = .56), educational attainment (r unweighted = .59), health (r unweighted = .49), general socioeconomic status (r unweighted = .55), and negatively with fertility (r unweighted = −.51) and crime (r unweighted = −.20). Proposed causal models for these differences are noted. It is concluded that regional differences in intelligence within nations warrant further focus; methodological concerns that need to be addressed in future research are detailed.

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... Although aggregate cognitive scores are potent predictors of important social, economic, and political outcomes [11] , consensus about why these relationships exist and for why cognitive ability varies across geography has been lacking. Notably, a recently conducted survey of researchers in this area revealed belief in several potential causes for aggregate cognitive variation including differ-ences in education (both quantity and quality), genetics, health, and wealth [12] . ...
... 43) which need to be accounted for. Indeed, in their review, Lynn et al. [11] reported that 12 of 15 countries exhibited a positive association between absolute latitude and cognitive ability. These intra-country cognitive clines in latitude mirror an international one [14] . ...
... For example, U.S. state-level results may not match U.S. county-level results [41] . For this reason, in their review of regional dif-ferences in intelligence, Lynn et al. [11] urged authors to examine data at multiple levels in order to ensure robustness. ...
Conference Paper
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Using a sample of ~3,100 U.S. counties, we tested geoclimatic explanations for why cognitive ability varies across geography. These models posit that geoclimatic factors will strongly predict cognitive ability across geography, even when a variety of common controls appear in the regression equations. Our results generally do not support UV radiation (UVR) based or other geoclimatic models. Specifically, although UVR alone predicted cognitive ability at the U.S. county-level (β = -.33), its validity was markedly reduced in the presence of climatic and demographic covariates (β = -.16), and was reduced even further with a spatial lag (β = -.10). For climate models, average temperature remained a significant predictor in the regression equation containing a spatial lag (β = .35). However, the effect was in the wrong direction relative to typical cold weather hypotheses. Moreover, when we ran the analyses separately by race/ethnicity, no consistent pattern appeared in the models containing the spatial lag. Analyses of gap sizes across counties were also generally inconsistent with predictions from the UVR model. Instead, results seemed to provide support for compositional models.
... In line with Lynn et al. (2018), we sought to include at least one measure for each of the following important socioeconomic outcomes: 1) economic performance, 2) education, 3) health, 4) crime, 5) fertility, and 6) general socioeconomic performance (S factor). We were able to find (usually multiple) measures of all these variables except crime. ...
... 2017) practice of using factor analysis to extract a single factor from our diverse set of variables. 2 Second, based on Pesta et al. (2010) we implemented a two-stage / higher-order grouping of variables by type into the categories proposed by Lynn et al. (2018;economics, education, health, crime, fertility) except that we did not include crime. We then aggregated the categories into a single, global index of S. The advantage of this procedure is that it forces equal importance to each of the different subscales in the analysis (see also Kirkegaard, 2016c). ...
... Such an analysis would be similar to previous studies of the United States' counties (2 nd level; Kirkegaard, 2016b), the districts of Peru (3 rd level; León & Avilés, 2016), and the local authorities of the United Kingdom (2 nd level; Carl, 2016). See Lynn et al. (2018) for further discussion of the benefits of examining data at multiple levels. ...
Article
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We compiled cognitive, ethnic, and socioeconomic data for the 63 provinces of Vietnam. The cognitive data came from math and reading achievement tests administered to 70,000 fifth-graders in 2001 (World Bank, 2004). Ethnic and socioeconomic data were coded from various official sources (e.g., The General Statistics Office of Vietnam). Analysis of the socioeconomic data revealed a general factor (S) that was robust to variations in extraction method and controls. The average cognitive ability of the provinces correlated .47 with the S factor. The strongest predictor of S, however, was ethnicity. Specifically, the percent of Vietnamese (Kinh) within each province correlated .74 with S. Moreover, this effect was not mediated by cognitive ability. The lack of mediation is inconsistent with results from earlier studies that examined relations between ethnicity, cognitive ability, and socioeconomic outcomes (see, e.g., Fuerst & Kirkegaard, 2016). Also inconsistent with prior studies, although latitude correlated positively with cognitive ability, it did so inversely with the S factor. We discuss several potential hypotheses for why these discrepant effects occurred.
... In diesem Kommentar zum Artikel "Intelligenzdiagnostik bei überwiegend Nicht-EU-Migrantinnen und -Migranten" (Klauk, 2019) Greenfield, 1997;Nisbett et al., 2012;Sternberg, 2018), noch bezüglich Migration und kognitiven Fähigkeiten (Lynn, Fuerst & Kirkegaard, 2018;Van de Vijver, 1997;Whitaker, 2018). Eine di erenzierte Darstellung der kontroversen Au assungen in diesem Bereich hätten es Leserinnen und Lesern, die mit dieser Diskussion nicht vertraut sind, ermöglicht, die Ergebnisse der vorgestellten Studie besser einschätzen zu können. ...
... Erklärungsansätze für Unterschiede in der Leistungsfähigkeit von Personen aus unterschiedlichen Ländern, die nicht nur auf genetische Erklärungsmodelle zurückgreifen, existieren in der kulturübergreifenden Diagnostik schon seit Langem (Lynn et al., 2018;Van de Vijver, 1997) und sie hätten eine kritische Diskussion der Ergebnisse sehr aufgewertet. Die unterschiedlichen Ergebnisse von Personen auf Basis der Annahme der Kulturunabhängigkeit des Messinstruments direkt, zumindest teilweise, biologischen Unterschieden zuzuschreiben, entspricht in keiner Weise dem Stand der Forschung (u. ...
