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Installation of Solar Power System used for Street Lights and Schools in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MULTIDISCIPLINARY SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING, VOL. 6, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2015
[ISSN: 2045-7057] www.ijmse.org 13
Abstract The constant supply of energy on earth is solar energy
which is both directly and indirectly used. A part of sun rays can
be changed in to applicable electricity by means of an entrusting
technology Solar Photovoltaic (PV). This work emphasizes upon
the idea of conforming Solar PV panels and sunlight to depict
and operate solar system in different areas in Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa. The ultimate goal of the solar system will be to
enlighten the solar LED street lights, energy savers and tube
lights in streets and different schools. This type of solar system is
very cost effective in a way that it needs little expenditure
initially and less care.
Keywords Solar Panel, LED Lighting System, Pole, Batteries,
Charge Controller, Inverters and Cooling Box
I. INTRODUCTION
olar energy is the most demanding energy source due to
fact that it is the most abundant and most effective energy
source on earth. Solar energy is derived from sun, and this
energy is not only environment free but also costless. Latest
technology allows the harnessing of solar energy through cells
known as solar cells or photovoltaic cells. Photovoltaic cells
are placed in direct sunlight, when the direct sunlight hits
these cells chemical reaction takes place which produce
electric currents [1]. These electric currents are later on
converted into electricity which are used to power everyday
items like street lights, schools and households. In most of the
areas street lights in Pakistan receive electrical energy from
national grid, so we need to look for another alternative
source of electrical power which does not depend on national
grid.
For this purpose we use solar energy. LED based lightning
system is used which received charge from lead batteries
charged by solar panels [2]. Solar system and LED lightning
combination enables its interest in governing authorities to
lighten street lights and schools in remote areas without
setting up any external infrastructure in a meager traditional
way. Stand alone solar street lightning solutions are popular
and usually built with customized PV panels and design [3].
Solar energy systems are also used in schools for lightning
purpose, internet installing equipment and laptop charging.
This system includes photovoltaic cell, batteries and other
connectivity equipments [4]. Photovoltaic street lighting
systems are in three different lamps namely low pressure
sodium lamp, high pressure sodium lamp and fluorescent
lamp to determine suitable system in rural areas of the
country. The three different lamps are mounted in the same
unit and wattage in different areas. The analysis of PV
lightning systems with fluorescent lamp is suitable system for
installation in rural areas [5]. An experiment is conducted
using the PV panel to supply electricity in each building in the
schools like classrooms, guard house etc. Since we know that
energy especially electricity is the basic requirement for the
social and economic development of a country. Therefore, the
use of electricity is increasing day by day in every field or
department of a country e.g., industries and streets lights
require continuous and uninterrupted supply of electrical
energy [6], [7].
The main aim for installing solar systems was to promote
different solar energy projects in terms of photovoltaic
systems based on energy policy of the country. These projects
are supported by government budget, involves PV systems
such as pumping system, street lightning, school lightning,
solar home system (SHM) and board of faculty map [8].
Different energy sources like coal, oil and natural gas are
presented in the country in which the author pointed out that
these sources are limited in the country and if they are used at
the current rate it will finish quickly in the upcoming
decades [9]. The stand alone photovoltaic systems
sustainability passes through the complement of the systems
installed in the field. This stand alone PV system is implanted
by the research center in schools of isolated communities and
inside solar lightning program [10]. The need of electrical
energy is the crucial part of life and increase with each
passing day parallel to the developments in technology. But
the fact is that cost rises after meeting these needs and damage
was done to nature.
