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NESET II ad hoc question No. 1/2018 The links between education and active citizenship/civic engagement Ad hoc report

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Youth civic engagement and the role of education in developing active citizenship have become increasingly urgent topics of debate throughout the European Union. The growth of nationalist, radical and populist discourses and politics have revealed the need for a better understanding of what factors may encourage young people’s social participation and civic engagement. [...] This scoping report provides an overview of the link between education and active citizenship/civic engagement, and answers the following questions advanced by the EC: ▪ What does active citizenship entail? ▪ What are the different manifestations of active citizenship? ▪ To what extent is education a predictor of social participation and civic engagement? ▪ Is there a pattern between volunteering and education? ▪ What is the role of NGOs?
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NESET II ad hoc question No. 1/2018
By Associate Professor Irina Golubeva,
University of Miskolc, Hungary
The links between education and active
citizenship/civic engagement
Ad hoc report
The links between education and active citizenship/
civic engagement: a scoping paper
2
ABOUT US
NESET II is a Network of Experts working on the Social Dimension of Education and
Training, funded by the European Commission, DG Education and Culture.
NESET II publications and further information is available at: www.nesetweb.eu. The
Network is coordinated by PPMI, Public Policy and Management Institute based in
Gedimino pr. 50, LT - 01110 Vilnius, Lithuania, Phone: +370 5 249 7056, e-mail:
info.neset2@ppmi.lt.
The links between education and active citizenship/
civic engagement: a scoping paper
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CONTENTS
CONTENTS ..................................................................................................................... 3
Introduction ................................................................................................................... 4
1. Active citizenship........................................................................................................ 5
2. Manifestations of Active Citizenship ........................................................................... 7
3. Predictors of Social Participation and Civic Engagement ............................................. 9
4. A Pattern between Volunteering and Education ....................................................... 14
5. Participation in Non-governmental Organizations .................................................... 17
6. Challenges ................................................................................................................ 18
7. What is Next? ........................................................................................................... 18
Conclusions .................................................................................................................. 20
REFERENCES ................................................................................................................. 21
The links between education and active citizenship/
civic engagement: a scoping paper
4
INTRODUCTION
Youth civic engagement and the role of education in developing active citizenship have become
increasingly urgent topics of debate throughout the European Union. The growth of nationalist, radical
and populist discourses and politics have revealed the need for a better understanding of what factors
may encourage young people’s social participation and civic engagement. The inflow of a significant
number of immigrants and the refugee crisis further sharpens the challenges associated with positive
active citizenship.
An essential and characterising value of the EU is the free movement of citizens and workers, realised and
formalised by the creation of the Schengen Area. Alongside its formal requirements, free movement also
requires competences that empower citizens and workers to move between, and be active contributors
within, Member States across Europe.
Official efforts to reaffirm and promote these values and competences are multiplying. The recently
proposed Council Recommendation on Key Competences for Lifelong Learning
1
, intended to replace the
document currently in use that was adopted in 2006
2
, highlights the important role of active citizenship,
shared values and fundamental rights. In 2016, the Council of Europe published a seminal work,
Competences for Democratic Culture
3
, which summarizes the competences necessary for living together
as equals in culturally diverse, democratic societies3. Next, it intends to develop and pilot a Reference
Framework of Competences for Democratic Culture and a Portfolio for Competences for Democratic
Culture. The proposed Council Recommendation on Key Competences for Lifelong Learning1, the Reference
Framework of Competences for democratic Culture, and the Portfolio (currently under development) each
aim to offer clear guidance on citizenship education.
Formal education is the most appreciable setting for citizenship education, and to date, efforts have most
typically been targeted at young students around the age of 14. Outside secondary school, the possibilities
afforded by Informal and non-formal education have received significantly less attention. The role of social
networks potentially powerful activators of civic engagement among teenagers and young adults
has largely been neglected. Also, the lifelong learning perspective may require further diligence.
This scoping report provides an overview of the link between education and active citizenship/civic
engagement, and answers the following questions advanced by the EC:
What does active citizenship entail?
What are the different manifestations of active citizenship?
To what extent is education a predictor of social participation and civic engagement?
1
European Commission (2018). Proposal for a Council Recommendation on Key Competences for Lifelong Learning. Brussels, 17
January 2018, COM(2018) 24 final 2018/0008 (NLE) [hereafter Council Recommendations on Key Competences for LLL]
2
European Commission (2006). Recommendation 2006/962/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December
2006 on Key Competences for Lifelong Learning.
3
Council of Europe (2016). Competences for Democratic Culture: Living Together as Equals in Culturally Diverse Democratic
Societies. Strasbourg.
The links between education and active citizenship/
civic engagement: a scoping paper
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Is there a pattern between volunteering and education?
What is the role of NGOs?
This report addresses each of these questions and can serve as a point of discussion, a discussion with an
aim to (a) sharpen the understanding of active citizenship in terms of learning and outcomes, (b) stress
the role of education in enhancing civic engagement around the European Union, and (c) establish the
scope of active citizenship education with a strong emphasis on its lifelong-learning character. The
overview also aims to support the preparation of the Education and Training Monitor 2018, which may
have a special focus on citizenship education.
1. ACTIVE CITIZENSHIP
There is an extensive amount of academic literature on citizenship/civic education, which generally
follows the traditional view of citizenship. Much less research has sought to understand citizenship from
a broader perspective, of belonging to a transnational community, in this case the EU.
In the traditional understanding, citizenship is viewed as a set of political rights and duties, with citizens
participating in the life of a sovereign nation state; it is associated with belonging to or identifying with a
particular nation or country. However, in today’s interconnected world this understanding seems to be
too narrow. This is especially true in the context of the European Union; the EU builds on the core shared
values enshrined in the Treaties and guarantees free movement of persons. Moreover, the competencies
of EU citizenship intrinsically require knowledge about the core values, rights, duties and responsibilities
that are shared across Member States, and about the unique aspects of history and cultures of the
Member States. EU citizens need to acquire active European citizen competences to be able to live
together as equals in culturally diverse democratic societies, in an atmosphere of mutual respect and
responsibility, and to be able to participate in labour markets and be socially integrated into Member
States across the EU.
