ChapterPDF Available

A Smart Museum installation in the Stadsmuseum in Stockholm – From Visitor Guides to Museum Management

Authors:

Figures

Content may be subject to copyright.
The Integration of
Location Based Services
in Tourism and
Cultural Heritage
Edited by
Daniel Pletinckx
Daniel Pletinckx
Editor
Franco Niccolucci
Editor-in-Chief
Elizabeth Jerem
Managing Editor
András Kardos, Rita Kovács
Typesetting and Layout
ARCHAEOLINGUA
Cover Design
Cover image: Matheus Caenen Chapel, Millam, Nord-Pas de Calais, France
This work is subject to copyright.
All rights reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, speci cally those of
translation, reprinting, re-use of illustrations, broadcasting, reproduction by photocopying machines or
similar means, and storage in data banks.
© EPOCH and individual authors
This publication results from a workshop organised by EPOCH on November 21, 2006 in the
Boudewijn building, Brussels, Belgium. The aim of this workshop was to create a thematic cluster
of people and organisations that are interested in or have knowledge about Location Based Services.
Thematic clusters are one of the activities of her-IT-age.net, a spin-off network of EPOCH
(see http://www.her-IT-age.net/)
Published by ARCHAEOLINGUA
Printed in Hungary by PRIME RATE
ISBN 978-963-8046-88-8
EPOCH is funded by the European Commission under the Community’s Sixth Framework
Programme, contract no. 507382. However, this volume re ects only the authors’ views and the
European Community is not liable for any use that can be made of the information contained herein.
Budapest 2007
Contents
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................. 5
The message and the medium; the presentation of the Muiderslot story
Geeske Bakker ................................................................................................................................................... 7
History Unwired: the use of mobile and localization technologies for cultural tourism
Michael Epstein, Silvia Vergani ...................................................................................................................... 15
The Visual Virtual Tourist Guide:a markerless camera-based LBS system
Toon Goedemé , Beat Fasel and Luc Van Gool ................................................................................................ 21
Experience Roma: Creation of a Laboratory for Innovation in the Field of Cultural Tourism
Andrea Granelli ............................................................................................................................................... 33
ARCHIE: a Handheld Museum Guide Combining Location, Personalization and
Communication to Support Socially Aware Group Visits
Kris Luyten, Kris Gabriëls, Daniël Teunkens, Karel Robert, Karin Coninx, Elke Manshoven ...................... 49
A Stereo Vision based system for advanced Museum services
Marina Pettinari, Daniele Manzaroli, Sara Bartolini, Luca Rof a,
Giuseppe Raffa, Luigi Di Stefano, Tullio Salmon Cinotti ............................................................................... 57
Context-aware computing for Cultural Tourism – Experiences from the MUSE project
Giuseppe Raffa, Luca Rof a, Marina Pettinari, Raviprakash Nagaraj,
Fabio Sforza, Giuseppe Mincolelli, Tullio Salmon Cinotti ............................................................................. 69
A Smart Museum installation in the Stadsmuseum in Stockholm –
From Visitor Guides to Museum Management
Nick Ryan, Giuseppe Raffa, Philipp H. Mohr, Daniele Manzaroli, Luca Rof a, Marina Pettinari,
Lukas Sklenar, Luigi Di Stefano, Tullio Salmon Cinotti .................................................................................. 83
The development of cultural tourism routes: a market for Location Based Systems?
Jan Stobbe ....................................................................................................................................................... 91
Introduction
This publication results from the EPOCH workshop “The Integration of Location Based Services in Tourism and
Cultural Heritage” organised in Brussels, Belgium on November 21, 2006, in cooperation with Westtoer and the
Flemish Heritage Institute.
This workshop focused on the use of Location Based Services (LBS), such as GPS and position detection on
mobile phones or wireless LAN in both indoor and outdoor use, in tourism and cultural heritage interpretation
from the point of integration, work ow, feasibility, sustainability and supporting policies.
