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Context-aware computing for Cultural Tourism – Experiences from the MUSE project

The Integration of
Location Based Services
in Tourism and
Cultural Heritage
Edited by
Daniel Pletinckx
Daniel Pletinckx
Franco Niccolucci
Elizabeth Jerem
Managing Editor
András Kardos, Rita Kovács
Typesetting and Layout
Cover Design
Cover image: Matheus Caenen Chapel, Millam, Nord-Pas de Calais, France
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© EPOCH and individual authors
This publication results from a workshop organised by EPOCH on November 21, 2006 in the
Boudewijn building, Brussels, Belgium. The aim of this workshop was to create a thematic cluster
of people and organisations that are interested in or have knowledge about Location Based Services.
Thematic clusters are one of the activities of, a spin-off network of EPOCH
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ISBN 978-963-8046-88-8
EPOCH is funded by the European Commission under the Community’s Sixth Framework
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European Community is not liable for any use that can be made of the information contained herein.
Budapest 2007
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................. 5
The message and the medium; the presentation of the Muiderslot story
Geeske Bakker ................................................................................................................................................... 7
History Unwired: the use of mobile and localization technologies for cultural tourism
Michael Epstein, Silvia Vergani ...................................................................................................................... 15
The Visual Virtual Tourist Guide:a markerless camera-based LBS system
Toon Goedemé , Beat Fasel and Luc Van Gool ................................................................................................ 21
Experience Roma: Creation of a Laboratory for Innovation in the Field of Cultural Tourism
Andrea Granelli ............................................................................................................................................... 33
ARCHIE: a Handheld Museum Guide Combining Location, Personalization and
Communication to Support Socially Aware Group Visits
Kris Luyten, Kris Gabriëls, Daniël Teunkens, Karel Robert, Karin Coninx, Elke Manshoven ...................... 49
A Stereo Vision based system for advanced Museum services
Marina Pettinari, Daniele Manzaroli, Sara Bartolini, Luca Rof a,
Giuseppe Raffa, Luigi Di Stefano, Tullio Salmon Cinotti ............................................................................... 57
Context-aware computing for Cultural Tourism – Experiences from the MUSE project
Giuseppe Raffa, Luca Rof a, Marina Pettinari, Raviprakash Nagaraj,
Fabio Sforza, Giuseppe Mincolelli, Tullio Salmon Cinotti ............................................................................. 69
A Smart Museum installation in the Stadsmuseum in Stockholm –
From Visitor Guides to Museum Management
Nick Ryan, Giuseppe Raffa, Philipp H. Mohr, Daniele Manzaroli, Luca Rof a, Marina Pettinari,
Lukas Sklenar, Luigi Di Stefano, Tullio Salmon Cinotti .................................................................................. 83
The development of cultural tourism routes: a market for Location Based Systems?
Jan Stobbe ....................................................................................................................................................... 91
This publication results from the EPOCH workshop “The Integration of Location Based Services in Tourism and
Cultural Heritage” organised in Brussels, Belgium on November 21, 2006, in cooperation with Westtoer and the
Flemish Heritage Institute.
This workshop focused on the use of Location Based Services (LBS), such as GPS and position detection on
mobile phones or wireless LAN in both indoor and outdoor use, in tourism and cultural heritage interpretation
from the point of integration, work ow, feasibility, sustainability and supporting policies.
This workshop talked about the conception and creation issues of such systems, about possible hardware
platforms, about the collaboration between the content partners at different levels, about the management of routes
and route information, about the impact of LBS on route design and exploitation, about the feasibility, longevity
and sustainability of such systems, about the implementation and maintenance of such systems within a touristical
infrastructure, about quality assurance and data protection, about the creation of a two-way communication with
the user/tourist, who can give feedback and personal interpretation.
International developers, companies, policy makers and responsibles for tourism and cultural heritage gave
their view on the state-of-art, the goals and the issues of creating integrated Location Based Services that can be
used in touristical and cultural routes, city and monument visits, and site and landscape interpretation.
