ArticlePDF Available

Green tea moisturizer improves skin hydration in elderly

Authors:

Abstract

BACKGROUND Dry skin is a major skin health problem in elderly. Green tea, which has an antioxidant effect, has recently been used as an active ingredient in moisturizing creams; yet the effect has not been well studied. This study compares the skin hydration effect of green tea and vitamin E moisturizer among elderly. METHODS This quasi-experimental study involved 60 elderly living in Tresna Werda Budi Mulia 4 Social Institution, Jakarta. Using the Runve HL 611 skin analyzer, skin capacitance was measured prior to experiment and every following week during the 5-week application of green tea and vitamin E skin moisturizer on both forearms. The consecutive measurement data was analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equation to compare the relative changes in skin hydration between the two moisturizer groups over 5 weeks of intervention. RESULTS The green tea moisturizer showed more significant increases in skin hydration level than the vitamin E moisturizer at all measurement sites on right arm and proximal left arm (p= 0.021), and medial and distal left arm (p= 0.034). Skin hydration levels significantly changed over time at proximal (p=0.021), medial (p=0.006) and distal (p=0.006) right arm, and medial left arm (p=0.021). A parallel trend of skin hydration improvements for both moisturizer groups indicated no correlation between the moisturizer type and the duration of usage (p >0.05) in all measurement locations. No side effects were observed during application period in both groups. CONCLUSION Routine use of moisturizer containing green tea may improve skin hydration in elderly.
3
*Pharmacology Department
Faculty of Medicine
Tarumanagara University
**Dermato venereology Department
Faculty of Medicine
Tarumanagara University
***Public Health Department
Faculty of Medicine
Tarumanagara University
Correspondence:
dr. Oentarini Tjandra, M.Biomed,
MPd. Ked
Department of Pharmacology
Faculty of Medicine
Tarumanagara University
Jl. LetJen. S. Parman No. 1 Grogol
Jakarta Barat 11440
Email: uunfang@gmail.com
Fax: +6221-5663126
Date of first submission, July 14, 2017
Date of final revised submission,
February 6, 2018
Date of acceptanc e, February 11, 2018
This open access article is distributed
under a Creative Commons Attribution-
Non Commercial-Share Alike 4.0
International License
ABSTRACT
UNIVERSA MEDICINA
Green tea moisturizer improves skin hydration in elderly
Oentarini Tjandra*, Linda J Wijayadi**, and Marcella E Rumawas***
BACKGROUND
Dry skin is a major skin health problem in elderly. Green tea, which has an
antioxidant effect, has recently been used as an active ingredient in
moisturizing creams; yet the effect has not been well studied. This study
compares the skin hydration effect of green tea and vitamin E moisturizer
among elderly.
METHODS
This quasi-experimental study involved 60 elderly living in Tresna Werda
Budi Mulia 4 Social Institution, Jakarta. Using the Runve HL 611 skin
analyzer, skin capacitance was measured prior to experiment and every
following week during the 5-week application of green tea and vitamin E
skin moisturizer on both forearms. The consecutive measurement data was
analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equation to compare the relative
changes in skin hydration between the two moisturizer groups over 5
weeks of intervention.
RESULTS
The green tea moisturizer showed more significant increases in skin
hydration level than the vitamin E moisturizer at all measurement sites on
right arm and proximal left arm (p= 0.021), and medial and distal left arm (p=
0.034). Skin hydration levels significantly changed over time at proximal
(p=0.021), medial (p=0.006) and distal (p=0.006) right arm, and medial left
arm (p=0.021). A parallel trend of skin hydration improvements for both
moisturizer groups indicated no correlation between the moisturizer type
and the duration of usage (p >0.05) in all measurement locations. No side
effects were observed during application period in both groups.
CONCLUSION
Routine use of moisturizer containing green tea may improve skin hydration
in elderly.
Keywords: Green tea moisturizer, vitamin E, skin hydration, elderly
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Cite this article as: Tjandra O, Wijayadi
LJ, Rumawas ME. Green tea moistur-
izer improves skin hydration in elderly.
Univ Med 2018;37:3-12 .
pISSN: 1907-3062 / eISSN: 2407-2230
DOI: http:/ /dx.doi.org/1 0.180 51/ Uni vMed.2 018 .v 37.3- 12
January-April, 2018 Vol.37- No.1
4
Tjandra, Wijayadi, Rumawas Green tea moisturizer and skin hydration
INTRODUCTION
The skin is the outermost and largest organ
of the human body, while one of its major roles
is as a protective barrier against microorganisms
and as the body’s temperature regulator. Skin
dryness increases the risk of developing several
skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, irritant
contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis,
ichthyosis, and psoriasis.(1)
The protective functi on of the skin is
primarily performed by the epidermis, of which
the stratum corneum is the outermost part.(2) The
stratum corneum is a dynamic structure that
continuously re s p o n d s to various d aily
exogenous factors. The epidermal layer of the
skin protects the body against many external
stress ors includ ing physical (mech anical,
thermal, ultraviolet rays) and chemical (solvents,
surfactants, xenobiotics).( 3) It also protects the
ski n from b e i n g d e h y d r a t e d t h r ou gh
transepidermal water loss (TEWL).( 4)
Eve r y ye a r, the ol der population in
Indonesia increases in number. Statistics for
1980 recorded seven million older individuals in
Indonesia. In 2006, this number tripled to 19
millio n peo ple, and in 2010 increa sed to
approximately 23 million people.( 5) It has been
predicted that in 2025 and 2050, the number of
elderly in Indonesia will rise to 34,592,000 and
67,353,000 people respectively.(5) This will cause
a parallel increase in the number of skin-related
diseases, especially because older individuals
have a thinner stratum corneum, fewer hair
follicles, and lower skin hydration level as
compared to the younger.(3) Skin dryness may
increase TEWL, which in turn will increase skin
dehydration.(6 )
Moisturizers are the most common skin-
care products that are often used to reduce
dryness of the skin by minimizing skin friction,
softening the skin, and filling skin cracks.(7) The
usage of moisturizers containing vitamin E for
maintaining skin hydration has been well studied.
