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Review on Opportunities and Constraints of Fishery in Ethiopia

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Fish has historically played an important role in food security in many countries and contributes to do so in globally, providing 15-20 percent of animal protein intake. Fishery has been practiced in different parts of the world. At present, the country Ethiopia has an estimated annual total exploitable fish potential of 51,481 tons, which can meet only 79 percent of the current actual demand, 55 percent of the projected demand in 2010 and 44 percent of the projected demand in 2015, based solely on population size. Ethiopia contains many lakes and rivers for fish production and also different species of fishes exist in these lakes and rivers. In addition to this there is good environmental condition for fishery and there is huge agricultural and Industrial by Product or residue due to the country mostly based on agriculture and also few industry to sustain the life of the people. Using of these opportunities fishery is an alternative means achieving food security and poverty reduction in Ethiopia. In spite of these opportunities, fishery sector of the economy has various problems, among others climate change, mismanagement of the resource, inappropriate policies and institution, inadequate technical and material backup to the sector and market are the major ones. The objective of this paper is to review the opportunities and challenges of fisheries in Ethiopia. Due to these challenges fishery is still an infant which means cannot fill the need of the demand. Therefore, the government and private should take consideration for fishery sub sector to increase productivity and gross domestic product of the country by alleviating these challenges.
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*Corresponding author email: abrahamkebede2016@gmail.com
Symbiosis Group
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Review on Opportunities and Constraints of
Fishery in Ethiopia
Tola Meko, Abriham Kebede* Abdela Hussein and Yobsan Tamiru
School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medical and Health Science, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia
International Journal of Poultry and Fisheries Sciences Open Access
Review Article
Summary
Fish has historically played an important role in food security in
many countries and contributes to do so in globally, providing 15-20
percent of animal protein intake. Fishery has been practiced in different
parts of the world. At present, the country Ethiopia has an estimated
          
only 79 percent of the current actual demand, 55 percent of the projected

solely on population size. Ethiopia contains many lakes and rivers for
         
and rivers. In addition to this there is good environmental condition
          
residue due to the country mostly based on agriculture and also few
industry to sustain the life of the people. Using of these opportunities
         
         
of the economy has various problems, among others climate change,
mismanagement of the resource, inappropriate policies and institution,
inadequate technical and material backup to the sector and market are
the major ones. The objective of this paper is to review the opportunities


        
sector to increase productivity and gross domestic product of the country
by alleviating these challenges.
Key words: Constraint; Ethiopia; Fish; Fishery; Opportunity;
Received: November 13, 2017; Accepted: December 4, 2017; Published: December 21, 2017
*Corresponding author: Abriham Kebede, School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medical and Health Science, Wollega University, P.O.Box, 395, Neke-
mte, Ethiopia, Tel: +251-917-095-077; E-mail: abrahamkebede2016@gmail.com
Introduction
Fish farming has been practiced in different parts of the world
like Europe, Canada, East Asia, China, Africa and developing
countries like Nigeria [1]. It has been in practice since the ancient
civilization of Egypt and China. More than 120 million people
          
or part of their income. Conservation of communities implies
knowledge of the number and distribution of species of any
particular area. As habitat degradation continues on a global
scale, maintenance of species richness has become a central issue
of conservation biology [2].
         
   
production from inland waters [3]. According to Food and
agricultural organization (1) in developing countries accounted
          
products, there is growing concern about the possible effects on

largest livestock populations in the Africa. The livestock sector
        
       
     
consequently their contributions to food security and growth
in the country are minimal despite the technologies capable of

At present, the country Ethiopia has an estimated annual total

percent of the current actual demand, 55 percent of the projected

based solely on population size [6]. Fish is highly nutritious, so
even small quantities can improve people’s diets. Fish provides
about 20 percent of animal protein intake in developing countries
     
or coastal areas Fisheries can also contribute indirectly to food
        
      
countries are equivalent to 50 percent of the cost of their food
imports [7].
The inland water body of Ethiopia is estimated to encompass

km. As many other countries challenged in the world, population
rise urbanization, agricultural development, industrialization
and other water resource development activities have resulted
    
