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Influence of Starter Fertilizer and Calcium Nitrate Rates on Vegetative Growth, Yield and Nutrational Quality of Cabbage

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... The main problem with calcium lies in its slow or non-transfer between cells, and the best solution to reduce the deficiency of this element and its damage to the plant lies in spraying it on the vegetative group to increase its concentration in the leaves [13]. The data of [14] also indicated that foliar spraying of calcium on the plant cabbage had a positive significant effect on stem length 15.83, 15.92 cm (Ca1) 16.06, 16.00 cm(Ca2) 16.38, 16.56 cm(Ca3), as well as the number of outer leaves and the thickness of the outer leaves. Micronutrients play an important role in all stages of plant development and are essential for growth primarily due to their function as essential components of various enzyme systems. ...
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The field experiment was carried out during the Winter/autumn cultivation season of (2021-2020) in one of the private fields in Fallujah city 60 km to the west of Baghdad at latitude 33° 19'53.6" north and longitude 43° 46'45.2" East to study the effect of foliar spraying with licorice extract and some nutrients on the growth and yield of red cabbage. A factor experiment with two factors was implemented according to the randomized complete blocks design (RCBD) with three replicates, the first factor is foliar licorice extract application in different concentrations. The second factor is the foliar spraying of nutrients The results showed that the effect of spraying with licorice extract and some nutrients led to a significant increase in (plant height, leaf area, total chlorophyll in the leaves, Leaf content of anthocyanin, curl percentage, head weight, total yield, nitrogen percent in the leaves, Phosphorous percent in leaves, potassium percent in leaves).
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Calcium is the fifth most abundant element in the earth’s crust, accounting for more than 3% of its composition. The exchangeable Ca content of a “normal” soil ranges from 65 to 85% of its total exchange capacity (12). Leaves of dicotyledonous plants generally contain from 0.5 to 5.5% Ca on a dry weight basis (44). The aboveground woody portions of trees in a 36-year-old apple orchard (35 trees per acre) contain about 200 lb. of Ca/acre as compared to about 175 lb. of all other nutrient elements combined (98). Recognizable foliar symptoms of Ca deficiency are seldom observed on field-grown fruit or vegetable crops. Despite these facts, serious economic losses occur annually from physiological disorders resulting from an inadequate level of Ca in the fruits, storage roots, or tubers of many plants or to the heart leaves of cabbage, lettuce, and other compact leafy vegetables.
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A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of plant density and nitrogen fertilization levels on the growth, yield and nutritional quality of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata), during the two winter seasons of 2006 and 2007. Four rates of nitrogen fertilizer 0 (control), 30, 60, or 90 Kg N/feddan (1 feddan (fed) = 4200 m 2) were combined with three plant densities (2, 3, or 4 plants/drip) which resulted in a density of 4, 6, or 8 plants/m 2. Data showed that increasing both N fertilization rate and planting densities significantly increased plant height while head diameter, length, weight, edible head weight, and compactness rate were increased only with increasing N fertilization rate. However, a negative impact of the highest planting density on all these parameters was recorded. Total yield/fed significantly increased by increasing both N rate and planting density. The highest yield was obtained by the application of 90 kg N/fed combined with 8 plants/m 2. Increasing N fertilization rate increased total soluble solids (TSS) but decreased dry matter content; meanwhile, planting density did not significantly affect both of these parameters. Nitrogen, protein, and nitrate contents generally increased with increasing N fertilization rate but decreased with increasing planting density. Antioxidant capacity expressed as total phenols and vitamin C contents was positively affected by increasing N fertilization rate although it was not significantly affected by increasing planting density.
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An analysis is described for the rapid determination of nitrate‐N in plant extracts. The complex formed by nitration of salicylic acid under highly acidic conditions absorbs maximally at 410 nm in basic (pH>12) solutions. Absorbance of the chromophore is directly proportional to the amount of nitrate‐N present. Ammonium, nitrite, and chloride ions do not interfere.