So energy is being obtained from clean energy sources such
as wind and solar energies [11]. Solar energy gives direct
solution for grid to cutoff some loads for stability. One of
these loads is street lightning, school lightning especially
during summer. This energy provide energy free system
where there 2 is less or no power from grid [12]. In this paper,
we present installation of solar system and its components for
Installation of Solar Power System used for
Street Lights and Schools in Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Iftikhar Javed Khan1, Yawar Hayat Khan1, Salman Rashid1, Javed Ali Khan2 and Mian Izaz ur Rehman2
1School of Information Technology, University of Lahore, Islamabad Campus, Islamabad, 4400, Pakistan
2Department of Software Engineering University of Science and Technology Bannu, 28100, Pakistan
engineer_iftikhar169@yahoo.com, hyyat303@ yahoo.com, reborn.engr@gmail.com, engr_javed501@ yahoo.com,
izazur.644@gmail.com
S
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streets and school lightning in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa,
Pakistan. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is one of the most rich in
resources in Pakistan and has the potential of different
renewable energy sources such as geothermal, wind, coal and
solar energy. Among all of this we consider solar energy as a
best option for continuous electricity due to fact of greater
radiations of sun in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It requires low
cost, simple maintenance and initial implementation cost.
Rest of the paper is organized as follows: Section II describes
the system model of the proposed design. Installation of solar
system is presented in Section III. In Section IV, budget
analysis is provided. Finally, the conclusion of the paper is
given in Section V.
II. SYSTEM MODEL
In this section, we present the basic components used in the
installation of our proposed solar system. Description of some
of the components like photovoltaic solar panels, batteries,
LED lightning, poles, charge controller and inverters etc.
A) Solar Panels
Solar panels are designed to absorb sun rays as a source of
energy for generating electricity and heating. It is also called
photovoltaic as it converts light energy directly into electrical
energy. Solar panel is made up of solar cells. A large number
of small solar cells are spreaded over a large surface area
which can work together for provision of sufficient power to
be used. Larger the amount of light that falls on a cell, larger
is the amount of electricity generated. Two forms of solar
panels are used to achieve electricity. The most common is
the solar electricity cells. Different design of solar panels
which are increasing in popularity are the solar water heating
panels which can provide all part of homes hot water supply,
heat swimming pools and for other purposes. Using solar
electricity panels some form of battery storage is attached to
the system.
This allows the storage of electricity produced through the
day which is used at night (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1. Solar Panels
B) LED Lights
The solar streets lights are light sources which are powered
by photovoltaic panels mounted on lightning structure or
integrated itself in the pole. The PV panels charge a
rechargeable battery which powers a fluorescent or LED lamp
during night. Led lights are usually used for lightning source
for modern solar light. These lights provide much higher
lumens with lower energy consumption. LED lights give
energy consumption up to 50 percent lower than high pressure
sodium lamp (HPS) which is widely used as lightning source
in traditional street lights. The LEDs lack of warm up time
also allows motion detectors for additional gain of efficiency.
LED lights are also used in schools for lightning in classroom
and examination hall (Fig. 2).
Fig. 2. LED Lights
C) Batteries
Batteries are the most important component in the
installation of solar system. Batteries store electricity from
solar panels during day time and deliver this energy to the
fixture during night. The life cycle of battery is very
important to the lifetime of light and capacity of battery will
affect the backup days of the lights. Two types of batteries are
usually used which are Gel Cell Deep Cycle battery and Lead
Acid Battery and many more. During charging time, electrical
energy is converted into chemical energy and stored in the
form of chemical energy and during discharging time the
chemical energy is converted into electrical energy.
The proper selection of batteries for PV systems depends
upon the best knowledge of their design features, operational
requirements and performance characteristics. Batteries are
manufacture by the combination of different sequential and
parallel processes. Conduction of charging and discharging
cycles on batteries are done necessarily before bringing them
to the market for distribution to consumers. Important
components of batteries are cells, active element, electrolyte,
grid plate, separator, terminal posts, cell events and
case (Fig. 3).
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Fig. 3. Batteries
D) Charge controller
A charge controller is an essential part of nearly all power
systems that charge batteries. It is also very important for
solar street lights and school lightning system. Controllers
usually decide to switch on/off charging and lights. The
function of charge controller is quite simple, it blocks the
reverse current and prevents battery from overcharging. Some
charge controllers also prevent battery from over discharge,
protect from electrical overload and display battery status and
power flow. The PV panels works by pumping electric current
to the battery in one direction. At night PV panels pass a little
bit current in the reverse direction, causing a slight discharge
from battery. The potential loss is minor but it can easily be
prevented. Different types of wind turbine and hydro
generators also draw reverse current when they are stop. In
most charge controllers current passes through
semiconductor, which acts like a valve to control current. This
is known as semiconductor because current passes only in one
direction. This prevents reverse current without any extra
effort or cost (Fig. 4).