EPOCH has created a new network that wants to support the practical use of IT (Information
Technology) in cultural heritage and tourism. This workshop brought together both specialists on LBS and people
from tourism and cultural heritage that want to use LBS in their daily practice. will continue to
support these people through a thematic cluster on LBS, providing training, publications and thematic meetings
We hope that his publication gives a better insight in the potential of LBS in tourism and cultural heritage and
helps to make cultural heritage available in an appealing way to the wide public.
Ir. Daniel Pletinckx, Visual Dimension bvba
Context-aware computing for Cultural Tourism
– Experiences from the MUSE project
1ARCES-DEIS, Università di Bologna, Italy
{ gra a, lro a, mpettinari, tsalmon }
2Intel Corporation, USA
3Ducati Sistemi S.pA., Italy
4Dep. of Design - Università di Ferrara, Italy
Making context-aware multimedia content available in museums and at archaeological sites is a
challenging task, as the devices and so ware used need to be adapted to the local requirements.
is paper presents the experience gained in the MUSE research project. e main aim of MUSE is
to make the visit to a museum or archaeological site more enjoyable and fruitful by means of Mobile
Context Aware Multimedia Guides.
During the project a hands-free, sensor augmented, context-aware wearable computer named Whyre
was developed. e purpose of Whyre is to act as a guide for cultural sites, hiding the technology from
the visitors and making di erent types of multimedia content accessible through a uni ed interface.
Appropriate content is selected based on the user’s context – detected by sensors embedded in the mobile
device. A prototype has been demonstrated in two Italian Museums and in the archaeological area of
Pompeii. In this paper the MUSE system characteristics and the functionalities of Whyre are presented,
followed by a summary of real world trials.
Keywords: Context-aware, Multimedia guide, sensors, e_content.
1. Introduction
One of the goals of a museum is to make history accessible and at the same time making the learning experience
enjoyable. A Mobile Context Aware Multimedia Guide” (MCA-MMG) is a tool supporting this goal by delivering
multimedia enhanced information at the right level of detail for a particular visitor at the right time in the right
place. MCA-MMGs are ubiquitous computing devices and follow the design principles described by [WEISER99]:
ergonomics, low power, technology hiding, communication and usability.
The effectiveness of a MCA-MMG does not only depend on the physical and technological characteristics of
the device, but also on the e_content format and language [MUZII 2003].
World leading museums, i.e. the Smithsonian Institute, are starting to consider MMGs [TELLIS04][RYAN05].
Many companies, including HP and Antenna Audio, are devoting considerable efforts to this issue, e.g. the HP
Labs Electronic Guidebook and Cooltown projects at the San Francisco Exploratorium [SPASO01], the handheld
tours at the NASM Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center based on HP handheld devices, the Tate Modern Multimedia
Tour Pilot [PROCT03] and the SFMOMA program Making sense of modern art [SAMI01]. This trend is supported
by the movement of other computing areas towards increasingly mobile and distributed computers, e.g. wireless
multimedia, self-awareness of position, location-based services and Context-based usage models – for a detailed
description refer to [PERV02].
In the cultural heritage domain a number of large projects followed this trend, e.g. Archeoguide [GLEUE01]
and the one presented in this paper, MUSE [CINOTTI01]. The main aim of MUSE is to make the visit to a museum
G. Raffa, L. Rof a, M. Pettinari, R. Nagaraj, F. Sforza, G. Mincolelli, T. S. Cinotti
or archaeological site more enjoyable and fruitful by means of MCA-MMGs. MUSE has been demonstrated in
two Italian Museums: La Certosa e Museo di San Martino in Napoli [MUZII03, CINOTTI04] and the Museum
of History of Science in Florence [GARZOT05]. In cooperation with the project “Pompeii-Insula del Centenario
(IX 8)” [SCAGLIA01] MUSE has also been demonstrated in the archaeological area of Pompeii. A MCA-MMG
named Whyre has been speci cally developed for the project. One of the goals of the project is to apply the lessons
learned from the use of Whyre to general-purpose mobile clients [BURRIS04].
2. MUSE Infrastructure
The MUSE infrastructure, as shown in Fig. 1, is distributed and composed of the following main components:
The network infrastructure (mixed wired and wireless);
The application server and the e_content repositories (storing also metadata based on Dublin-Core standard
[DC]) with their own Content Management Systems;
The desk applications used to register and manage devices and visitors;
Whyre devices worn by visitors.