Fisheries production is also under-exploited while current
demand exceeds supply by about four-fold. One of the big and
immediate challenges of our country is addressing the problems

       
poverty and the level of impoverishment is worse in rural areas,

         
 
2 of
Citation:
Fish Sci .
Review on Opportunities and Constraints of Fishery in Ethiopia Copyright:
© 2017 Kebede A,et al.
to poverty alleviation and environmental sustainability in
        
        
and aquaculture play important roles in food supply, income
generation and nutrition [12].
It is apparent that aquaculture in Ethiopia remains more
potential than actual practice or is non-existent; despite the
fact that the country’s physical and socio-economic conditions
support its development [6]. There are many rivers and lake
  
      

Therefore, the objectives of this seminar are:
1. To review the Opportunity and challenges of Fishery in Ethiopia


in the country
Fishery in Ethiopia
Ethiopia has a rich diversity of Ichthyo-fauna in its lakes,
rivers and reservoirs, although they are poorly known [13]. The

    
 
washbasins. This is attributed, in the former case, to the endemic
Labeo barbus
Fish today provides the main source of animal protein for

        
        
commodities by developing countries (i.e. deducting their
imports from the total value of their exports) increased from US$

of other agricultural commodities, such as rice, cocoa, tobacco,
and tea. Fish is indeed a global good, caught all around the world
and exported for trade almost everywhere. The global seafood
market offers a lot of opportunities, but also raises challenges in
terms of how such aquatic resources are managed [15].
Opportunities of Fisher in Ethiopia
Ethiopian aquaculture is recognized as an alternative means
of achieving food security in particular and poverty reduction in
general, and is now considered as an integral part of rural and
agricultural development strategies. Ethiopia has an estimated
 
      
       
         
    
          
commercializing it is mainly concentrated around lakes such as
      
         
      
country is far below its potential [16]. Approximately 15,000
       

average production of about 12,300 tons in 2002 [17].
Environmental Condition
Ethiopia has diverse wetlands of various origins that
distributed in many parts of the country. A large number of
   
       
extensive swamp forest complexes, all forms of wetlands are
present in Ethiopia. Major rivers and lake systems, together
with their associated wetlands, are fundamental parts of life
interwoven into the structure and welfare of societies and natural
ecosystems [19].
In Ethiopia, wetlands are distributed across different
         
ecological systems and provide ecological functions which
maintain and protect nature and human systems through
         
   
and micro climatic stabilization, along with the production and
     
ecosystem, including its wetland drainage system and up lands, is
regarded as a rich strategic site for a wide variety of resident and
migratory avifauna population [20].
Ichthyologic Fauna
There are seasonal variations in the availability of different

          
           
to the country. For the sake of convenience, the country’s water
       
and small water bodies [21]. The lakes and rivers support highly
diverse aquatic life, ranging from giant mammals like the African
    

much greater than this global average [22].
The main commercial species contributing to the total
landing are Oreochromis niloticus, Labeo hori, Clarias gariepinus,
Barbus species and Lates niloticus [23]. The main species are Nile
tilapia,    
        
         
the most important species for 21 century aquaculture stand is
produced in more than 100 countries [25].
Tilapia is the leading species caught and consumed in Ethiopia,
although this does not seize for all groups and for all areas. This
is reported by different researchers, Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis
niloticus       
       

3 of
Citation:
Fish Sci .
Review on Opportunities and Constraints of Fishery in Ethiopia Copyright:
© 2017 Kebede A,et al.
Figure 1: A map showing the main river basins of Ethiopia
Source: (Molle, 2006).
Embassy sent to Ethiopia in 1520 [27]. In the sixties, seventies
and early eighties, there was little progress in discovering new