It acts as an antioxidant and inhibits the formation
of lipid peroxides, and thus prevents skin aging.(8)
Recently, green tea has been introduced as
an active component in moisturizers. Both green
tea and vitamin E have antioxidant effects that
have been relat ed to delaying the ag i n g
process.(9-11 ) A study showed that green tea-
containing cosme tic f o r m u l a t i o n s h a v e
pr ono unced moistu rizing effects and skin
microrelief improvement.(12)
Catechins are the major antioxidants in
green tea (Camell i a sinensis or Camellia
assamica), but since they do not penetrate the
skin well, the application of green tea in cosmetic
products has so far been limited.(13) A review of
numerous studies with green tea (Camellia
sinensis) h a s c o n c l ud e d t h a t bo th oral
consumption and topical application of green tea
protect against inflammation, and chemical and
UV-induced carcinogenesis.(14)
A study to evaluate the human ski n
penetration of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)
and quercetin from green tea and Gingko biloba
extracts vehiculated in cosmetic formulations
showed that both compounds exhibited good skin
penetration and retention, which can favor their
skin effects.(15 )
Meanwhile in India, vegetable oils have
been used as skin moisturizers, especially in
neonate s and children due to their proven
efficacy, low cost, easy availability and good
safety profile.( 16) Our study was to evaluate the
effectiveness of green tea moisturizer cream in
elderly persons, whose skins are dehydrated,
making them more sensitive and fragile than
young people’s. There are promising results with
the use of green tea for several dermatologic
conditions.(17)
However, the efficacy of topical green tea
has not always b e e n c o nf irme d . O n e
randomized, double-blind, controlled, clinical trial
involving 40 women with moderate photoaging,
who were treated with topical green tea extract,
showed no statistically significant clinical
improvements in these women.(18)
This study evaluated the effect of a green
tea containing moisturizer on skin hydration in
older people.
5
METHODS
Research design
A quasi-experimental controlled study was
conducted amongst elderly living in Tresna Werda
Budi Mulia 4 Social Institution, Jakarta, from
February 2015 until January 2016.
Research subjects
All subjects were aged 60 years or above,
and included both men and women. The eligibility
criteria were absence of dermatitis, erythema,
psoriasis, and other skin diseases or tattoos on
the arms, and currently not under any local or
systemic therapy. Individuals were excluded if
they developed any skin allergy or skin disease
during the intervention period or if they did not
comply with the study protocol. The sample size
was obtained using the formula:(19)
Where = 5 %, so the Z = 1.96; = 20%, so
that Z = 0.84; the mean differenced was 5. The
optimal sample size for each group was 30.
Intervention
The participants were randomly allocated
to the green tea group and the vitamin E control
group. Moisturizers containing green tea or
vitamin E were distributed inside two identical
standard containers, weighing 12.5 grams each.
Trained caregivers applied the moisturizer on the
participant’s right and left forearms, twice a day
after showering for 5 weeks. Each of the subjects’
volar surface of the forearms was divided into
three sites, i.e. proximal, medial, and distal, with
ap p l i cation a r ea of 2x 2 cm e ach. E a c h
measurement area was approximately four
square centimeters.
Measurements
The skin hydration level was measured with
the Runve HL 611 skin analyzer at baseline and
every week during the 5-week intervention. The
skin analyzer had to be placed on the skin with
constant pressure until both contacting poles
depressed the skin. After three to five seconds,
the measurement result would appear on the LCD
screen. Treatment application was monitored daily
by evaluating the used container and by cross-
checking information between the respondents
and the field workers. Dropouts were those
allergic to any ingredient in the moisturizer, those
with skin diseases, severe medical condition,
reluctant or incompliant subjects, and participants
who passed away during experimental period or
transferred to another social institution.
Relative changes in skin hydration were
evaluated from the baseline value, and were
ex p ressed as perce n t differences of skin
hydration between each week of follow-up and
baseline.
Statistical analysis
To evaluate the repeated measurements, we
used the Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE)
statistical procedure. Data distribution was found
to be normal. Potential confounding factors related
to skin hydration were evaluated, such as age;
sex; frequency of showering (minimally twice a
day); whether subjects had been using other
moisturizers, eucalyptus oil, balm or powder;
whether any skin disorder was present; and liquid
intake (in cups/day). The statistically significant
was used at p<0.05.
