International Journal of
and Public Health
Development of the WHO Environmental Noise
Guidelines for the European Region: An Introduction
Dorota Jarosi ´nska 1, *ID , Marie-Ève Héroux 1, Poonum Wilkhu 1, James Creswick 1,
Jos Verbeek 2ID , Jördis Wothge 1and Elizabet Paunovi´c 1
1World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Ofﬁce for Europe, European Centre for Environment
and Health, Platz der Vereinten Nationen 1, 53113 Bonn, Germany; firstname.lastname@example.org (M.-È.H.);
email@example.com (P.W.); firstname.lastname@example.org (J.C.); email@example.com (J.W.); firstname.lastname@example.org (E.P.)
2Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Cochrane Work, Neulaniementie 4, 70701 Kuopio, Finland;
Received: 12 April 2018; Accepted: 18 April 2018; Published: 20 April 2018
Following the Parma Declaration on Environment and Health adopted at the Fifth
Ministerial Conference (2010), the Ministers and representatives of Member States in the WHO
European Region requested the World Health Organization (WHO) to develop updated guidelines
on environmental noise, and called upon all stakeholders to reduce children’s exposure to noise,
including that from personal electronic devices. The WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the
European Region will provide evidence-based policy guidance to Member States on protecting human
health from noise originating from transportation (road trafﬁc, railway and aircraft), wind turbine
noise, and leisure noise in settings where people spend the majority of their time. Compared to
previous WHO guidelines on noise, the most signiﬁcant developments include: consideration of
new evidence associating environmental noise exposure with health outcomes, such as annoyance,
cardiovascular effects, obesity and metabolic effects (such as diabetes), cognitive impairment,
sleep disturbance, hearing impairment and tinnitus, adverse birth outcomes, quality of life,
mental health, and wellbeing; inclusion of new noise sources to reﬂect the current noise environment;
and the use of a standardized framework (grading of recommendations, assessment, development,
and evaluations: GRADE) to assess evidence and develop recommendations. The recommendations
in the guidelines are underpinned by systematic reviews of evidence on several health outcomes
related to environmental noise as well as evidence on interventions to reduce noise exposure and/or
health outcomes. The overall body of evidence is published in this Special Issue.
noise; WHO environmental noise guidelines; noise abatement; Environmental Noise
Directive; health; wellbeing
Normal sounds become noise when they are unwanted or harmful. Exposure to environmental
noise is associated with an increased risk of negative physiological and psychological health outcomes.
Although noise is a product of many human activities, widespread exposure to noise from transport
(road trafﬁc, railway, and aircraft) is of major concern, affecting the health and wellbeing of many
people in Europe. To this effect, environmental noise features among the top environmental hazards to
physical and mental health and wellbeing in Europe [1,2].
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018,15, 813; doi:10.3390/ijerph15040813 www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018,15, 813 2 of 7
2. Policy Context
The World Health Organization Regional Ofﬁce for Europe comprises ﬁfty-three Member States
covering a vast geographical region from the Atlantic to the Paciﬁc oceans. The European Environment
and Health Process and its Ministerial Conferences guide the regional efforts to address the main
environmental challenges to human health. The Parma Declaration on Environment and Health,
adopted by the Member States of the WHO European Region at the Fifth Ministerial Conference
in 2010, made implicit the need to reduce exposure to noise, and called upon the WHO to develop
suitable guidelines .
At the European Union scale, the Environmental Noise Directive (END) 2002/49/EC offers a
common approach to avoiding and preventing exposure to environmental noise, thereby reducing its
harmful effects, as well as preserving quiet areas [
]. In implementing this directive, the European
Commission is supported by the European Environment Agency (EEA), which gathers the noise
exposure data and maintains the Noise Observation and Information Service for Europe (NOISE) .
The END (2002/49/EC) is a primary legislative tool for achieving one of the priority objectives
of the Seventh Environment Action Programme, of “signiﬁcantly reducing noise pollution in the EU
by 2020 and thereby moving closer to World Health Organization (WHO) recommended levels” [
The directive sets out methods for collecting data on noise levels. These END outputs, then, provide a
basis for developing measures to reduce noise levels at source.