Citizenship as a concept has traditionally been studied by scholars from certain fields such as civics,
education, political science, social sciences or social psychology. It is also now gaining relevance in the
field of intercultural education, where a new concept intercultural citizenship has been coined to
encompass the new ideas and modern views related to one’s participation in broader, culturally diverse
The links between education and active citizenship/
civic engagement: a scoping paper
6
communities
4
. This has brought a new perspective to discussions of citizenship by placing an emphasis on
attitudes, values and the sense of belonging
5
.
Each of these fields have valuable knowledge to offer, and it would be wise to develop a multidisciplinary
approach to studying the factors which influence citizens’ attitudes towards social, political and civic
engagement
6
. Active citizenship is a complex and multidimensional notion, which can only be properly
understood if multiple perspectives are applied and insights are gained from diverse fields such as
education, intercultural communication, political science, psychology, sociology and other social science
disciplines
7
.
‘Active citizenship’ can be defined as ‘[p]articipation in civil society, community and/or political life,
characterized by mutual respect and non-violence and in accordance with human rights and
democracy
8
. This definition is comprehensive in nature and embraces such key notions as participatory
activities, attitude of mutual respect, valuing of non-violence, human rights and responsibilities, and
democracy.
Critical thinking is another component, which can be considered as crucial or even a prerequisite for
active citizenship. In an era when social media has a determinative impact on shaping public opinion and
people’s political views and behaviour, the development of critical thinking skills as a tool for
understanding, appropriating and acting upon information is critically important.
Active citizenship should be viewed as a process requiring a set of competences, whereby the
intercultural dimension and critical awareness both play salient roles
9
. Following this intercultural
4
See, e.g.
- Byram, M. (2008). From Foreign Language Education to Education for Intercultural Citizenship. Multilingual Matters,
Clevedon.
- Byram, M. (2012). ‘Conceptualizing Intercultural (Communicative) Competence and Intercultural Citizenship’, In: Jackson, J.
(ed.) Routledge Handbook of Language and Intercultural Communication, Routledge, Abingdon, pp. 8597.
- Byram, M. (2014a). ‘Competence, Interaction and Action. Developing Intercultural Citizenship Education in the Language
Classroom and beyond’ In: Dai, X.; Chen, G. (eds.) Intercultural Communication Competence: Conceptualization and Its
Development in Cultural Contexts and Interactions, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle upon Tyne, pp. 190198.
- Byram, M. (2014b). ‘Twenty-five Years On From Cultural Studies to Intercultural Citizenship’, Language, Culture and
Curriculum 27(3), pp. 209225.
- Byram, M.; Golubeva, I.; Han, H.; Wagner, M. (eds.) (2017). From Principles to Practice in Education for Intercultural
Citizenship, Multilingual Matters, Bristol.
- Golubeva, I.; Wagner, M.; Yakimowski, M. E. (2017). ‘Comparing Students’ Perceptions of Global Citizenship in Hungary and
the USA’. In: Byram, M.; Golubeva, I.; Han, H.; Wagner, M. (eds.) From Principles to Practice in Education for Intercultural
Citizenship. Multilingual Matters, Bristol, pp. 3-24.
- Gundara, J. S. (2014). ‘Global and Civilisational Knowledge: Eurocentrism, Intercultural Education and Civic Engagements.’
Intercultural Education, 25(2), pp. 114-127.
- Porto, M. (2014). ‘Intercultural Citizenship Education in an EFL Online Project in Argentina’, Language and Intercultural
Communication 14(2), pp. 245261.
5
See, e.g., Harris, A. (2013). Young People and Everyday Multiculturalism, Routledge, New York.
6
See Barrett, M.; Zani, B. (eds.) (2015). Political and Civic Engagement: Multidisciplinary Perspectives. Routledge, London.
7
Golubeva, I.; Gómez Parra, Ma. E.; Espejo Mohedano, R. (2018). ‘What does ‘active citizenship’ mean for Erasmus students?’,
Intercultural Education, 29(1), January 2018, pp. 40-58. https://doi.org/10.1080/14675986.2017.1404741
8
See Hoskins, B.; Campbell, J.; D’Homber, B. (2008). ‘Does Formal Education Have an Impact on Active Citizenship Behaviour?’
European Educational Research Journal, 7(3), pp. 386-402. https://doi.org/10.2304/eerj.2008.7.3.386
referring to Hoskins, B. (2006). Draft Framework on Indicators for Active Citizenship, CRELL, Ispra.
9
See:
The links between education and active citizenship/
civic engagement: a scoping paper
7
paradigm, becoming an active citizen should involve not only increasing one’s understanding of others
and one’s role in the society/community, but also developing self-perception, self-reflexivity, and self-
criticality.
Active citizenship education should embrace the development of values, attitudes, skills, knowledge,
and critical understanding
10
. And, in addition to the model of Competences for Democratic Culture, it
should promote civic engagement and active participation in community activities at all levels: local,
national and international
11
7.
To summarize, active citizenship as the ultimate outcome of active citizenship education (both formal
and informal) cannot be viewed as simply social, civic or political participation; it should incorporate an
interior process of personal growth that involves the development of democratic values; an appreciation
of cultural diversity, human rights and responsibilities; attitudes of mutual respect and open-mindedness;
openness to dialogue and to change; empathy; co-operation skills; knowledge of related issues; and
critical thinking. Therefore, active citizenship education should be conceptualized as a lifelong learning
process
12
.
2. MANIFESTATIONS OF ACTIVE CITIZENSHIP
Active citizenship goes beyond the traditional understanding of citizenship as merely denoting a legal
status. Active citizenship makes prominent the so-called performative dimension of citizens
participation in community life (be it social or political activity)
13
.
- Byram (2008).
- Byram (2012).
- Byram (2014a).
- Byram (2014b).
- Byram et al. (2017).
- Council of Europe (2016).
- Golubeva, Gómez Parra and Espejo Mohedano (2018).
10
See footnote 3
11
Golubeva, Gómez Parra and Espejo Mohedano (2018).
12
As in:
- Bagnall, R. (2010). ‘Citizenship and belonging as a moral imperative for lifelong learning’, International Journal of Lifelong
Education, 29(4), pp. 449460.
- Ebner, G. (2009). Lifelong learning, a key to achieve European active citizenship. European Civil Society Platform on Lifelong
learning. http://www.efvet.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=208&Itemid=226.