Ethical clearance
The study was approved by the Human
Subjects Committee of Trisa kti Schoo l of
Medicine 8/KER/FK/V/2015. Each participant
had given an informed consent.
RESULTS
At the start of the study 62 subjects were
recruited, among whom 60 were found to meet
the inclusion and exclusion criteria. During the
five week study period, there were no dropouts.
At the end of the study there were 60 remaining
subjects, comprising 26 subjects in the green tea
2
XX
Sd ZZ
2NN
21
βα
21
Univ Med Vol. 37 No.1
6
Tjandra, Wijayadi, Rumawas Green tea moisturizer and skin hydration
group and 36 subjects in the vitamin E group
(Figure 1).
The overall rate of compliance over 5 weeks
of intervention was 69.8% in both groups (60.5%
in the green tea group, and 79.1% in the vitamin
E group; p=0.061). Baseline characteristics of the
respondents are shown in Table 1. The mean age
of the respondents was 75.4 ± 8.5 years, and
most participants (73%) were women. There
were no significant skin hydration differences
A B C
Figure 1. Flowchart of the research subjects
Green tea moisturizer
(n = 26)
Vitamin E moisturizer
(n = 34) p value
Age (years) 71.5 ± 7.6 70.3 ± 9.4 0.611
Sex
Women 20 (76.9) 24 (70.6) 0.582
Men 6 (23.1) 10 (29.4)
Showering min. twice/d
25 (96.2) 32 (94.1) 0.731
Routine application
Moisturizer
0 3 (8.8) 0.251
Eucalyptus oil
4 (15.4) 5 (14.7) 0.944
Balm
1 (3.8) 2 (5.9) 0.732
Powder
1 (3.8) 3 (8.8) 0.625
Skin disorders
4 (15.4) 10 (29.4) 0.204
Liquid intakes (cup /d) 4.7 ± 2.1 4.2 ± 2.3 0.381
% - right arm skin hydration
Proximal 39.0 ± 3.87 39.9 ± 4.56 0.452
Medial 37.8 ± 4.39 38.3 ± 4.59 0.703
Distal 37.5 ± 4.29 37.9 ± 4.24 0.692
% - left arm skin hydration
Proximal 39.4 ± 4.51 39.6 ± 4.07 0.811
Medial 38.2 ± 4.19 38.1 ± 4.51 0.971
Distal 38.0 ± 4.90 38.4 ± 4.48 0.692
Table 1. Baseline characteristic of the study population
Data presented as mean ± SD, except for sex, showering, routine application, skin disorders and liquid intakes (n,%)
Differences between the moisturizer groups were calculated by two groups independent –t-test (numerical data) or Pearson
Chi-square / Fisher exact-test (categorical data)
7
Green Tea moisturizer
(n = 26)
Vitamin E moisturizer
(n = 34) p value
Right Arm
Proximal Week 1 10.40 ± 3.16 1.88 ± 2.84 0.502
Week 2 6.22 ± 2.29 3.85 ± 1.95 0.431
Week 3 4.43 ± 2.64 0.18 ± 2.37 0.193
Week 4 3.92 ± 2.89 4.47 ± 2.53 0.881
Week 5 7.08 ± 2.97 6.90 ± 2.36 0.964
Mean (wk 1 to 5) 5.25 ± 2.34 2.82 ± 2.86 0.021
Medial Week 1 9.16 ± 2.85 2.50 ± 2.56 0.082
Week 2 7.84 ± 2.56 4.58 ± 2.18 0.341
Week 3 4.42 ± 3.09 0.16 ± 2.79 2.282
Week 4 3.55 ± 2.81 3.61 ± 2.46 0.981
Week 5 5.28 ± 2.64 6.35 ± 2.31 0.763
Mean (wk 1 to 5) 4.88 ± 3.37 2.54 ± 2.40 0.021
Distal Week 1 9.93 ± 2.58 0.93 ± 2.31 0.014
Week 2 7.52 ± 2.63 4.20 ± 2.25 0.341
Week 3 5.05 ± 3.15 1.68 ± 2.84 0.124
Week 4 0.23 ± 3.58 3.22 ± 3.22 0.472
Week 5 5.04 ± 2.19 6.49 ± 1.92 0.621
Mean (wk 1 to 5) 4.32 ± 3.47 2.27 ± 2.11 0.021
Left Arm
Proximal Week 1 10.24 ± 3.07 3.17 ± 2.75 0.092
Week 2 8.14 ± 2.63 2.99 ± 2.24 0.143
Week 3 3.97 ± 2.81 0.03 ± 2.53 0.302
Week 4 2.96 ± 2.81 3.71 ± 2.46 0.841
Week 5 4.89 ± 2.74 5.77 ± 2.39 0.812
Mean (wk 1 to 5) 4.90 ± 2.79 2.57 ± 2.67 0.021
Medial Week 1 9.04 ± 2.82 2.83 ± 2.54 0.111
Week 2 7.66 ± 2.46 5.01 ± 2.09 0.421
Week 3 4.37 ± 3.03 0.26 ± 2.73 0.324
Week 4 3.36 ± 2.72 4.09 ± 2.38 0.842
Week 5 5.37 ± 2.62 6.82 ± 2.29 0.681
Mean (wk 1 to 5) 4.84 ± 2.90 3.14 ± 2.59 0.034
Distal Week 1 7.64 ± 2.55 0.27 ± 2.29 0.021
Week 2 4.58 ± 2.62 0.89 ± 2.24 0.292
Week 3 0.57 ± 2.75 3.82 ± 2.47 0.241
Week 4 1.65 ± 3.03 1.89 ± 2.65 0.953
Week 5 2.55 ± 2.42 2.87 ± 2.11 0.922
Mean (wk 1 to 5) 2.71 ± 2.86 0.32 ± 2.46 0.021
Table 2. Relative changes from baseline in skin hydration during 5 weeks
of intervention by treatment groups
Data presented as mean ± SD
between the groups at baseline, and in some
factors that are of potential influence on skin
hydration (p>0.05). The green tea group had a
significantly higher relative change of skin
hydration than the vitamin E group at all
measurement locations (p=0.021 for proximal,
medial and distal right arm, and proximal left
arm; p=0.034 for medial and distal left arm)
(Table 2, Figures 2 and 3). Within each of the
two groups, skin hydration improved during the
5 weeks of intervention, indicating the presence
of a time ef fect (du ration of mois turize r
application) in skin hydration changes, especially
at the proximal (p=0.021), medial (p=0.006) and
distal right arm (p=0.006), as well as at the
medial left arm (p=0.021). At all measurement
Univ Med Vol. 37 No.1
8
Tjandra, Wijayadi, Rumawas Green tea moisturizer and skin hydration