This workshop talked about the conception and creation issues of such systems, about possible hardware
platforms, about the collaboration between the content partners at different levels, about the management of routes
and route information, about the impact of LBS on route design and exploitation, about the feasibility, longevity
and sustainability of such systems, about the implementation and maintenance of such systems within a touristical
infrastructure, about quality assurance and data protection, about the creation of a two-way communication with
the user/tourist, who can give feedback and personal interpretation.
International developers, companies, policy makers and responsibles for tourism and cultural heritage gave
their view on the state-of-art, the goals and the issues of creating integrated Location Based Services that can be
used in touristical and cultural routes, city and monument visits, and site and landscape interpretation.
EPOCH has created a new network her-IT-age.net that wants to support the practical use of IT (Information
Technology) in cultural heritage and tourism. This workshop brought together both specialists on LBS and people
from tourism and cultural heritage that want to use LBS in their daily practice. Her-IT-age.net will continue to
support these people through a thematic cluster on LBS, providing training, publications and thematic meetings
(see http://www.her-IT-age.net/).
We hope that his publication gives a better insight in the potential of LBS in tourism and cultural heritage and
helps to make cultural heritage available in an appealing way to the wide public.
Ir. Daniel Pletinckx, Visual Dimension bvba
83
A Smart Museum installation in the Stadsmuseum
in Stockholm – From Visitor Guides to Museum Management
NICK RYAN1, GIUSEPPE RAFFA2, PHILIPP H. MOHR1, DANIELE MANZAROLI2, LUCA ROFFIA2, MARINA PETTINARI2,
LUKAS SKLENAR1, LUIGI DI STEFANO2, TULLIO SALMON CINOTTI2
1University of Kent, UK
{nsr,phm4,ls85}@kent.ac.uk
2Università di Bologna, Italy
{gra a, salmon, dmanzaroli, lro a, mpettinari, ldistefano}@arces.unibo.it
Abstract
is paper describes the installation of context and location dependant tools based on the MobiComp
infrastructure (MobiComp2007) at the Interactive Salon, an exhibition of new technologies for Cultural
Heritage, supported by the EPOCH NoE and held at the Stadsmuseum in Stockholm. MobiComp is
a context management infrastructure tailored to the needs of Cultural Heritage, introduced by the
University of Kent and further developed within the framework of EPOCH. At the exhibition it enables
the interoperability of various location sensors, exhibit information, visitor guides and management tools
within the same operational environment. e deployed applications include visitor guiding, tracking
and counting, environmental monitoring, and issuing and returning of multimedia context-aware guide
devices. e goal of the Interactive Salon is to encourage dialogue between the public and the specialists
in the communication and cultural heritage eld. Prototypes of the next generation of technologies for
accessing and managing cultural heritage, which are expected to be widely available within 3 to 5 years,
are being demonstrated.
Keywords: Context-aware, Location-aware, Multimedia guide, Museum management
1. Introduction
Imagine a museum, an archaeological site or a cultural landscape in which visitors and staff can nd information
about their surroundings and the objects on display. The content information provided is tailored to their individual
circumstances and needs. Staff may require different information from visitors, but visitors are not a homogeneous
group. Adults and children, novices and experts, disabled and able-bodied, rst-time and returning visitors all
arrive with different knowledge, capabilities and expectations. The depth of information, its style of presentation
and the delivery medium may all be varied to suit the needs and expectations of the individual.
Smart Environments and context-awareness are two of the terms used by computer science researchers to de-
scribe this vision. Instead of a single computer, numerous small ones and diverse sensors are combined through a
network to realise this vision. These small devices may have xed locations, or be attached to portable objects, or
carried by individuals. Unlike many existing museum and site systems which often only use a single technology,
e.g. audio guides or handheld computers with infrared beacons, our approach combines a variety of technologies to
create an integrated guide and monitoring system through a common software infrastructure. Allowing appropriate
technologies to be selected to suit organisational needs and those of different visitors. In our installation the context
management infrastructure MobiComp is employed to provide a number of user guide and museum management
systems tailored to the Interactive Salon.
In Section 2 the paper describes context management infrastructures in general and MobiComp in particular.
In Section 3 the StadsMuseum experimental scenario is presented, describing all the different technologies used.