Fig. 4. Charge Controller
E) Pole
Each street light contains its own photovoltaic panel,
independent from other street lights. Number of panels is
installed as a central power source on a separate location
which supplies power to number of street lights. Pole Lock is
designed for pole mounted solar panel framing system which
is a component of Sun Lock family of solar framing products.
Many types of frames are assessable for two small panels
i.e., 80 W and 85 W panels. They are also obtainable for one,
two, three or more larger panels i.e., for 250 W or more
(Fig. 5).
Fig. 5. Pole
F) Inverters
Solar inverter is the important component in solar energy
system. It converts DC output power into AC current which is
fed into grid and directly influences the reliability and
efficiency of solar energy system. Mostly 220v AC and 110v
AC are needed for power supply because direct output from
solar system is usually 12v DC, 24v DC or 48v DC. For this
purpose there is a need of DC-AC inverter in order to supply
power of 220v AC to electronic devices. Inverters are usually
rated by the amount of AC power that can supply
continuously.
The manufacturers provide 5 second and hour surge figures
which is able to give indication of how much power is
supplied by the inverters. Large number of inverters is used in
power application. They are also referred to as a voltage
source inverters (VSI). In grid interconnected PV power
system DC output power of photovoltaic array is converted
into AC power of the utility power system. Below this
condition an inverter convert DC power into AC power is
required. In solar panels, core technology is associated with
these systems is a power conditioning unit (inverter) which
convert solar output electricity attuned with the grid (Fig. 6).
Fig. 6. Inverters
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III. INSTALLATION OF SOLAR SYSTEM
In this section whole solar system for street lights and schools
are described. We mainly focus on our project constraints,
sizing array, battery array, cost of the projects, number of
poles used and site of system integration (Fig. 7).
A) Basic Requirement
This project gives cheap and easy power to street lights and
schools to different areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The
system requires low fixed cost, easily installed and reliable.
The project gives great idea to install street lights in such
areas where there is no light or less power.
Fig. 7. Block Diagram
B) Collecting Data
In this section we focus on total load for street lightning and
number of schools in different areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
This work presents an independent street lightning system
positioned on solar energy as a primary source and batteries
as a secondary source, lighting emitting diodes (LEDs) as a
lighting source. This system is also proposed for remote areas
like roads and cross roads. Furthermore, it is highly efficient
because all power stages are implemented in DC current. The
architecture of LEDs fixture, in order to compensate a 70 W
high pressure sodium (HPS) lamp, is performed. The solar
system for streets lights and schools improve the life style of
peoples, prevents robberies and literacy in these areas. We
visited different areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and collecting
data regarding total number of solar street lights poles and
number of schools. We finally summarized and calculated the
combine data of solar street lights pole and number of schools
in which solar system is installed.
Energy Calculations: In this section we shall calculate
generalized form of energy.
Total number of solar street poles = 25
One LED frame load = 12watt
One solar street pole wattage = 12watt
Total number of pole wattage = 25 *12 = 300watt
Daily solar LED energy units used at night 300*10 = 3kwhr
Where 10 is the total number of hours in which solar LED
is used.
Similarly if we calculate load for 1 week.
Solar LED energy units used in 1 week 300 * 70 = 21khwr
In the same way we can calculate the total load of school by
knowing the total number of lights and fan used in school.
C) Balance of System Design
It illustrates the basic design of our system which includes
mounting of solar street panels, wiring in system and system
equipment.
Solar panels array: The wiring of solar system is made in
such a way that solar system is separated from each street
light to provide power to huddle of street lights.
The PV array gives us the ability to sculpt unlimited solar
panels individually or in groups to connect them in series
or parallel combination to form solar array.
Poles directly mounted into the ground or fixed in
concrete.
Ground work mounts, such as concrete slabs or poured
footings.
