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The main objective of the present study is to know the relationship between society and technology, where emphasize have been put on development process under modern science and technology and its perspectives. Technology has completely revolutionized present era in every aspect of life especially dealing with society. Technology has transformed the methods of education, communication, business, art and literature, and has resulted in the enhancement in the core spheres of life, before this blessed gift the knowledge regarding the above mentioned spheres was limited because of the restricted methods and methodologies etc. Due to blessings of science and technology we are now able to check the advancement of every department working around our society with a single click of internet. It is technology which helps us to differentiate about the development process of all sections of society and help us to maintain the development process. Technology has brought our society close to each other where we can take any initiative about any social issue or discuss any matter of concern regarding the society by sitting in our homes like using video or audio conferencing. This paper will elucidate all over development process of our society under the shades of science and technology.
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Scholedge International Journal of Business
Policy & Governance
ISSN 2394-3351, Vol.05, Issue 1 (2018)
Pg 1-8.
DOI: 10.19085/journal.sijbpg050101
Published by: Scholedge Publishing
Development of Society under the Modern Technology- A Review
Aasif Ali Naikoo1
Shashank Shekhar Thakur2
Tariq Ahmad Guroo3
Aadil Altaf Lone4
1,3,4Research Scholar, Department of Sociology and Social Work
2Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology and Social Work
Barkatullah University,
Bhopal-462026, (M.P) 462026
The main objective of the present study is to know the relationship between society and technology, where
emphasize have been put on development process under modern science and technology and its perspectives.
Technology has completely revolutionized present era in every aspect of life especially dealing with society.
Technology has transformed the methods of education, communication, business, art and literature, and has resulted
in the enhancement in the core spheres of life, before this blessed gift the knowledge regarding the above mentioned
spheres was limited because of the restricted methods and methodologies etc. Due to blessings of science and
technology we are now able to check the advancement of every department working around our society with a single
click of internet. It is technology which helps us to differentiate about the development process of all sections of
society and help us to maintain the development process. Technology has brought our society close to each other
where we can take any initiative about any social issue or discuss any matter of concern regarding the society by
sitting in our homes like using video or audio conferencing. This paper will elucidate all over development process
of our society under the shades of science and technology.
KEY WORDS: Society, Science, Technology, Development.
As a whole science and technology is having a great impact on society. The incorporation of such blessings in
society is having a great influence on social interaction. It is apparent from the existing knowledge that new
technologies brunt on the social communication within households in many different ways. Technology has bought
the new methods of communication which made us easy to identify and interact with someone who is known or
unknown on universal level. Science and technology is playing a role of bridge for the rural upliftment and social
development. It is technology which transformed the human race from Stone Age to modern industrial age. Science
and technology not only influenced our communication method but also enlightened our rural economy by its
modern agricultural methods. Modern technology and scientific tools enhanced the economic growth of the country
and made every impossible work an easy task to handle. It is technology which impacts globally the social life and
provides opportunities for every social person to become conscious about society and to achieve societal goals. The
word technology is combination of two words Techno and Logy (Techno) means art, application or skill and
(Logy) means science and learning. It means technology is the way of methods and tools that a society has created in
order to make possible solutions of present problems and to provide essential demands for the community.