- Hingels, A.; Saltelli, A.; Manca, A.R.; Mascherini, M.; Hoskins, B. (2009). ‘Growing cohesive societies: the characterization of
active citizenship’, Paper presented at 3rd OECD World Forum on Statistics, Knowledge and Policy: Charting Progress,
Building Visions and Improving Life, 27-30 October 2009, Busan, Korea, Available at:
www.oecd.org/site/progresskorea/44120679.pdf.
- Zepke, N. (2013). ‘Lifelong education for subjective well-being: how do engagement and active citizenship contribute?’,
International Journal of Lifelong Education 32(5), pp. 639-651. https://doi.org/10.1080/02601370.2012.753125.
- Zepke, N. (2016). Student Engagement in Neoliberal Times: Theories and Practices for Learning and Teaching in Higher
Education, Springer, Singapore.
etc.
13
See Peucker, M.; Ceylan, R. (2017). ‘Muslim community organizations – sites of active citizenship or self-segregation?’ Ethnic
and Racial Studies, 40(14), pp. 2405-2425. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2016.1247975
The links between education and active citizenship/
civic engagement: a scoping paper
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Many recent studies have looked at the ways in which citizens participate in the social and political life of
their immediate societies/communities
14
. Indeed, in the social sciences, this research theme is the most
common way to approach the subject
15
. These studies tend to focus on the motivations for and
mechanisms of civic participation, and on the role that new social media plays in it
16
. Also, the problem
of decline in civic activity among the youth population is of special interest to many scholars
17
. However,
in a recently published paper, Chryssochoou and Barrett
18
argue that the claim that young people are not
sufficiently engaged in civic and/or political activities is probably incorrect, and rather that youth today
are engaged through nonconventional means. The contexts of civic participation continue to change as
technology advances
19
, and as a consequence, new (non-conventional) forms of active citizenship
manifestations have emerged, namely, participation in online social networking sites, discussion forums,
chat rooms, etc. The younger generation (aged between 16 to 24) especially are reported to communicate
via social media on daily basis
20
.
14
See, e.g.:
- Albanesi, C., Mazzoni, D., Cicognani, E., & Zani, B. (2015). ‘Predictors of civic and political participation among native and
migrant youth in Italy: The role of organizational membership, sense of community, and perceived social well-being’, In
Barrett, M.; Zani, B. (eds.) Political and Civic Engagement: Multidisciplinary Perspectives. Routledge, London, pp. 268-291.
- Barkas, D.; Chryssochoou, X. (2017). ‘Becoming Politicized: Political Socialization and Participation of Young People in the
December 2008 Revolt in Greece’, Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 225(4), pp. 324–335, https://doi.org/10.1027/2151-
2604/a000311.
- Brunton-Smith, I.; Barrett, M. (2015). ‘Political and civic participation: Findings from the modeling of existing data sets’, In
Barrett, M.; Zani, B. (eds.) Political and Civic Engagement: Multidisciplinary Perspectives. Routledge, London, pp. 195212.
- Chryssochoou, X.; Barrett, M. (2017a). ‘Civic and Political Engagement in Youth: Findings and Prospects’, Zeitschrift für
Psychologie, 225(4), pp. 291301, https://doi.org/10.1027/2151-2604/a000315.
- Chryssochoou, X.; Barrett, M. (2017b). ‘Editorial: Youth Politicization Viewed From the Perspectives of Social Psychology and
Developmental Psychology’, Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 225(4), pp. 289-290, https://doi.org/10.1027/2151-2604/a000312.
- Dahl, V. (2017). ‘Reducing Adolescents’ Approval of Political Violence: The Social Influence of Universalistic and Immigrant-
Friendly Peers’, Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 225(4),pp. 302–312, https://doi.org/10.1027/2151-2604/a000298.
- Šerek, J.; Machackova, H.; Macek, P. (2017). ‘The Chicken or Egg Question of Adolescents’ Political Involvement. Longitudinal
Analysis of the Relation Between Young People’s Political Participation, Political Efficacy, and Interest in Politics’, Zeitschrift
für Psychologie, 225(4), pp. pp. 347–356, https://doi.org/10.1027/2151-2604/a000297.
- Strohmeier, D.; Barrett, M.; Bora, C.; Caravita, S.C.S.; Donghi, E.; Dragoti, E. et al. (2017). ‘Young People’s Engagement with
the European Union: The Importance of Visions and Worries for the Future of Europe’, Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 225(4),
pp. 313-323, https://doi.org/10.1027/2151-2604/a000314.
- Van Stekelenburg, J.; Klandermans, B. (2017). ‘ Protesting Youth Collective and Connective Action Participation Compared’,
Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 225(4), pp. 336–346, https://doi.org/10.1027/2151-2604/a000300.
- Zani, B.; Barrett, M. (2012). ‘Engaged citizens? Political participation and social engagement among youth, women,
minorities and migrants’, Human Affairs, 22, pp. 273282, https://doi.org/10.2478/s13374-012-0023-2.
to name just a few.
15
Ekman, J.; Gherghina, S.; Podolian, O. (2016). 'Challenges and realities of political participation and civic engagement in central
and eastern Europe’, East Europen Politics, 32(1), pp. 1-11, https://doi.org/10.1080/21599165.2016.1141091.
16
See Schulz, W.; Ainley, J.; Fraillon, J.; Losito, B.; Agrusti, G. (2016). IEA International Civic and Citizenship Education Study 2016:
Assessment Framework, International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
17
discussed in Dalton, R. (2002). ‘The decline of party identifications’. In Dalton, R., Wattenberg, M. (eds.) Parties without
partisans, (Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press, pp. 1936.
18
Chryssochoou and Barrett (2017a).
19
See footnote 16.
20
Eurostat (2017). Social participation and integration statistics. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-
explained/index.php/Social_participation_and_integration_ statistics
The links between education and active citizenship/
civic engagement: a scoping paper
9
In today’s societies, both positive and negative examples of social and political activation can be
observed
21
. It is often taken for granted that active citizenship is/should be associated with positive
intentions and non-violent behaviour. Yet, an active citizen may also share the views and values of
radicals, populists, or football hooligans, even leading one to commit acts of terrorism, vandalism or
participation in riots and violent protests. There are very good reasons, then, to intensify citizenship/civic
education to empower individuals to act in a socially responsible way. For this, one’s intercultural skills
and media literacy should be strengthened.