Section 4 presents conclusions and future aims.
84
N. Ryan, G. Raffa, P. H. Mohr, D. Manzaroli, L. Rof a, M. Pettinari, L. Sklenar, L. Di Stefano, T. S. Cinotti
2. Context Management – MobiComp
Context management infrastructures enable context elements – information about the situation or environment of
a device, object or person – to be made available to applications and services in a standardised way. Interfaces are
provided allowing sensors to deliver their context data in a common format to the infrastructure. Sensors can be
embedded in wearable mobile devices or be hidden in the environment. Within the context management system and
through external learning and reasoning modules the context data received from sensors can be further processed
in order to generate higher level context. By formalising the meaning of individual context attributes through an
ontology, context abstraction and ontological reasoning can be performed. The complete set of contextual information
is made available to applications and services by the infrastructure, supporting users and management.
MobiComp is a context management infrastructure tailored to the needs of Cultural Heritage, it builds on earlier
work in context-aware eld recording tools (Pascoe1998) and was originally developed to support context sharing
in a range of mobile applications (Ryan1999, vanLeusen2001). Its core element is the ContextService (Fig. 1), an
interface to a tuplespace (Ahuja1986, Gelertner1992) extended with event noti cation. The ContextService acts as
a store for context information and enables coordination between the components of context-aware applications.
The approach is similar to that employed in several other ubiquitous computing support infrastructures, e.g.
the Stanford Event Heap (Johanson2002). The storage components behind the ContextService interface can be
con gured to support different scales of context-aware applications: simple stand-alone applications, multiple
applications on a single device and applications spanning multiple devices. In the last case, one or more networked
servers make the context elements from heterogeneous sources accessible in a uniform way.
Context elements take the form of a subject-predicate-object triple, relating an entity identi er to a named context
value. Three components exist for interacting with MobiComp: trackers, listeners and aggregators. A tracker is a
MobiComp component that acts as a context producer. Trackers register their availability and capabilities by
sending appropriate information to the ContextService. Their purpose is to collect raw context data from sensors,
such as GPS receivers, and other dynamic or static sources, including con guration les for device capabilities
and user-preferences. Trackers transform their input into context elements which are then put into the tuplespace.
A listener is a MobiComp component that receives noti cation of ContextEvents from the ContextService and
performs some action based on the context element carried by the event object. They receive event noti cations
whenever a context element is put into or removed from the store. On receiving a noti cation, the listener may
get the element from the store and use it as required. An aggregator is a MobiComp component that combines the
behaviour of both a tracker and a listener. Aggregators monitor events from the ContextService, rather than a sensor
device, and apply a transformation before returning a new element to the tuplespace. Aggregators can combine
several low-level sensor elements to produce an element at a higher level of abstraction. For example, temperature,
door, window and light sensor information might be used to determine room occupancy. Other aggregators may
perform simple transformation services, i.e. converting latitude and longitude coordinates from a GPS sensor to
coordinates on an appropriate local or national grid. Many non-trivial context-aware applications utilise a number
of complex context aggregators, e.g. the FieldMap application described in (van Leusen2001).
Figure 1. The Kent MobiComp infrastructure.
85
A Smart Museum installation in the Stadsmuseum in Stockholm – From Visitor Guides to Museum Management
To ease communication between infrastructure components, context elements are represented in the form of a
XML document based on ConteXtML (Ryan2005b), extending the subject-predicate-object triples. The elements
carry a production timestamp, a default validity period, and a privacy level indicating how they may be disseminated
through the ContextService. The object part of a context element may be arbitrarily complex, and different trackers
might produce elements with similar names but different semantics. Equally, similar information may be packaged
in different forms. Figure (Fig. 2) shows a ConteXtML fragment containing a location element, together with a
timestamp, a lifetime, a privacy level and a unique entity ID.
3. The StadsMuseum experimental scenario
In the StadsMuseum experimental scenario a MobiComp server has been deployed to support several context-
aware museum applications. The physical entities represented within MobiComp are the museum, visitors, exhibits,
PDAs, Tablet PCs, Whyres (Cinotti2004) and users own mobile phones.
