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This paper presents the spatial and temporal components crucial for the design of bicycle paths in such a way that they meet the needs and requirements of cyclists for safe and comfortable travel while being equally incorporated in urban planning with other modes of transport. The paper also presents the issues of bicycle traffic in the city of Sarajevo, with the previously built road network of marked ups and the development of bicycle routes network under such conditions.
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Smart Mobility Synergy between Sustainable Mobility and New Technologies
Novi Sad, 26th and 27th October 2017
Prof. Dr. 1 1, Ass. MA. Sc. Elma
1University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Traffic and Communications, Sarajevo, Bosnia and
*Contact person:
Abstract: This paper presents the spatial and temporal components crucial for the design
of bicycle paths in such a way that they meet the needs and requirements of cyclists for safe
and comfortable travel while being equally incorporated in urban planning with other
modes of transport. The paper also presents the issues of bicycle traffic in the city of
Sarajevo, with the previously built road network of marked ups and the development of
bicycle routes network under such conditions.
Keywords: Planning, Bicycle, Network of Bicycle Routes
Cycling offers a safe trip, and in some urban areas, along with walking, it is often the
fastest and most effective way to make short trips.
The desire and the need for bicycle traffic to be an equal choice with other types of traffic,
puts a difficult task ahead of planners to see the whole range of different elements and
characteristics of a bicycle as a vehicle and a cyclist as a driver.
Traffic planners must keep in mind that in built traffic networks, especially in urban areas,
there are serious failures regarding the elements of bicycle routes. This is indicated by the
short statistics [6] in which we take into account steps to implement "Vision Zero".
In 2010, the EU estimated 33,000 deaths in road accidents, of which about 40% occurred in
urban areas. About 48% of road users who are killed in these accidents were pedestrians
and cyclists.
The number of traffic accidents in the EU in 2016 by groups of road users is: 46% -
vehicles; 21% - pedestrians; 14% - motorcyclists; 8% - bikers; 8% - others; 3% - mopeds.
In order to continue to make significant progress in reducing the death of pedestrians and
cyclists, the condition and safety features of vehicles involved in traffic are just as
important as human behavior - either at the wheel of a car or trucks, on a motorcycle,
moped or bicycle steering wheel, on a sidewalk or on a side-by-side crossing. Infrastructure
significantly contributes to the increase of road safety.
Although in decline, pedestrians and cyclists are still the third and fourth largest groups -
behind the drivers and motorcycle riders in the number of deaths in Europe. More than half
of the pedestrians and cyclists who are killed in traffic accidents lost their lives in urban
areas, but the most common other party in these accidents are passenger cars. Children
under the age of 15 and people older than 65 are especially vulnerable. In 23 EU Member
States for which data are available, 70.1% of pedestrians and 58% of cyclists have lost their
lives in accidents in urban areas. It is therefore clear why research projects and measures to
protect pedestrians and cyclists primarily focus on urban areas.
Based on previous statistics for planners is essential that, besides security elements specific
to the vehicle and the human factor, road infrastructure also plays a crucial role in
increasing the safety of pedestrians and cyclists on the roads. Transient objects, bicycle
paths and road lighting are three central aspects. Analysis, again and again, confirm what is
only expected: most accidents between pedestrians and motor vehicles occur when their
paths intersect. Facilities must also be designed without barriers. The duration of the green,
flashing green and yellow phase must be long enough to clear the road, and in addition,
good transparency and lightness must be ensured. The marking of the roads must be well
Bicycle surfaces should be integrated with other surfaces and facilities, and respond to
demand for this type of transport, in terms of accessibility and security. The characteristics
of the bicycle and cyclist, due to their specificity in driving interaction (at the same time
balancing, driving and operating), significantly affect the safety and driving efficiency, and
are an important factor in designing bicycle surfaces. In connection with this, some of the
basic characteristics of cycling traffic are [1]: In planning the horizontal and vertical
elements of the cycling surface, the designer must take i nto account the physical properties
of the cyclist; The energy loss must be reduced to a minimum; A flat and well-maintained
surface is a prerequisite for a comfortable and safe ride on a bicycle; As far as possible
reduce the conflicting points of sensitive bicycles and motor vehicles; For safety, be aware
that the bikes are unstable in relation to the lateral flow of the air, the flow due to the
passing of the trucks, the uneven parts of the carriageway on the bicycle surface; Attention
should be paid to the aesthetic value of the surroundings of the cycling surfaces; Ensure
enough space for the parallel riding of cyclists and surfaces for rest and relaxation.
