ArticlePDF Available

Short Communication: Cave-dwelling Arthropod community of Semedi Show Cave in Gunungsewu Karst Area, Pacitan, East Java, Indonesia

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Arthropods are a major group of animals which have significant roles in maintaining cave ecosystem stability. Semedi is a new show cave, but information about arthropods in this cave was not available. The use of cave as a tourist attraction will bring environmental changes which potentially disturb cave-dwelling arthropod community. This study aimed to measure arthropod diversity and their relation to abiotic factors in Semedi show cave. Arthropods were sampled by hand collecting, a combination of pitfall and bait traps, and Berlese extractor. Abiotic factors measured were climatic and edaphic parameters. Sampling was conducted in the 3 zones of Semedi cave (Entrance, Twilight, and Dark). Data were analyzed by calculation of richness (Margalef), diversity and evenness (Shannon-Wiener) indices, cluster and correlation analyses. A total 1095 individuals of arthropods consisting of 102 morphospecies, belonging to 6 Classes, and 19 Orders were sampled during this study. The entrance zone had higher richness and diversity indices (richness=12.80, diversity=3.40) than the twilight zone (richness=7.85, diversity=3.25) and the dark zone (richness=5.35, diversity=2.63). Meanwhile, the twilight zone had higher evenness index (0.85) than the entrance zone (0.77) and the dark zone (0.77). Each zone of Semedi cave had different abiotic conditions. Abiotic conditions and Arthropod communities in the twilight and dark zones were more similar to each other than to those of the entrance zone. The statistical analyses showed that there were significant correlations between abiotic factors and arthropod communities. Semedi had various cave-dwelling arthropods. Sustainable management of show cave should be applied to minimize the destructive impact of tourism activities on the cave arthropod community.
Content may be subject to copyright.
A preview of the PDF is not available
... Caves environment were generally divided into 3 main zones according to their microclimate characters[1] [9]. As the consequences, the diversity and abundance of Insecta in each zone are also different [4] [21]. Figure 2 shows the distinction on richness, diversity and evenness values among each cave zonation. As seen in Figure 2, diversity and richness values demonstrated a similar pattern. ...
... Both indices value was greater in entrance and twilight zones, compared to the dark zone. This result was similar to several previous studies which also mentioned that species richness and diversity will commonly decline with the addition of distance from the cave entrance [4] [21]. Environmental conditions in entrance and twilight zones can support many critters to survive because sunlight and primary producer still present. ...
... According to this result, it could be inferred that twilight zone might be similar to both entrance and dark zones. Several previous studies indicated that twilight zone community had a higher similarity to dark zone instead of entrance zone, but they used Bray Curtis similarity index which consider the number of individuals of each species alongside the presence and absence of the species [4] [21]. Twilight zone is an ecotone which became the border between epigean (outside cave) and hypogean (inside cave). ...
... Cave floor pH deceased (became more acidic) with distance into the cave likely due to greater quantities of bat guano in deeper sites since bat guano has acidic pH (Sikazwe and De Waele 2004). Greater diversity of macroinvertebrates has been shown to occur in higher soil pH closer to cave entrance (Kurniawan et al. 2018). Decomposition of bat guano releases ions (Sikazwe and De Waele 2004) into the cave floor which can explain greater EC at deeper sites where bat guano is more abundant. ...
Article
Full-text available
Inventories of cave species and in-depth understanding of cave ecosystems are essential for informing conservation approaches for the unique and vulnerable cave fauna. Gcwihaba cave is the largest cave in Botswana but its ecology is poorly understood. This study set out to provide the first quantitative survey of the cave’s terrestrial macroinvertebrates. Macroinvertebrates were collected from sample sites at 10 m intervals into the cave from the cave entrance. At each site, macroinvertebrates on the cave floor were collected by quadrat sampling while macroinvertebrate from cave walls were collected by visual opportunistic searches. Moisture content, pH and electrical conductivity of the cave floor substrate were measured at each site to examine the influence of the floor properties on the distribution of macroinvertebrates on the cave floor. Twelve species in 10 families and 8 orders of terrestrial macroinvertebrates were collected. The occurrence of taxa varied across the sites, with most taxa occurring in the light and twilight sectors of the cave (within 30 m), whereas the dark sector (beyond 30 m) was dominated by cave cockroaches ( Gyna sp.). The abundance of the cave cockroaches, darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae, Tenebrio sp.) and cave wasps (Sphecidae) positively correlated with floor substrate of high moisture content and high electrical conductivity, which became increasingly common with distance into the cave. The abundance of other taxa from the cave floor positively correlated with a floor substrate of high pH and low moisture, which was common near the cave entrance.
