El presente informe (financiado por la JCCM y documento parte del proceso de participación pública previo a la declaración del Monumento Natural) es el resultado de un completo estudio cuyo objetivo principal fue caracterizar el uso público actual del futuro Monumento Natural de Las Chorreras del río Cabriel (provincia de Cuenca, España). La consecución de este objetivo implicó el cumplimiento de 6 objetivos específicos: diagnosticar el sistema de uso público actual, analizar la demanda turística y el perfil del visitante, determinar la capacidad de acogida de uso público recreativo, coordinar y desarrollar una fase de participación ciudadana, elaborar propuestas de gestión turística sostenible y proponer una batería de indicadores
de seguimiento ecológicos, sociales y económicos.
Tourism and recreation are popular in natural areas but can damage plant communities including those of high conservation value in protected areas. This includes impacts from recreational trails, but what type of trail has the most impact and why? We compared the impacts of five different trails (narrow, intermediate and wide bare earth trails, intermediate gravel trails and wide tarmac trails) on the endangered Grey Box grassy-woodland (Eucalyptus microcarpa) in Belair National Park near Adelaide in South Australia. First, the extent, width and area of recreational trails in the remnant woodland were mapped. Then, vegetation parameters were recorded in quadrats at three distances from the edge of trails in the woodland, with 10 replicate sites per trail type and single quadrats at 10 control sites (i.e. total 60 sites, 160 quadrats). All trails resulted in vegetation loss on the trail surface and along the edges of the trails, as well as changes in vegetation composition, including reductions in shrubs and bulbs close to the trail. The most common types of trail were bare earth trails with an average width of 2.5 m (50% of trails) which resulted in the greatest soil loss (> 88,000 m3) and vegetation loss (33,899 m2 or 3.4 ha) in the 167 ha woodland remnant overall. Wider (5.4 m) hardened tarmac trails, however, were associated with low species richness, high cover of exotic grasses and few herbs, shrubs and bulbs compared to vegetation away from trails and closer to other trails. Therefore a mixed approach to the provision of trails may be most appropriate, with hardened trails used in areas of highest use, but in some circumstances leaving trails unhardened may be more appropriate where they are likely to remain narrow and where there is less likely to be erosion and/or safety issues.
RESUMEN. Uno de los problemas de las áreas protegidas en zonas de afluencia masiva es la acumulación de basura abandonada por algunos visitantes. Evaluamos, en playas ribereñas de un área protegida de las sierras de Córdoba, si es posible reducir la basura abandonada por los visitantes utilizando herramientas de la interpretación ambiental. La técnica utilizada consistió en el pedido personalizado al visitante de no dejar basura, acompañado del ejemplo de juntar la basura abandonada en la playa. Realizamos el estudio en nueve playas, haciendo un total de 72 observaciones (repartidas en 10 fechas), consistentes en tres recorridos: antes, durante y después de la hora de máxima afluencia de visitantes. En el recorrido anterior a la estadía de los visitantes limpiamos las playas. Durante la hora de máxima afluencia contamos los visitantes, y realizamos la intervención, consistente en el pedido personalizado y el ejemplo, aproximadamente en la mitad de las playas (N= 37 y N= 35 observaciones con y sin intervención respectivamente). Después de la estadía de los visitantes, a la mañana siguiente, para cada playa estimamos la cantidad de basura, que varió entre 0.007 a 32.5 g.visitante-1 .día-1. En siete de las nueve playas, la cantidad de basura por visitante fue más baja para las fechas en las cuales se realizó la intervención que para las fechas en las cuales no se realizó, pero las diferencias no fueron significativas (P= 0.42). En cambio, encontramos diferencias significativas entre playas (P< 0.05), detectando por medio de correlaciones que en las playas más chicas los visitantes dejaron menos basura que en las playas más grandes (R= 0.74; P= 0.022). Concluimos que si bien el efecto del pedido personalizado no pudo ser demostrado estadísticamente, las tendencias encontradas son alentadoras, y es necesario seguir investigando.
There is a general assumption that animal species that face anthropogenic disturbance through tourism suffer some negative impacts as a result. We carried out a meta-analysis of empirical studies of wildlife responses to tourism activities in natural areas to test this assumption. A literature review yielded effect size data for 102 studies representing 99 species. We compare and contrast different measures of response to tourist activities (avoidance responses, time budgets, and physiological responses). Despite most authors interpreting their data as revealing negative impacts of tourist activities on wildlife, we found that behavioural data (flight responses and time budgets) often indicated positive effects of such activities; time budget data are often ambiguous, while physiological data tended to show negative responses. Therefore, how researchers measure the responses of animals, how they interpret the valence of these responses, and the timescale of measure are all important considerations. For example, different measures of physiological response may indicate short term coping responses, while there may be long term physiological change that could influence population dynamics, often beyond the scope of the study. Many species are also able to mitigate the effect of tourist disturbance through habituation and moderation of short term responses, such as avoidance/fleeing responses. In conclusion, therefore, although there could be long term consequences to tourist activities, these impacts are often not readily measurable. Greater consideration of assessment methods to quantify such effects is warranted.