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The research outlined in this paper highlights the importance of the early nutrition of vegetable crops, and its long-term effects on their subsequent growth and development. Results are also presented to demonstrate how the nutrient supply during the establishment stages of young seedlings and transplants can be enhanced by targeting fertiliser to a zone close to their developing roots. Three different precision fertiliser placement techniques are compared for this purpose: starter, band or side-injected fertiliser. The use of each of these methods consistently produced the same (or greater) yields at lower application rates than those from conventional broadcast applications, increasing the apparent recovery of N, P and K, and the overall efficiency of nutrient use, while reducing the levels of residual nutrients in the soil. Starter fertilisers also advanced the maturity of some crops, and enhanced produce quality by increasing the proportions of the larger and/or more desirable marketable grades. The benefits of the different placement techniques are illustrated with selected examples from research at Warwick HRI using different vegetable crops, including lettuce, onion and carrot.
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Experiments showed that injection of liquid NPK starter fertilizers directly below the seed of several vegetable crops enhanced early growth, and often increased yield at maturity, even on a soil of high PK status in the presence of ample broadcast fertilizer. Furthermore, small amounts of starter fertilizer applied to a low PK status soil increased early season growth of some crops to a level comparable with that on an adjacent fertile soil of the same soil series subject to identical cultural practices. In a separate experiment, yields from applying starter fertilizer alone on the low PK soil gave yields which were not significantly different from those obtained with much higher levels of conventional broadcast fertilizer. The inclusion of potassium in the starter solution was beneficial on the low K soil but generally had no effect in treatments with high levels of residual K, possibly because of an associated reduction of nitrogen in the starter as K increased. The growth response of seedlings on prepared gradients of residual soil P and K, with and without NPK starter fertilizer, varied with crop but suggests that little benefit from starter applications might be expected at levels >80 μg g-1 NaHCO3-extractable P or >300 μg g-1 NH4NO3-exchangeable K (MAFF P indices >5 in the UK fertility classification, or K indices >3). It is suggested that the use of starter fertilizer offers scope for maintaining yields with reduced fertilizer inputs on soils at lower levels of residual nutrients than currently advised for conventional dressings.
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Supplying essential nutrients to plants during active growing periods is crucial for increasing crop productivity. Studies were conducted at AVRDC to evaluate the effects of starter solutions in combination with inorganic and organic fertilizers on the initial growth and overall yield of cabbage, cherry tomato, sweet pepper and chili pepper. Small amounts of inorganic fertilizer were prepared as a liquid fertilizer and applied immediately after transplanting and/or at critical periods during crop growth. These applications significantly boosted early growth and overall yields of all vegetables tested. It also enhanced the release of nutrients from organic composts. An application of 7.2N-6.2P-6K kg ha-1 starter solution could substitute for 30-50% of inorganic fertilizer and 50% of organic fertilizer used during the cropping season. It also reduced residual mineral N in soil, which might easily cause environmental pollution after cultivation. Maximum yields of cabbage, cherry tomato and chili pepper were obtained using a basal application of chicken manure compost, an application of a starter solution at transplanting, and then followed by various sidedressings of supplemental fertilizers, depending on crop and season. Maximum yield of sweet pepper was obtained using a basal application of standard inorganic fertilizer and a starter solution at transplanting. Balanced fertilization practices based on starter solution technology in combination with organic and inorganic nutrient sources were found to increase fertilizer efficiency, increase farmer profits, and reduce risks of environmental pollution. This technology was very easy to apply and modify for different vegetables.
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A single solution reagent is described for the determination of phosphorus in sea water. It consists of an acidified solution of ammonium molybdate containing ascorbic acid and a small amount of antimony. This reagent reacts rapidly with phosphate ion yielding a blue-purple compound which contains antimony and phosphorus in a 1:1 atomic ratio. The complex is very stable and obeys Beer's law up to a phosphate concentration of at least 2 μg/ml.The sensitivity of the procedure is comparable with that of the stannous chloride method. The salt error is less than 1 %.
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Field experiment was conducted on sandy loam soil during rabi season 2007–08 at College of Agriculture, Gwalior to assess the response of cabbage cultivar to different levels of nitrogen and sulphur on growth, yield, and quality. nitrogen application 150 kg/ha and sulphur application 60 kg/ha produced significantly higher plants height, plant spread, stem diameter, width of head, higher weight of head per plant and yield of cabbage. Sulphur application 80 kg/ha contributed significantly more protein percentage over rest of the applications of sulphur. The maximum yield recorded under treatment combination 150 kg N/ha and 60 kg S/ha.