... Bei der Formulierung der Hypothesen wurde auf zwei Arbeiten zurückgegri en (Lynn & Vanhanen, 2002;Rindermann & Thompson, 2016), ohne sie im Kontext des kontroversen wissenscha lichen Diskurses darzustellen (u. a. Barber, 2005;Greenfield, 1997;Lynn et al., 2018;Neisser et al. 1996;Nisbett et al., 2012;Sternberg, 2018 ...
Article
Die in Deutschland grundgesetzlich geschützte Freiheit von Forschung und Lehre ist auch mit einer entsprechenden Verantwortung für die Forschenden verbunden. In diesem Kommentar zum Artikel „Intelligenzdiagnostik bei überwiegend Nicht-EU-Migrantinnen und -Migranten“ (Klauk, 2019) werden drei Ebenen verantwortungsvoller psychologischer Forschung näher betrachtet: die theoretische, die methodische und die ethische. Die Diskussion der Defizite des Artikels von Klauk (2019) auf diesen Ebenen soll sowohl dazu beitragen, die Ergebnisse des Artikels besser einordnen zu können, als auch die Aufmerksamkeit darauf lenken, diese Punkte ausreichend in der wissenschaftlichen Begutachtung zu berücksichtigen.
... A considerable amount of scholarship has found that there are regional differences in intelligence within nations and that regions with lower average scores on IQ tests have lower levels of socioeconomic development (Lynn, Fuerst, & Kirkegaard, 2018). This has been established in regions of the UK (e.g., Carl, 2016b;Lynn, 1979), France (Lynn, 1980), Italy (e.g. ...
Article
We administered the SPM to a sample of 1614 pupils aged between 9 and 18 in 2018 in the Dhofar region of Oman. Our results were compared to a previous administration of the SPM to 5139 pupils aged 9 to 18 in the capital region of Muscat which took place in 2001. We found that the IQ of Muscat in 2001 is substantially higher than the IQ of Dhofar is 17 years later. As there are only a small number of studies on the mean IQ in Oman, we did not apply a Flynn-effect correction. It is found that these regional IQ differences are paralleled by regional differences on many correlates of IQ such as life expectancy and years spent in schooling. We suggest three key factors as likely explaining the difference in IQ: poorer conditions in Dhofar, the association between intelligence and urban migration, and the effects of the Dhofar Rebellion. Other possible explanations are also examined.
... Despite the challenges associated with cross-cultural assessment, many resources are available to help guide clinicians in the use of multicultural frameworks and understanding which factors may be more relevant than others (Dana, 2005;Hays, 2016;Ridley, Tracy, Pruitt-Stephens, Wimsatt, & Beard, 2008). Overall, education is a key sociodemographic variable that contributes to neuropsychological performance and normative data differences (Lezak, Howieson, Bigler, & Tranel, 2012;Lynn, Fuerst, & Kirkegaard, 2018). Within Hispanic neuropsychology, substantial educational effects on neuropsychological test performance among English and Spanish-speaking individuals have been well documented in the literature (Abad, Sorrel, Roman, & Colomn, 2016;Acevedo et al., 2007;Ardila, 1998;Ardila, Ostrosky-Solis, Rosselli, & Gómez, 2000;Cavé, 2008;Pontón & Ardila, 1999;Renteria, Li, & Pliskin, 2008). ...
Article
Objective: Test and normative data selection in cross-cultural neuropsychology remain a complex issue. Despite growing awareness, more studies and instruments are needed to adequately address the impact of cultural factors, such as quantity and quality of education. In this study, we examine the interpretive effects of applying six relevant WAIS-IV norms to a Colombian sample. Method: A sample of 305 highly educated Colombian corporate executives completed the WAIS-IV. Data were scored using norms from Colombia, Chile, Mexico, Spain, United States, and Canada and scores were compared using ANOVA. Additionally, a comparative sociodemographic framework was established to contextualize our sample to the standardization samples and populations of the six countries. Results: Colombian and Chilean norms yielded systematically similar FSIQ/Index scores (mean range = 117-121), while incrementally lower scores were found with norms from Mexico (-3-9 points), Spain (-3-11 points), USA (-8-13 points), and Canada (-11-18 points). Verbal scores differed, with highest scores obtained with Mexican and Spanish norms. Working memory and processing speed scores had the lowest score agreement across norms. Conclusions: Although the Chilean norms are more frequently used in Colombia, the recently developed Colombian norms appear optimal for our sample; the scores do not have meaningful differences with those obtained with Chilean norms and offer local population representation fidelity. Mexican, Spanish, US, and Canadian norms underestimated WAIS-IV scores and distorted the sample's score distribution. Finally, verbal scores highlight potential education representation within Spanish and Mexican norms, while working memory and processing speed scores suggest cultural nuances likely captured within different norms.
... Mackintosh, 2011). Intelligence differences are also related to different regional outcomes within nations (Lynn et al., 2018). For example, Lynn & Yadav (2015) proposed that IQ differences between Indian states were due to educational differences resulting from regional differences in prosperity. ...
... Participants have to look across the rows and then look down the columns to discover the rules that govern the presentation of the diverse figural elements and then use the rules to determine the missing element. In relation to the objective of this study, this test presents a series of advantages associated with the possibility of: 1) measuring inductive reasoning skills that are related to fluid intelligence (Gf), (Buckley, Seery, Canty, & Gumaelius, 2018;Shokri-Kojori & Krawczyk, 2018) through problems that involve visuospatial information processing (Waschl, Nettelbeck, & Burns, 2017); 2) using an instrument with widespread use across studies and countries that provides a reliable and valid psychometric measure for result comparison purposes (e. g., Lynn, Fuerst, & Kirkegaard, 2018); and 3) incorporating a type of task that can be less influenced by culture factors, although not exempt from cultural differences than tests where language is specifically involved (see Li, Abarbanell, Gleitman, & Papafragou, 2011). ...