There are some good practices in the EU that can be shared among Member States. For example, in the
Flemish community of Belgium, the 'Action plan on the prevention of the processes of radicalisation which
may result in extremism and terrorism' has been in operation since 2015
22
. Among other issues, this action
plan promotes intercultural dialogue and provides guidance for those who are confronted with
radicalisation. According to the same overview of education policy developments
23
, in Italy, a Law
24
was
passed which, among other things, emphasises citizenship education not only civic knowledge, but also
skills, attitudes and values. In France, an action plan
25
dedicated to 'Equality and citizenship: The Republic
in action' was published in 2015. Luxemburg has replaced religious education with a compulsory course
on ‘Life and Society’ to ensure that schools become a place where children learn respect for others. In the
Netherlands, teachers were offered training
26
to help them manage classroom discussions on social issues
related to democratic values. Like these, many more examples of practices that have proven to be
effective could be systematically collated and shared among the Member States.
3. PREDICTORS OF SOCIAL PARTICIPATION AND CIVIC
ENGAGEMENT
The main expressions of active citizenship that are measurable are social participation and civic
engagement. Research in the field of social psychology has been intensively studying the topic of citizens’
participation in social, civic and political activities, and studying the factors which affect (facilitate or
impede) participation
27
. Researchers have identified several factors that may predict participation and
21
see, e.g.:
- Barkas and Chryssochoou, X. (2017).
- Chryssochoou and Barrett (2017a).
- Chryssochoou and Barrett (2017b).
- Dahl (2017).
- Šerek, Machackova and Macek (2017).
- Van Stekelenburg and Klandermans, B. (2017).
22
European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice (2016). Promoting citizenship and the common values of freedom, tolerance and non-
discrimination through education: Overview of education policy developments in Europe following the Paris Declaration of 17
March 2015. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxemburg.
23
See footnote 2222.
24
Law 107, available at http://www.gazzettaufficiale.it/eli/id/2015/07/15/15G00122/sg.
25
Égalité et citoyenneté: La République en actes, available at http://www.ville.gouv.fr/?egalite-et-citoyennete-la,3813
26
Methodiek Dialoog als burgerschapsinstrument, available at http://downloads.slo.nl/Documenten/dialoog-als-
burgerschapsintrument-po.pdf
27
see, e.g.:
The links between education and active citizenship/
civic engagement: a scoping paper
10
engagement, or non-participation and disengagement: demographic (e.g. age, gender and ethnic group),
education and income, and attitudinal or individual characteristics (e.g., sense of civic responsibility)
28
.
Three main factors have been identified as predictors of political participation
29
:
resources enabling individuals to participate (time, knowledge);
psychological engagement (interest, efficacy); and
recruitment networks (social movements, church, groups, and political parties, which help to
attract people into political activities).
Measurable indicators that allow for a certain level of comparability across countries are generally limited
to education and income, and data can be broken down by age and gender. According to Eurostat data
from the EU SILC ad-hoc 2015 Module on Social and cultural participation and Material deprivation
30
,
there are no significant differences when it comes to active citizenship
31
by gender at the EU-28 level (the
average rates are 11.7 % for women and 12.2 % for men). Greece stands out as exception, where women
are less active compared to men (6.4 % for women and 10.4 % for men). By contrast, in Finland, women
are more active relative to men (18.4 % for women and 15.6 % for men) (see Table 1).
- Chryssochoou and Barrett (2017a).
- Hingels et al. (2009).
- Orford, J. (2008). Community psychology: Challenges, controversies and emerging consensus. Wiley, Chichester, United
Kingdom.
- Pancer, S. M. (2015). The psychology of citizenship and civic engagement. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA.
28
Stevenson, C.; John Dixon, J.; Hopkins, N.; Russell Luyt, R. (2015). ‘The Social Psychology of Citizenship, Participation and Social
Exclusion: Introduction to the Special Thematic Section', Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 3(2), pp. 1-19,
https://doi.org/10.5964/jspp.v3i2.579 reffering to Arnstein, S. R. (1969). ‘A ladder of citizen participation’, Journal of the
American Institute of Planners, 35(4), pp. 216-224, https://doi.org/10.1080/01944366908977225 and Kagan, C.; Castile, S.;
Stewart, A. (2005). ‘Participation: Are some more equal than others?’ Clinical Psychology Forum, 153, pp. 30-34.
29
Verba, S.; Schlozman, K. L.; Brady, H. E. (1995). Voice and equality: Civic Voluntarism in American Politics. Cambridge, MA, USA:
Harvard University Press as referred in Schulz et al. (2016). IEA International Civic and Citizenship Education Study 2016:
Assessment Framework, International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
30
Eurostat (2017).
31
Note that ‘active citizenship’ in the 2015 ad hoc module is understood as “participation in activities related to political groups,
associations or parties, including attending any of their meetings or signing a petition” (Eurostat, 2017), and is measured
accordingly.
The links between education and active citizenship/
civic engagement: a scoping paper
11
Table 1. Active citizens
32
by educational level, by income, and by gender 2015 (% of people aged 16 and over).