Nowadays relationship has become too much dominated by the use of modern technology like social media, which
reduced the distance and brought the society close to each other. Technology is recognized as the indicator of social
and cultural awareness because it has improved the quality of life and developed the cultural assets in the
community. Science and technology has a great impact on education system of society. As we know education is the
important area of life, the modern technological methods made our education system not only good but also provide
us knowledge of unknown facts which were beyond the imagination of human mind. (Younis, M.B, 2015)[1]
Science and technology has a great impact on labour industry, in the past labours had to suffer too much in
performing any task but due to the use of technology labours earn more in shorter period of time and by easy
methods which led the positive impact in their lives. Technology has brought a revolution in every aspect of social
life; machines are working instead of humans who have a great tendency to perform tasks with accuracy and
performance. It is technology which is used to identify any kind of problem in the human body and not only to
identify but also are these problems cured with proper treatment. All human activities are influenced by technology
like transportation, housing, nutrition, work, leisure, even art and imagination. Science and Technology is seen as
organized search for truth and objective knowledge, because science tells us the reality behind any process and also
aware us about the improper use of any substance which is dangerous for human life. So, it affects directly our
social life. Technology helps us to use modern skills and modern equipments to perform any task within less time
and with proper results. if we look towards our daily lives we use technology at every point of time the blessings
like T.V, radio, computer, washing machines, microwave ovens, ATM, trains, airplanes, cars, mobiles, etc are all
means of technology. So, our social life is totally dependent on science and technology. (Khulaifi, M, 2002) [2]
Review of Literature:
[1]Al- Majali (2007) [3] Analyzed in his study “impact of internet use on the social relations among university
students in Jordanian society”. During his study he took 325 respondents for the study purpose from Mutah
University. The study shows that social relations increased and people came close to each other due to the use of
internet and students spend too much time on internet. The study also shows that students use internet mostly for the
research purpose and mostly they use it within the campus.
[2]Lailah (2000) [4] conducted a study on the negative impact of media and information technology in our society.
This study helps to erode the value system which tilting to family interaction. This study also helps us to understand
and aware us in upbringing the young and adult ones in a moral way which will help in supporting their identity.
[3]Al Yousef (2006) [5] carried out a study on "Advantages and Disadvantages of Modern Technologies in this
study he reported negative impact on different parameters of health of an individual by the excessive use of e-mass
media . The study realized that addiction of internet will lead to different losses such as: Loss of self control,
negligence of personal status, wastage of time and avoidance of relations. According to this study people who get
free access of internet are most risky towards internet addiction. Students are even misusing modern technology
which has negative impact on their lives. This study was carried out to check the negative impact of modern
technology and make people aware about its proper utilization because technology plays an important role in the
lives of people and society as a whole.
[4]Venkatesh and Vitalari (1985) [6] analyzed a research that shows technology has affected the life of a household
by different means and it has become a basis for future social behavior. Technology has emerged a new faces in
families and also in individuals life. Technology has changed the structure and function of social system. One of the
main impact of technology is found on social interaction between family members and individuals and also the way
of communication between them.
[5]Irfan et al (2006) [7] conducted a research on role of mass media in the dissemination of agricultural technologies
among farmers. This study shows the available technologies, if adopted by farmers according to the
recommendations of agricultural scientists. it will enhance the rate of production and can also increase the capital
income. According to this study there is an essential need of implementing technological and scientific tools and
techniques in the modern agricultural sector for the betterment of farmers.
[6]Siobhan McGrath (2012) [8] analyzed a study based on impact of new media technologies on social interaction in
the households. This study analysis that new media technologies like computer, television, mobile phones and other
types of modern technologies have influenced the human life with a huge impact. The study also reveals that our day
today life is totally dependent on modern technology and it has made the easy possible ways of social interaction.
[7]Mohammad Bin Younis (2015) [9] carried out a study on impact of technology on society a review: this study
analysis that modern technology is misused by the members of society which lead the negative impact on economics
,religious and social aspect of human behavior. This research also focuses our attention towards society and also it
aware us that society should make cooperative efforts in order to protect the entire society from the dangerous of
modern technology.
Research Methodology:
This study is basically descriptive and analytical in nature. In this study an attempt has been made to analyze the
development of society under modern technology. This study is based on secondary data such as reports and articles
which are published in books, magazines and journals. Online lectures and awareness programmes on T.V and
Radio were also utilized by the researcher during the preparation of this article. At theoretical level efforts were
made to collect the related material regarding the research article. The whole study revolves around science,
technology and society and this study shows the development of society under modern technology. This research
contains some reviews of already published articles and books which were published in relation with this article.