Figure 2. Relative changes of skin hydration of the right arm during 5 weeks
of intervention according to moisturizer group
Vertical bars indicate 95% CI. Mean relative changes in skin hydration are expressed as percentage of the baseline
value of the difference between follow-up and baseline values. Changes in skin hydration over time were
analyzed using generalized estimating equations.
p group<0.05 indicates the group effect (difference between the two groups); p time <0.05 indicates the time effect
(change within-subject over time) and p group*time indicates group by time interaction (different trend of change
over time between the two groups). Results are presented for 60 participants at all- time points (26 in the green tea
moisturizer group; and 34 in the vitamin E moisturizer group).
sites, we found no correlation between the
effects of the moisturizer and the duration of
intervention on the relative changes in skin
hydration. Both moisturizers showed a parallel
trend in the relative change of skin hydration
during the overall 5-week intervention (p>0.05
fo r the moist urizer and time ). Addit ional
adjustments for some factors related to skin
hydrati on did not chan ge overall re sults.
Furthermore, we observed that over the 5-week
study period, both groups did not have any
objective signs or subjective complaints that
might be interpreted as being the side effects of
the moisturizer.
9
Figure 3. Relative changes of skin hydration of the left arm during 5 weeks of intervention according to
moisturizer group
Vertical bars indicate 95% CI. Mean relative changes in skin hydration are expressed as percentage of the baseline
value of the difference between follow-up and baseline values. Changes in skin hydration over time were
analyzed using generalized estimating equations.
p group <0.05 indicates the group effect (difference between the two groups); p time <0.05 indicates the time effect
(change within-subject over time) and p group*time indicates group by time interaction (different trend of change
over time between the two groups). Results are presented for 60 participants at all- time points (26 in the green tea
moisturizer group; and 34 in the vitamin E moisturizer group).
DISCUSSION
This study shows that moisturizer application
is crucial for the elderly skin. It prevents pruritus,
thus maintaining the highest degree of skin
integrity. The elderly tend to acquire a drier skin,
therefore proper moisturizer usage is necessary
to avoid dry skin-related problems, such as
pruritus. Other studies have also emphasized on
improving and maintaining elderly skin hydration
with topical or oral supplementations. In their
study, Mahmood et al.(16) found that application
of the combination of green tea plus lotus extract
as moisturizer lead to a greater improvement in
Univ Med Vol. 37 No.1
10
Tjandra, Wijayadi, Rumawas Green tea moisturizer and skin hydration
skin hydration than did each ingredient alone. In
another study, Chiu et al.(18) found that consuming
green tea polyphenol with milk is good for the
elderly, because catechin from green tea will bind
to the milk protein casein and form a catechin-
casein complex. The bioavailability of the
catechin-casein complex in the digestive tract is
better than catechin alone, therefore greater
absorption levels of the antioxidant will be
achieved. This antioxidant is crucial for skin
integrity. A study by Lee at al.(19) on Asian female
subj ects aged 32-56 years discovered that
fermented green tea consumption has a cooling
effect on women’s peripheral skin temperature,
wh i c h is use f ul fo r pe ople with cold
hypersensitivity. These studies were similar to our
study in their objective, which was to maintain
skin hydration in order to keep the skin barrier
intact. However, they slightly differ from our
study in the methods used, the longer-term study
design, and the use of more advanced measuring
equipment.
With increasing age and presumably also
aging process, the need for moisturizer application
increases. Our study showed that among 60
participants, approximately only 2.3–7.0% had
been using moisturizers before this study was
conducted. Skin disorders were found in 20.9%
of participants in both groups such as atopic
dermatitis, chronic lichen simplex, scabies,
ichthyosis, and tinea corporis. In subjects with
skin disorders, the measurement was still done at
the three locations (proximal, medial, distal),
because the results showed that the skin hydration
level between both arms at the three locations
were not significantly different at baseline.