Total
Education
Income
Gender
Low
(ISCED
0-2)
Medium
(ISCED
3-4)
High
(ISCED
5-8)
Quintile
with 20 %
lowest
income
Quintile
with 20 %
highest
income
Women
Men
EU-28
11,9
5,6
11,4
20,8
8,9
17,2
11,7
12,2
Belgium
4,9
1,6
4,1
8,3
3,0
7,6
3,6
6,2
Bulgaria
3,7
1,5
3,1
8,3
1,6
7,7
3,3
4,1
Czech Republic
4,2
2,0
3,8
7,3
2,9
5,1
3,7
4,7
Denmark
6,8
4,3
6,0
10,1
8,0
6,9
6,3
7,4
Germany
13,9
7,2
13,1
21,7
11,2
18,2
13,5
14,3
Estonia
8,7
4,6
7,9
12,1
7,2
11,0
8,4
9,0
Ireland
8,7
5,3
7,5
12,4
6,9
12,3
9,3
8,1
Greece
8,4
5,7
8,9
11,9
6,3
10,7
6,4
10,4
Spain
7,9
3,9
9,5
13,8
4,9
14,1
7,3
8,4
France
24,6
12,4
22,6
39,8
17,4
35,0
25,3
23,9
Croatia
5,6
1,9
6,3
9,8
3,5
7,5
4,8
6,4
Italy
6,3
3,5
7,5
11,7
4,0
10,0
5,7
6,8
Cyprus
2,1
1,3
1,8
3,4
0,6
4,5
1,2
3,1
Latvia
5,6
2,4
4,3
10,6
2,5
9,2
5,5
5,7
Lithuania
6,3
1,8
4,5
12,6
2,4
11,9
6,6
5,9
Luxembourg
16,3
9,8
17,8
23,8
10,1
23,0
15,2
17,4
Hungary
4,7
1,6
4,2
9,0
3,0
7,5
4,3
5,2
Malta
9,6
9,4
9,0
11,1
7,0
10,1
8,7
10,6
Netherlands
17,8
8,3
17,1
26,6
17,5
20,9
17,9
17,7
Austria
11,9
3,7
10,2
21,7
8,7
17,8
10,3
13,5
Poland
7,3
3,0
6,4
13,1
4,6
12,5
6,3
8,4
Portugal
9,8
5,2
12,4
25,6
4,9
18,0
8,7
11,0
Romania
3,6
2,0
3,5
9,3
1,6
6,4
3,3
3,9
Slovenia
6,5
2,8
5,4
11,7
5,0
9,3
6,3
6,6
Slovakia
2,8
1,1
2,3
5,5
1,9
3,6
2,5
3,1
Finland
17,0
9,3
16,6
23,3
16,4
18,7
18,4
15,6
Sweden
22,1
16,7
21,6
27,8
22,0
22,9
22,8
21,5
United Kingdom
14,5
6,0
13,5
24,5
10,4
22,6
15,0
13,9
Source: Eurostat: Social participation and integration statistics. Online data code: ilc_scp19 and ilc_scp20.
Income may be a reliable predictor: higher income earners are more politically engaged than the total
population (Table 1). The average participation rate at EU-28 level for persons in the highest income
quintile was 17.2 %, compared to the total population’s average of 11.9 %. The percentage of politically
32
The survey’s definition of active citizenship’ can be found in footnote 31.
The links between education and active citizenship/
civic engagement: a scoping paper
12
engaged persons in the lowest income quintile was 8.9 %, a lower figure than the EU-28 average (Table
1).
33
These statistics support the findings of Hingels et al.
34
, who used a multilevel regression model to identify
the drivers for active citizenship. They concluded that, at the country level, “a higher [...] GDP with a more
equal distribution of income and a more heterogeneous religious climatecorrelate with a higher level of
active citizenship
35
. And, at the individual level, education and participation in lifelong activities are ’the
strongest determinants of active citizenship
36
.
It is not surprising that education is viewed as one of the most important factors that influence active
social participation and civic engagement. People with high educational attainment tend to be more
active citizens. According to 2015 data, EU-citizens with higher education degrees (ISCED 5-8) are much
more active than people with upper-secondary (ISCED 3-4) and those with less than primary education
(ISCED 0-2): 20.8 %, 11.4 % and 5.6 % respectively (see Table 1). In some countries, the difference
between the activity level of highly-educated and less-educated people is even more significant (cf. %-s
for France, Portugal and the United Kingdom, Table).
However, the most striking difference is between countries; note the large range between the high rate
in France (24.6 %), and the low rate in Cyprus (2.1 %) (Table 1). Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Hungary, Romania and Slovakia are far below the EU-28 average. Meanwhile, Finland, France, the
Netherlands and Sweden display leading levels of active participation.
When respondents were asked for their reasons of non-participation in citizenship activities and
volunteering, their most frequent answer was “other reasons” (see Figure 1). This points to the strong
33
Denmark stands as an exception, as persons with the lowest income appear to be somewhat more active citizens than persons
with the highest income (see Table 1). However, one must take into account the statistical significance of the difference including
the margin of error, sample size, etc. In all cases, more refined data would necessary to determine the causal link between income
quintiles and active citizens, as there may be many mediating factors.
34
Hingels et al. (2009).
35
See footnote 34, (pp. 1-2).
36
See footnote 34, (p. 2).
The links between education and active citizenship/
civic engagement: a scoping paper
13
likelihood that differences between countries, particularly in volunteering rates, may be attributable to
historical and cultural particularities, and the institutional channels of activation and social solidarity.
Figure 1. Reason for non-participation in volunteering and active citizenship, by educational level EU-28, 2015.
Source: Eurostat (online data code: ilc_scp21)
In the case of all three questions (on active citizenship, informal volunteering, formal volunteering), EU-
citizens with low educational attainment were more likely to express a “lack of interest” in participating
in these activities, while highly-educated people more so than others indicated their “lack of time” (see
Figure 1).
While acknowledging differences between countries, the role of education in active social, political
participation and civic engagement cannot be underestimated.
37
The International Civic and Citizenship
Education Study 2016 (ICCS 2016)
38
highlights trends in citizenship/civic education in schools. The study
examined the civic attitudes and behavioural intentions which adolescents at around the age of 14 are
exposed to in their school environments. Reviewing curricula, the study revealed that in many countries
citizenship/civic education for youth is led through non-formal learning, such as, for example,
participation in social school activities
39
.
To summarize, there is a general consensus among researchers that education impacts social
participation and civic engagement
40
. Even marginalized young people’s interest in politics can be ignited
37
The importance of education for active political participation was confirmed by the international studies referred to in
Chryssochoou and Barrett (2017a).
38
Schulz et al. (2016).
39
Schulz et al., 2016 referring to:
- Ainley, J., Schulz, W., & Friedman, T. (eds.) (2013). ICCS 2009 Encyclopedia. Approaches to civic and citizenship education
around the world. Amsterdam, The Netherlands, International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement.
- Eurydice (2005). Citizenship education at school in Europe. Author, Brussels, Belgium.
- Schulz, W.; Ainley, J.; Fraillon, J.; Kerr, D.; Losito, B. (2010). ICCS 2009 International Report. Civic knowledge, attitudes and
engagement among lower secondary school students in thirty-eight countries. International Association for the Evaluation
of Educational Achievement, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
40
See:
- Nie, N. H.; Junn, J.; Stehlik-Barry, K. (1996). Education and democratic citizenship in America. Chicago, IL, USA: University of
Chicago Press.