The available literature regarding the development of society under modern technology has been discussed out to get
a clear understanding of our selected research problem. So the researcher tries his best to carry out the study in an
appropriate way. In this paper the main stress has been given on the literature of India and its neighboring countries.
To know the impact of science and technology on education.
To know the impact of science and technology on Agriculture.
To know the impact of science and technology on Environment.
To know the impact of science and technology on Communication.
To know the impact of science and technology on Health and hygiene.
To know the impact of science and technology on Infrastructure.
To know the impact of science and technology on government and it’s planning.
India is the 2nd most populous country in world after china which is a big challenge for the society to overcome from
such issues. To neutralize such issues science and technology is the main blessings to fulfill the needs of people and
to make healthy environment for social beings. In India more than 70% of the population resides in the rural areas,
inputs of science and technology in agriculture, irrigation, water management, education, health, energy, industry,
transport, communications, employment generation, housing, etc. are crucial. The size of the land holdings is very
small and becoming smaller with increase in population; technological inputs are therefore, essential, to increase
productivity and economic viability.
Impact of science and technology on education:
Development of society is recognized by the development in the field of education. Science and technology has
brought revolution in the education system and opened the new era of education where you can learn each and every
thing by the modern techniques. The present education system reflects a system of standards from the past.
Technology is being used by students on daily basis such as web surfing, texting, email, etc. By the use of modern
Fig. 1- Online lectures
technology students can listen and watch best lectures on audio and video conferencing. In modern time education
system is blind without the use of internet because internet helps us to make the education more purposeful and
more interesting. (Baytak, A, Tarman, B, & Ayas, C. 2011) [10], Students can download the research articles,
books, journals, Magazines and can check the status of their research articles, their application forms, their results,
etc. in modern time technology has made our education system open and our knowledge is based on real facts.
Science helps us to discover new techniques which bring the modernization in education system and students use
these techniques and technologies to work fast and with accuracy. Technology helps us to calculate faster than
human mind. It is also used by students to magnify the small objects which we cannot see with the human eye
during any experiment process. Finally we can say that modern science and technology is the back boon of
education system and also government should facilitate each and every institute with such modern techniques to
make the education system more rational and verifiable. (Christen 2009) [11]
Impact of science and technology on agriculture:
Fig. 2- Modern methods of agriculture
India is an agricultural country in which 72% of population belongs from rural India whose main occupation is
agriculture. Science and technology has a great impact on agricultural sector. it has a significant impact like
irrigation systems, tractors, water pumps, electricity ,best quality seeds, cold stores, fertilizer applications, weather
update, pesticides , fungicides, spray motors, etc optimizes the farmers efficiency and such applications save time
and money to the farmers. By the use of modern technology our agricultural economy and food supply got increased
which led the positive impact on farmers and on the national economy. ( Abbas, et al, 2013)[12] In modern time
technology made it possible to grow crops even in a desert by use of agricultural biotechnology. This type of
technology has been engineered to survive plants in drought conditions. Crops are being made resistant to draughts
and pests by introducing traits into existing genes of plants through genetic engineering. Modern agricultural
techniques help a little land holder farmers to cultivate vast quantities of food and yarn in shorter period of time.
Modern transportation helps farmers to make food stuffs available on market in time from the farm and also helps
them to transport fertilizers or other farm products from one place to another. Under modern technology farmers mix
nutrients in water in order to improve the quantity of crops. Technology brought the revolution in agriculture and it
still needs more to do in this field to save the life of farmers and also to increase the economic growth of our
country. (Behrens, et al, 1984)[13].
Impact of science and technology on environment:
Fig.3 - Solar energy the eco-friendly form of energy.