          
          


          
Few studies have been carried out on the diversity level and the
ecological status of this trans-boundary aquatic resource [29].
Water Bodies
Ethiopia is endowed with several water bodies that contain a
high diversity of aquatic fauna. The inland water body of Ethiopia

length of rivers [30]. The main drainage basins of Ethiopia are

in the west or to the Indian Ocean in the Southeast. The Ethiopian

         

       

      


the endemic species occur exclusively in Lake Tana. Some of the

are Mormyridae, Characidae, Cyprinidae, Bagridae, Scheilbeidae,
Mockokidae and Cichlidae [33].
         
This is attributed, in the former case, to the endemic species
  Labeo barbus          
 
  

           
exclusively has larger number of endemic species (Eighteen
   


        
   
river basin is the most agriculturally important river basin in
Ethiopia and covers a total land important river basin in Ethiopia
and covers a total land area of 110,000 km and serves as home
      


        
highlands, the eastern and north-eastern lowlands. A total of
          
tributaries [37].
         
        
longitude of 36°30’ and 39°50’ east. The area of the basin is about


of above 1,500m.a.s.l. The upper part of the basin is dominated by
rugged mountains while the western part of the basin is almost


     
source in the equatorial lake basin to the Mediterranean Sea


     
Table 1         
drainage
Drainage basin No. of species No. of endemic
species
Blue Nile 36 23
Awash 15 6
Baro  1
Omo 26 2
Riftvally Lakes 32 7
Wabishebele 26
Tekeze 10 -
Source: Getahun, 2007
 of
Citation:
Fish Sci .
Review on Opportunities and Constraints of Fishery in Ethiopia Copyright:
© 2017 Kebede A,et al.
        
   
          
Nile downstream from Khartoum. The annual rainfall of the basin
shows high variation. It ranges from 5,000 mm in the western

  
the Nile basin within the limits of Ethiopia. This could be because
of the tremendous seasonal variation of water discharge in the
system [27]. Some interesting Nilo-Sudanic and east African


        

three main zones differing in their geological structure. The Afar
    
  
South of Addis Ababa contains a system of small to medium-sized
lakes, some of which are saline [30].

      

isolated major basins, as well as a number of smaller isolated
basins, mostly the crater lakes. The major basins are as follows:
          
lakes (Zwai-Langano-Abijata-Shalla and Awasa-Shallo) and
connected lotic waters in the central part; lakes Abaya, Chamo
          
 
         

The Abaya and Chamo basins occupy the southern part of
         
        
          
         

of species compared to the neighboring regions belonging to
catchment areas of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans [27].
         
  

         
         
reported a total of 12 species were recorded in the Omo-Gibe

       
   

a mixture of Nilo-sudanic (Bagrus, Citharinus, Hydrocynus,
Micralestus, Labeo, Mormyrus, Pollymirus and Polypterus), East
African (Barbus, Clarias, Oreochromis and Sarothrodon) and

       
          


        

the southwestern escarpment of the eastern Ethiopian highlands.
 
drains into the Indian Ocean. These Juba tributaries arise just
east of Abaya and Chamo Lakes, but are separated from the lake
drainages by a high mountainous divide Midway between the
       
lying limestone plateau with extensive underground waterways

Agriculture in Ethiopia is the foundation of the country’s
      
   
is plagued by periodic drought, soil degradation caused by
overgrazing, deforestation, high levels of taxation and poor
        
        
      
export development in livestock, grains, vegetables, and fruits. As

Numerous ways of crop by-product utilization exist amongst
       
cultural and economic basis and may vary from society to

developing countries, the feeding regimes aim to use crop residues
and agro-industrial by-products as the principal component of
the diet as these are the locally available and relatively cheap
  
of the animal feed requirements in Ethiopia.
Constraints of Fishery in Ethiopia
Environmental Degradation
      
      
encroachment on the shoreline has given rise to historically

and depletion has the most immediate impact on rural poverty,
food insecurity, malnutrition and under-nutrition are closely
linked to the degradation of environment, as poverty depletes
natural resource, which in turn aggravates the suffering of the
          
to farm marginal lands, to reduce fallow periods, to cut vital
forests in their search for arable land or fuel, to overstock fragile

    
problems, among others, mismanagement of the resource,
inappropriate policies and institution, inadequate technical and
material backup to the sector and market are the major ones.
         