- Pancer (2015).
25,0
14,4
21,2
21,9
12,0
17,8
44,8
34,6
41,1
17,1
28,1
22,4
16,2
26,6
21,3
10,6
15,0
12,9
46,5
29,1
37,2
47,3
31,8
38,7
38,5
27,8
33,2
Low education
High education
Total
Low education
High education
Total
Low education
High education
Total
Formal
volunteerin
g
Informal
volunteerin
g
Active
citizens
hip
Lack of interest Lack of time Other
The links between education and active citizenship/
civic engagement: a scoping paper
14
by education programmes
41
. It should be noted that both approaches specific citizenship curricula, and
less formalized learning in school environments (including the open-school model and the organizational
culture of schools) have merit. Moreover, one cannot overestimate the importance of lifelong learning,
especially given the freedom EU citizens have to move throughout the EU and how quickly learning
environments are changing.
4. A PATTERN BETWEEN VOLUNTEERING AND
EDUCATION
One standard display of active citizenship is volunteering. The 2015 EU-SILC ad hoc module gathered
information on EU citizens participation in both formal and informal voluntary activities. According to
2015 survey data, at EU-28 level, participation in informal voluntary activities was slightly higher than in
formal ones that are organized by a club or a charitable foundation (cf. 20.7 % versus 18.0 %, Figure 2).
While there were a few countries in which more people participated in formal voluntary activities than in
informal ones, the difference was generally not significant (such as in Austria, Italy, Luxemburg, the UK,
and Spain). Only in Germany, Cyprus and Malta were there significantly more people who participated in
formal than in informal voluntary activities (see Figure 2Figure 2). The explanation of such differences
across the Member States is complex, and according to Eurostat experts
42
may be attributed to the fact
that cultural or social structures differ from country to country.
Analysis of the Eurostat data42 has not shown any sharp differences with respect to gender or age.
However, a strong pattern between volunteering and education is quite evident (see
Table 2). In 2015, the participation rate for formal voluntary activities was 26.2 % for people with tertiary
education (ISCED 2011 levels 5-8) and 10.6 % for people with less than primary, primary and lower
secondary education (ISCED 2011 levels 0-2) (see
Table 2).
41
Chryssochoou and Barrett (2017a, p. 295)
42
See footnote 2020.
The links between education and active citizenship/
civic engagement: a scoping paper
15
Figure 2. Participation in voluntary activities (formal and informal), 2015 (% of people aged 16 and over).
Source: Eurostat (online data code: ilc_scp19) (Note: the figure is ranked on 'Informal voluntary activities').
010 20 30 40 50 60
EU 28
Netherlands
Finland
Poland
Sweden
Slovenia
Denmark
Luxembourg
Latvia
Austria
Estonia
Ireland
France
Belgium
Portugal
Slovakia
Croatia
Czech Republic
Lithuania
Greece
United Kingdom
Germany
Italy
Spain
Hungary
Bulgaria
Romania
Cyprus
Malta
Informal voluntary activities Formal voluntary activities
The links between education and active citizenship/
civic engagement: a scoping paper
16
Table 2. Participation in voluntary activities (formal and informal), by educational level, 2015 (% people aged 16+).
Formal voluntary activities
Informal voluntary activities
Total
Low
(ISCED
0-2)
Medium
(ISCED
3-4)
High
(ISCED
5-8)
Total
Low
(ISCED
0-2)
Medium
(ISCED
3-4)
High
(ISCED
5-8)
EU-28
18,0
10,6
18,7
26,2
20,7
13,5
22,3
27,3
Belgium
20,4
13,2
18,4
28,0
20,8
16,3
20,9
24,2
Bulgaria
5,2
1,7
3,8
13,3
6,3
3,9
5,6
11,3
Czech Republic
12,2
7,6
11,5
18,4
16,6
11,4
15,8
23,5
Denmark
27,9
22,5
28,5
31,6
30,2
23,3
32,0
33,2
Germany
28,4
19,3
28,5
36,3
11,3
8,3
11,6
13,3
Estonia
16,3
10,4
15,4
21,1
25,3
20,4
24,4
29,6
Ireland
19,4
12,5
16,6
27,2
25,1
19,7
21,7
32,3
Greece
11,7
8,5
11,9
16,6
14,4
11,5
14,8
18,5
Spain
10,7
7,2
11,7
16,5
10,6
7,9
11,3
15,1
France
22,9
14,8
23,6
29,6
23,1
18,1
24,4
25,8
Croatia
9,5
4,8
9,9
16,5
16,9
10,0
17,8
26,5
Italy
12,0
8,4
14,6
16,8
11,2
8,0
12,6
17,1
Cyprus
7,2
3,2
6,4
12,2
2,6
1,6
2,2
4,2
Latvia
7,3
4,5
6,0
11,8
28,3
16,3
27,7
38,2
Lithuania
16,2
8,0
13,1
27,5
16,2
10,0
15,2
22,2
Luxembourg
34,8
25,5
37,3
45,1
28,7
24,1
31,4
31,7
Hungary
6,9
4,5
5,7
12,3
7,8
4,9
7,1
12,6
Malta
8,6
5,8
9,9
16,6
0,9
0,9
0,7
1,1
Netherlands
28,4
19,8
27,5
36,4
58,0
46,2
59,6
65,7
Austria
28,3
15,7
29,9
35,6
28,2
18,9
29,2
34,0
Poland
13,8
8,3
11,2
24,6
50,6
35,9
49,9
63,7
Portugal
9,0
5,9
13,4
16,6
20,4
16,8
24,4
30,5
Romania
3,2
2,1
2,7
8,2
3,2
1,6
3,2
8,2
Slovenia
20,1
12,2
20,3
25,9
36,1
26,4
36,4
43,1
Slovakia
8,3
4,5
7,5
13,6
18,8
13,9
18,1
24,6
Finland
24,0
16,9
24,0
29,5
52,2
42,3
55,0
56,3
Sweden
25,1
19,6
25,7
29,0
49,9
43,2
51,4
53,4
United Kingdom
17,2
9,3
15,1
27,5
14,2
8,1
13,4
21,3
Source: Eurostat (online data code: ilc_scp19)
In general, higher rates of active volunteering was reported in the Netherlands (58.0 % for informal
volunteering and 28.4 % for formal), Finland (52.2 % informal and 24.0 % formal) and Poland (50.6 %
informal and 13.8 % formal). Less active participation was found in Romania (3.2 % for both informal and
formal), Cyprus (2.6 % informal and 7.2 % formal) and Malta (0.9 % informal and 8.6 % formal).