Article
Given the correlation between poverty and belonging to certain ethnic groups found by previous studies, the present study intends to apply a statistical technique to analyze the differences in intelligence on the basics of Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices performance between indigenous children and non-indigenous children from poor rural populations when indigenous children are “treated” as (equated) non-indigenous children in terms of nutrition, maternal education and schooling. This cross-sectional study used the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition to construct a counterfactual with which to compare both groups, distinguishing between differences due to certain characteristics of the child and those differences that are unexplained by the previous differences. The present study was carried out with a sample N = 1804 of 1460 non-indigenous and 344 indigenous children, aged between 5 and 11 years, from poor rural environments in Mexico who participated and completed a reduced version of the Raven's test of intelligence. The results indicate that, when cognitive performance was equated by age and height of the child, education level of the head of the family, help in school work, and care at home, the observed differences in such performance without being equated was reduced.
... Differences in child performance on intelligence tests have also been reported by urban-rural location, both in developed countries (Alexopoulos, 1997;Wahlquist, 1927) and in developing ones (Castro & Rolleston, 2015, 2018. More generally, a comprehensive quantitative review of regional differences in intelligence by Lynn, Fuerst, and Kirkegaard (2018) shows these differences to be a feature, rather than an anomaly, of cognitive diversity in modern humans. ...
... In all published studies to date, cognitive ability correlates strongly with both overall well-being, and its various "subdomains". The latter include higher aggregate income and education, lower rates of crime and poor health, and even less religiosity (Lynn, Fuerst, & Kirkegaard, 2018). ...
... Measures of the overlapping constructs of cognitive ability, intelligence and school achievement are related to important outcomes at the subnational as well as the national level, which parallel the IQ correlates at the national level. Results from studies at the level of provinces or districts within many countries have been summarized by Lynn, Fuerst and Kirkegaard (2018). In addition to these geographical differences, it is also well established that in many cases different ethnic, racial, religious and social groups living in the same country differ in their average scores on cognitive tests; and as in the case of differences between countries, provinces and smaller geographical units, these cognitive differences between population groups are associated with social and economic differences (e.g., Lynn, 2006). ...
Article
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This paper compiles cognitive test results for children in Ethiopia, Andhra Pradesh (India), Peru and Vietnam from multiple rounds of the Young Lives study. In this international project, the same cognitive tests were administered to children of the same age under standardized conditions, allowing comparisons between countries and between social, ethnic, linguistic and religious groups within countries. Comparisons between countries on non-verbal tests show differences that closely resemble those that have been seen in earlier assessments of scholastic achievement and intelligence. Within each of the four countries there are significant differences between social, ethnic, linguistic and in some cases religious groups that are related to socioeconomic conditions. These results have implications for the management of inequalities that have either been present for a long time or that arise in developing countries during the process of modernization.
... -integral (generalized) assessment of socio-economic indicators' impact on demographic processes in countries and regions. A number of publications have established a strong correlation between demographic indicators and factors of economic development of territories, the development of social infrastructure, science and innovations, etc. [14][15][16][17][18][19], which as a whole confirms the hypotheses about the key impact of socioeconomic development on demographic processes. Some scientists prove indirect and ambiguous influence of economic development on the dynamics and structure of Russian regions' population [20]; ...
... As the world develops, more data should be released from countries allowing national IQ to be tested with large samples. However, regional levels of prosperity have consistently had a strong relationship with regional IQs (Fuerst & Kirkegaard, 2016;Lynn et al., 2018). Given that there are no sample biases for within-country studies, we should be skeptical to think that sample bias plays any substantial role in the high performance of national IQ to predict growth. ...
Article
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Since Lynn and Vanhanen's book IQ and the Wealth of Nations (2002), many publications have evidenced a relationship between national IQ and national prosperity. The strongest statistical case for this lies in Jones and Schneider's (2006) use of Bayesian model averaging to run thousands of regressions on GDP growth (1960-1996), using different combinations of explanatory variables. This generated a weighted average over many regressions to create estimates robust to the problem of model uncertainty. We replicate and extend Jones and Schneider's work with many new robustness tests, including new variables, different time periods, different priors and different estimates of average national intelligence. We find national IQ to be the "best predictor" of economic growth, with a higher average coefficient and average posterior inclusion probability than all other tested variables (over 67) in every test run. Our best estimates find a one point increase in IQ is associated with a 7.8% increase in GDP per capita, above Jones and Schneider's estimate of 6.1%. We tested the causality of national IQs using three different instrumental variables: cranial capacity, ancestry-adjusted UV radiation, and 19 th-century numeracy scores. We found little evidence for reverse causation, with only ancestry-adjusted UV radiation passing the Wu-Hausman test (p < .05) when the logarithm of GDP per capita in 1960 was used as the only control variable.
... Similarly, the two estimates of social status correlated strongly with each other (r = .60). Regional ancestry has been statistically linked to cognitive ability numerous times Lynn et al., 2018). The only ancestry that shows a beyond chance level relationship to any of the social status or cognitive ability measures was Mapuche ancestry which showed a -.75 correlation with HDI, but not much with the other two variables. ...
Article
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We investigated how genetically measured ancestry relates to social status in Chile. Our study is based on a dataset of 1,805 subjects previously analyzed in another study. Ancestry was measured using genetic analysis based on microarray data. Overall we find that compared to European ancestry (44%), the Amerindian ancestries Mapuche (central Chile, 36%) and Aymara (northern, 17%) both predict lower social status (standardized betas =-1.77 and-0.97, p's < .001). The amount of African ancestry was relatively minor in this sample (3%), but tentatively was associated with lower social status (beta =-2.15, p = .03). These differences held controlling for age, gender, and region of residence. Our analyses of the regional-level data (n=13) did not produce any findings. The sample size is probably too small and coarse-grained for this analysis to be viable.