Technology has affected all the aspects of social world, environment is one of them. A good environment belongs to
a good society. In modern time people of India suffer too much by the environmental pollution which has become
the big social issue because people are not using the proper methods of modern technology to protect the social
environment. Modern technology is the main power to preserve the natural habitat because technology has provided
us such tools which help us to check the levels of environmental pollution such as: water pollution, soil pollution,
noise pollution, air pollution, etc. Technology aware us about the life cycle of a product and its consequences on
environment. Technology helps in analysis of raw materials that need to be mined or grown and aware us how to
disposal the products which are no longer needed. Computers optimize industrial processes to conserve energy and
to reduce waste. By the help of technology solar energy is being used which is pollute less and long lasting source of
energy. In past trains were using coals as the main fuel which was producing large amount of carbon monoxide
which is a harmful gas but by the modern technology electricity is used instead of coal which produces more energy
and also it is free from pollution. The used materials like rubber, plastic, steel, iron, paper and water etc are recycled
and used again and again to conserve energy and to protect environment from degradation. Infrastructure and
development under technology made a positive impact on our society such as: water supply tanks, sewage lines,
mecdamization of roads, public gardens and fitness centers are all important aspects of social life and add the beauty
of our environment. People should use modern techniques in proper way to protect the environment from pollution.
(Adam, Nov. 2011)[14]
Impact of science and technology on communication:
Fig. 4- Technology connect families
Communication is the important tool of modern life. The world becomes global village with the advancement of
science and technology especially in information technology. Science and technology has brought the enlightenment
in methods of communication of modern time. People are becoming more dependent on communicating with society
and family through different channels of modern technology. World is moving fast towards development and people
have less time to talk face to face and to visit one anothers residence so they use modern technology to overcome
from these time consuming processes. From the innovation of the telegraph and telephone to the arrival of the
Internet, technology has provided tools to keep people in touch with each other and also express and share their
feelings and opinions with others. Mobile phones not only help us to listen ones voice but also we can watch them
during call. (Emile, 2015) [15], We can also use social networking sites for announcement of social issues and other
awareness programmes. Technology improves the quality of communication and it is helpful for the society by
every means. This can be fruitful in politics and activism. Such as, photos and video clips recorded secretly through
a cell phone can be speedily shared online through websites such as YouTube, face book, twitter and whatsapp.
These social networking sites are being used as a tool for protest. For any social development or social control
technology is the standard key to bring revolution in social communication. (Campbell, et al, 2011) [16].
Impact of science and technology on health and hygiene:
Fig.5- Treatment under modern technology
Advanced technology is applied in many areas of healthcare for diagnosis as well as for medical therapy. Medical
Technology is the use of scientific knowledge to improve the health care by new equipment to make work easier,
pleasant, quick and productive. Now, in modern hospitals, technologists and biomedical engineers are involved in
routine day to day work, research and look after the technical development. The rise in life expectancy, in
particularly the decline in infant mortality, remains some of the most impressive achievements of modern
technology. The invention of modem antibiotics led the positive impact on human health. Decline of the mortality
rate and controlling population contraceptives are the blessings of modern technology which balances the social
setting in the world. Modern technology and scientific methods are used by households to control the diseases and to
check the nutritious food used for good health. Fitness centers are being used on the basis of modern technology to
shape the body into a perfect look. Under the modern technology filtrate plants are being constructed to provide the
quality water to the residents and also government use to grow plants and flowers of different species around the
residential colonies to convert them into hygienic atmosphere. Health is an important component of life and it is
modern technology which helps us to select proper food, proper nutrients, proper calcium and other necessary
requirements for healthy human body. Healthy body produces healthy mind and healthy mind creates innovations
which becomes the building block of technology and finally technology helps in social development. The
introduction of any new technology in medical science must provide better health care and improved quality of life
at affordable expenses without losing human touch. (Timothey, Jan., 1996) [17]
Impact of science and technology on Infrastructure:
Fig. 6- India under modern technology