... Indonesian archipelago is mostly classified as a climate zone in the wet and the rest is in the mountain or tropical climate zone monsoon.Apart from that climate is one of the factors (besides land) which will affect the distribution of plants. Climateaffect the spread of plants, ecology [1]which is part of edaphic [2] and climatic variables within the scope of the environment [3]. Existencea plant species in an area can be used as a climate indicator the region concerned [4]. ...
... While the formative model assumes that the indicators influence the latent variables or direction of the causality relationship is from indicators to the latent variable. Hierarchical latent variable models [23] [24], hierarchical component models, or high-order constructs, are explicit representations of multidimensional constructions which exist at higher levels of abstraction and related to other constructs at the same level of abstraction that fully mediate the significant influence of dimensions. To establish a higher component model, which is usually referred to in the PLS-SEM context, most often involves a test of other second-order constructs which containing two layers of construction. ...
... Rainfall is one crucial element of weather because it is the primary source of water for life. Rainfall is very closely related to the various sectors of human activities such as agriculture, forestry, fisheries, or even in ecological and biodiversity [3][4][5] El Niño begins with rainy season withdrawal and the beginning of the dry season forward and the length of the rainy season occurs shorter while the dry season is more extended. La Niña begins with the rainy season happening faster and the beginning of the dry season backward and the length of the rainy season occurs longer term shorter dry season [6,7]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Rainfall is a natural phenomenon that needs to be studied more deeply and interesting to be analyzed. It involves numbers of human activities such as aviation, agriculture, fisheries, and also disaster risk reduction. Moreover, the characteristics of rainfall data follows seasonality, fluctuation, not normally distributed and it makes traditional time series challenging to use. Therefore, neurocomputing model can be used as an alternative to extraction information from rainfall data and give high performance also accuracy. In this paper, we give short preview about SST Anomalies in Manado, Northern Sulawesi and at the same time comparing the performance of rainfall forecasting by using three types of neurocomputing methods such as Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN), Feed forward Neural Network (FFNN), and Localized Multi Kernel Support Vector Regression (LMKSVR). In a nutshell, all of neurocomputing methods give highly accurate forecasting as well as reach low MAPE FFNN 1.65%, GRNN 2.65% and LMKSVR 0.28%, respectively.
... Indonesian archipelago is mostly classified as a climate zone in the wet and the rest is in the mountain or tropical climate zone monsoon.Apart from that climate is one of the factors (besides land) which will affect the distribution of plants. Climateaffect the spread of plants, ecology [1]which is part of edaphic [2] and climatic variables within the scope of the environment [3]. Existencea plant species in an area can be used as a climate indicator the region concerned [4]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Information about the predictionof the rainy season is vital for the community. The precise and accurate level of predicting the start of the season will certainly greatly assist various community activities in multiple sectors such as transportation, agriculture, forestry, health, public works, and others. SST controls the ability of the oceans to regulate heating and to regulate water distribution. The condition of local SST can be used as an indicator of the minimum amount of moisture in the atmosphere and is closely related to cloud formation in Indonesia. If the cold SST supply of water vapor in the atmosphere will be reduced, on the contrary, if the SST is warmer than average then the water vapor in the atmosphere will tend to be more. The warmer or hotter the sea surface temperature, the higher the availability of water vapor which causes cloud formation and of course the atmospheric conditions will become more humid. Time series data is a group of observations obtained at different time points with the same time interval, and the data sequence is assumed to be interconnected with each other. In this paper, we analyze the rainfall data in Sulawesi, which begins with the formation of spatial correlation and uses modified generalized regression neural network method to forecast. Get the best model with MSE testing values of. * and MAD testing of 0.00017 with the number of layer units 5-5-1.