Ballasted foot mounts i.e., concrete or steel based that use
weight to sheltered solar module system in position do
not required ground penetration.
Pole mounts which are directly attached to the roof
structure used additional rails for attaching frames or
module racking.
Wiring: Wiring of the system can be made by the position
of the components. The panels are placed parallel to the
ground and the wiring is done in such a way that could be
simple and easy to understand. The infrastructure like poles
and wiring are not replaced to lodge because the system has
no similar constraint as standalone system. The end result is
that the system can be intended as big as required with the
sufficient batteries and solar panels to supply enough power
to the LED lights. The batteries of the system are kept in a
cabinet where it is insulated to give maximum power
protection against heat. A monitoring device is equipped with
the system which alerts the authorities of any tampering or
removal of equipment from the system. Due to this device the
threat of theft will not eliminate but reduce time to caught
culprits red handed. The wiring and maintenance is done at
one point for several lights and combined with the monitoring
system. The maintenance is done on system from the central
computer.
IV. BUDGET ANALYSIS
In this section, we discussed the final execution of our
project which includes civil work combination, possession of
solar components and the total cost of the project. In start
large expenditure is needed for LED and PV solution,
however excavating work for power wires and energy
expenses are not useful. The extravagant sustainment work
can be lessen with the help of long LED lifetime causing
profit by LED over usual lighting. Several stages of our
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system installation occur. All the members of our team work
hard. We predict after purchasing LED lights, street light
pole, batteries, wiring, charge controller and system tools to
be purchased to the areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. While
completing our system components we shall calculate our
skilled workers per person labor charges. After all this, we
shall implement our solar street lights system. All these
system components are shifted to the site by road
transportation. Total cost is also shown in Table 1.
Table 1: Estimated total cost
S.
No
Name
Description
1
LED Solar power
street Light
KB7100
12W
2
solar street light
battery
12v 100ah
3
10A solar charge
controller
12V/24V auto
4
Solar power inverters
5kw 12v 220v
5
Solar street light pole
4m 12/watt
6
Electric high
temperature shield wire
5mm
7
LED poles installation
25 poles
8
Skilled workers
15 men
9
Final installation
-
10
Transportation
-
11
Total
-
V. CONCLUSION
In this paper, we install solar system and its components for
street lights and schools for different areas of Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa. The system we provide gives electricity to
street lights and schools to prevent accident, robberies and
safety at night remove educational literacy and improve
human life style. We also presented the complete analysis of
our project regarding initial cost, including LED lights, street
light poles, batteries, inverter, its installation and
transportation cost. Such solar system project requires low
initial cost, less maintenance and more economical.
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... We have analyzed bibliographic and internet data on the calculation of street lighting of various objects [14,16,19,20]. From the analysis [14] it is seen that for local lighting it is allowed to use incandescent lamps in luminaires with non-translucent reflectors in the following cases: -in the absence of requirements for the correct color rendering; -if necessary, a certain and variable direction of light and when it is technically impossible to install lighting devices with fluorescent lamps. ...
... Conduction of charging and discharging cycles on batteries is done necessarily before bringing them to the market for distribution to consumers. Important components of batteries are cells, active element, electrolyte, grid plate, separator, terminal posts, cell events, and case [16]. ...
... LED Lights[16] ...
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The sustainability of standalone photovoltaic systems passes through an accompaniment of the systems installed in the field. To subsidize this accompaniment procedures had been developed for monitoring a similar system in a laboratory. The standalone photovoltaic system implanted in the Research Center in Intelligent Energy of the Group of Studies in Energy-CPEI GREEN PUC Minas is similar to the systems installed by Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais-CEMIG in the schools of isolated communities, inside the solar light program. A simulation of the system was implemented and the aims were to optimize the project and carry out a comparative study with the monitoring results. The procedure for assembly of the monitoring facility consisted of the implantation of the voltage and current sensors, implantation of the irradiance and temperature sensors, installation of the acquisition boards and development of the monitoring program. The results presented here will allow the development of a program of preventive maintenance of the photovoltaic systems installed by CEMIG.
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