The employed context trackers are comprised of exhibit ID, location and image trackers:
PDAs and other devices equipped with infra red sensors may use an Infra Red (IR) beacon tracker to detect
the IDs broadcast by IR beacons located at certain exhibits. Upon detection, the ID is passed to the Context
Service.
The Whyre device is equipped with several sensors including accelerometers and a digital compass. An inertial
location tracker these to determine the location of the device within a local museum speci c co-ordinate
system.
The Vision Tracking System (VTS) (Pettinari2007) uses a stereo camera, and an associated tracker can report
the location and movement of a visitor within its eld of view.
The MagicMap Wi location tracker makes use of the MagicMap Wi location system (Ibach2005). The system
calculates the relative positions of Wi devices based on the signal strength of the visible Wi access points.
The image tracker registers images taken by a USB webcam or a mobile phone camera in the Context Service.
Applications may use the generated context attributes in their raw form or as further processed by aggregators.
Several aggregators are employed in the scenario, each providing some information about the identity or location
of entities, typically exhibits, of interest to the user:
The location coordinates are in different reference systems, requiring a conversion mechanism. This mechanism
is realised by an aggregator able to convert between all reference systems used in the StadMuseum scenario.
The location of each exhibit is known, so an aggregator is provided to provide mapping from IDs to locations
and vice versa.
The semacode recognition aggregator responds to image elements generated when a picture is taken using a
USB webcam or mobile phone camera. The aggregator invokes an external module which tries to nd and
decode an optical tag in the captured image. The external module uses the Semacode.org software development
kit (Semacode2007). Typically, the semacode content is a URL, but it may be another identi er or just a text
message. If an ID or URL is found in the image, a new element is put into the context store. IDs and URLs
generated in this way are treated in exactly the same way as with other trackers and aggregators described
above.
The object recognition aggregator operates in a similar way. It responds to new image elements by invoking an
external module using software developed by colleagues at ETH, Zurich. The external module compares images
with a collection of images of exhibits in the museum. If an exhibit is recognised in the image, the ID of the
exhibit is placed into the ContextStore. For the recognition a SURF (Bay2006) image recognition algorithm,
Figure 2. ConteXtML.
86
N. Ryan, G. Raffa, P. H. Mohr, D. Manzaroli, L. Rof a, M. Pettinari, L. Sklenar, L. Di Stefano, T. S. Cinotti
based on interest point correspondences between individual image pairs, is used. Input images are compared to
all model images available to the algorithm by matching their respective interest points. The model image with
the highest number of matches, with respect to the input image, is chosen as the best match.
Any exhibit or other entity within the system may have an associated URL leading to further information. For
each mobile device, a ‘current information URL’ is generated whenever one of the above trackers or aggregators
reports that it has moved close to an exhibit, or tracks the ID of an exhibit.
The following listeners have been implemented in order to supply the applications with the required context:
The URL display listener is noti ed by MobiComp responds to new ‘current information URL’ events and
enables applications to retrieve and display the information associated with the current exhibit.
The visitor location listener provides applications with the current locations of visitors in the exhibition.
Based on these trackers, aggregators and listeners, a number of museum management systems and visitor guides
have been realised in the StadMuseum.
1.1. Museum Management Systems
Three management systems have been deployed, a presence monitor, a visitor tracking system and a museum desk
registration system.
Museum Presence Monitor
The Museum Presence Monitor keeps track of the number of visitors currently in the exhibition and of the overall
total number of visitors. The monitor application is noti ed by the visitor location tracker when a visitor enters or
leaves the exhibition.
Visitor Tracking System
The real-time positions of all visitors using a guide system inside the museum are displayed on a map of the
Museum, including trajectories and visit durations. The locations are provided to the system by the visitor location
listener. In addition to the real-time view, the system is used to analyse visitors’ behaviour and to identify “hot
spots” inside the museum (Pettinari2007)(Fig. 3).
Figure 3. Visitor Tracking System.