... The purpose of smoothing is to minimize the diversity and estimate the behavior of data that tends to be different and has no effect so that the characteristics of the data will appear more clearly [14]. Spline popular in Ecology [4] and biodiversity [15] One of the regression models with a nonparametric approach that can be used to estimate the regression curve is spline regression [16]. Spline regression is an approach to matching data while still taking into account the smoothing curve. ...
Article
Electricity is one of the most pressing needs for human life. Electricity is required not only for lighting but also to carry out activities of daily life related to activities Social and economic community. The problems is currently a limited supply of electricity resulting in an energy crisis. Electrical power is not storable therefore it is a vital need to make a good electricity demand forecast. According to this, we conducted an analysis based on power load. Given a baseline to this research, we applied penalized splines (P-splines) which led to a powerful and applicable smoothing technique. In this paper, we revealed penalized spline degree 1 (linear) with 8 knots is the best model since it has the lowest GCV (Generelized Cross Validation). This model have become a compelling model to predict electric power load evidenced by of Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE=0.013) less than 10%.
Article
Herliansyah R, Fitria I. 2018. Latent variable models for multi-species counts modeling in ecology. Biodiversitas 19: 1871-1876. High-dimensional multi-species counts are often collected in ecology to understand the spatial distribution over different locations and to study effects of environmental changes. Modeling multivariate abundance is challenging as we need to consider the possibility of interactions across species. Latent variable models are the recent popular approaches in statistical ecology to address such issue that has a similar framework to ordinary regression models. In this paper, we employed the poisson distribution for modeling count responses and a negative binomial distribution for more frequent zeros in observations. The implementation of a latent variable model, Generalized Linear Latent Variable Models (GLLVMs), was demonstrated on multi-species counts of endemic bird species collected in 37 different sites in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. The main objectives were to study the effect of logging activities on abundance of endemic species and their interactions and to observe the habitat preference of certain species. Our study found that out of four endemic species, Alophoixus bres and Eurylaimus javanicus species were significantly affected by logging activities. The sign of parameters was negative indicating the logging activities in 1989 and 1993 bring significantly negative impacts on those species. The interaction created among species was strongly negative for major endemic species especially Alophoixus bres and Eurylaimus javanicus that prefer living in primary forest than in logging areas.
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The classification of marine animals as protected species makes data and information on them to be very important. Therefore, this led to the need to retrieve and understand the data on the event counts for stranded marine animals based on location emergence, number of individuals, behavior, and threats to their presence. Whales are generally often stranded in very shallow areas with sloping sea floors and sand. Data were collected in this study on the incidence of stranded marine animals in 20 provinces of Indonesia from 2015 to 2019 with the focus on animals such as Balaenopteridae, Delphinidae, Lamnidae, Physeteridae, and Rhincodontidae. METHODS: Multivariate latent generalized linear model was used to compare several distributions to analyze the diversity of event counts. Two optimization models including Laplace and Variational approximations were also applied. FINDINGS: The best theta parameter in the latent multivariate latent generalized linear latent variable model was found in the Akaike Information Criterion, Akaike Information Criterion Corrected and Bayesian Information Criterion values, and the information obtained was used to create a spatial cluster. Moreover, there was a comprehensive discussion on ocean-atmosphere interaction and the reasons the animals were stranded. CONCLUSION:The changes in marine ecosystems due to climate change, pollution, overexploitation, changes in sea use, and the existence of invasive alien species deserve serious attention.