3. Data on Noise Exposure Levels
The current state of knowledge on noise sources and population exposure in Europe is largely
based on data submitted by the member countries of the European Union (EU) on a ﬁve-year cycle
to the EEA [
]. The EEA database covers noise sources speciﬁed in the END (such as major roads,
major railways, major airports, and urban agglomerations) and number of people exposed to each of
the noise sources inside and outside urban areas. Noise levels (L) are calculated and represented in 5-dB
interval bands at L
55 dB (an average of day, evening, and night) and at night (
These long-term average noise exposure indicators are reasonable and common predictors of adverse
health effects in a population. However, other noise indicators might be useful to reﬂect special
noise situations. In the case of noisy but short-lived events, like shooting noise or noise emitted by
trains, Lmax is often used; for example, Lmax is an indicator of the maximum sound pressure reached
during a deﬁned measurement period. Used for setting noise limits, it is also considered in studies to
determine certain health effects (e.g., awakening reactions) [8,9].
New scientiﬁc evidence, as also illustrated by the systematic reviews published in this Special
Issue, shows that health and wellbeing can be affected at lower noise levels than speciﬁed by the
]; however, as reporting for these lower levels is not required under the END, there is a paucity
of data on numbers of the population exposed below 55 dB. Analyses of the available noise exposure
data show consistently that the dominant source of noise in Europe is road trafﬁc; the second one is
noise from railways, followed closely by aircraft noise. An extension of the mapping of noise exposure
to the levels below 55 dB would expand the knowledge base and facilitate the evaluation of progress
in preventing adverse health effects.
Despite substantial progress over the last ﬁfteen years in data mapping and development of noise
action plans, there is room for further improvement. For example, in 2013, only 44% of the expected
data was delivered in the latest reporting round under the END [
]. In particular, noise exposure data
from the eastern part of the Region is lacking, and inconsistencies in quality and quantity of reported
data make the discernment of noise exposure patterns difﬁcult.
The data related to noise sources and exposure information as prescribed by the END,
combined with the data on industrial activity, urban areas, land use, and areas protected for the
beneﬁt of nature reported by countries to the EEA, were the basis of a ﬁrst spatial assessment of areas
in Europe potentially unaffected by noise pollution caused by human activity [
]. Protection of such
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018,15, 813 3 of 7
areas, largely undisturbed by noise from trafﬁc, industry, or recreational activities is vitally important
also from the perspective of human health protection.
4. Burden of Disease in Europe
Noise exposure is associated with a number of adverse health outcomes. Auditory effects of
noise include hearing impairment and tinnitus, whilst nonauditory effects refer to cardiovascular
and metabolic effects; adverse birth outcomes; poor quality of life, mental health, and wellbeing;
annoyance; cognitive impairment; and poor sleep. Sleep disturbance and annoyance, mostly related to
road trafﬁc noise, are the most prevalent effects from noise.
The WHO Global Burden of Disease (GBD) measures the burden of disease using the
disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) , which combines years of life lost due to premature mortality
and years of life lost due to time lived in states of less than full health. The DALYs lost due to
noise-induced health outcomes in the western part of Europe were estimated to be equivalent to:
903,000 years for sleep disturbance, 654,000 years for annoyance, 61,000 years for ischaemic heart
disease, 45,000 years for cognitive impairment of children, and 22,000 years for tinnitus [
]. The burden
of disease could not be calculated for the eastern and central part of the WHO European Region due to
a lack of reported noise exposure data.
5. Why the Urgency?
With projections of rapid urban growth in Europe (80% of the citizens are expected to be living in
or near a city by 2020) [
] and increased demand for road, rail, and air transport [
], a simultaneous
increase in noise exposure and the associated adverse health effects can be anticipated. Hence, it is
pertinent to continue positioning noise mitigation as a cross-cutting theme on the agenda of urban
development and transport policies.
Available reported data on long-term average exposure show that 65% of Europeans living in
major urban areas are exposed to daytime noise levels greater than 55 dB, and more than 20% to
night-time noise levels greater than 50 dB, at which adverse health effects occur frequently [
As shown by the Eurostat surveys, noise from neighbours (deﬁned as noise from, e.g.., neighbouring
apartments, staircases, or water pipes) and streets (described as noise linked to trafﬁc, business,
factories, agricultural activities, clubs, and yard) is also perceived to be a source of annoyance.