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The effect of Ca++ on various parameters of apple fruit senescence was investigated. Distinct and specific changes in polypeptide and phosphoprotein patterns were observed in Ca++ treated as compared to control fruits. A 70 kDa salt-extracted polypeptide became apparent in control fruits after 8 months of cold storage which was not apparent in Ca++-treated fruits until 12 months. The soluble protein profile of Ca++-treated fruits showed an accumulation of a 30 kDa polypeptide while the control fruits accumulated a 60 kDa polypeptide. Autoradiographs of phosphorylated polypeptides revealed a 60 kDa membrane polypeptide becoming phosphorylated in the Ca++-treated and not in the control fruit protein fractions. Transmission electron micrographs of the cell showed Ca++ to be effective in maintaining the cell wall structure, particularly the middle lamella. Furthermore, increase in fruit Ca++ reduced CO2 and C2H2 evolution and altered chlorophyll content, ascorbic acid level and hydraulic permeability.
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Two greenhouse experiments were conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Hada-Alsham, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia. To study the effects of the four NPK fertigation rates (50%, 75%, 100% and 125% of recommended; 220, 150, 150kg N, P2O5, K2O /ha, respectively) and three starter fertilizers (SF); SF0 (control), SF2: 7-14-7 and SF3: 7-28-7 kg N- P2O5, K2O /ha, on the growth, yield, and minerals contents of cucumber plants, cv. Alrased 92 F1. The results indicated that application of NPK fertigation up rate 125% of recommended, achieved significant increases in the plant height and number of leaves at (30, 50 and 70 DAS), number of branches at 30 DAS only, as well as leaf minerals (N, P and K) contents, fruit setting percentage, fruit weight, number of fruits and fruits yield. Cucumber plants receiving starter fertilizers achieved an increase in the plant height, number of leaves and branches, especially at early growth stages (30 and 50 DAS). Likewise, SF2 (7-28-7 kg N-P2O5-K2O/ha) recorded significant maximum increment in the all tested fruit yield characters. Moreover, soil application of SF2 was accompanied by significantly reduction in fruit setting percentage. The interaction effect between NPK fertigation rate and starter fertilizer showed that NPK fertigation rate of 125% + SF had the highest mean values of plant height at all growth stages and number of leaf and branches at 30 DAS. Application of SF1 or SF2 combined with 125% of recommended NPK resulted in the highest significant mean values for the fruit setting % and number fruits per plant, fruit yield and leaf's P and K contents.
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The response of “Jonathan” apple trees (Malus domestica, Borkh.) grafted on EMLA 111 to frequent application of calcium chloride (CaCl2) was studied at Topeka, Emporia, and Conway Springs, Kansas, orchards in 2002. Trees were sprayed one to eight times with foliar applications of calcium chloride at the rate of 8.971 kg ha−1. First spray was made when fruits were 1.4, 0.9, and 1.6 cm diameter at Topeka, Emporia, and Conway Springs, respectively. More than six applications of CaCl2 improved fruit quality at harvest. Improvement included an increase in fruit weight, size, appearance, skin redness, and reduction of scald incidents. Although CaCl2 applications had no effect on percent of soluble solids, the ratio of soluble solid content to titratable acidity was increased by frequent CaCl2 application. Fruit skin redness was the most improved quality of “Jonathan” apple as the result of CaCl2 applications. No symptoms of fruit russetting or leaf scalding resulting from frequent CaCl2 application were observed. Increase in fruit quality was attributed to a linear increase in Ca concentrations in fruit and leaf tissues. Increase in Ca concentrations in fruit and leaf tissues of treated trees coincided with increases in potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), and nitrogen (N) concentrations compared with untreated control trees. Potassium, Mg, P, and N were correlated with fruit quality as much as, or in some cases more than, Ca. This information suggests that changes in mineral balance with CaCl2 applications contributed to improvement of fruit quality and is evidence that frequent Ca application improved “Jonathan” apple quality in Kansas.
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In view of the possibility that senescence may be a consequence of the deterioration of cell walls and membrane compartments, calcium was studied as a possible agent which might defer senescence. Calcium treatment delayed leaf senescence in corn leaf discs. The effect of calcium on senescencse was additive to the cytokinin deferral of senescence. An increase in hydraulic permeability to [H] water during senescence was demonstrataed and this increase was deferred by calcium; calcium plus benzyladenine was even more effective. Analysis of inorganic ions in the pericarp of nonripening rin mutant tomajç fruits and isogenic Rutgers revealed higher levels of bound Ca in rin at advanced stages of maturity. In the normal fruits, bound Ca decreased about 3‐fold during maturity. In rin fruits, no change in polygalacturonase (PG) activity was detected, whereas in Rutgers, an increase in PG activity was observed at advanced stages of maturity. Each of the measured changes associated with senescence (pigment changes, protein decrease, hydraulic permeability increase, and an increase in cell wall enzyme activity) was suppressed by calcium, and the interpretation is offered that the effects are a consequence of the calcium function in maintaining cell wall structure and membrane integrity.