Resource and experiential impacts associated with visitation to wilderness and other similar backcountry settings have long been addressed by land managers under the context of “carrying capacity” decisionmaking. Determining a maximum level of allowable use, below which high-quality resource and experiential conditions would be sustained, was an early focus in the 1960s and 1970s. However, decades of recreation ecology research have shown that the severity and areal extent of visitor impact problems are influenced by an interrelated array of use-related, environmental, and managerial factors. This complexity, with similar findings from social science research, prompted scientists and managers to develop more comprehensive carrying capacity frameworks, including a new Visitor Use Management framework. These frameworks rely on a diverse array of management strategies and actions, often termed a “management toolbox,” for resolving visitor impact problems. This article reviews the most recent and relevant recreation ecology studies that have been applied in wildland settings to avoid or minimize resource impacts. The key findings and their management implications are highlighted to support the professional management of common trail, recreation site, and wildlife impact problems. These studies illustrate the need to select from a more diverse array of impact management strategies and actions based on an evaluation of problems to identify the most influential factors that can be manipulated.
People take for granted that injuries occur at beaches. But the evidence for injuries caused by beach litter
is lacking within the literature. Therefore, we examined the prevalence of litter related beach injuries at
Tasmanian (Australia) beaches. A risk equation was developed to determine injury risk posed by litter
based on a user's frequency of beach visitation. Examined beaches are considered ‘clean’ (approximately
1.69 kg of debris per beach) using the Clean Coast Index. Moderate proportions (21.6%) of beach users
received injuries from beach litter, illustrating that even clean beaches pose a threat of injury. Realised
risk was high; with wounds (65%) being the most common injury. Daily beach visitation decreased injury
risks (high to moderate/high). Respondents seldom (12.9%) recognise beach litter injuries as a major
concern, instead focussing on impacts that litter in the marine environment (including beaches) has on
marine biota. Respondent's perceptions of cause and responsibility of beach litter are discussed, with
implications provided within a re-education context.
For twenty-five years, Studies in Outdoor Recreation has served as an invaluable reference for park and recreation managers and a standard text in college courses. The only book to integrate social science literature on outdoor recreation, it reviews studies from this broad, interdisciplinary field and synthesizes them into a body of knowledge, providing a historical perspective on outdoor recreation research and developing its practical management implications. This third edition is fully revised to reflect current research and new concerns in the field. A new chapter examines the emerging issue of sense of place and its relationship to outdoor recreation. The book concludes with twenty principles to guide outdoor recreation management and research. An extensive bibliography and section entitled Notes on Sources: A Guide to the Social Science Literature in Outdoor Recreation lead readers to valuable primary source material.
Anthropogenic disturbance of wildlife is of growing conservation concern, but we lack comprehensive approaches of its multiple negative effects. We investigated several effects of disturbance by winter outdoor sports on free-ranging alpine Black Grouse by simultaneously measuring their physiological and behavioral responses. We experimentally flushed radio-tagged Black Grouse from their snow burrows, once a day, during several successive days, and quantified their stress hormone levels (corticosterone metabolites in feces [FCM] collected from individual snow burrows). We also measured feeding time allocation (activity budgets reconstructed from radio-emitted signals) in response to anthropogenic disturbance. Finally, we estimated the related extra energy expenditure that may be incurred: based on activity budgets, energy expenditure was modeled from measures of metabolism obtained from captive birds subjected to different ambient temperatures. The pattern of FCM excretion indicated the existence of a funneling effect as predicted by the allostatic theory of stress: initial stress hormone concentrations showed a wide inter-individual variation, which decreased during experimental flushing. Individuals with low initial pre-flushing FCM values augmented their concentration, while individuals with high initial FCM values lowered it.
Experimental disturbance resulted in an extension of feeding duration during the following evening foraging bout, confirming the prediction that Black Grouse must compensate for the extra energy expenditure elicited by human disturbance. Birds with low initial baseline FCM concentrations were those that spent more time foraging. These FCM excretion and foraging patterns suggest that birds with high initial FCM concentrations might have been experiencing a situation of allostatic overload. The energetic model provides quantitative estimates of extra energy expenditure. A longer exposure to ambient temperatures outside the shelter of snow burrows, following disturbance, could increase the daily energy expenditure by .10%, depending principally on ambient temperature and duration of exposure. This study confirms the predictions of allostatic theory and, to the best of our knowledge, constitutes the first demonstration of a funneling effect. It further establishes that winter recreation activities incur costly allostatic behavioral and energetic adjustments, which call for the creation of winter refuge areas together with the implementation of visitor-steering measures for sensitive wildlife.