87
A Smart Museum installation in the Stadsmuseum in Stockholm – From Visitor Guides to Museum Management
Museum Registration Desk
Visitors who wish to use a context aware guide can register with the MobiComp Museum Registration Desk
application. The visitor’s details are entered and the chosen guide is select. This information is made available to
all applications through the ContextStore and also triggers the con guration of the chosen guide for this particular
visitor. Visitors can remain anonymous or can sign up for post-visit online services. (Fig. 4)
1.2. Visitor Guides
For a guide system to be able to provide relevant information to its users it needs to know what they are looking at,
what they know about, and what they are interested in. Based on this information and the content to be displayed
the following guides have been realised through MobiComp:
The guide realised on mobile phones, with a built in camera and a GPRS connection, is a light weight
MobiComp client installed on the phone via a Bluetooth Kiosk. Visitors are offered the opportunity to install
the software on arrival. The visitors can take pictures of the semacodes next to the exhibits they are interested
in and the corresponding information will be displayed on the screen of the mobile phone. The MobiComp
components used are the image tracker, the semacode recognition aggregator and the URL display listener.
(Fig. 5)
Whyre is a purpose-built wearable guide system for Museums and archaeological sites. The version used in the
StadMuseum automatically displays information about the exhibit the user is closest to and facing, for a detailed
description please see (Pettinari2007). The MobiComp components used are the WHYRE inertial location
tracker, the VTS tracker and the URL display listener. (Fig. 6)
Two PDA based guides are used, one based on IR beacon detection and the other on Wi positioning. Both
display information about the exhibit the visitor is standing next to, which is delivered to them by the URL
display listener. The MobiComp components used are the MagicMap Wi location tracker or the IR beacon
tracker, and the URL display listener.
Figure 4. Museum Registration Desk.
88
N. Ryan, G. Raffa, P. H. Mohr, D. Manzaroli, L. Rof a, M. Pettinari, L. Sklenar, L. Di Stefano, T. S. Cinotti
Figure 5. Example: Semacode based guide.
Figure 6. Example: Position tracker based guide.
89
A Smart Museum installation in the Stadsmuseum in Stockholm – From Visitor Guides to Museum Management
The Object Recognition Guide shown in gure 7 is implemented on a Tablet PC using a conventional
USB webcam to acquire images and to present users with a view nder window. When a user wants to get
information about an exhibit, the information button on the tablet is pressed when the exhibit is within the
view nder window. If the exhibit is recognised, the corresponding information is displayed. The MobiComp
components used are the camera Tracker, the ETH Image recognition aggregator and the URL display listener.
(Fig. 7)
4. Conclusions and future work
In this paper the MobiComp context management infrastructure installation including all the provided museum
management applications and user guides deployed at the StadMuseum in Stockholm have been presented. The
main focus of the installation was to test the interworking of a variety of trackers, aggregators and listeners through
the MobiComp infrastructure in a real world setting and to demonstrate that technological advances can improve
the experience of visitors. A number of valuable technical lessons have been learned, i.e. the stereo camera had to
be adapted to the lighting conditions, the location of the Wi access points used for positioning had to be adapted
to the conditions in the museum, additional light sources were required to improve the recognition of semacodes
through mobile phone cameras. In following installations in different museums extended user studies will be
performed focusing on the comparison of the different types of guides, as all guides are realised on the same
infrastructure and have access to the same content a meaningful comparison will be possible.
5. Acknowledgements
We would like to thank the Stockholm Stadsmuseum and the V4M group of the Interactive Institute for organising
the Interactive Salon, as well as EPOCH for supporting it. EPOCH, the European Research Network of Excellence
in Processing Open Cultural Heritage, is funded by the European Commission under the 6th Framework
Programme, Contract no. IST-2002-507382. However, the content here re ects only the views of the authors and
the Commission is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained herein.
Figure 7. Example: ETH Object Recognition tracker based guide.
90
N. Ryan, G. Raffa, P. H. Mohr, D. Manzaroli, L. Rof a, M. Pettinari, L. Sklenar, L. Di Stefano, T. S. Cinotti
6. References
MobiComp, http://www.piranesi.dyndns.org/mediawiki (accessed April 2007)
A. K. DEY, G. D. ABOWD, Towards a Better Understanding of Context and ContextAwareness,
Technical Report, Georgia Institute of Technology, College of Computing, 1999.