... Throughout the course of history, genetic ideologies have been used to justify a number of aberrations: discouraging the abolition of slavery (Evrie, 1868), resisting desegregation (Mayo, 1913), restricting immigration (Brigham, 1922), enforcing involuntary sterilization (Buck v. Bell, 1927) and validating socioeconomic (Galton, 1869) and racial inequalities (Shockley, 1972) while reinforcing White supremacist beliefs. The use of genetic language to describe racial and socioeconomic differences in cognitive ability was commonplace in the 19th (Galton, 1869;Hunt, 1864) and early 20th centuries (Jenkins, 1939;Jensen, 1968Jensen, , 1970Shockley, 1971); it continues today in the 21st (Carl, 2018;Lynn et al., 2018;Piffer, 2015). ...
Article
Behavioural genetics regards intelligence and educational attainment as highly heritable (genetically influenced) and polygenic (influenced by many genes) traits. Researchers in the field have moved beyond identifying whether and how much genes influence a given outcome to trying to pinpoint the genetic markers that help predict them. In more recent years, behavioural genetics research has attempted to cross-over into the field of education, looking to play a role in education research and the construction of education policy. In response to these developments, this paper explores PreK-12 American educators’ perceptions of intelligence in relation to genetics and their views on the relevance of behavioural genetics findings for education. It does so within the context of an ugly history tied to race and racism and an uncertain future. Findings from this mixed-methods study suggest that US teachers believe that genetics play an important role in a student’s intelligence and academic achievement. Furthermore, teachers are open to learning more about the inclusion of genetics research in education policy. At the same time, however, teachers believe that the environment, and in particular parents and a child’s home environment, plays a substantial role in a student’s abilities and education outcomes.
... The inherent individual differences in cognition (Deary, Penke, & Johnson, 2010), and known implications those differences have for social outcomes (i.e., educational attainment, job performance, and mortality; Deary, Weiss, & Batty, 2010;Lynn, Fuerst, & Kirkegaard, 2018), have motivated sustained study of the relationship between inter-individual structural and cognitive variability in typically-developing populations (Kanai & Rees, 2011). Results are some-what mixed, but generally support a distributed, directionally-positive model of cognition and structure in health, with increases in cognitive abilities correlated with increases in both total brain volume (TBV) (Cox, Ritchie, Fawns-Ritchie, Tucker-Drob, & Deary, 2019;Mcdaniel, 2005;Pietschnig, Penke, Wicherts, Zeiler, & Voracek, 2015) and regional gray matter volume (GMV) (Basten, Hilger, & Fiebach, 2015;Jung & Haier, 2007). ...
Article
Sex chromosome aneuploidy (SCA) increases the risk for cognitive deficits, and confers changes in regional cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA). Neuroanatomical correlates of inter‐individual variation in cognitive ability have been described in health, but are not well‐characterized in SCA. Here, we modeled relationships between general cognitive ability (estimated using full‐scale IQ [FSIQ] from Wechsler scales) and regional estimates of SA and CT (from structural MRI scans) in both aneuploid (28 XXX, 55 XXY, 22 XYY, 19 XXYY) and typically‐developing euploid (79 XX, 85 XY) individuals. Results indicated widespread decoupling of normative anatomical–cognitive relationships in SCA: we found five regions where SCA significantly altered SA–FSIQ relationships, and five regions where SCA significantly altered CT–FSIQ relationships. The majority of areas were characterized by the presence of positive anatomy‐IQ relationships in health, but no or slightly negative anatomy‐IQ relationships in SCA. Disrupted anatomical–cognitive relationships generalized from the full cohort to karyotypically defined subcohorts (i.e., XX‐XXX; XY‐XYY; XY‐XXY), demonstrating continuity across multiple supernumerary SCA conditions. As the first direct evidence of altered regional neuroanatomical–cognitive relationships in supernumerary SCA, our findings shed light on potential genetic and structural correlates of the cognitive phenotype in SCA, and may have implications for other neurogenetic disorders.
... The students' outcomes in education are positively associated with a wide range of economic, social, and demographic phenomena, including educational attainment, intellectual achievement, income, and socio-economic status. Studies have found different regional outcomes in education within nations, pointing to IQ differences just attributed to regional differences in prosperity (Lynn, Fuerst, and Kirkegaard, 2018). Ex-ante, we would expect wealthier regions to be more efficient in educational attainment. ...
Article
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The purpose of this paper is twofold: To measure school technical efficiency and to identify the determinants of elementary school performance among Mexican states. Our panel data consist of 48,645 public elementary schools observed annually from 2009 to 2011, a period where subnational states administered most of the educational expenditure. We propose a two-stage analysis. In the first stage, the stochastic frontier analysis is used to calculate elementary schools’ technical efficiency. In the second stage, efficiency is regressed on school characteristics and environmental variables using panel data analysis while capturing state heterogeneity. We find that primary schools have important inputs under their control that affects educational outcomes. The principal’s non-teaching load, infrastructure, teaching experience, and expenditure per student all have a positive and significant effect on efficiency. As for state-level characteristics, we find that states’ primary school spending is not necessarily positively linked to efficiency. Finally, we observe that fragmentation and regionalization of teachers’ unions negatively affect efficiency in elementary public education.