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to determine the differences on Arthropod communities’ structure and climatic-edaphic factors within wild caves and show caves in Gunungsewu karst area, also analyze the climatic and edaphic components that give the strongest influence on Arthropods community. Arthropod Sampling was done by hand collecting, pitfall and bait traps, and Berlese extractor. The measured components of climatic factor comprise light intensity, air temperature, RH, and CO2 level, while the edaphic comprise soil temperature, SOC, N, P, soil moisture, and pH. Data was analyzed by richness, diversity, evenness, and dissimilarity indices measurement. We also conducted statistical analyze through Pearson correlation. All Arthropod samples were classified into 6 classes, 30 orders, and 209 morphospecies. The dark zones of wild caves with low human disturbance have lower richness, diversity, and evenness than the dark zones of show caves. Species richness of Arthropods in Show Caves is not always lower than wild caves, but the populations of common cavernicolous Arthropods (Rhaphidophora sp., Trachyjulus tjampeanus, Charon sp. and Sarax javensis) in show caves are almost smaller than wild caves. The Arthropod communities of wild caves with low disturbance have high dissimilarity with show cave communities. Highly disturbed show caves possess higher air temperature, light intensity, CO2, soil temperature and pH compared to wild caves particularly in the dark zone, while soil moisture, SOC, N and P are lower. Light intensity, soil temperature, and SOC show the highest coefficient of correlation values with the indicators of Arthropods community. In conclusion, the recent study indicates that there are differences in the community structure of Arthropods and climatic-edaphic conditions within wild caves and show caves. Light intensity, soil temperature, and SOC give the strongest influences on Arthropod communities’ structure.
Article
Full-text available
The Brazilian semiarid region has a clear distinction between the dry season, which can last up to nine months, and the rainy season. Caves are connected to different extents to surface ecosystems, although they are idealized as stable environments due to their isolation. Furthermore, little is known about the effects of wet and dry seasonal variations on underground biological assemblages. Invertebrate communities were analyzed during dry and rainy seasons in 24 caves in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. We also investigated whether the environmental stability of caves attenuates the effects of seasonality in this particular region. Morphospecies richness and abundance and the diversity indexes of caves were significantly higher during the rainy season. In addition, more stable caves showed less variation in the community composition between seasons. Our data point to a clear influence of the surface ecosystems on the caves in Caatinga. However, the intensity of this influence apparently depends on the environmental stability of the cave, and the most stable caves present smaller changes in the structure of their invertebrate communities during different seasons.
Article
Full-text available
The stability of temperature and humidity in caves is well known. However, little is known if higher or lower cave environmental stability (temperature, humidity, light and others) implies changes in the structure of the biological communities. Number, position and size of entrances, then size, depth, host rock and extent of the cave, the amount and type of food resources are all factors that can have strong influence on the cave biological communities. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between the presence of water bodies, size of entrances and the linear development of caves with the terrestrial invertebrate richness and species composition in 55 limestone caves located in the Brazilian Savannah, sampled from 2000 to 2011. Invertebrates were sampled by active search throughout the caves, prioritizing micro-habitats (sites under rocks) and organic resources (litter, twigs, feces and bat guano). We recorded 1,451 invertebrate species. Species richness was positively correlated with presence of cave streams, width of entrances and linear development of the caves. The richness of troglomorphic species was positively correlated to the presence of perennial pools and linear development of the caves. The presence of cave streams was a decisive factor for determining the community structure, increasing the number and the similarity of troglophile species among the caves. Flood pulses can cause disturbances that eventually select the same species besides importing resources. However, for the terrestrial troglomorphic species the disturbance caused by cave streams may decrease the number of species.
Article
Full-text available
The main intention of this study was to substantiate the relation between atmospheric temperature and soil temperature within a system boundary. The study focused on coefficient of correlation that demonstrates the association between two variables. The earth surface temperature is anticipated to be affected by a set of meteorological parameters. Atmospheric temperature, humidity, precipitation and solar radiation directly influence the adjacent soil and the extent of impact must be varied at different part of the earth because of multiple factors. The primary step to validate the correlation was to collect two series of data for two variables i.e. atmospheric temperature and soil temperature of last ten years from 2003 to 2012. The coefficient of correlation was determined through Pearson’s distribution whereas atmospheric temperature was considered as independent and soil temperature was dependent variable. The coefficients were calculated distinctly taking the soil temperature not only at several depths but also at separate faces of a day commensurate to overlying air temperature. The results indicated strong positive correlation up to 20 cm depth of soil which blatantly validates the premise of the study. The procedure was concluded with the regression analyses through which dependent variable (soil temperature) is projected corresponding to independent variable (air temperature). All possible coefficients of correlation were gathered in order to make the final comparison and analyses over the variation of magnitudes. Anomalies at which two variables are unable to continue linearity were portrayed in figures of the paper. Finally, influence graph is made to illustrate relative influence at different nominated depth of soil based on the coefficient of correlation.