N. RYAN, T. SALMON CINOTTI, G. RAFFA “Smart Environments and their Applications to Cultural Heritage”,
Proceedings, Ubicomp05 Workshop, Tokyo, 2005.
NICK RYAN, Smart Environments for Cultural Heritage. In T. Uno, editor, Reading the Historical Spatial
Information in the World, Proc. 24th International Symposium, pages 17–33, Kyoto, Japan, February 2005.
International Center for Japanese Studies.
SALMON CINOTTI T. 2004, G. Raffa, L. Rof a, F. Garzotto, R. Muzii,V. Varlese, M. Malavasi, S. Galasso,
”Evaluating Context-Aware Mobile Applications in Museums: Experiences from the MUSE Project”, Selected
Papers from Museums and the Web 2004, (MW2004, 2004, Arlington – VA), Archives & museums Informatics,
Toronto, 2004, pp. 209–222.
PASCOE, J., MORSE, D.R., AND RYAN, N.S., Developing personal technology for the eld, Personal
Technologies, 2, 28–36, August 1998.
MARINA PETTINARI, DANIELE MANZAROLI, SARA BARTOLINI, LUCA ROFFIA, GIUSEPPE
RAFFA,LUIGI DI STEFANO, TULLIO SALMON CINOTTI, A Stereo Vision based system for advanced
Museum services, TO APPEAR IN THIS ISSUE
RYAN, N.S., J.PASCOE, J. AND MORSE, D.R., Fieldnote: a handheld information system for the eld, in
R.Laurini, editor, Proc. TeleGeo’99, 1st International Workshop on TeleGeoProcessing, Lyon 156–163, 1999
VAN LEUSEN, M. AND RYAN, N.S., Educating the digital eldwork assistant. In G. Burenhult, G. (ed), CAA
2001: Proceedings of Computer Applications and Quantitive Methods in Archeology Conference. Gotland,
401–412, 2001
AHUJA S., CARRIERO N. AND GELERTNER D., LINDA AND FRIENDS, IEEE Computer, 19(8), 26–34,
1986
GELERTNER D. and CARRIERO N., Coordination Languages and their Signi cance, CACM, 32(2), 96–107
1992
JOHANSON, B. and FOX, A., The Event Heap: A Coordination Infrastructure for Interactive Workspaces, Proc. 4th
IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computer Systems and Applications (WMCSA-2002), Callicoon, 83–93, 2002.
BAY, H., FASEL, B., VAN GOOL, L.: Interactive Museum Guide: Fast and Robust Recognition of Museum
Objects. In: Proceedings of the rst international workshop on mobile vision May 2006
BAY, H., TUYTELAARS, T., VAN GOOL, L.: SURF: Speeded up robust features. In:
ECCV. (2006)
P.K. IBACH, V. STANTCHEV, F. LEDERER, A. WEISS, TH. HERBST, T. KUNZE, WLAN-based Asset Tracking
for Warehouse Management, IADIS International Conference e-Commerce, Porto, Portugal, December 15–17,
2005
CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model, http://cidoc.ics.forth.gr (accessed April 2007)
Semacode software development kit, http://www.semacode.org (accessed April 2007)
WHYRE is a trademark of Ducati Sistemi S.p.A., an EPOCH partner
Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.
... As shown in Fig. 1 and discussed in the companion paper in this EPOCH publication [RYAN07], the above mentioned services may be implemented utilizing a context management infrastructure: data gathered by sensing devices -the stereo cameras and the mobile guides -are stored as tagged context elements in a context management infrastructure. Context elements are separately and independently aggregated (see the what level in Fig. 1) to provide higher level context information, enabling Smart Museum services. ...