... Additional evidence comes from a home visiting intervention that provided learning opportunities for children in Jamaica who were stunted, resulting in signi cant gains in intelligence and school performance through adolescence and increased earnings in adulthood (10). In addition to nutrition, intelligence is related to social class, exposure to cumulated adversities, parental nurturance, and educational and other learning opportunities (11). Programs and services based on nurturing care can facilitate growth and development throughout childhood and adolescence, as well as protect children from the negative consequences of early adversities. ...
... Uma revisão narrativa (Lynn et al., 2018) que investigou sobre as diferenças regionais em inteligência em 22 países (Brasil entre os países estudados) e seus aspectos sociais, econômicos e demográficos demonstrou que há consistência entre esses países em relação aos aspectos já citados. Uma das relações que os autores encontraram foi que em todos os países, os QI regionais foram positivamente correlacionados com a renda per capita medida como renda média, PIB ou alguma medida semelhante, demonstrando que a inteligência é um fator importante para a renda dos indivíduos. ...
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he main objective of this study is to discuss the possible comorbidity between the diagnoses of Intellectual Disability and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, as well as to identify how diagnoses are made. A systematic review was conducted, using the Prisma method, being conducted in the databases PubMed, LILACS, Scopus and ERIC. A total of 679 were identified and 11 of them met the inclusion criteria. The review of the 11 studies indicates that 7 articles directly discuss the relationship between diagnoses and 4 of them discuss diagnoses tangentially. Although some evidence suggests that ADHD is a comorbidity found in children with ID, there are still disagreements on this topic, as diagnostic manuals do not indicate as a possible comorbidity. Thus, it is suggested the importance of the clinical view about the symptoms of each Keywords: intellectual disability, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, functionality.
... Similarly, groups within a given country are known to differ in intelligence, and their relative social status mostly reflects these differences. This is true for geographic/regional differences, race/ethnic groups, and social status/class differences (Herrnstein & Murray, 1994;Lynn, 2008;Lynn, Fuerst & Kirkegaard, 2018). Previous research has shown that names, both first and last, are related to these social divisions (Clark, 2015;Fryer & Levitt, 2004;Fuerst, 2015;Kandt, Cheshire & Longley, 2016;Liddell & Lycett, 1998;Lopes, 2017;Monasterio, 2017). ...
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It is well established that general intelligence varies in the population and is causal for variation in later life outcomes, in particular for social status and education. We linked IQ-test scores from the Danish draft test (Børge Prien Prøven, BPP) to social status for a list of 265 relatively common names in Denmark (85% male). Intelligence at the level of first name was strongly related to social status, r = .64. Ten names in the dataset were non-western, Muslim names. These names averaged an IQ of 81 (range 76-87) compared with 98 for the western, mostly Danish ones. Nonwestern names were also lower in social status, with a mean SES score of 2.66 standard deviations below that of western names. Mediation analysis showed that 30% of this very large gap can be explained by the IQ gap. Reasons for this relatively low level of mediation are discussed.
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The relationship between PISA 2012 maths test scores and relative poverty was tested in a sample of 35 Italian and Spanish regions, together with a larger sample that included Australian, Belgian, and Canadian regions. The correlation between mean scores in mathematics, adjusted for students' socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds, and poverty rates is ‐−0.84 for the Italian and Spanish sample, and −0.68 for the complete sample. In the regressions, the effect of relative poverty on mean scores in mathematics is highly significant (p < 0.01), robust to different specifications, and independent from students' backgrounds and regional development levels. It is proposed that disparities in average scores in mathematics across regions depend on the shares of low-performing students which, in turn, depend on the degree of relative poverty within regions. The implications for the thesis according to which, in Italy and Spain, regional disparities in educational achievements reflect genetic differences in the IQ of populations are discussed.
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Background Sufficient sleep during childhood is important for cognitive functions such as learning and successful school performance. This study aimed to investigate the effects of sleep duration on the intelligence quotient (IQ) of 6-year-old children and aimed to analyze whether these effects differed by sex.Methods The IQ of 538 6-year-old Korean participants from the cohort study, “The Environment and Development of Children,” was measured during follow-up using the Korean Educational Developmental Institute’s Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. The total, verbal, and performance IQ scores were evaluated. The relationship between sleep duration and IQ scores after adjusting for maternal age, maternal educational level, maternal occupation, maternal IQ, exposure to secondhand smoking, gestational age, and monthly age and birth season was also assessed.ResultsLonger sleep duration was significantly associated with improved verbal IQ measures (β 0.55; p value 0.030). After stratifying participants by sex, a significant association was observed between sleep duration and total, verbal, and performance IQ scores in boys (total IQ 2.49, p value 0.012; verbal IQ 0.75, p value: 0.037; performance IQ 0.73, p value 0.048), but not in girls.Conclusions The results indicated that only boys show a significant association between IQ scores and sleep duration. These findings support the hypothesis that sleep duration is associated with IQ, in a sex dependent manner. Future studies are needed for a thorough evaluation of the connection between sleep duration and health outcome in young children.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine the role of innovations in provision of competitiveness and innovational development of economy and overcoming of “underdevelopment whirlpools” in Russia and countries of Eastern Europe with the help of a special proprietary methodology. Design/methodology/approach The authors substantiate the concept and methodology of calculation of “underdevelopment whirlpools”, perform the analysis of development of “underdevelopment whirlpools” in Russia and countries of Eastern Europe and evaluate the influence of “underdevelopment whirlpools” on competitiveness of these countries’ economy. Findings The authors determine the perspectives of overcoming the “underdevelopment whirlpools” in Russia and countries of Eastern Europe and increasing their competitiveness with the help of innovation and develops practical recommendations for creation of innovational economy for the purpose of provision of high competitiveness and overcoming of “underdevelopment whirlpools” in Russia and countries of Eastern Europe and overcoming of strong and growing differentiation of the level of socio-economic development of their sub-systems. Practical implications Creation of innovational economy in Russia and countries of Eastern Europe is hindered by multiple obstacles (socio-economic and institutional), the success of overcoming of which determines the realization of a certain scenario of development of events. Originality/value The main conclusion is that creation of innovational economy can and should become a new vector of economic growth in Russia and countries of Eastern Europe and overcoming of strong and growing differentiation of the level of socio-economic development of their sub-systems.