2.1 Characteristics of bicycles and cyclist
The movement of a bicycle is characteristic because of the need to maintain a balance in the
lateral sense, and includes: balance, steering, braking, and acceleration, (Figure 1). Bicycle
dimensions depend on modern designers, but bicycle width limits (max. 0.75m) should be
respected. Bicycle dimensions:
1. Length: Ordinary bicycle -2,00m (1,85m); Tandem bike -2,50m; A bike with a
trailer -4,00m
2. Width: Ordinary bicycle -0,60m; Tricycle -1,00m; A bike with a trailer -1,00m
3. Height: Bicycle with a cyclist -1,30m (min); -2,00m (max); The driving
mechanism -0,07m (min); -0,15m (max)
Figure 1. Bicycle driving forces, braking and curve [1]
When designing, we use the dimensions of an average, adult bicycle that he needs for
smooth and safe movement. Viewed vertically, the height of the cyclist is 2.40m,
horizontally, the required width is 0.90m for maintaining the balance at lower speeds. The
minimum maneuvering width for a comfortable ride is 1.50m, [4]. The size of the bicycle
surface depends on the basic dimensions of the bike, the space for maneuvering the bicycle
and the safety area.
When designing bicycle surfaces, it is necessary to take into account the following [2]:
- On roads, enough space should be left for passing cars and cyclists;
- In urban environments, a cyclist can share a strip that moves vehicles with lower speeds
or temporary biking lane can be placed;
- Traffic signs should not interfere with cycling and walking routes, where this is
inevitable, make sure that the signs do not block more than halfway;
- Additional lighting at night to identify the danger.
3.1 Division of bicycle surfaces
Bicycle traffic is taking place either on the road with other traffic or on special paths, with
this in relation the cycling area can basically be divided into:
1. Bicycle routes, which may be: Bicycle lanes and Bicycle paths (Exclusive, pedestrian -
bicycle path or other),
2. Bicycle parking.
There are some other division of bicycle surfaces, depending on the position on the traffic
network or the traffic regime and limitations. In this paper, emphasis is put on bicycle
paths, as built traffic surfaces, intended for the traffic of bicycles and bicycles with
motorcycles, stretching along the carriageway and separated from it and marked by a
prescribed traffic sign, [5].
3.2 Bicycle paths
The construction of a cycling route is usually justified if the product of the number of motor
vehicles per day and the number of bikes per day is the same or greater than 150,000 in the
year when the road is built. They can be located between the road and the corridor, between
the corridor and the green tampon, as well as between the two alleys, and rarely as special
trails in the road. As a rule, the bicycle paths are set lower than the corridor and separated
by a curb with a height of 5cm, and from the road, they are higher by 10 or 15cm, [1].
The space required for the movement of one and two bikes is presented in (Figure 2).
Figure 2. Minimum space for cycling, [1]
DK - bicycle dimensions;
MP - space for maneuvering;
VP - security space;
N - number of traffic profiles/strips;
Traffic profile = DK+2 MP;
During the planning process, it is necessary to examine various technical elements of the
bike, cyclist and cycling paths, which will be reflected in the appearance and safety of the
paths. Some of the most important elements are:
Speed plays a key role in the stability of the cyclist. At lower speeds, stability is more
difficult to sustain than at higher and average speeds.
Horizontal curve radius should allow bicycle movement without sudden braking and
endangering the balance. Depending on the rise, the friction coefficient between the bicycle
tire and the surface of the cycling track, the speed of the bike and the degree of inclination
that the cyclist can make.
Extending the path in the curve usually extends from the inside.
The vertical curvature is performed when changing the slope of the track.
The necessary transparency - stopping distance of the cyclist in the vertical curve is in
function of the time of perception and reaction, temperature and humidity, the friction
coefficient of the bicycle tire, the surface of the pavement, the ascent/slope, the weight, the
speed and the equipment of the cyclist.
Intersections The path should be guided so that less as possible enters the intersection or, if
that is not possible, enter the places that are the safest for its users, [1].
3.3 Bicycle traffic and experiences in EU countries
In the EU cities, buses and trams are an important alternative to motorized private transport,
and the distance between the home or workplace and the nearest stop is in many cases
easily covered by bicycle. In order to promote this combination it is important that there is
sufficient number of suitable parking spaces for bicycles on the stations. Therefore, good
protection against theft and vandalism must be guaranteed. Additional protection against
weather conditions makes this option even more attractive.
According to the Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure and the
Association of German Bikers (ADFC), one of the important German road traffic
regulations is that cyclists must explicitly use marked cycling routes. Where are secured
separate bicycle paths and pedestrian, cyclists are not allowed to cross on the footpath, even
in order to move to another place. Where there is provided a combined path for cyclists and
pedestrians, cyclists must share space with pedestrians, so that cyclists do not have priority,
but pedestrians must allow passage.