The links between education and active citizenship/
civic engagement: a scoping paper
17
According to Schulz and others
43
, young people’s volunteering depends on the social climate of their local
community; volunteering is supported by safe environments that foster participation, while the presence
of conflict in an environment may lead to disengagement and non-participation.
To conclude, it is important to note that in the case of volunteering and in the case of participation in
active citizenship (see the previous section) the data should be interpreted with caution simply because
volunteering strongly depends on political culture, traditions and institutions. And of course, the
importance that certain personality traits such as “openness and agreeableness on civic engagement
44
cannot be neglected.
5. PARTICIPATION IN NON-GOVERNMENTAL
ORGANIZATIONS
Citizens’ involvement in non-governmental organizations is an indicator of civic engagement. Despite the
fact that the data on participation in NGOs cannot be considered reliable, it is widely acknowledged that
non-governmental organizations do play an important role in sustainable social development.
Although no proof of a strong direct link between associational membership
45
and active citizenship has
been found to date, the role of NGOs and associational membership in changing people’s mind-set should
not be ignored. What makes NGOs undoubtedly important is that they create safe spaces to engage in
various social and political debates
46
. In the field of civic engagement and education, NGOs due to their
particular capabilities may provide strong support for non-formal learning, especially for people from
vulnerable groups such as minorities, migrants, citizens from a disadvantaged socio-economic
background, persons with special needs, or homeless persons.
Non-governmental organizations are regularly involved in education through activities such as social
events and training, and frequently target difficult to reach groups. Being more flexible than
governmental institutions, NGOs are often able to respond quickly to instances of social problems such
as, for example, bullying at schools, xenophobia, or radicalization. In some cases, it is easier for NGOs
than for schools to get funding for summer school activities, or field trips. In many EU countries, NGOs
actively participate in training activities, and thereby “fill the gap” which exists in many school systems.
According to a NESET II report46 on education policies and practices to foster tolerance, respect for
diversity and civic responsibility in children and young people in the EU youth organizations are often
involved in awareness-raising activities on the topic of citizenship and related issues. The authors identify
some good practices, e.g. the Facing History and Others programme, which develops critical thinking, civic
43
Schulz et al. (2016, p. 45).
44
Chryssochoou and Barrett, 2017a, p. 294 referring to Luengo Kanacri, B. P.; Rosa, V.; Di Giunta, L. (2012). ‘The mediational role
of values in linking personality traits to civic engagement in Italian youth’. Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the
Community, 40, pp. 8-21. https://doi.org/10.1080/10852352.2012.633064.
45
Associational membership does not automatically or necessarily imply active engagement in the work of an association; it can
be just a passive form of involvement which does not involve any civic or political activity.
46
Van Driel, B.; Darmody, M.; Kerzil, J. (2016). ‘Education policies and practices to foster tolerance, respect for diversity and civic
responsibility in children and young people in the EU’, NESET II report, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union.
https://doi.org:10.2766/46172.
The links between education and active citizenship/
civic engagement: a scoping paper
18
attitudes, and tolerance
47
. However, as the same report points out, scarce research has been done on
(youth) NGOsimpact.
6. CHALLENGES
Despite frequent appeals to ‘active citizenship’ in EU political debates and policy documents, it remains
one of the most challenging topics in education. Due to the inflow of large numbers of immigrants over a
short time span, the refugee crisis, and growing domestic diversity, the traditional notion of citizenship is
being challenged, and the core shared values and the European Union project are being put to the test.
Recent surveys show increasing intolerance
48
and radicalization, not only among adults, but among young
people as well. The youngest seem to be most vulnerable. For example, one study
49
reports that there
are more 16- to 19-year-olds who want their country to leave the EU than do 20- to 25-year-olds. While
the difference may not be striking (14.9 % for 16- to 19-year-olds, and 12.1 % 20- 25-year-olds), it may
portend an emerging trend, the risks of which should not be underestimated.
7. WHAT IS NEXT?
Teachers, educators and youth workers need to be provided with clear methodological guidance
regarding citizenship/civic education. They should be offered authentic teaching resources and good
practice examples. There are some effective approaches that develop interpersonal, intercultural, social
and civic competences, and thereby foster social participation and active citizenship at local, national,
and/or international level for example, participation in Erasmus+ European projects and Virtual
Exchange, or in the online eTwinning programme, or in intercultural telecollaborations related to
citizenship education topics
50
. Priority should be given to funding European multilateral projects that
focus on European literacy and citizenship education (see e.g. ELICIT and ELICIT-Plus projects
51
, among
many others), critical thinking and intercultural awareness (see e.g. IEREST project, among many others
52
).
Citizenship education can be effective only if all interconnected main actors are involved, namely: (1)
students, (2) teachers, (3) parents, (4) school administration, and (5) external stakeholders (e.g.
municipalities). The platform European Toolkit for Schools
53
could be expanded on citizenship education.
47
Van Driel et al., 2016 referring to Barr, D. J.; Boulay, B.; Selman, R. L.; McCormick, R.; Lowenstein, E.; Gamse, B.; Fine, M.,
Leonard, B. (2015). A Randomized Controlled Trial of Professional Development for Interdisciplinary Civic Education: Impacts
on Humanities Teachers and Their Students, Teachers College Record,
http://www.tcrecord.org/ExecSummary.asp?contentid=17470.
48
See footnote 46.
49
Strohmeier et al. (2017).
50
e.g. see Byram et el. (2017).
51
ELICIT (2010-2013). 510621-LLP-12010-1-FR-COMENIUS-CMP. www.elicitizen.eu/ and ELICIT-Plus (2014-2017). 2014-1-FR01-
KA200-002362. www.elicitplus.eu/
52
IEREST (2012-2015). 527373-LLP-1-2012-1-IT-ERASMUS-ESMO. http://www.ierest-project.eu/ and IEREST (2015). Intercultural
Education Resources for Erasmus Students and Their Teachers. Annales University Press, Koper.
53
https://www.schooleducationgateway.eu/en/pub/resources/toolkitsfor schools.htm.