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Fuerst and Kirkegaard (this issue) showed in various American countries that European ancestry positively determines cognitive ability and socioeconomic outcomes regardless of the effects of infectious diseases and other variables. In this paper I show that this is not the case in the United States of America when saturated path analysis models which minimize multicollinearity are applied to state data. It is latitude which positively determines cognitive ability and this in turn positively determines income per capita regardless of race and infectious disease rate. U.S. Census self-classification as White has non-significant effects on cognitive ability and has negative effects on income per capita among U.S. states once relevant variables are controlled. Similar results are obtained when the Eugenomic variable of Fuerst and Kirkegaard is targeted in the path analyses. Thus, the evidence does not uphold their conclusion that European ancestry explains differences in cognitive ability among U.S. states.
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This study reports data for the intelligence of 15 year olds in 42 provinces and cities of the Russian Federation assessed in the 2015 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and their economic, social and geographical correlates. It was found that the average PISA scores of the provinces and cities were significantly correlated with the scores on the Unified State Examination in 2014 (r =.53, p<.001) reported by Grigoriev et al. (2016), with literacy rates in 1897 (r =.50, p<.01), with the percentage of ethnic Russians in the population, and with latitude and longitude showing that PISA scores were higher in the more northerly and westerly provinces.
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Previously, we looked at the association between overall state-level biogeographic ancestry (BGA) and overall state-level outcomes. It was found that European BGA relative to African and Amerindian BGA was associated with better outcomes. In this paper, the analysis is extended by looking at the state-level ancestry-outcome associations individually for black and Hispanic self-identified race-ethnicity (SIRE) groups. General socioeconomic factor (S) scores were calculated for US states by SIRE groups based on three indicators. The S factor loadings were generally stable across subgroup analyses and the factor scores were stable across factor analytic extraction methods (for the latter, almost all r's ≈ 1). For Whites, Blacks and Hispanics, there were strong correlations between cognitive ability scores and S factor scores across states (r = .55 to .78; N = 28-50). This pattern also held when all data were analyzed together (r = .86, N = 115). Furthermore, the size of the Hispanic-White and Black-White S and cognitive ability gaps strongly correlated across states (r = .62 to .69; N = 36-37). Lastly, parasite prevalence did not plausibly explain SIRE gaps in cognitive ability because gaps were smaller in more parasite-rich states (combined analysis r = -.17, N = 91). We found that climatic and geospatial variables did not correlate strongly with cognitive ability and S scores when scores were decomposed by SIRE group, but did so at the total state level, even after statistically controlling for SIRE composition. Key words: Inequality, General socioeconomic factor, S factor, USA, States, Cognitive ability, Intelligence, NAEP, Race, SIRE, Biogeographic ancestry, Ecology
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Two datasets of Japanese socioeconomic data for Japanese prefectures (N=47) were obtained and merged. After quality control, there were 44 variables for use in a factor analysis. Indicator sampling reliability analysis revealed poor reliability (54% of the correlations were |r| > .50). Inspection of the factor loadings revealed no clear S factor with many indicators loading in opposite than expected directions. A cognitive ability measure was constructed from three scholastic ability measures (all loadings > .90). On first analysis, cognitive ability was not strongly related to 'S' factor scores, r = -.19 [CI95: -.45 to .19; N=47]. Jensen's method did not support the interpretation that the relationship is between latent 'S' and cognitive ability (r = -.15; N=44). Cognitive ability was nevertheless related to some socioeconomic indicators in expected ways. A reviewer suggested controlling for population size or population density. When this was done, a relatively clear S factor emerged. Using the best control method (log population density), indicator sampling reliability was high (93% |r|>.50). The scores were strongly related to cognitive ability r = .67 [CI95: .48 to .80]. Jensen's method supported the interpretation that cognitive ability was related to the S factor (r = .78) and not just to the non-general factor variance.
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We conducted novel analyses regarding the association between continental racial ancestry, cognitive ability and socioeconomic outcomes across 6 datasets: states of Mexico, states of the United States, states of Brazil, departments of Colombia, sovereign nations and all units together. We find that European ancestry is consistently and usually strongly positively correlated with cognitive ability and socioeconomic outcomes (mean r for cognitive ability = .708; for socioeconomic well-being = .643) (Sections 3-8). In most cases, including another ancestry component, in addition to European ancestry, did not increase predictive power (Section 9). At the national level, the association between European ancestry and outcomes was robust to controls for natural-environmental factors (Section 10). This was not always the case at the regional level (Section 18). It was found that genetic distance did not have predictive power independent of European ancestry (Section 10). Automatic modeling using best subset selection and lasso regression agreed in most cases that European ancestry was a non-redundant predictor (Section 11). Results were robust across 4 different ways of weighting the analyses (Section 12). It was found that the effect of European ancestry on socioeconomic outcomes was mostly mediated by cognitive ability (Section 13). We failed to find evidence of international colorism or culturalism (i.e., neither skin reflectance nor self-reported race/ethnicity showed incremental predictive ability once genomic ancestry had been taken into account) (Section 14). The association between European ancestry and cognitive outcomes was robust across a number of alternative measures of cognitive ability (Section 15). It was found that the general socioeconomic factor was not structurally different in the American sample as compared to the worldwide sample, thus justifying the use of that measure. Using Jensen's method of correlated vectors, it was found that the association between European ancestry and socioeconomic outcomes was stronger on more S factor loaded outcomes, r = .75 (Section 16). There was some evidence that tourist expenditure helped explain the relatively high socioeconomic performance of Caribbean states (Section 17).