mainly practiced, are threatened by catchment’s deforestation,
5 of
Citation:
Fish Sci .
Review on Opportunities and Constraints of Fishery in Ethiopia Copyright:
© 2017 Kebede A,et al.
shore damage, water pollution, siltation and eutrophication and

Low Institutional Capacity
      
are mainly due to resource depletion increasing competition
on open access resources, inequitable use of resources, natural
disasters like storms and over-reliance on one type of asset and
lack of options. Moreover, lack of government support, remote
locations and poor services, low literacy and innumeracy and
   
        



     

increasingly reactive option for some operators. At the same time
governments around the world are working together to tighten



Limited Infrastructure Facilities and Equipment

connecting urban-rural areas, and the country to regional ports.

           

         


in the restoration and expansion of Ethiopia’s road network [51].
        
investment, the total road network in Ethiopia has increased
           
     
   
the launch of the program in June 1997, giving a road density of


         

Climate Change
    
an increase in mean air temperature, shifting precipitation
patterns and an increase in extreme weather events. The
        
       

food security, but also to community livelihoods and national
economies. Climate change also poses threats to marine and

Changes in global and regional climate will interact with
many other factors which govern the distribution and ecology
        
        
rates Unlike most terrestrial animals, aquatic animal species
are poikilothermic (cold-blooded) and changes in habitat
      
metabolism, growth, reproduction and distribution, with stronger
 

migrate with shifts in ecosystems conditions (55).
The Growing Pollution of Aquatic Ecosystem
In Ethiopia, there is now an urgent need for the development of

the environment is not featured highly on the development
agenda; the major preoccupation in project evaluation has been
       
Many development practices have not anticipated, eliminated
or mitigated potential environmental problems early in the
planning process. This has resulted in a seriously degraded
natural environment. For instance, according to a survey of
    
hazardous pollutants has been discharged into all-purpose
streams, water bodies and the air [56].
      
        
Addis Ababa do not have any way of treating waste. Evident
environmental illnesses in urban centers, especially in Addis
Ababa, are the manifestations of the growing challenges [57].
        


through any EIA process, even using land that was not allocated

Lack of Tradition and Low Purchasing Power of Most
the community
         
           
            
          

This is the minimum demand, since factors other than population
are not considered. These positive factors, which trigger demand,

the increasing prices of its substitutes: a rise in real income of the
society; the growth and expansion of towns, and improvement
        



in 2015, based solely on population size [17].
Management of the Fishery
  

6 of
Citation:
Fish Sci .
Review on Opportunities and Constraints of Fishery in Ethiopia Copyright:
© 2017 Kebede A,et al.

    

    
seines and banning beach seines [60].

ability of the management measures are often highly dependent
on the support gained from the interested parties’ [61].

rehabilitation activities in to the conservation, development and
management of water resources and protection of the interface
between water bodies and land such as lake shores, river banks
and wet land [62].
Fish Diseases

        

and if left uncontrolled, it can result in mass mortalities or in
some cases, can be served as a source of infection for human and

In both natural environments and in culture, disease has a

the most serious threats to the commercial success of aquaculture
        
are among those diseases which has great economic and public

they have proved to be a serious problem causing economic

they may lead to epidemics and mortalities, and as the culture

infection will be more liable to become more serious economic
and health issues [65].
Conclusion and Recommendations
     
food supply, income generation and nutrition. Ethiopia contains
         
           
this there is good environmental condition that can be conducive
         

and also few industry to sustain the life of the people. Using of
       
food security in particular and poverty reduction in general in

among others climate change, mismanagement of the resource,
inappropriate policies and institution, inadequate technical and
material backup to the sector and market are the major ones.
        


are forwarded:
        
training, extension service should be encouraged by the
concerned bodies.


       
management
       



Acknowledgement
 
        
         
inspiration and comprehensive moral support that enabled me
succeed throughout my work.
References
1.          