An estimated 18% of citizens of the 28 member countries of the European Union reported being
exposed to noise from neighbours or the streets in their living areas in 2016, a decrease from 24% in
]. As data on noise created by neighbours is not collected through the noise-exposure
mapping process (END 2002/49/EC), such a noise has not been considered in the development of the
WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines.
Furthermore, reliance on wind energy has increased in the last years in Europe, with wind farms
being an important component of Europe’s shift towards a greener, renewable energy supply. However,
the noise from increased installations of wind turbines have resulted in higher public annoyance in the
Finally, concerns on the increasing exposure to noise in leisure settings are growing along with
operation of personal music devices at unsafe volumes. WHO estimated that young people worldwide
could be at risk of hearing loss due to these unsafe listening practices [
]. In the EU, a conservative
estimate of users of devices such as personal music players and mobile phones with music functions
lies in the range of 50–100 million people [
]. Noting the possible effects of wind turbines and personal
devices on health, scientiﬁc literature pertaining to these noise sources have been considered in the
development of the Noise Guidelines.
6. The WHO Guidelines
In 1999 and 2009, WHO published guidelines to protect human health, speciﬁcally from
community noise and night noise exposure [
]. Over the years, there have been a number of
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018,15, 813 4 of 7
key developments and a substantial increase in the number and quality of studies on environmental
noise exposure and health outcomes, with newly found associations with annoyance; cardiovascular
effects; obesity and metabolic effects (such as diabetes); cognitive impairment; sleep disturbance;
hearing impairment and tinnitus; adverse birth outcomes; and quality of life, mental health,
and wellbeing. Another development is that whilst earlier studies focused mainly on road trafﬁc
and aircraft noise [
], newer studies also include noise from other sources such as railways and
In light of this new evidence, the WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European
Region are being developed in accordance with the “WHO Handbook for Guideline Development”,
which sets out a clear framework to ensure rigorous adherence to the systematic use of evidence as the
basis for developing public health recommendations [
]. Systematic reviews of scientiﬁc literature
guided by speciﬁc key questions using the PICO or PECCOS (population, intervention/exposure,
control, confounder, outcome, and study design) structure form the basis of the recommendations in
The two main questions that frame the guideline recommendations are:
In the general population exposed to environmental noise, what is the exposure–response
relationship between exposure to environmental noise (reported as various indicators) and
the proportion of persons with a validated measure of health outcome, when adjusted
In the general population exposed to environmental noise, are interventions effective in reducing
exposure to and/or health outcomes from environmental noise?
The development of the guidelines involves the collaboration of many groups, including the
WHO steering group, the Guideline Development Group (GDG), the External Review Group (ERG)
and the Systematic Review Team (SRT). The exact roles and composition of these groups, set out in the
WHO Handbook for Guideline Development, are brieﬂy summarized here :
The prime responsibility of the GDG lies in the development of evidence-based recommendations,
based on the outcomes of the systematic reviews of evidence as well as careful
consideration of other factors (such as values and preferences, balance of beneﬁts and harms,
and resource implications).
The SRT is comprised of leading experts in the ﬁeld of environmental noise and health, and their
role is to review all relevant literature in the context of the guidelines.
- The ERG is composed of thematic experts as well as stakeholders representing individuals who
are likely to be affected by the recommendations and interested parties. They are asked to
participate at different stages to comment on clarity and implications for implementation.
Declaration of interests for each member of these groups are collected and managed to prevent
bias from conﬂicts of interest. More information on the types of interests that need to be declared can
be found in the handbook.
Seven systematic reviews of evidence were commissioned by WHO to assess the relationship
between environmental noise and the following health outcomes: (1) annoyance; (2) cardiovascular and
metabolic effects; (3) cognitive impairment; (4) effects on sleep; (5) hearing impairment and tinnitus;
(6) adverse birth outcomes; and (7) quality of life, mental health, and wellbeing. An eighth systematic
review was commissioned to assess the effectiveness of environmental noise interventions in reducing
exposure and associated impacts on health. The reviews separately assess the environmental noise
coming from the following sources, for each relevant health outcome: road trafﬁc, railway, aircraft,
wind turbines, and leisure. In the context of the WHO environmental noise guidelines, leisure noise
was deﬁned as outdoor and indoor exposure during leisure activities (such as discotheques, cafes,
festivals, concerts, or personal music devices). Due to the individualized retrieval of evidence for
each of the systematic reviews, the timeframes of the included literature varied; an indication of the
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018,15, 813 5 of 7
temporal coverage of the studies included can be found in speciﬁc systematic reviews. A detailed
description of the methodology used to conduct the systematic evidence reviews, including individual
protocols, has been prepared as part of the guidelines development process and will be published on
the WHO Regional Ofﬁce for Europe website.