As an anti-aging substance, vitamin E has
proved to be a stable, easy to formulate, and
reasonably priced emollient. Vitamin E acts as
an antioxidant substance that prevents lipid
peroxidase activities in cells and soft tissues, skin
softening, and that reduces inflammation caused
by reactive oxygen species, as well as being a
topical skin photoprotective.(20) Vitamin E as alpha
tocopherol or tocopherol acetate is also used in
over-the-counter drugs in 1-5% concentrations
to hydrate the stratum corneum and increase the
water binding capacity of the skin.(20,21)
Green tea leaves contain around 30–35%
polyphenols, which comprise a number of
catechins (flavan-3-ols). Catechins consist of 4
ma in co mpone n t s, i. e . ep i c a t echin (EC),
epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin gallate
(ECG), and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG).
Epigallocatechin gallate is the most effective
antioxidant component among the four types
me ntioned an d protects t h e skin from
pho tocarcinogenesis an d U V-i n d u ced
pho totoxicit y, ( 22 -2 4) and also reduc e s skin
hyperpigmentation.(25 ) Polyphenols in green tea
may inhibit the activity of collagenase and increase
the biosynthesis of collagen in fibroblasts to further
protect the skin from free radicals.(9,26,27)
Moisturizers protect the skin through
occluding the TEWL process by creating a
protective layer above the stratum corneum.
Another mechanism is by increasing water
absorption into the stratum corneum (humectant),
and fi lling the gap between desquamating
keratinocytes to create a softer skin (emollient).
Moisturizers also act as protein rejuvenator to
improve the water storage of the epidermis.(2,7)
Our clinical trial showed that both vitamin E
and green tea extract may be used as an active
component of moisturizers, as both substances
may act as an antioxidant in moisturizers and in
anti-photoaging. The latter further reduces UV
exposure that may lead to dry skin.
Be t ween the t wo study grou ps, no
statistically significant difference was observed.
The two groups applied the moisturizer after
showers, twice daily. Strict surveillance was done
by the field officer because most of the subjects
were elderly, who presumably have some degree
of memory impairment. The application of the
moisturizers by the field workers was monitored
by measuring the remaining amount of each
moisturizer by the end of the week. Daily
application by the field workers and subject
compliance were important aspects in this study,
since the moisturizers require regular usage in
order to achieve a good skin hydration status.
11
Under-treatment of dry skin may give rise to
multiple skin disorders, and the resulting itch may
cause the patient to scratch, causing secondary
skin infections. The management principle of dry
skin is to restore the integrity of the stratum
corneum, and application of moisturizers may help
improving skin hydration status, especially in the
elderly. Moisturizers act as occlusive, humectant,
and emollient substances that improve the water
content of the stratum corneum. (2,4)
In our study, no side effects were observed
following application of either moisturizer to the
study participants. There were no objective side
effects such as mild erythema and allergic
reactions by the second and fifth week after the
initiation of intervention. Subjective side effects
such as itch, pain, or stinging sensation were also
not reported. This result showed that it is safe to
apply moisturizer containing either vitamin E or
green tea extract.
Since in practice the subjects had to apply
the moisturiz er by themse l ves, pers o n al
comp liance is very important. Significant
moisturization effects can only be achieved with
regular usage. One experimental study showed
that low compliance reduces the effectivity of
moisturizers in improving skin hydration status.(20)
In our study, the compliance status of the study
participants was associated with improvement of
skin hydration status in both groups. On the other
hand, incompliance of several subjects and the
significant number of drop-outs were identified
as the limitation of this study. The study aimed to
educate and persuade the elderly to apply
moisturizers to keep their skin hydrated. Further
studies in the future should utilize a better skin
analyzer, in order to obtain more specific and
standardized data.
CONCLUSION
This research suggests that routine use of
moisturizers improves skin hydration in the elderly.
This effect may be more prominent with usage
of moisturizers containing green tea as compared
to those containing vitamin E.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
The authors have no conflict of interest.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors are thankful to Irene Dorthy,
MD, Sheilla Khonada, S.Ked, Jonathan, S.Ked,
and Andy, S.Ked.
CONTRIBUTORS
LJW conception and design of study, OT
acquisition of data and drafting the manuscript,
MER analysis and interpretation of data. All
authors read and approved the final manuscript.
REFERENCES
1. Baroni A. Epidermal barrier function: clinical
implications and therapeutic. Clin Dermatol
2012;30:255-366.
2. Del Rosso JQ. Moisturizer and barrier repair
formulations. In: Draelos ZD, Dover JS, Alam M,
editors. Cosmeceuticals. 3rd ed. Philadelphia:
Elsevier;2016.p.81-9.
3. Chu DH. Development and structure of skin. In:
Wolff K, Katz S, Palle r A, et al, editors.
Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine.
8th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill;2012.p.58-75.
4. Draelos ZD. New treatments for restoring impaired
epidermal barrier permeability: skin barrier repair
creams. Clin Dermatol 2012;30:345-8.
5. Bada n Pusat Sta ti stik. Proyeksi pendu duk
Indonesia 2010-2035. Jakarta: Badan Pusat
Statistik Indonesia;2013.