A variety of additional domain speci c services may be provided by this infrastructure [CINOTTI04], providing
an enhanced experience for the users inside the cultural site and also for the museum personnel for management
purposes. For example, personnel can easily adjust the e_content repositories according to physical re-arrangement
of exhibitions and users can be provided with a personal memento of their visit.
One of the more interesting parts of the MUSE project has been the development of the speci c MCA-MMG
called Whyre. Whyre’s main characteristics and capabilities are detailed in section 3.
Figure 1. System infrastructure.
Context-aware computing for Cultural Tourism – Experiences from the MUSE project
3. Whyre: The “Mobile Context Aware Multimedia Guide”
Whyre is a MCA-MMG, based on an optimised IA32 mobile platform built with the technological contribution
of Intel Labs [CINOTTI01] (Fig. 2). The rationale behind the choice of this architecture instead of “lighter”
ones (e.g.: PDA, smartphones, …) relies on the performance needed by high-quality multimedia content and
(sensors-based) interaction models. Furthermore, handheld devices seem to be less then optimum for usability
[GARZOT05] in this kind of scenario.
3.1. Hardware platform
The hardware is conceptually partitioned into three modules:
a – The Microprocessor module;
b – The Sensor module ;
c – The wireless communication module (WCM).
a. The Microprocessor module design is based on the system electronics of the Barracuda and Dolphin concept
platforms developed by Intel Labs. It consists of a Mobile Intel® Pentium® III Processor ULV ultra low voltage
Processor, supported by the Intel® 440MX Chipset; core clock frequencies are 300 and 500 MHz. The main
memory size is 128 MB (100 MHz SDRAM). The graphics processing is handled by a Silicon Motion Lynx
3D+ device driving a Sharp 6.4” high brightness TFT screen with a resolution of 640 x 480. A Toshiba 1.8”
5 GB Hard drive is included, providing suf cient storage for the operating system, applications and device-
dependant presentation layouts stored locally.
b. The wireless communication module (WCM) is a standard PCcard, allowing it to be either a WLAN or a GPRS
module. In the existing pilot installations IEEE802.11b modules are used.
In addition, a camera is currently interfaced to the Microprocessor module.
c. The sensor module is constituted by a multi sensor board (MSB), embedded in the device. The MSB (Fig. 3)
is controlled by an MSP430 TI microcontroller and it is connected to the Microprocessor module through an
USB connection. The Sensor module currently includes a combination of geomagnetic and inertial sensors (a
compass by Robotron, a bi-axial accelerometer and a gyroscope by Analog Devices) providing basic information
such as azimuth, roll and pitch. This data can be used to determine meaningful information about the user
context (i.e.: still or motion, user tracking, etc.), as discussed in the companion paper in this EPOCH publication
Figure 2. Whyre in desktop position.
G. Raffa, L. Rof a, M. Pettinari, R. Nagaraj, F. Sforza, G. Mincolelli, T. S. Cinotti
3.2. Context Management Capabilities
One of Whyre’s most important features is its Context Management Capability (CMC), relying on both the WCM
and the MSB to provide position and orientation of the user, useful for determining the actual context of the user.
The context is expressed in terms of a combination of physical and logical coordinates [ROFFIA05].
The physical coordinate represents the current user’s position and orientation related to a space model. The
physical coordinate (location and orientation) are provided by a number of inexpensive and unobtrusive
sensors. The CMC is used to to fuse the measurements in order to increase the accuracy of the detected context.
For the location part, the WCM is used to provide indoor location information using a proximity algorithm.
Outdoor localisation is mainly provided by GPS. In the companion paper [PETTINARI07] a tracking algorithm
is presented to support value-added services for museums’ personnel and visitors.
The logical coordinate represents the current level-of-detail explicitly requested by the user (i.e.: the user is
interested in the museum, section, hall, walls or exhibit), according to the hypothesis that it is always possible
to identify a hierarchy in the cultural heritage site organization.
The two-dimensional context is provided to a geographical database (GIS Geographical Information System)
in order to get the context-dependant e_content from a remote repository, managed by an application server
part of the MUSE infrastructure. If automatic context disambiguation is impossible, either the user is asked to
disambiguate by explicit input or sensors should be added.