Infrastructure is the basic unit of development. Modern technology has provided the basic assets for the developing
infrastructure. Developed countries are recognized by solid infrastructure so it is necessary for the country to
become modern in means of infrastructure. Our country is also moving towards a big change in the form of
infrastructure and it has covered almost all the necessary requirements of society such as roads, flyovers, bridges,
hospitals, education institutions, proper housing colonies, public parks, play grounds, public toilets, airports, railway
tracks, shopping malls, vehicle parking zones, proper arrangement of domestic garbage, plantation around the roads,
national parks, etc for the public welfare. Technology is becoming a most important part of the infrastructure in
developed and developing countries. Proper infrastructure makes a proper way for the people of country to adjust in
the society and to adopt the proper social setting. Under the modern technology transportation services work faster
as compared to the past due to the working of modern technology on its right base. Infrastructure strategy should not
only be deeply informed and influenced by the impact and emerging potential of technology, but should also be
based on solid evidence and good advice about what’s possible. The gradual move from using infrastructure in
existing and new traditional infrastructure assets and using the disruptive potential of cloud-based, technology
enabled infrastructure services will not be without its challenges. This is especially true as the new opportunities to
lift the performance and impact of infrastructure through wider use of technology meets resistance from current
procurement systems and cultures. (Dr. Ken, 2012) [18]
Impact of science and technology on Government:
Fig. 7 - Technology becomes mediator between government and society
Government at local levels is facing challenges posed by increased demand for better quality of governance. While
the developed world and some Asian countries have moved very quickly, under the modern technology every sector
of government is empowered through E-Governance. Modern technology helps the government to take every unit of
society under their vigilance and for their better services. ( [19], The country is
reached on transitional stage and people are getting benefits from these services. The most popular services like, e-
education, e-court, e-police, e-transport and e-tax etc. The impact of E-Governance has also been observed in rural
part of India where services like “Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana”, “Kisan Call Centre etc are more popular. India
continues to lag behind in meeting the increasing levels of citizen expectations. (Welch, 2015) [20], The massive
population growth, diversity of cultures, acute poverty and high illiteracy create numerous difficulties in delivery
mechanisms of government services. The existing processes of service delivery and governance need to be
improved. E-governance is the effective use of Information & Communication Technology (ICT) to improve the
system of governance that is in place, and thus provide better services to the Citizens. E-Governance is considered
as a high priority agenda in awareness and development of nation. E-Governance has been recognized as a vital
force for transformational improvement in quality, efficiency and effectiveness of governance. The Good
Governance involves increased participation of the citizens, greater accountability and transparency in the operation
of these government bodies. (Monika, april-2014 [21].
This research article draws light on the development of society under the modern science and technology. In this
research paper we onlooker, that in what ways the modern science and technology are beneficial to society.
Technology has influenced our day to day life at every step and we have become dependent on modern tools of
technology. Technology has blessed us with priceless gifts which were beyond the human imagination. Technology
has done wonders in every field whether it is education, agriculture, communication, health and hygiene,
transportation, environment, infrastructure and Governance. It has brought the revolution in the social process and
made our life so connected with every part of the globe. Science has made the innovations which check the
necessary requirements for human health and social environment. Our resources like water, soil, air, forests and wild
life are prevented from any pollution by the modern means of eco- friendly technology. Our society is followed by
the different revolutions like green revolutions, white revolution , etc all these revolutions have a positive impact on
our society. Technology has made the working process so fast and every action is processed in sharp period of time.
It results in saving the time and money which is a big achievement for the people living in the society. Developed
countries run each and every thing on technology that is why they are becoming more and more developed.
Technology has transformed the old methods of education, art, literature, treatment, communication and skills into
the new shape which brought the light of development in modern society. Our country is also moving fast towards
development but it still needs a lot to do in every aspect of technical field and other sectors of national
developmental services. In order to save social environment people should use modern technology as per the
guidelines of government and should take responsibility in shaping the society towards a great development.
