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Philosophy, Dialogue and Education: Nine Modern European Philosophers

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Abstract

Philosophy, Dialogue, and Education is an advanced introduction to nine key European social philosophers: Martin Buber, Mikhail Bakhtin, Lev Vygotsky, Hannah Arendt, Emmanuel Levinas, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Simone Weil, Michael Oakeshott, and Jürgen Habermas. This detailed yet highly readable work positions the socio-political views of each philosopher within a European tradition of dialogical philosophy; and reflects on the continuing theoretical relevance of the work of each to education generally and to critical pedagogy. The discussion in each chapter is informed by materials drawn from various scholarly sources in English and is enriched by materials from other languages, particularly French, German, and Russian. This enhances the comparative European cultural perspective of the book; and connects the work of each philosopher to wider intellectual, political, and social debates. The book will appeal to academics, postgraduates, and researchers working in philosophy, philosophy of education, and in educational, cultural, and social studies more generally. Advanced undergraduate students would also benefit from the book’s discussion of primary sources and the authors’ suggestions for further reading.
... Essa interação e esse diálogo, entre a criança e os adultos, transferem ferramentas culturais e signos de uma geração para a seguinte, e esse processo tem um papel formativo crucial na organização e no controle do comportamento e da consciência do indivíduo. Filosoficamente falando, Vygotsky argumenta que não há indivíduo sem comunidade (GUILHERME; MORGAN, 2018). Portanto, as relações com o outro, ou com os outros, são basais para a condição humana e para os processos cognitivos. ...
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O propósito deste artigo é contribuir com o debate acerca da educação domiciliar no contexto brasileiro, por meio de um ensaio teórico. Nesse sentido apresentamos os principais argumentos a favor da prática e de outro lado, aspectos que fundamentam a escola como um espaço de possibilidade de reconhecimento da diferença, e de igualdade. Também nos importa refletir acerca da importância da relação com o outro para a construção do conhecimento, nos apoiando em Vygotsky e no conceito cunhado por ele de Zona de Desenvolvimento Proximal. Para efeitos de conclusão consideramos a importância de um debate amplo, sólido, em que as especificidades familiares, sociais e cognitivas de cada criança sejam consideradas no que tange o planejamento e a ação de medidas que envolvam a educação em nosso país. Palavras-chave: Homeschooling. Diferença. Construção do conhecimento.
... In the former she developed the concept of public space in which political dialogue takes place. It is there that "…action and speech may be realised; that is, a context in which people can encounter one another as members of a community, disclose their views and what they stand for through action and speech, coordinate actions, and establish relationships with those who think alike or differently" (Guilherme/Morgan 2018/2019). In the latter she developed the concept of personal internal reflection which creates the capacity in individuals to take part in the dialogue of the public sphere. ...
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Dialogue and its Use in Education: This article, that draws upon a recent book (Guilherme/Morgan 2018), considers dialogue and its use in education taking the political philosopher Hannah Arendt as an example. It is argued as worthwhile for two reasons: First, dialogue is understood usually as a conversation, as an exchange between two or more individuals or sets of individuals. Secondly, it has been the subject of enquiries in Occidental philosophies of education since the Socratic dialogues of Plato and of Xenophon. However, these have focussed on effective communicative exchange. They have not always considered the relations involved in dialogue, such as whether power is symmetric or asymmetric. Dialogue may have a goal, but it may also be open and fluid with no one knowing where it might lead. In practice dialogue does not operate simply between two persons or groups; it comprises also internal tensions, contradictions, and crosscurrents.
... As I heard these commentaries by our colleagues and friends in common, and studied his works, I was reminded of Hannah Arendt, another Jewish philosopher who lived her philosophy, who was sharp, intelligent, and strong minded, and who also said things during her life time that were ahead of her time, that were not taken lightly by colleagues and friends in the Jewish community (cf. Guilherme and Morgan 2017). ...
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Seguindo nosso recente estudo “Vygotsky’s inner speech ajuda na solução de problemas matemáticos em TICs?” e os estudos de Berk que apresentam bons resultados sobre a correlação da teoria de inner speech de Vygotsky e a resolução de problemas matemáticos, iniciou-se esta pesquisa (2ª fase do projeto) que visa verificar se há a possibilidade de obter melhores resultados na resolução de problemas matemáticos quando o diálogo interno é induzido por meio do uso de prompts. Fazendo uso de uma metodologia similar a de Behrend, foi observado e feito o registro audiovisual de 15% dos estudantes do curso de matemática da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (n = 11) ao resolverem dois problemas de construção na plataforma digital GeoGebra. Os participantes foram informados quanto à importância do inner speech e constantemente relembrados, via prompts, da sua existência durante as resoluções. Nossa análise dos indicadores do inner speech com relação ao desempenho na resolução dos problemas apresenta valor-p de 0,0177 (p < 0,05) utilizando o teste t de Student do SPSS, assim como indícios suficientes para rejeitar nossa hipótese nula (o uso de prompts para instigar o uso de Vygotsky’s inner speech não ajuda na resolução de problemas matemáticos em TICs).