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The authors reply to 6 comments on their target article on admixture in the Americas. Theoretical and methodological issues are clarified.
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A dataset of 30 diverse socioeconomic variables was collected covering 32 London boroughs. Factor analysis of the data revealed a general socioeconomic factor. This factor was strongly related to GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) scores (r's .683 to .786) and and had weak to medium sized negative relationships to demographic variables related to immigrants (r's -.295 to -.558). Jensen's method indicated that these relationships were related to the underlying general factor, especially for GCSE (coefficients |.48| to |.69|). In multiple regression, about 60% of the variance in S outcomes could be accounted for using GCSE and one variable related to immigrants.
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Two sets of socioeconomic data for 90-96 French departements were analyzed. One dataset was found in Lynn (1980) and contained four socioeconomic variables. Mixed results were found for this dataset, both with regards to the factor structure and the relationship to cognitive ability. Another dataset with 53 variables was created by compiling variables from the official French statistics bureau (Insee). This dataset contained an impure general socioeconomic (S) factor (some undesirable variables loaded positively), but after controlling for the presence of immigrants, the S factor became purer. This was especially salient for crime, unemployment and poverty variables. The two S factors correlated at r = 0.66 [CI95:0.52-0.76; N = 88]. The IQ scores from the 1950s dataset correlated at 0.33 [CI95:0.13-0.51, N = 88] with the S factor from the 2010-2015 dataset.
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Background: Cognitive ability tests are widely assumed to measure maximal intellectual performance and predictive associations between intelligence quotient (IQ) scores and later mental health problems. Very few epidemiologic studies have been done to demonstrate the relationship between familial inbreeding and modest cognitive impairments in children. Objective: We aimed to estimate the effect of inbreeding on children's cognitive behavior in comparison with non-inbred children. Methodology: A cohort of 408 children (6 to 15 years of age) was selected from inbred and non-inbred families of five Muslim populations of Jammu region. The Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC) was used to measure the verbal IQ (VIQ), performance IQ (PIQ) and full scale IQ (FSIQ). Family pedigrees were drawn to access the family history and children's inbred status in terms of coefficient of inbreeding (F). Results: We found significant decline in child cognitive abilities due to inbreeding and high frequency of mental retardation among offspring from inbred families. The mean differences (95% C.I.) were reported for the VIQ, being -22.00 (-24.82, -19.17), PIQ -26.92 (-29.96, -23.87) and FSIQ -24.47 (-27.35,-21.59) for inbred as compared to non-inbred children (p<0.001) [corrected].The higher risk of being mentally retarded was found to be more obvious among inbred categories corresponding to the degree of inbreeding and the same accounts least for non-inbred children (p<0.0001). We observed an increase in the difference in mean values for VIQ, PIQ and FSIQ with the increase of inbreeding coefficient and these were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). The regression analysis showed a fitness decline (depression) for VIQ (R2 = 0.436), PIQ (R2 = 0.468) and FSIQ (R2 = 0.464) with increasing inbreeding coefficients (p<0.01). Conclusions: Our comprehensive assessment provides the evidence for inbreeding depression on cognitive abilities among children.
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The north–south difference in Italy in PISA 2006 scores in reading comprehension, mathematical and science abilities of 15-year-olds has been attributed by Lynn (2010a) to a difference of approximately 10 IQ points in intelligence and by critics to differences in educational resources. New evidence for differences between north and south Italy in the PISA 2012 Creative Problem Solving test as a measure of fluid intelligence shows a 9.2 IQ point between the north–west and the south and confirms Lynn's theory. New data are presented for genetic differences between the populations of north and south Italy.
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Evolutionary psychologists attribute the superior IQs of light-skinned populations to genetic imprints left by millenary processes promoted by cold. But a novel theory that explains IQ gains observed across recent generations ascribes them to a latitude → UVB radiation → vitamin D3 → parents' sexual hormones → family size → child's intellectual environment → IQ chain of effects. Analyses of 506,347 Peruvian children's math and reading scores from a national census confirmed that complex cognitive ability increases with absolute latitude even under tropical megathermal climates and decreases with high altitude above sea level, birth rate and social development mediate most of the effects, and reading is more strongly influenced than math. The findings weaken the evolutionary cold hypothesis and strengthen the view that contraception has the potential to reduce latitudinal IQ gaps.