2.      
        

3.         
       
      

 
composition in the gut of Feral African carp, lebeo coubie in the Cross

5.          
       

6.           
         

7.         

 
   

9. 
        

10.         


11.         

12.        

7 of
Citation:
Fish Sci .
Review on Opportunities and Constraints of Fishery in Ethiopia Copyright:
© 2017 Kebede A,et al.
13. 
migration and propagation: linkage of the Ethiopian and eastern
    

 
conservation and sustainable utilization of Abaya and Chamo wetland.
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 2005.
15.       

16.         
Thesis of Master of Science in International Fisheries Management.
       
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17. Fitzsimmons K. Tilapia: the most important aquaculture species of the


      


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    
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21.        
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
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
Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Climate Change, Inland
        
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      
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 
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
Getahun, A. An overview of the diversity and conservation status of the

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          
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    
       
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Golubtsov A, Mina, M. Fish species diversity in the main drainage
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in the main drainage systems of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
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       
of forage germ plasm and extensive livestock production systems.
         
        

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39. 
 
       

        




      
       

        
networks in acceptance of resource-conserving agriculture
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 
01
        
        
       
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
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      
      

  




 of
Citation:
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51.         
      

52. 
manual for research workers of the Food and Agriculture Organization
.
53.        
Zool J Linn Soc. 1975;57 DOI: 


55.         
2013.
56. Tarekegn S. Challenges of Sustainable Livelihood: The Case of Fishing
Communities around Lake Chamo. 2006.
57.       
condition and sex ratio of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Lake
Chamo, Ethiopia. SINET: Ethiop. J. Sci.2002;25:19-26.
         
        
Ababa. 2007.
59.         
    

60.           
Journal of Agri. 2003;12
61. 

62. 
   
269
63. 

        
      

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In Ethiopia, the fishery sector plays an important role to improve food security, employment creation, income generation and poverty reduction. Despite the economic importance of fish farming at the household and national level, farm households have paid little attention to the sector in the study area. Consequently, this study was undertaken to examine the determinants of farm households’ participation in fish production. For this purpose, a cross-sectional survey with 120 households was conducted to collect quantitative primary data. Descriptive statistics, inferential statistics and binary logit model were used to analyze the data. The result indicated that farm households’ participation in fish production is determined by various socioeconomic and institutional factors. Age of the household head, educational status, household size, extension service and access to modern transportation service had a statistically significant effect on farm households’ participation in fish production. An attempt to increase farm households’ participation in fish production should give special attention to the existing heterogeneity in socioeconomic and institutional factors.
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This paper reviews the history of exploration and the current state of knowledge of the fish species diversity in Ethiopia. It assesses this diversity in the six main drainage systems using original data on fish species composition at 135 localities, and published information. The number of indigenous species and endemics percent are as follows: 106 (12%) in the White Nile system within the limits of Ethiopia, 64 (36%) in the Blue Nile system, 32 (none or few) in the Atbara-Tekeze system, 79 (19%) in the Omo-Turkana system (including Lake Turkana itself), 31 (19%) in the Ethiopian Rift Valley, and 31 (61%) in the Wabi Shebele-Juba system. The regions where the fish diversity is still poorly explored are indicated. The research and management problems that should be solved to aid the development of domestic expertise in exploring, assessing and identifying fish species diversity are identified and some conservational issues are discussed.
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The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitations of its frontiers or boundaries. The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) alone and do not imply any opinion on the part of the FAO.