The proposed mechanism allows for a continuous adaptation of Whyre when additional and potentially more
accurate sensors become affordable.
For example, considering a museum modelled as a three level hierarchy (halls, walls and exhibits) (Fig. 4), if the
user is in hall a, in front of wall b, looking at exhibit c, then the e_content provided by the application server is related
to the hall, the wall or the exhibit itself depending on the current level-of-detail explicitly requested by the user.
Overall, context information provided by the CMC is used in order to:
Speed up e_content access, by minimizing the number of keystrokes and in general usage of the device;
Simplify self-orienting on the site, by providing directional references for charts displaying;
“Decipher” the surrounding environment by providing the user location identi er;
Support augmented reality features, by feeding QTVR or 3D interactive viewers with physical space coordinates,
Figure 3. The sensor module.
Context-aware computing for Cultural Tourism – Experiences from the MUSE project
Figure 4. Moving around in «Whyre Context».
Figure 5. Sensor-driven contextual navigation.
G. Raffa, L. Rof a, M. Pettinari, R. Nagaraj, F. Sforza, G. Mincolelli, T. S. Cinotti
so that the virtual navigation may be contextual with the “navigation” in physical space (Fig. 5) [SCAGLIA01].
CMC can be extended to support additional functionalities, i.e. effective power distribution and optimisation
policies based on user and device context, as presented in [CHARY06]. An experiment was carried out at the
“Museo e Certosa di San Martino” to show that sensors-based CMC can be used to save power, as well as to
increase the effectiveness of the interface, leading to shorter visit times which can further reduce the total energy
consumption per visit. Fig. 6 shows on the left (a) the total visit time and on the right (b) the power consumption
during two identical visits (i.e. visits to the same set of exhibits and content). The visit with sensors disabled
is shown in bar A. Bar B shows the museum walk with sensors enabled to support the interface and Power
Management policies. In this case, the visit time is shorter because context-dependent content is automatically
provided by Whyre, without requiring the user to interactively search the required content. Furthermore, in this
case the display is switched off when the visitor moves from exhibit to exhibit. Since a high brightness display
is needed for a comfortable use, the power saved when moving is considerable, in the range of 6 watts in our
case. The bene ts of this approach increase when the distance between the exhibits increase.
3.4. Form factor and graphical interface
The user’s needs are described in terms of cognitive, emotional and ergonomic aspects. Whyre was designed to
be used while looking at an exhibit, enhancing the user’s interaction with the exhibit by providing audiovisual
information without distracting the visitor. This requires a combination of usability with a minimal amount of
visual attention – allowing the visitor’s eyes to focus on the exhibits and not on the guide.
The shape of Whyre was chosen based on hardware constraints and the above mentioned usability issues.
The main hardware constraints are power consumption, orientation requirements of the MSB, and that the
external antennas and the camera need to be positioned in a protected place. As shown in Fig. 7-right, Whyre
concentrates most of its heavy components in its lower zone, therefore it hangs in the correct operating position
(Fig. 7-left).
The shape of the aluminium chassis contributes to heat dissipation of the batteries and processor while holding
both the sensor module horizontal and the display inclined at the correct angle.
The human-machine interface (Fig. 8) should be intuitive to occasional users. A tight connection between the
physical and the audiovisual interfaces exists. After a short period of time, the user constructs a tactile mental map
of Whyre, learning to control the device without looking at it.
User input, when necessary, is made possible by a keyboard with four xed function keys and six keys whose
function depends on what is currently shown on the display (Fig. 8). The shape of the cover guides the user’s
ngers to the keys and protects the camera and antenna. The combination of xed and dynamic buttons allows the
system to be controlled by a limited number of buttons – the type of interaction is similar at all navigation levels
(Fig. 4). The four xed function keys are dedicated to the most frequently used functions, e.g. the escape key
located in the upper right corner allows the user to return to the main menu at anytime.
The interaction between Whyre and the user is based on MUSE-XP, a client-side software running on Whyre,
as described in the next section.
Figure 6. Context usage for power optimization and interface effectiveness.
Context-aware computing for Cultural Tourism – Experiences from the MUSE project
Figure 7. Whyre worn by a user (left) and Whyre architecture (right).
Figure 8. Whyre interface.