... For example, the interface can automatically adapt to the visitor's location and the most appropriate content may be displayed. Context data between both systems is exchanged through MobiComp, the EPOCH Context Management Infrastructure, described in the companion paper in this journal [RYAN07]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Asset tracking offers high potential to improve efficiency of warehouse management. Typically the tracking is done employing RFID technology. As yet however, most goods are not prepared with RFID and it would require investment in costly hardware, infrastructure, and process adaptations. WLAN-based asset tracking is getting ready as a cost-effective alternative since software-only approaches are becoming mature. They can reuse existing standard WLAN devices and infrastructure for position sensing. In this paper we present such a system - MagicMap - that we have developed for real- time positioning based on WLAN signal strength measurements, and describe how it seamlessly integrates into a warehouse management scenario. Unfortunately, metal construction of a warehouse and high dynamics of goods influence the WLAN signal dissemination and thus make the approach generally difficult for such scenarios. To assess its applicability, we have measured positioning accuracy and real-time capabilities of MagicMap in comparison with two similar systems (Ekahau and MobileLocator Light) in a typical warehouse setup. Result show applicability of all three WLAN-based systems at an average positioning deviation of 3-5 meters and a tracking delay below 150 seconds - provided some physical constrains are considered.
Article
This paper is concerned with developing personal computing aids for the mobile fieldworker. A description of mobile computing and context-aware technology is given, suggesting how hand-held computing devices that are aware of various factors of their users environment (such as location) could be helpful. In particular, the concept of a stick-e note is introduced as a general-purpose context-aware technology that we have developed. The needs of fieldworkers and the suitability of stick-e note technology to their tasks is addressed, and a number of areas where stick-e note technology could help are identified. The design of a prototypical sticke-e note system that attempts to meet these needs is introduced and an account given of an extensive trial of this prototype in assisting in a behavioural study of giraffe in Kenya.
Smart Environments and their Applications to Cultural Heritage
  • T Ryan
  • Salmon
  • G Cinotti
  • Raffa
RYAN, T. SALMON CINOTTI, G. RAFFA "Smart Environments and their Applications to Cultural Heritage", Proceedings, Ubicomp05 Workshop, Tokyo, 2005.
Reading the Historical Spatial Information in the World
  • Nick Ryan
NICK RYAN, Smart Environments for Cultural Heritage. In T. Uno, editor, Reading the Historical Spatial Information in the World, Proc. 24th International Symposium, pages 17-33, Kyoto, Japan, February 2005. International Center for Japanese Studies.
A Stereo Vision based system for advanced Museum services
  • Marina Pettinari
  • Daniele Manzaroli
  • Sara Bartolini
  • Luca Roffia
  • Giuseppe Raffa
  • Luigi Di Stefano
  • Tullio Salmon Cinotti
MARINA PETTINARI, DANIELE MANZAROLI, SARA BARTOLINI, LUCA ROFFIA, GIUSEPPE RAFFA,LUIGI DI STEFANO, TULLIO SALMON CINOTTI, A Stereo Vision based system for advanced Museum services, TO APPEAR IN THIS ISSUE
Fieldnote: a handheld information system for the fi eld
  • N S Ryan
  • J Pascoe
  • J Morse
RYAN, N.S., J.PASCOE, J. AND MORSE, D.R., Fieldnote: a handheld information system for the fi eld, in R.Laurini, editor, Proc. TeleGeo'99, 1st International Workshop on TeleGeoProcessing, Lyon 156-163, 1999
Educating the digital fi eldwork assistant
  • M Van Leusen
  • N S Ryan
VAN LEUSEN, M. AND RYAN, N.S., Educating the digital fi eldwork assistant. In G. Burenhult, G. (ed), CAA 2001: Proceedings of Computer Applications and Quantitive Methods in Archeology Conference. Gotland, 401-412, 2001
  • Ahuja S Carriero
  • N Gelertner D
  • Friends
AHUJA S., CARRIERO N. AND GELERTNER D., LINDA AND FRIENDS, IEEE Computer, 19(8), 26-34, 1986
Coordination Languages and their Signifi cance
  • D Gelertner
  • Carriero N
GELERTNER D. and CARRIERO N., Coordination Languages and their Signifi cance, CACM, 32(2), 96-107 1992