Link contains a video which shows how technology revolutionized our society and how it can affect
our social environment if not used properly.
Limitations of the study:
Technology should be used only for the betterment of the study not to make nuclear powers which has destroyed so
many human races and so many species. Government should ban on porn sites which affect the lives of young ones
and force them to commit any anti-social behavior. Such products should be used which can be recycled and which
are not harmful to the society, so that natural resources should be preserved and our natural habitat will maintain
balance. We should take benefit of technology but we should not become dependent on technology. Such as to walk
a distance of 100 meters we use vehicles which makes us lazy and affects our human health. Social sites should be
under surveillance of Government so that they should be used for public awareness not to raise disputes
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... ICT diffusion influences economic and financial development (Farhadi et al., 2012;Toader et al., 2018;Alshubiri et al., 2019) and will continue to shape the future of our society by changing the ways how people are connected and communicate one to each other, by eliminated geographical borders between nations and bringing societies close to each other (Naikoo et al., 2018), by reducing cultural differences (Kulesz, 2016). ...
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Poverty alleviation has become one of the biggest challenges for many countries and access to financial services is considered to be a key driver of development and economic growth. Finding solutions that can break down barriers that poor people are facing to access formal financial services has become a major concern for researchers, governments, financial institutions. Financial services must reinvent themselves and the adoption of new technology is a crucial key to overhaul their operations and to find innovative solutions to manage customer expectations. The escalation in access and penetration level of mobile phones and the Internet can improve financial inclusion by facilitating easy access to financial services, by providing secure transaction platforms, by reducing transaction costs, by providing a competitive business framework. There has been relatively limited research on the impact of Internet and mobile phones use on financial inclusion, therefore our main purpose was to investigate this linkage in a sample of 11 post-communist countries of the European Union from 1996–2017 using panel cointegration and causality analyses. Firstly, we investigated whether mobile cellular phone subscriptions and the rate of Internet usage affect financial institutions’ access; secondly, we analysed the impact of these variables on financial market access. Results indicate that mobile cellular phone subscriptions positively affect both financial institution access in countries like Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Slovenia and financial market access in Bulgaria, Croatia, and Hungary. Also, a negative relationship between mobile cellular phone subscriptions and financial institution access was noticed in the Czech Republic and regarding financial market access in the Czech Republic and Poland. Our findings also indicate both positive and negative relationships between Internet usage rates and financial institutions and financial markets access. By increasing Internet usage we can improve access to financial institutions in Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland and we can increase financial markets access in Latvia and Slovenia. First published online 13 April 2021
... Biotechnology increases the risk of using biochemical weapons for mass destruction (Xavier, 2014). Even a lot of studies reveal the disadvantages of the internet such as social, ethical, and health problems due to its frequent use (Naikoo et al., 2018). The mentioned ethical problems would agree with us to the statement of Donahue "we are in throes of giant ethical leap that is essentially embracing for all humankind" (Rich, 2013). ...
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Pakistan is basically an agricultural country its development is mainly dependent on this sector. However, agricultural production of the country is much lower than that of many other countries of the world. Even within the country there is a big gap between average and potential yields of various agricultural crops. It clearly indicates that the available technologies, if adopted by farmers according to the recommendations, can enhance agricultural production considerably. Therefore, there is a dire need to apply science and technology in the field of agriculture. In order to achieve this objective, the extension agencies are disseminating new technologies through different means including mass media (radio, TV & print media). The present study was planned to determine the role of mass media in the dissemination of agricultural technologies among the ultimate users farmers. Lahore district was selected for this study. A random sampling technique was used for selecting sample. The total sample size was 120 respondents. Data were collected through a pretested interview schedule. The results revealed that a simple majority (54.1%) of the respondents gave 1 st preference to television, 25.0% gave 2 nd preference to radio, and 16.7% gave 3rd preference to print media as source of agricultural information. A vast majority of the respondents did not listen/watch agricultural radio/TV broadcasts regularly or occasionally. With regard to effectiveness, the respondents ranked TV, radio and print media as 1st, 2nd and 3rd, respectively.