G. Raffa, L. Rof a, M. Pettinari, R. Nagaraj, F. Sforza, G. Mincolelli, T. S. Cinotti
3.5. Whyre Software
The client system is controlled by MUSE-XP, an application running on Windows XP Embedded, which consists
of (1) an XML interface-and-interaction de nition le coupled to (2) an interface-independent execution engine
(called MuseXPRunner). The XML le speci es the policies, while the Runner implements the capabilities: the
XML le – produced by the interface designer – is interpreted at run time by the MuseXPRunner, generating the
nal graphical interface according to the design requirements.
Each context state (the combination of the physical and logical context coordinates, as explained in section 3.3)
is linked to a unique “navigation state” of the graphical interface. When the user’s context changes (implicitly
or explicitly, i.e.: pressing keys, changing room, etc.) the CMC trigger an event and the navigation state of the
application is updated accordingly, refreshing automatically the GUI presented to the user. The XML de nition
le contains the relevant information for each navigation state, written in an XML dialect (MuseML language).
MuseML is based on a MUSE speci c XML-schema containing the de nition and the semantics of the used
tags. In this way, the system becomes fully-con gurable: the graphical user interface, the interaction models,
the sensory subsystem and multimedia content can be adapted to any cultural site without changing the engine
Using MuseML tags, the following relevant elements for each navigation state are declared in the XML le:
The “navigation states” graph and the relations with the “context states” ;
The “navigation state” change triggering events (i.e.: pressing keys, changing room, etc.);
The GUI de nition/composition in each navigation state.
The user interface layouts and the graphic objects are de ned in device-dependent HTML pages, where the control
of the screen resources is speci ed according to the DHTML extension DOM (Document Object Model). Native
support services of Microsoft OS are extensively used, e.g. COM, COM+, Internet Explorer ActiveX, but HTTP,
XML and HTML standards are followed for easy integration with other projects and components.
The content can be of any format that is supported by the browsing component Microsoft Internet Explorer, e.g.
text, images, Flash animations and VRML interactive models. Animations are also supported through Microsoft
Figure 9. Basic software architecture and user interaction model.
Context-aware computing for Cultural Tourism – Experiences from the MUSE project
Windows Media Framework (Encoder, Server and Player). Suitable, content is provided in streaming format for
better network usage and timely response for users.
Fig. 9 shows the block diagram of the Whyre application model. Once the HTML pages and the interface
speci cations are ready, the site-speci c MuseXP application may run on the cultural site.
4. Demonstration and eld evaluation
Whyre was evaluated in the above mentioned MUSE pilot installations. The evaluation at the Museo Nazionale
di San Martino in Naples was based on two complementary techniques [CINOTTI04]: (1) user testing and (2)
usability analysis [NIELSEN94] carried out by experts, according to the SUE-MiLe Heuristic evaluation method
[GARZOT95], [DIBLAS02]. The results are presented in [CINOTTI04]. At the Museum of History of Science in
Florence the system was evaluated by the museum staff and by the public. 149 questionnaires were collected, 75
of them in Naples and 74 in Florence. The questionnaires addressed general issues like the perceived novelty, the
e_content quality, the Whyre design and usability. The users in the demo sites showed a correlation in terms of age
and education level. On the contrary, the test beds were different at least in respects to the type of museums and
origin of the users: one is a history museum and the other a science one, and 95% Italian versus 50% foreigners
(mainly from the U.S.). In spite of such differences, the user response was quite homogeneous.
The following points were evaluated in the studies:
The general user satisfaction. We wanted to understand whether museum visitors enjoy the experience of using
the mobile context-aware guide during their visit.
The multimedia content effectiveness. We wanted to understand whether the availability of multimedia content
improves the user experience; in particular, considering media that are typically not available in museum guides
such as videos, animations and 3D models.
The potential of applying a similar approach to different cultural heritage sites.
The usability of the navigation and the interaction. A strong focus was placed on analysing context-aware
mobile system speci c properties, i.e. the understandability of the context-aware behaviour, the effectiveness of
the information-push model and the ease of use of multi-modal interaction.
The most encouraging response for the research community concerns the perceived novelty of the proposed
approach and its potential to create a new demand and a new market; in fact it turned out that almost nobody had
ever seen a similar device and everybody would like the service provided to be available in other sections of the
museum (Fig. 10), and other museums.