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On the 9th of May 2020 The Lancet, the leading medical journal, published an editorial referring to the current situation of the pandemic in Brazil, which is short of being disastrous, and describing Jair Bolsonaro, the Brazilian president, as the biggest threat to Brazil – we would add to the world. In this paper, we enquire the issue of leadership, anti-intellectualism and nationalism by conducting a philosophical enquiry, whilst also questioning the role and shortcomings of the Brazilian educational system in sowing the seeds, and allowing this situation to develop in the country. This philosophical enquiry does not attempt to lay blame on the Brazilian educational system; rather, it is an attempt, an urge for reflection and self-reflection, so that the errs of the past may be remediated in the future; hopefully, a near future.
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Mikhail Bakhtin"; He is a Russian philosopher and writer who has left influential works in literary criticism and theory. His theories have greatly influenced a group of thinkers such as neo-Marxists, structuralists, poststructuralists and semiotics. Bakhtin is known as a theorist of conversational logic in the novel and introduces the element of carnival, and on the other hand, it is the date of writing of these works (Stalin's repression) that adds to their importance and value. The situation that Stalin's political repression imposed on the lives of the intellectuals of his time can be well understood from the fact that he lost three of his outstanding works, Freudianism; He published "Critical Drafting", "Marxism and the Philosophy of Language" and "The Formalist Method in Literary Study" under the names of his friends and colleagues "Medvedev" and "Volushinov". After Skoldo and Vyacheslav, under the influence of Grossman, he places Dostoevsky's novels in the category of polyphonic novels. In novels in which different sounds, such as the sounds of different instruments, are heard in one symphony, no sound dominates the other, and eventually the polyphony ends in harmony, without each sound losing its independence from the other. Mikhail Bakhtin's critiques include criticisms of the monologue of critics such as Skoldo on the works of Dostoevsky, Rabelais and Cervantes. Bakhtin is the subject of much-known controversy among scholars on the theory of polyphonic and monophonic texts, as well as another issue, better than Vyacheslav, Ivanov, Medvedev, and other contemporaries. According to him, the text has a polyphonic feature that can expand the dialogue in all its aspects. This inevitable dialogue implies another-relative to the author-. Conversation stands in the way of monologue and sets up a dialogue of at least two people. Meanwhile, the theater "Night on Wet Pavement" is one of the successful examples of polyphonic character in Iranian dramatic literature. This work was written by Akbar Radi and directed and performed by Hadi Marzban. This article tries to describe Bakhtin's idea and its adaptation to Akbar Radi's play.
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This chapter expands on the socio-emotional dimension of learning to be and engages with two themes for the practice of value-creating global citizenship education: a sense of interdependence, common humanity, and a global outlook; and a commitment to reflective, dialogic, and transformative learning. The aim here is to integrate a sense of interdependence from the philosophies of the Asian thinkers, Tsunesaburo Makiguchi (1871–1944) and Daisaku Ikeda (b. 1928), while also locating the implications of the confluences in their educational ideas with the American pragmatist, John Dewey (1859–1952), to enhance transformative learning experiences. A key recommendation in this chapter that engages with their proposals is to prepare learners for participatory democracy through the use of classroom pedagogy that integrates experiential learning along with critical and values-based perspectives aimed to develop character and growth.
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Migrants, coming to Germany, must attend integration courses in order to obtain a residence permit. These courses are comprised of a language section as well as an orientation section. The latter's purpose is, according to the German Federal Agency for Migration and Refugees (BAMF), the transmission of knowledge of the German legal system, culture, and history and especially of democratic values of the German political system (BAMF, 2017, p. 6). This article examines the challenges that instructors and participants of those courses face when it comes to the teaching and learning of democratic values, based on a qualitative research conducted in 2018. As the theoretical lens, this article incorporates the concept of dialogue by Martin Buber.
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The purpose of this article is to introduce the reader to some intellectual origins of Simone Weil's philosophy through a summary of and comment on her Lectures on Philosophy (1978) given when she was a teacher in a girls' school at Roanne in the Loire region of central France. There is a brief Introduction followed by a summary of Weil's life which indicates her various interests as a religious thinker, mystic, anarchist, and political activist and some of the important academic commentaries on these aspects of her life and work. The source of the Lectures on Philosophy edited by her pupil Anne Reynaud-Guérithault is then discussed followed by a detailed summary of and comment on the Lectures themselves. They are grouped under five headings which are considered in turn. These are: The materialist point of view; after the discovery of mind; politics and social theory; ethics and aesthetics; miscellaneous topics and essay plans. There is a further discussion of Simone Weil's later philosophical thought which shows that what she published reveals classical learning and intellectual quality, but also the several antimonies with which she struggled in her thinking, the two major influences on her thought being Ancient Greece and Christianity. There is a short Conclusion and Bibliography.
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