The key objectives of the systematic evidence reviews were to assess the strength of the association
between exposure to environmental noise and incidence or prevalence of adverse health effects,
and where possible, to quantify the risk of these health effects with an incremental increase in noise
exposure. A detailed description of the methodology used to conduct the systematic evidence reviews
can be found in the systematic reviews published in this Special Issue.
WHO has adopted the grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluations
(GRADE) approach [
] in order to assess the quality of evidence and develop and report
recommendations in the form of guidelines. GRADE is widely acknowledged as an effective method
of rating the quality of the evidence and linking evidence to clinical recommendations because this
approach facilitates judgments about the certainty in the observed effect estimates and the strength
of the recommendations. The limitations to the application of the original GRADE in environmental
health have been discussed in the literature [
]. Speciﬁcally in the context of the environmental noise
guidelines, the GRADE approach was adapted to the observational studies, which are usually the
only source of research evidence in this area. The main adaptations made to the GRADE approach for
environmental noise are also discussed in the systematic reviews. The upcoming guidelines focus on
the WHO European Region and provide policy guidance to its Member States that is compatible with
the noise indicators commonly used in the END, namely Lden and Lnight.
7. Looking Ahead
The evidence summarized and presented in the systematic evidence reviews is the basis for the
development of recommendations in the WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European
Region. Aimed at decision-makers and technical experts, the new guidelines offer not only scientiﬁc,
evidence-based rationale for identifying levels, at which environmental noise is related to a signiﬁcant
health impact, but also recommendations for actions to reduce exposure. For all who are involved in
health and environmental impact assessment, such as policy makers, advocacy bodies, and researchers,
these guidelines make recommendations on noise levels above which we are conﬁdent that there
are health impacts for some noise sources and provide guidance for quantifying these impacts.
Moreover, the guidelines highlight critical data and research gaps to be addressed in future studies.
Although developed for the WHO European Region, the guidelines provide a general framework for
use by a global audience.
As policy-makers begin to address rapid urbanization and sustainable economic development,
the evidence systematically reviewed as part of the WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the
European Region offers a useful reference for establishing the links between noise pollution and
public health, especially taking into account effects on large populations in urban environments.
Governments and communities are encouraged to use the opportunity to champion a multidisciplinary
approach to help mainstream noise mitigation in their sustainable development processes.
The World Health Organization Regional Ofﬁce for Europe acknowledges funding from the
Swiss Federal Ofﬁce for the Environment and the German Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation
and Nuclear Safety. Marie-Ève Héroux was a WHO Technical Ofﬁcer on air quality and noise until
The Regional Ofﬁce thanks all contributors to the WHO Steering Group, Guidelines Development Group,
Systematic Review Team, and External Review Group for their invaluable contributions in the guideline
development process. All rights in the work, including ownership of the original work and copyright thereof, is
vested in WHO. The WHO Regional Ofﬁce for Europe has granted the Publisher permission for the reproduction
of this article.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018,15, 813 6 of 7
Dorota Jarosi´nska coordinated the guideline development process; Marie-Ève Héroux
was a responsible technical ofﬁcer (until March 2017); James Creswick was in charge of communication aspects;
Poonum Wilkhu and Jördis Wothge were WHO consultants; Jos Verbeek was a methodologist. Elizabet Paunovi´c
supervised the overall process of the guideline development. Dorota Jarosi´nska, Marie-Ève Héroux,
James Creswick and Poonum Wilkhu drafted the manuscript; Jos Verbeek and Jördis Wothge contributed to its
speciﬁc sections. All authors read, commented on and approved the ﬁnal manuscript.
Conﬂicts of Interest: The authors declare no conﬂict of interest.
The authors alone are responsible for the views expressed in this publication and they do not
necessarily represent the decisions or policies of the World Health Organization.
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