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The Flynn effect refers to the observed rise in IQ scores over time, which results in norms obsolescence. Although the Flynn effect is widely accepted, most efforts to estimate it have relied upon "scorecard" approaches that make estimates of its magnitude and error of measurement controversial and prevent determination of factors that moderate the Flynn effect across different IQ tests. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the magnitude of the Flynn effect with a higher degree of precision, to determine the error of measurement, and to assess the impact of several moderator variables on the mean effect size. Across 285 studies (N = 14,031) since 1951 with administrations of 2 intelligence tests with different normative bases, the meta-analytic mean was 2.31, 95% CI [1.99, 2.64], standard score points per decade. The mean effect size for 53 comparisons (N = 3,951, excluding 3 atypical studies that inflate the estimates) involving modern (since 1972) Stanford-Binet and Wechsler IQ tests (2.93, 95% CI [2.3, 3.5], IQ points per decade) was comparable to previous estimates of about 3 points per decade but was not consistent with the hypothesis that the Flynn effect is diminishing. For modern tests, study sample (larger increases for validation research samples vs. test standardization samples) and order of administration explained unique variance in the Flynn effect, but age and ability level were not significant moderators. These results supported previous estimates of the Flynn effect and its robustness across different age groups, measures, samples, and levels of performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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Background: Cognitive ability correlates with mortality risk, but confounding from childhood social class has been a persistent concern. While studies controlling for indicators of childhood social status report limited attenuation of coefficients, important parental and family factors are likely to vary substantially within social class. Methods: Norwegian administrative register data with high-quality intelligence scores measured at age 18-19 for the large majority of males in the 1962-1990 birth cohorts (n = 720,261) were used to assess the IQ-mortality gradient using progressively stronger controls for childhood social class in Cox proportional hazard and linear probability models. A family-fixed effects specification avoids confounding from any family or childhood characteristics fixed over time within families (e.g., childhood socio-economic status, parenting style, and neighborhood environment). Results: A large difference in mortality risk is evident across Norwegian males: We find that the mortality risk of the lowest ability bracket, relative to that of the median bracket, is 2.31 (Confidence Interval (CI): 2.12, 2.52, p. <. 0.0005), declining to 0.64 (CI: 0.56, 0.73, p. <. 0.0005) for the highest ability bracket. Estimated differences are similar in linear probability models with and without controls for birth year and parental SES, in Cox models with birth year and parental SES controls, and in a linear probability model with family-fixed effects. Conclusions: The IQ-mortality gradient is not due to confounding from family background or childhood SES. Higher IQ-scores are associated with substantially reduced mortality risk within a modern welfare-state setting, and the relationship was largely stable across a 30-year period.
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Jencks' (1972) classical study Inequality reported a correlation of 0.310 between IQ and income for men in the United States. The present study examines whether this result can be replicated in Britain. Data are reported for a national sample whose intelligence was obtained at the age of 8 years and whose income was obtained at the age 43 years. The correlations between IQ and income were 0.368 for men (n=1280) and 0.317 for women (n=1085).
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IQs are presented for fifteen regions of Spain showing a north-south gradient with IQs highest in the north and lowest in the south. The regional differences in IQ are significantly correlated with educational attainment, per capita income, literacy, employment and life expectancy, and are associated with the percentages of Near Eastern and North African genes in the population.
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Historical Understanding of the Problem Natural Selection in Preindustrial Societies The Breakdown of Natural Selection The Genetic Deterioration of Health Intelligence and Fertility Sibling Studies Intelligence and Fertility in the United States Intelligence and Fertility in Europe Resolving the Paradox of the Secular Rise of Intelligence Education and Fertility Socioeconomic Status and Fertility Socioeconomic Status Differences in Intelligence Socioeconomic Status Differences in Conscientiousness The Genetic Basis of Socioeconomic Status Differences in Conscientiousness Dysgenic Fertility for Conscientiousness Dysgenic Fertility in Economically Developing National Counterarguments and Rejoinders.
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Data are presented for intelligence in twelve regions in Turkey showing that intelligence is highest in the west and lowest in the east. The west–east intelligence gradient is significantly correlated with regional differences in educational attainment and per capita income and negatively correlated with fertility, infant mortality and the percentage of Kurds.
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Regional differences in cognitive ability are presented for 33 states and union territories of India. Ability was positively correlated with GDP per capita, literacy and life expectancy and negatively correlated with infant and child mortality, fertility and the percentage of Muslims. Ability was higher in the south than in the north and in states with a coast line than with those that were landlocked.
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Summary Immigration, immigration policies and education of immigrants alter competence levels. This study analysed their effects using PISA, TIMSS and PIRLS data (1995 to 2012, N=93 nations) for natives' and immigrants' competences, competence gaps and their population proportions. The mean gap is equivalent to 4.71 IQ points. There are large differences across countries in these gaps ranging from around +12 to -10 IQ points. Migrants' proportions grow roughly 4% per decade. The largest immigrant-based 'brain gains' are observed for Arabian oil-based economies, and the largest 'brain losses' for Central Europe. Regarding causes of native-immigrant gaps, language problems do not seem to explain them. However, English-speaking countries show an advantage. Acculturation within one generation and intermarriage usually reduce native-immigrant gaps (≅1 IQ point). National educational quality reduces gaps, especially school enrolment at a young age, the use of tests and school autonomy. A one standard deviation increase in school quality represents a closing of around 1 IQ point in the native-immigrant gap. A new Greenwich IQ estimation based on UK natives' cognitive ability mean is recommended. An analysis of the first adult OECD study PIAAC revealed that larger proportions of immigrants among adults reduce average competence levels and positive Flynn effects. The effects on economic development and suggestions for immigration and educational policy are discussed.
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Socioeconomic status and other socio-demographic factors have been associated with selective residential mobility across rural and urban areas, but the role of psychological characteristics in selective migration has been studied less. The current study used 16-year longitudinal data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) to examine whether cognitive ability assessed at age 15–23 predicted subsequent urban/rural migration between ages 15 and 39 (n = 11,481). Higher cognitive ability was associated with selective rural-to-urban migration (12 percentile points higher ability among those moving from rural areas to central cities compared to those staying in rural areas) but also with higher probability of moving away from central cities to suburban and rural areas (4 percentile points higher ability among those moving from central cities to suburban areas compared to those staying in central cities). The mobility patterns associated with cognitive ability were largely but not completely mediated by adult educational attainment and income. The findings suggest that selective migration contributes to differential flow of cognitive ability levels across urban and rural areas in the United States.
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This study estimates the effect of dysgenic trends in Taiwan by exploring the relationships among intelligence, education and fertility. Based on a representative adult sample, education and intelligence were negatively correlated with the number of children born. These correlations were stronger for females. The decline of genotypic intelligence was estimated as 0.82 to 1.33 IQ points per generation for the Taiwanese population.