Multimedia e_content was considered a key feature of the system. Approximately half of the interviewees
expressed their interest in both multimedia and textual e_content ( g.11-right). Furthermore, effectiveness of
content has been also recognised by potential users ( g.11-left).
Figure 10. Whyre ability to extend user perception and create new expectations.
G. Raffa, L. Rof a, M. Pettinari, R. Nagaraj, F. Sforza, G. Mincolelli, T. S. Cinotti
Figure 11. Content effectiveness.
Figure 12. Whyre effectiveness and usability.
Context-aware computing for Cultural Tourism – Experiences from the MUSE project
Moving on to Whyre ergonomics (Fig. 12), while the video quality and visibility was considered good or
excellent by over 90% of the people (Whyre has a high brightness 6.4” display and all of the tests were carried out
indoor), some concerns were expressed about the weight. Whyre weighs nearly 3 pounds and this was considered
“disappointing” by nearly 45% of the visitors. Current improvements in the architecture of high performance
handheld devices can solve the problem for future deployments, while maintaining the concepts of high-quality
media and context-based interaction.
Eventually the interviewees were asked to qualify the design of Whyre with three adjectives. Table 1 lists the
top 10 quali ers; they include an implicit evaluation of Whyre’s usability.
Table 1. The top ten quali ers of Whyre design
Finally, some of the visitors asked for additional functionalities, i.e. some interaction facilities between groups of users.
In summary, a device like Whyre can contribute to the process of turning museums into more informative and
interactive environments.
5. Conclusions
Whyre is the result of an interdisciplinary design process, aiming to translate a concept into an experimental system,
by utilising building blocks from state-of-the-art technologies in several elds: sensors, networking, software
engineering and design. User studies showed that Whyre is a step towards the goal of museums making history
accessible while helping to make the educational experience enjoyable. Future work will focus on the following:
An e_content development standard should be devised, aiming to maximize both the quality/bandwidth ratio
and the curator team productivity
A context-driven power management capability should be de ned in order to support effective power-
performance optimisation policies based on MCA behaviour.
A generic architecture for MCA-MMGs should provide the ability to use context information and automatically
connect other context-sensors, enabling a exible and adaptive framework where self aware computing can be
The combination of a good power distribution policy with the optimisation of e_content data-rate and computational
load should be bene cial at both network [SMAILAG02] and device level: more devices, with smaller form factor,
lower weight and longer battery life would be supported by a system. Furthermore, research is being carried
out based on this prototype for understanding how sensors embedded in a mobile device can improve resource
management and in particular power management [CHARY06]. This research, rst applied to the cultural heritage
domain, should open the way to new high-volume applications. Since museums and archaeological sites represent
an application domain with a strong abstraction potential, in principle, it should be possible to generalize our
approach to a broad range of applications.
6. Acknowledgements
MUSE was funded by the Italian government (MIUR, the Italian Ministry for University and Research), within
the framework of the National Research Program on Cultural Heritage Parnaso. The project was conducted by
Ducati Sistemi S.p.A. in cooperation with Cineca, Politecnico di Milano, Sinet and the University of Bologna.
Content providers as well as hosts for extended system concept veri cation are: the Istituto e Museo di Storia
della Scienza (Florence), Soprintendenza Speciale del Polo Museale di Napoli and Soprintendenza Archeologica
di Pompei. The authors wish to thank: Prof. Pietro Giovanni Guzzo, Prof. Nicola Spinosa, Prof. Paolo Galluzzi
and their teams for hosting the in- eld demonstration and for their contribution in terms of sources and concepts;
G. Raffa, L. Rof a, M. Pettinari, R. Nagaraj, F. Sforza, G. Mincolelli, T. S. Cinotti
prof. Francesca Bocchi for managing the training program associated to the research project; Prof. Franca Garzotto
with the Politecnico di Milano for her contribution in interface design and usability evaluation; Wen-Hann Wang
and Steve Hunt with Intel Corporation for their support in the conceptual design of the Whyre hardware; Wah You
Kwong, Wayne Proefrock, with Intel Labs, and Marco Iacuzzi, with Eurotech, for their contribution in making
Whyre a working machine; Prof. Daniela Scagliarini and Ing. Antonella Guidazzoli with their respective teams for
the development of the 3-D models of the Casa del Centenario in Pompeii.