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Different estimation methods of tannins - proanthocyanidins or hexahydroxydiphenoyl esters - have been compared and applied to polyphenols of various wood extracts. In the case of proanthocyanidins, reaction with vanillin in the presence of sulfuric acid is more sensitive than estimation by anthocyanidin formation. It is more specific than the assay by formaldehyde precipitation. Reaction with nitrous acid affords a selective estimation of hexahydroxydiphenoyl esters. These methods are applied to tannin estimation in wood extracts of 5 gymnosperms and 12 angiosperms and the values obtained compared to total phenols amounts.
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Increasing concerns for the financial and environmental impact of the use of broadcast fertilizer by the UK horticultural industry is leading to the development of alternative application techniques, which aim to reduce inputs through improved efficiency. One such technique, ‘starter’ fertilizer, was investigated with drilled and transplanted crisp lettuce (Lactuca sativa) on two fertile peaty soils. Starter fertilizers injected below the seed of the drilled crop, or as spot applications around the planting module, were tested alone and in various combinations with different rates of broadcast fertilizer. The work extended previous findings, based largely on mineral soils, and demonstrated that high yields of iceberg quality lettuce can be achieved with reduced inputs of broadcast fertilizer, and that there can be additional benefits of earlier maturity and improved quality. It is concluded that starter fertilizer can contribute to the development of environmentally beneficial farming practices whilst maintaining the productivity and competitiveness of the horticultural industry.
Article
Broadcast granular fertilizers are inefficient at supplying nitrogen (N) to wide-spaced row crops. Substantial nitrate residues can remain in the soil post-harvest, even when recommended fertilizer practices are followed. This paper explores the benefits of an alternative strategy based on targeting small amounts of liquid nitrogen starter fertilizer close to the seed at drilling to increase N use efficiency and reduce potential pollution. Bulb onion (Allium cepa) and crisp lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were grown with various rates and combinations of ammonium phosphate (AP) and urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) as ‘starters’, in comparison with seedbed incorporated ammonium nitrate. AP consistently improved early growth and final yield of both crops compared to broadcast ammonium nitrate, but UAN showed no additional benefits. AP in combination with broadcast N, or injected UAN, generally increased N recovery, and produced yields of marketable quality produce matched only by much higher rates of broadcast N. A reduced N input system based on starter fertilizers is likely to be acceptable to the industry, but would rely on a method to predict how much N is required to supplement that provided by the starter.
Article
Fertilizer that does not get used in crop growth is a problem for Swedish agriculture since there are risks that nutrients leach into lakes, streams and seas. Short culture time and a nitrogen (N) demanding crop with fast development are factors that give high risk of nitrogen leakage in lettuce production. Extensive growth at time for harvest leaves fertilizer nitrogen in soil that can leach from the field. Starter fertilizer is a method for precise fertilization. By using this method every plant gets the exact amount needed and fertilization of soil without roots is minimized. This project aimed at finding an application method and fertilizer level for N used as starter fertilizer in Swedish iceberg lettuce production. Earlier studies in the UK show good results for the use of starter fertilizer in lettuce. The results from this study showed that a bigger amount of nitrogen tested does not give a better yield than the lower amount tested. The plants in the trial showed examples of physiological disorders but such plant damages can be related to climate difficulties rather than over fertilization. The damages make the results insecure. The recommended application method from the trial is to put fertilizer in two strains 3 cm beside the plant. Even if the results from this study are insecure due to plant damages, further research in the area is recommended since the use of starter fertilizer is a method that can help reducing nitrogen leakage from Swedish iceberg lettuce production. By using starter fertilizer the amount of nutrient broadcasted over the field can be limited but yield can be maintained.
Respons of cabbage plants (Brassica oleraceae var.capitata L.)to fertilization with chiken manure ,mineral nitrogen fertilizer and humic acid
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