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... In the present study, the pessulus was triangular in shape and its pointed apex directed cranially, which was in agreement with Myers and Meclelland [26,27]. Similar results were also revealed in sea gulls  black francolins  songbirds [21,32] long legged buzzards  turkeys [37,39] and guinea fowls [2,18]. On the other hand, it was absent as in penguins [12,20] larks [35,38] and pelicans . ...
... There was interbronchial ligament reported in the present investigation, which observed also in ostriches  turkeys [17,37] geese  guinea fowls  long legged buzzards  sea gulls  black francolins  many singing birds [3,12,32] and mallards [9,28,27]. On the other hand, it was absent as reported in pigeons . ...
Birds are considered a good model for studying the phonation process, the syrinx is a vocal organ in birds. The purpose
of this study is to investigate the topographical and morphological characteristics of syrinx of male domestic
fowl. In the current study we use the syringes of seven adult males. The study shows that the syrinx of investigated
birds is tracheobronchial in type. It consists of; tympanum, tracheosyringeal and bronchosyringeal groups. In addition,
there are interbronchial ligament (brachidesm), lateral and medial vibrating membranes as well as the pessulus
at the tracheal bifurcation. Tympanum part forms the first part of the syrinx; it is formed of four tracheal rings.
The tracheosyringeal part is located at the point of tracheal bifurcation just below the tympanum. It is formed of
four highly modified incomplete tracheal rings. The bronchosyringeal part is formed of first three pairs of bronchial
half-rings. The current study was presented the detailed morphological characteristics of syrinx in male domestic
... The lung of the pigeons in this study similar to other birds like duck and turkey characterized by present three surfaces (Costal, Vertebral, and Septal) (21,19,8), but not in agreement, with (11) who named visceral surface in chicken and turkey, and with (17) who explained that there were (costal and medial, and ventral surfaces) in Japanese quail. ...
... Dimensions of right lung parities left one of indigenous pigeons in this study. These results incongruity with (8) who clarified, in Male Turkey (Meleagris gallopava), that the mean length of right and left lungs were (6.37 ± 0.24 cm) and (6.72 ± 0.17 cm) respectively, the mean width of the right and left lungs were (3.35 ± 0.4 cm) and (3.68 ± 0.3 cm) respectively, and the mean thickness of the right and left lungs were (0.96 ± 0.06 cm) and (1.025 ± 0.092 cm) respectively Nevertheless, the length and width of the left and right lungs in chicken were (7cm) and (5cm) respectively (9). But. ...
Macroscopical account of the extrapulmonary primary bronchi and lungs in
the ten of the indigenous adult male pigeons (Columba domestica) collected
from the Diwanyia city markets. It is expect that this work will provide a pivot
for future research and subsequent clinical applications as regards the biology of
the pigeons. After complete bleeding the target organs recognized then the
shape, position, dimensions of each specimen were record. The building units of
the pulmonary primary bronchi were C-shaped hyaline cartilages. Medial
bronchial wall connecting all cartilages ends together. The mean length of right
and left bronchi was (0.76±0.04 cm) (0.64±0.24cm) respectively. Lungs appear
as pyramidal-shaped brilliant pink color; extend from the first to the sixth ribs.
Each lung contain three surfaces (costal, vertebral, and septal) the dorsal border
of the costal surface contain six deep grooves origin by embedded the first to the
sixth ribs lead to divided the lung to seven lobes. The mean length of right and
left lungs was (3.1± 0.66cm), while the mean width of right and left lungs was
... The mean totalnumberof cartilageformingtrachea in Bee-eaters ( 64.5± 4.5 ) while (151 ± 12) in turkeys ( 14 ) alsothis difference due to species andbody volume of birds.The mean diameter of tracheal cartilage rings in bee-eaters approximately between ( 0.3± 0.0 cm) to ( 0.25± 0.0 cm) this result differ in (14;15 and 17) the mean diameter in turkeys (1.01 ± 0.03 cm); in West African guinea fowl(0.0875 ± 0.0031 cm) and in ostriches (2 cm). ...
The present study included eight specimens of adult bee-eater bird (Merops orientalis) collected near the places of beekeeping of Al-Diwaniya city, open the birds and extracted the trachea for the purpose of anatomical study. The trachea in bee-eaters bird appear as long, cylindrical flexible tube and the principle basic unit consisting of the trachea arecompose of series circular cartilages which takes-C-shape,The mean length of the trachea (5.087± 0.21cm) and the mean totalnumberof cartilageformingtrachea (64.5± 4.5). The diameter of tracheal cartilage rings approximately unequal where the average of diameter of trachea near connection with larynx is (0.3± 0.0 cm) while the middle region and the area connection between trachea and syrinx (Voice box) is (0.25± 0.0 cm).
The main purpose of this study to investigate the position and normal anatomical features of the
syrinx in adult male and female white pekin ducks. Eight (5 females and 3 males) adult white
pekins ducks weighting 1500-2000 gram were examined. Anatomical examination revealed the
syrinx was located in the thoracic cavity at the bifurcation of the trachea. The syrinx was
tracheobronchial type formed by syringeal cartilages, pessulus, tympaniform membranes,
interbronchial ligament and foramen as well as and extrinsic muscles of the syrinx. The syrinx
was a symmetrical in the male forming bulla tympaniformis but in the female duck had no
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