The links between education and active citizenship/
civic engagement: a scoping paper
19
Furthermore, it may be important to strengthen the European Voluntary Service
54
and European
Solidarity Corps
55
. Both initiatives help young people find opportunities to volunteer, and thus to develop
active citizenship, intercultural and collaborative skills. Excellent teaching material was developed in the
frame of the IEREST Erasmus project, entitled Experiencing (interculturality through) volunteering
56
,
which can be used to engage students in volunteer activities. In addition, community service could be
introduced across secondary and tertiary education. In Hungary, for example, secondary school students
must prove that they have performed at least 50 hours of community service before they leave secondary
school. Another option can be awarding extra credits in higher education for volunteering activities and
civic engagement.
Last but not least, the use of social media for the purposes of active citizenship participation and
education should be explored because they hold great potential, especially with the younger generation.
Social media have, unfortunately, been very successful tools for heightening radicalization and bullying.
It is time, however, to discuss their potential for systematically and coherently empowering EU citizens
of all ages to adopt pro-social values and to responsibly become active citizens.
54
https://europa.eu/youth/EU/voluntary-activities/european-voluntary-service_en.
55
https://europa.eu/youth/solidarity_en.
56
IEREST (2015).
The links between education and active citizenship/
civic engagement: a scoping paper
20
CONCLUSIONS
This scoping report provides a brief overview of current research and data sources regarding active
citizenship’ or civic engagement and the role of education in promoting it. In addition, it reflects on the
relevant theoretical paradigms, intellectual perspectives and policy approaches to the subject.
The report emphasises the importance of acquiring interpersonal, intercultural, social and civic
competences. For this, democratic values, human rights and responsibilities, social participation, and civic
engagement, should all be promoted in formal, non-formal and informal educational contexts. Central to
active citizenship competence are critical thinking skills, which should be further enhanced, particularly
to assist users of social media. Young people should learn to behave in a socially responsible way starting
from early childhood. Evidence suggests that the youngest age groups are especially vulnerable to populist
and radical narratives. Education and training systems should address issues such as hate speech, bulling,
violence, intolerance, radicalisation, and any other issue that presents an obstacle to living together as
equals in culturally diverse, democratic societies. The Competences for Democratic Culture model and the
Key Competences for Lifelong Learning both fit the needs of active citizenship education, by providing
clear guidance for developing curriculum materials and other teaching tools (including interactive social
media) to empower citizens of all ages to act as responsible citizens.
The available statistical information reiterates the importance of education for enhancing pro-social
values and positive activation of citizens throughout their life course. A more innovative approach could
be to capture examples of practices that effectively engage students, teachers, parents, school
administration, and municipalities to achieve most effective active citizenship education and
engagement.
To conclude, there is evidence of a strong link between education and active citizenship/civic
engagement. And, it is undoubtedly in the shared interest of all EU Member States to explore the full
potential of education as a main driver of active social and political participation, and to empower citizens
to use information and communication technology responsibly.
The links between education and active citizenship/
civic engagement: a scoping paper
21
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... This is how intercultural citizenship and active citizenship are related. Active citizenship implies participation in civil society, but it cannot be taken for granted that active citizenship is always associated with positive intentions (for detailed discussion, see Golubeva, 2018): ...
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Over the past 25 years, the intercultural communicative competence model developed by Michael Byram (1997) has proved to be one of the most influential models, especially in the field of foreign language education. This model describes the elements of intercultural communicative competence that Byram judges to be teachable and assessable in the language classroom, and it stands out among other well-known models by emphasizing the role of critical cultural awareness and political education. It is therefore not surprising that this model has been adapted and developed to formulate the theory and practice of intercultural citizenship education (Byram, 2008; Byram et al., 2017; Byram & Golubeva, 2020; Porto et al., 2018), not only within foreign language education but also in a broader context, across the entire curriculum (Byram et al., 2009a, in press a; Wagner et al., 2019). In this chapter, we provide an overview of this trajectory that has been taken by Byram from intercultural communicative competence to intercultural citizenship, to show the development of his ideas. Our purpose is also to reveal how some of the international initiatives and projects in which Byram has participated have created new intellectual challenges, in response to which new formulations relating to both intercultural communication and citizenship have been developed – formulations which in turn have had a substantial impact on citizenship education in particular.
... This is how intercultural citizenship and active citizenship are related. Active citizenship implies participation in civil society, but it cannot be taken for granted that active citizenship is always associated with positive intentions (for detailed discussion, see Golubeva, 2018): ...
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Over the past 25 years, the intercultural communicative competence model developed by Michael Byram (1997) has proved to be one of the most influential models, especially in the field of foreign language educa¬tion. This model describes the elements of intercultural communicative competence that Byram judges to be teachable and assessable in the lan-guage classroom, and it stands out among other well-known models by emphasizing the role of critical cultural awareness and political education. It is therefore not surprising that this model has been adapted and devel¬oped to formulate the theory and practice of intercultural citizenship education (Byram, 2008; Byram et al., 2017; Byram & Golubeva, 2020; Porto et al., 2018), not only within foreign language education but also in a broader context, across the entire curriculum (Byram et al., 2009a, in press a; Wagner et al., 2019). In this chapter, we provide an overview of this trajectory that has been taken by Byram from intercultural commu¬nicative competence to intercultural citizenship, to show the development of his ideas. Our purpose is also to reveal how some of the international initiatives and projects in which Byram has participated have created new intellectual challenges, in response to which new formulations relating to both intercultural communication and citizenship have been developed – formulations which in turn have had a substantial impact on citizenship education in particular.
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As any literature and internet search will show, terms such as 'interculturality’, ‘cross- cultural’, ‘transcultural’ , and ‘intercultural competence’ abound and are used in confusing ways. The phrase ‘intercultural citizenship’ is less widespread but being used increasingly, especially in the field of foreign language education (cf., Byram et al. 2017). Definitions are best seen in the light of usage, and this chapter will not attempt to present definitive dictionary- like definitions but to consider the questions which arise in the relationship between ‘intercultural (communicative) competence’ and 'intercultural citizenship’ in theory and practice. The first stage will be to consider the notion of 'interculturality’ before moving to matters of ‘competence’ as a means of analysing the difference between a state of being intercultural and behaving as an intercultural citizen.
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