6. Verdier-Sevrain S, Bonte F. Skin hydration: a
review on its molecular mechanisms. J Cosmet
Dermatol 2007;6:75-82.
7. Loden M. Effect of moisturizers on epidermal
barrier function. Clin Dermatol 2012;30:286-96.
8. Datta HS, Mitra SK, Paramesh R. Theories and
management of aging: Modern and Ayurveda
perspectives. Evid Based Complement Alternat
Med 2011;528527:1-6.
9. Sandeep K, Nisha S, Schweta, et al. Green tea
polyphenols: versatile cosmetic ingredients.
IJARPB 2012;1:348-62.
10. Lintner K, Mas-Chamberlin C, Mondon P, et al.
Cosmeceuticals and active ingredients. Clin
Dermatol 2009;27:461-8.
Univ Med Vol. 37 No.1
12
Tjandra, Wijayadi, Rumawas Green tea moisturizer and skin hydration
11. Chanchal D, Swarnlata S. Novel approaches in
herbal cosmetics. J Cosmet Dermatol 2008;7:89-
95.
12. Gianeti MD, Mercurio DG, Campos PM. The use
of green tea extract in cosmetic formulations: not
only an antioxidant active ingredient. Dermatol
Ther 2013;26:267-71.
13. Wisuitiprot W, Somsiri A, Ingkaninan K, et al. In
vitro human skin permeation and cutaneous
metabolism of catechins from green tea extract
an d green te a extra ct-load ed chito san
microparticles. Int J Cosmet Sci 2011;33:572-9.
14. Binic I, Lazarevic V, Ljubenovic M, et al. Skin
aging: natural weapons and strategies. Evid
Based Complement Alternat Med 2013;827248:1-
10.
15. Belo SE, Gaspar LR, Maia Campos PM, el. Skin
penetration of epigallocatechin-3-gallate and
quercetin from green tea and ginkgo biloba
extracts vehiculated in cosmetic formulations.
Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2009;22:299-304.
16. Sarkar R, Podder I, Gokhale N, et al. Use of
vegetable oils in dermatology: an overview. Int J
Dermatol 2017;56:1080-6.
17. White PO, Tribout H, Baro n E. Protective
mechanisms of green tea polyphenols in skin.
Oxidative Med Cell Longevity 2012, Article ID
560682, 8 pages doi:10.1155/2012/560682.
18. Chiu AE, Chan JL, Kern DG, et al. Double blinded,
placebo-controlled trial of green tea extracts in
the cl ini cal and histologic app ear anc e of
photoaging skin. Dermatol Surg 2005;31:855–60.
19. Sudigdo S, Sofyan I. Dasar-dasar metodologi
penelitian klinis 4th ed. Jakarta: Sagung Seto;2011.
20. Mahmood T, Akhtar N. Combine d topica l
application of lotus and green tea improves facial
skin surface parameters. Rejuvenation Res
2013;16:91-7.
21. Chiu HF, Lin TY, Shen YC, et al. Improvement of
green tea polyphenol with milk on skin with
respect in healthy adults: a double-blind placebo-
controlled randomized crossover clinical trial.
Food Funct 2016;7:893-901.
22. Lee E, Lee BJ, Ha J, et al. Efficacy of fermented
green tea on peripheral skin temperature: a
randomized and placebo-controlled clinical study.
J Cosmet Dermatol 2016;15:226-30.
23. Thiele JJ, Ekanayake-Mudiyanselage S. Vitamin
E in human skin: organ-specific physiology and
considerations for its use in dermatology. Mol
Aspects Med 2007;28:646-67.
24. Baumann L. Tocopherol (vitamin E). In: Weisburg
E. Cosmeceuticals and cosmetic ingredients. New
York: McGraw-Hill;2014.p.182-7.
25. Bauma nn L. Green te a . In: Weis burg E.
Cosmeceuticals and cosmetic ingredients. New
York: McGraw-Hill;2014.p.137-43.
26. Zink A, Traid l-Hoffma nn C. Green tea in
dermatology myths and facts. J Dtsch Dermatol
Ges 2015;13:768-75.
27. Yusuf N, Irby C, Katiyar SK, et al. Photoprotective
effects of green tea polyphenols. Photodermatol
Photoimmunol Photomed 2007;23:48-56.
... A number of studies have demonstrated that the catechins prevent the collagenase and tyrosinase activity, resulting in the improvement of skin health [26,27]. In addition, it has been shown that green tea is effective for skin hydration in the elderly [28]. Here, green tea has dual functions including antioxidant and hydrating effects [29]. ...
... Hence, moisturizing formulations may be helpful to hinder or overcome this issue. In a study conducted by Tjandra et al. [28], it was reported that green tea-embedded moisturizing topical formulations have considerably more effect on skin hydration than those creams containing vitamin E. ...
Article
Full-text available
Hyaluronic acid (HA) promotes wound healing, and, accordingly, formulations based on HA have been widely used in regenerative medicine. In addition, naturally derived compounds, e.g., plant-based extracts and vitamin E, have exhibited antioxidant activity. In this study, a formulation containing hyaluronic acid, vitamin E, raspberry extract, and green tea was developed for potential topical applications, targeting wound healing. Rheological analysis was performed along with antioxidant and biological studies. The rheological characterization showed that the HA-based formulation is a thixotropic platform and possesses higher mechanical properties than the control formulation. To evaluate the wound healing potential of the formulation, an in vitro “wound healing” assay was carried out using human derived fibroblasts (HDF) with a cell-free gap on the tissue culture dish. The formulation showed better wound healing ability than the control formulation.