Pedestrian zones are prohibited for cyclists, except for people who accompany children to
eight years on bicycles. When an accident occurs, courts usually decide in favor of
pedestrians and place guilt on account of cyclists. If there are no marked biking
tackles/paths, cyclists are allowed to use the road. Of course, in this case, cyclists must
drive to the right and respect common traffic signs.
3.4 Features of bicycle traffic in Sarajevo
The coverage of the bicycling network at the city level is not at an enviable level, but it is
increasing. Existing bike path is divided into subsequences, and depending on the space
available provides more bike paths and solutions. So we have one two-way track (width of
2.50m), double-way cycle track (width 2.00m) and mixed track (in the use of a
pedestrian/cyclist). Length of the derived routes bicycle routes is 6,200m (on both sides) in
the municipality of Novi Grad Sarajevo, while in Ilidza municipality carried out 2,100m
single-sided two-way bike paths. There is also completed the detailed of marking biking
trails in streets Hamdije Cemerlica, and the length is approximately 2000m (two-sided).
In the past few years significant progress has been made in promoting bicycle traffic in
Sarajevo, and in addition to the newly built bicycle route in two municipalities, in June
2016, Nextbike-City Bikes were also put into operation. Today they are located in nine
traffic locations and have a total of 60 bicycles. How positive was the commissioning of
these bikes, says the fact that in the first year of release 30,000 leases were made, and
almost 70,000 kilometers were transmitted.
The built network was evaluated based on the research carried out at the characteristic
points, and from the aspects relevant for planning and design:
1. The width of the track is generally wide enough, and in large part, it can also receive
freight bikes.
2. In fewer places, there is no safety distance away from parked cars, in order to reduce the
risk of collision of bicycles with the doors of cars that suddenly open.
3. The already constructed traffic lanes are wide enough to allow motor vehicles to pass
bicycles at a sufficient distance from the side of the vehicle.
4. Although the surface of the bicycle tape must be suitable and straightforward, in the so-
called bicycle network of roads in Sarajevo, there are open questions regarding the
quality of the tread surface and the plane.
One of the perceived deficiencies newly constructed tracks initially reflected in the
application of the pigmented cast asphalt tracks with weak adhesion properties, particularly
in wet conditions (example of a change in the stopping path, formula (1)).
The path surface is at intersections and in the intersection zone is quite variable, and in
some places it is dangerous (Figure 3).
Lz - stopping distance (m); vo -
cycling speed
(km/h); F - coefficient of friction; i - slope (%)
Lz = 27.41 (m); Lk = 14.21 (m); F = 0.10
Lz = 16.75 (m); Lk = 3.55 (m); F = 0.40
Figure 3. Rough surfaces of the bicycle routes
Bicycle traffic, as a sustainable mode of transport, should pay great attention and promotion
in order to achieve the expected results of its use. Bicycle surfaces should be built in places
where there is a need for them, with a critical overview of all the elements essential for a
safe and comfortable journey.
The number of accidents involving bikers may be reduced if, in the planned road network,
serious aspects are taken into consideration when planning a cycling route: the track width,
the distance from parked vehicles, the width of the traffic lane along which the cycling
route and the surface and the surface of the cycling track surface.
Elements for designing bicycle roads, spatial and traffic characteristics of the existing
transport network are often not in a well-preserved, and their alignment sometimes requires
significant investments or as a result of traffic accidents. The construction of bicycle routes
in Sarajevo in the existing network of roads should be designed with improved technical
elements for which the increase of the investment should be planned.
[2] Litman, T., Blair, R., Demopoulos, B., Eddy, N., Fritzel, A., Laidlaw, D., Maddox,
H., Forster, K., 2017. Pedestrian and Bicycle Planning. Victoria Transport Policy
[3] National Center for Bicycling and Walking, 2002. Vermont Agency Manual
Vermont Pedestrian and Bicycle Facility Planning and Design Manual. Vermont.
Available from:
[4] Minnesota State Department of Transportation, 2007. Mn/DOT Bikeway Facility
Design Manual. Saint Paul
putevima u Bosni i Hercegovini. Sarajevo
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Pedestrian and Bicycle Planning
  • T Litman
  • R Blair
  • B Demopoulos
  • N Eddy
  • A Fritzel
  • D Laidlaw
  • H Maddox
  • K Forster
Litman, T., Blair, R., Demopoulos, B., Eddy, N., Fritzel, A., Laidlaw, D., Maddox, H., Forster, K., 2017. Pedestrian and Bicycle Planning. Victoria Transport Policy Institute