Article
Full-text available
An ecological study of the microarthropod communities from Las Sardinas cave was undertaken. Four different biotopes were studied over the course of a year: bat guano, litter, soil under the chemoautotrophic bacteria colonies and as a control, plain soil without litter or guano. A total of 27,913 specimens of a total of 169 species were collected. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed that there is a significant effect of biotope on the recorded density, and the post hoc Tukey's test showed that guano is the most different biotope with the highest value of density recorded. The interaction between season and biotope variables was not significant. In the most extreme case, 99 percent of the microarthropods in soil under chemoautotrophic bacteria were mites, mainly in the family Histiostomidae.
Article
Full-text available
Droughts have important implications for the natural and socio­ economic environments of southern Africa. An understanding of the relation­ ship between soil moisture content and vegetation condition is necessary to predict the impact of those events. In this paper we explore a methodological approach for early drought prediction. We hypothesize that the amplitude of the diurnal temperature cycle of a vegetated surface, determined using remote sensing measurements, can indicate soil moisture content and vegetation condition. We present a preliminary analysis of three months of soil moisture and temperature data collected at Skukuza, South Africa. The results support our basic hypothesis yet suggest that further work is required to better understand the coupling of these parameters. The SiB2 model will be adapted for this purpose.
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports the results of a continuous monitoring program carried out in Pozalagua show cave (Vizcaya, Spain) between April 2001 and June 2004. The study focused on understanding the variations in the microclimatic parameters inside the cave to assess the effect of visitors and to design a visitor regime to minimize impact and optimize its carrying capacity. The main parameters susceptible to variations due to a massive influx of visitors are the internal temperature of the cave and the concentration of CO 2 in the cave air. Proposed management measures focus on reducing the human-induced variations of both parameters.
Book
Caves and other subterranean habitats with their often strange (even bizarre) inhabitants have long been objects of fascination, curiosity, and debate. The question of how such organisms have evolved, and the relative roles of natural selection and genetic drift, has engaged subterranean biologists for decades. Indeed, these studies continue to inform the general theory of adaptation and evolution. Subterranean ecosystems generally exhibit little or no primary productivity and, as extreme ecosystems, provide general insights into ecosystem function. The Biology of Caves and other Subterranean Habitats offers a concise but comprehensive introduction to cave ecology and evolution. Whilst there is an emphasis on biological processes occurring in these unique environments, conservation and management aspects are also considered. The monograph includes a global range of examples from more than 25 countries, and case studies from both caves and non-cave subterranean habitats; it also provides a clear explanation of specialized terms used by speleologists. This accessible text will appeal to researchers new to the field and to the many professional ecologists and conservation practitioners requiring a concise but authoritative overview. Its engaging style will also make it suitable for undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in cave and subterranean biology. Its more than 650 references, 150 of which are new since the first edition, provide many entry points to the research literature.
Article
Information content may be used as a measure of the diversity of a many-species biological collection. The diversity of small collections, all of whose members can be identified and counted, is defined by Brillouin's measure of information. With larger collections it becomes necessary to estimate diversity; what is estimated is Shannon's measure of information which is a function of the population proportions of the several species. Different methods of estimation are appropriate for different types of collections. If the collection can be randomly sampled and the total number of species is known, Basharin's formula may be used. With a random sample from a population containing an unknown number of species, Good's method is sometimes applicable. With a patchy population of sessile organisms, such as a plant community, random samples are unobtainable since the contents of a randomly placed quadrat are not a random sample of the parent population. To estimate the diversity of such a community a method is proposed whereby the sample size is progressively increased by addition of new quadrats; as this is done the diversity of the pooled sample increases and then levels off. The mean increment in total diversity that results from enlarging the sample still more then provides an estimate of the diversity per individual in the whole population.