... Moisturizers are the most common skin care products that are often used to reduce dry skin conditions by softening the skin, filling skin pores, and minimizing friction that is about the skin [1]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study is aimed to know the use of green grass as a healthy alternative in preventing the occurrence of diseases caused by carcinogens and related to skincare. Sun exposure can cause various problems, especially on the skin, such as dry skin. Natural moisturizers can be the solution. Formulations of green grass jelly and bengkoang leaves can be an alternative use of natural moisturizers. One of the ingredients in green grass jelly leaves is the content of polyphenols and flavonoids contained in green grass jelly leaves can function as antioxidants. The research uses a draft of 2-Factor complete randomized design (RAL) type by using 4 treatment variations of green grass jelly formula (2.5%; 5%; 7.5%; and 10%) + Bengkoang (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%) and treatment of formulations without green grass. The results of the study are moisturizer based on green grass with the addition of bengkoang that has been made to meet the pH standard. Based on SNI-16-4399-1996, all samples that have been made meet the existing standards and the formulation samples that comply with the standard are F (D), ie green grass jelly concentration of 2.5% and Bengkong 5%
Article
Full-text available
Vegetable oils have been used for a wide variety of purposes since time immemorial; however, their principle use remains as skin moisturizers, especially in neonates and children. Because of their considerable efficacy and a low side effect profile and bearable cost, these oils are hugely popular as moisturizers among the common people in countries such as India. A wide variety of oils have been used, and newer ones are coming up with each passing day. This article focuses on the different types of vegetable oils and their varied uses in dermatology.
Article
Full-text available
Green tea polyphenols (GTP) have been widely tested for their effects on several metabolic syndromes and degenerative diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. The present study was formulated to assess the physiological efficacy of green tea polyphenol infused with milk (GTPM) on skin integrity in correlation with antioxidative status in healthy adults. Forty-four healthy voluntary subjects were recruited and assigned to two groups, who drank 240 ml of mineral water mixed with either an experimental (GTPM) or placebo package (2 packs per day) for the following 6 months. The experimental group then switched to the placebo package, and vice versa, for a further 6 months, with one month of washout period in between. During the initial, 3(rd), 6(th), 10(th), and 13(th) month anthropometric measurements were performed and fasting blood samples were withdrawn for various biochemical assays. Skin examination was performed at the initial, 6(th) and 13(th) month. No significant alterations were observed in any of the anthropometric measurements. Administration of GTPM significantly increased (p < 0.05) the antioxidant index and antioxidant enzyme activities when compared with the placebo group, whereas a concomitant decrease in the levels of lipid peroxidation were noted. Moreover, GTPM intake notably improved skin integrity and texture by markedly lowering (p < 0.05) skin wrinkles and roughness in elderly subjects. GTPM proved to be an effective antioxidant by lowering oxidative stress and thereby ameliorating skin texture and integrity.
Article
Full-text available
The fact that the skin is the most visible organ makes us aware of the ageing process every minute. The use of plant extracts and herbs has its origins in ancient times. Chronological and photo-ageing can be easily distinguished clinically, but they share important molecular features. We tried to gather the most interesting evidence based on facts about plants and plant extracts used in antiaging products. Our main idea was to emphasize action mechanisms of these plant/herbal products, that is, their "strategies" in fighting skin ageing. Some of the plant extracts have the ability to scavenge free radicals, to protect the skin matrix through the inhibition of enzymatic degradation, or to promote collagen synthesis in the skin. There are some plants that can affect skin elasticity and tightness. Certainly, there is a place for herbal principles in antiaging cosmetics. On the other hand, there is a constant need for more evaluation and more clinical studies in vivo with emphasis on the ingredient concentration of the plant/herbal products, its formulation, safety, and duration of the antiaging effect.
Article
Full-text available
Skin is frequently exposed to a variety of environmental, chemical, and genotoxic agents that contribute to disease and carcinogenesis. Ultraviolet light (UVR) is the main external stress that leads to immunosuppression, oxidative stress, premature aging, and tumor formation. Scientists and health professionals emphasize the importance of prevention strategies to circumvent such unfavorable outcomes. Plant polyphenols are a promising approach to disease prevention and treatment. Green tea is an abundant source of plant polyphenols that exhibit significant antioxidant, chemopreventive, and immunomodulatory effects in protecting the skin.
Article
Background: This study was aimed at assessing the therapeutic efficacy of green tea on peripheral skin for cold hypersensitive subjects, who had the feeling of cold hands and feet at cold temperatures, one of the most common complaints in Asian women. Methods: This randomized and placebo-controlled clinical study included 60 female Korean subjects who had the feeling of cold hands and feet at cold temperatures. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups to receive fermented green tea or a placebo (hot water). Results: The skin temperature of the hands and feet was measured using digital infrared thermography at the baseline and at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after the oral administration of the tea or placebo. The skin temperature of the hands and feet of the fermented green tea-administered group was significantly higher than that of the placebo-administered group. The temperature difference between the finger and the dorsum of the hand was significantly lower in the fermented green tea-administered group than that in the placebo group. Conclusions: Fermented green tea is helpful for cold hypersensitivity. This is the first clinical study to evaluate the efficacy of fermented green tea on peripheral skin in subjects having the feeling of cold hands and feet at cold temperatures by infrared thermography. However, further studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term effects of the fermented green tea for cold hypersensitivity and to elucidate the underlying physiological mechanism.