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An empirical study of 282 users of home computers was conducted to explore the relationship between computer use and shifts in time allocation patterns in the household. Major changes in time allocated to various activities were detected. Prior experience with computers (i.e., prior to purchase of the home computer) was found to have a significant impact on the time allocation patterns in the household. The study provides evidence that significant behavior changes can occur when people adopt personal computers in their homes.
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The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the experiences of six children using technologies in their education. Data were collected via in-depth interviews, classroom observations, and home observations. The results showed that students have commonperceptions toward their experience with technology integration. Furthermore, the following four themes emerged; the value of technology, authority over learning, misuses and misconceptions, and the border of integration.
This article asks how Internet use, citizen satisfaction with e-government, and citizen trust in government are interrelated. We first review the literature on trust and explore how radical information technologies may work to alter the production or maintenance of trust. We then develop hypotheses about how citizens' experience with e-government, satisfaction with e-government and government Web sites, and trust in government are interrelated. Moreover, the model for e-government and Web site satisfaction incorporates citizen perspectives on electronic transaction, transparency, and interactivity. Using data obtained from the Council on Excellence in Government, we then develop and test a two-stage multiple-equation model that simultaneously predicts experience, satisfaction, and trust. Findings indicate that government Web site use is positively associated with e-government satisfaction and Web site satisfaction and that e-government satisfaction is positively associated with trust in government. We also find that while citizens are generally satisfied with the electronic provision of information (transparency), there is some dissatisfaction with the transaction and interactivity of Web sites. We conclude that electronic government strategies-transaction, transparency, and interactivity-are important factors that directly affect e-government satisfaction and indirectly affect trust. Individuals who use government Web sites are not only critical consumers but also demanding citizens.
The agricultural sector dominates the economy of Pakistan, providing food, employment, income and foreign exchange. Thus, the development of country mainly depends on the development of agriculture. Agricultural extension, which is essentially a message delivery system, has a major role to play in agricultural development. The electronic media has a central role in facilitating the exposure of farmers to the latest information. In order to asses the existing role of electronic media in the dissemination of sugarcane technologies, 180 sugarcane growers were taken as study respondents through stratified random sampling technique. Extension services and use of electronic media were found to be the most reliable sources for getting information regarding technologies.
This study examined whether and how mobile communication influences the extent to which one engages with new people in public settings. Contrary to our expectation, general use of the technology in public did not detract from conversing with strangers. Shifting focus from where one uses the mobile phone to how it is used, we found that uses for coordination and news each lead to increased conversations with strangers in public settings, while relational use detracted from them. The findings also reveal an interactive effect such that those who use mobile technology for news and frequently use it in public were more likely to engage with strangers in public. The discussion offers interpretation of the findings and directions for future research.
Environmental policy discussions increasingly focus on issues related to technological change. This is partly because the environmental consequences of social activity are frequently affected by the rate and direction of technological change, and partly because environmental policy interventions can themselves create constraints and incentives that have significant effects on the path of technological progress. This chapter summarizes current thinking on technological change in the broader economics literature, surveys the growing economic literature on the interaction between technology and the environment, and explores the normative implications of these analyses. We begin with a brief overview of the economics of technological change, and then examine theory and empirical evidence on invention, innovation, and diffusion and the related literature on the effects of environmental policy on the creation of new, environmentally friendly technology. We conclude with suggestions for further research on technological change and the environment.
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Khulaifi, M, (2002) the impact of the internet in the community: A field study, Alam Al Koteb, 22(5) and 6, pp. 469-502.
The use of the Internet and its impact on social relations among university students, An Empirical Study, lighthouse
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The role of mass media and information technology in the family disruption: monitoring the movement of the reaction from the center to the margin
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