Article
Green tea consumption has a long tradition in Asian countries - especially China. The epidemiologically and experimentally observed anticarcinogenic and antiinflammatory effects of green tea have led to the implementation of green tea extracts in multiple therapeutic applications - both in dermatological and cosmeceutical preparations. The most abundant evidence exists for the anticarcinogenic and chemopreventive effect of green tea or its major constituent epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Almost equally evident is the effect in infectious diseases such as cutaneous viral infections. For external genital warts, a topical ointment with green tea extracts was licensed in the USA in 2010, and recently also in Europe. Experimental evidence pinpointing the block of central signal transduction factors in inflammatory mechanisms has led to the evaluation of catechins in inflammatory disorders such as atopic dermatitis. The belief of green tea as a "wonder weapon" against diseases dates back thousands of years. According to a Chinese legend, ancient Emperor Shen Nung noted a delightful aroma after some leaves of a nearby tree had fallen into boiling water. He immediately proclaimed the new "drink" as "heaven-sent", starting the belief - persisting until today - of green tea as a medication from nature against many different diseases. This review summarizes biological effects and clinical implications of green tea. © 2015 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Article
The research and development of cosmeceuticals is booming in recent years. Many substances, from botanical are tested or investigated as the active ingredients in cosmeceuticals. Green tea polyphenols have gained high popularity in cosmetic arena for their skin improving property. This review is an attempt to collect the scientific data of green tea polyphenols on major cosmetic problems like aging, wrinkle, photo-damage, skin darkness, acne, dandruff and hair loss. This communication covers green tea effect, their mechanism of action and clinical trials conducted on humans for different cosmetological conditions.
Article
Green tea (GT) extracts contain polyphenols, known to be effective free radical scavengers, and other ingredients that could also provide benefits to the skin. This is a report on clinical studies using objective, noninvasive methods to evaluate the effects of cosmetic formulations containing GT. Experimental formulations were supplemented or not (vehicle) with 6% Camellia sinensis glycolic leaf extracts (GT). These formulations were applied to the forearm skin of 24 volunteers, and their effects were evaluated before and after 2 hours, 15 and 30 days according to the following parameters: stratum corneum water content, transepidermal water loss, skin viscoelastic-to-elastic ratio (Uv/Ue), and microrelief. The volunteers were instructed not to apply any formulation in an area of the forearm (control area). Experimental formulations (GT) increased skin moisture in the long-term study, indicating that GT has a prolonged moisturizing effect. The Uv/Ue was significantly enhanced after 30 days of topical application of the experimental formulation when compared with vehicle and control. After 15-30 days, skin microrelief was significantly improved due to a reduction in skin roughness. The results suggest that GT-containing cosmetic formulations have pronounced moisturizing effects and improve skin microrelief.
Article
None of the study has concluded yet the anti-wrinkle efficacy of green tea plus lotus in Asian subjects using skin image analysis technique. In this study the efficacy of two cosmetic actives intended for the treatment of facial wrinkles (green tea and lotus extract) has been evaluated in healthy subjects using a non-invasive device Visioscan® VC and software for surface evaluation of living skin (SELS). Thirty three healthy Asian subjects, all men, were enrolled after consents in a placebo controlled comparative study with split face design. One group applied multiple emulsions with green tea. The second group applied multiple emulsions with lotus extract while a third group applied a multiple emulsion with combination of both extracts. In all three groups active formulations were applied to one side of the face while placebo on the other side, once daily over the 60 day treatment course. Non-invasive measurements performed at baseline and on day 30 and 60. Interesting and significant improvements observed for the treatment effects on skin roughness (SEr), scaliness (SEsc), smoothness (SEsm) and wrinkling (SEw). For example 49.99% improvement in skin smoothness (SEsm) from baseline value and -23.22%, perfection in facial wrinkles (SEw) substantiate combined treatment superior over single treatments. Green tea and lotus combined in multiple emulsions brought superior synergistic anti-aging effect. We conclude diverse antioxidant constituents in both plants have potential influence on skin surface parameters, thus rendering these plants as future of new anti-aging products.
Article
Nutracosmetics are an emerging class of health and beauty aid products that combine the benefits of nutracosmetical ingredients with the elegance, skin feel, and delivery systems of cosmetics. Herbs and spices have been used in maintaining and enhancing human beauty because herbs have many beneficial properties, such as sunscreen, antiaging, moisturizing, antioxidant, anticellulite, and antimicrobial effects. As compared with synthetic cosmetic products, herbal products are mild, biodegradable, and have low toxicity profile. To enhance these properties, research is being done in the development of newer approaches, which could improve both the aesthetic appeal and performance of a cosmetic product. In this respect, the approaches studied and discussed include liposomes, phytosomes, transferosomes, nanoemulsions, nanoparticles, microemulsions, nanocrystals, and cubosomes.