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Stereo Vision based system for advanced Museum services, TO APPEAR IN THIS ISSUE
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Museums and the Web 2003, (MW2003, March 19-22, 2003, Charlotte - VA), Archives & museums Inf., Toronto,
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[ROFFIA05] Rof a, L., Pettinari, M., Raffa, G., Gaviani, G.: Context Awareness in Mobile Cultural Heritage
Applications. Workshop on Smart Environments and their Applications to Cultural Heritage, Ubicomp05 –
2005, Tokyo – Proceedings, Pg. 33–36, Budapest, 2005
[RYAN05] Ryan, N., Salmon Cinotti, T., Raffa, G.: Smart Environments and their Applications to Cultural
Heritage, Proceedings of a workshop held in conjunction with UbiComp’05, Tokyo, Japan, 11th September,
Context-aware computing for Cultural Tourism – Experiences from the MUSE project
2005, EPOCH publication, Archaeolingua, Budapest, ISBN 963 8046 61.
[SAMI01] Sami, P.S.: Points of Departure: Curators and educators collaborate to prototype a Museum of the
Future. International Cultural Heritage Informatics Meeting, (ICHIM 01, Sep 3-7, 2001, Milano), 2001, D.
Bearman e F. Garzotto editors, Milano, pp. 623–637.
[SCAGLIA01] Scagliarini Corlàita, D., Coralini, A., Vecchietti, E., Salmon Cinotti, T., Rof a, L., Galasso, S.,
Malavasi, M., Pigozzi, M., Romagnoli, E., Sforza, F.: Exciting understanding in Pompeii through on-site
parallel interaction with dual time virtual models. VAST ‘01: Proceedings of the 2001 conference on Virtual
reality, Archaeology, and Cultural Heritage, VAST2001, 28-30 novembre 2001, Glyfada, Greece, ACM - New
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[SMAILAG02] Smailagic, A., Ettus, E.: System design and Power optimization for Mobile Computers. Proceedings,
ISVLSI’02, IEEE Computer Society, Pittsburgh, 2002, pp. 15–19.
[SPASO01] Spasojevic, M., Kindberg, T.: A Study of an Augmented Museum Experience. 2001 Hewlett-Packard
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[TELLIS04] Tellis, C.: Multimedia Handhelds: One Device Many Audiences. Museums and the Web 2004:
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Intel, Intel logo, Pentium are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the
United States and other countries.
Whyre is a trademark of Ducati Sistemi S.p.A.
*Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.
... The multimedia guide making use of the context information provided by our ITS and VTS systems is WHYRE ® (Fig. 8), a wireless, hands-free, sensory augmented, wearable computer made by Ducati Sistemi [SALMON04,RAFFA07]. From this anonymous and unobtrusively collected data set, the management can be kept continuously updated with basic parameters about how many visitors are currently inside the exhibition, how many visitors entered during the day, how much time on average they spent in the exhibition, and the average hourly visitors rate. ...
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This paper examines the rapidly changing state of museum handhelds from both a technology and content perspective. The paper also discusses the component parts for a successful museum installation: content, user interface, applications, form factor, positioning and the challenges to integrating these components. Specific examples are demonstrated from the 2002 Tate Modern installation and the authors' own research. Tate Modern's Multimedia Tour Pilot, open to the public from July through September 2002, was a 45-minute tour of the Still Life/Object/ Real Life galleries, in which visitors could experience audio, video, still images and a variety of interactive applications on handheld iPAQ computers loaned by HP; the content of the multimedia tour was delivered to the visitor through the museum's wireless network, using location-based technologies. The paper concludes that wireless interactive systems offer important tools and unique opportunities for the development of in-gallery interpretation and education programs, and the extension of these to a cultural experience of the wider city that links many museums and visitor attractions. The visitor response to the Tate Modern Multimedia Tour Pilot has given an unequivocal green light to future development of these handheld solutions within the museum. (Contains 14 references.) (Author/AEF)
Conference Paper
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This "work in progress" paper reports on a novel approach to pedestrian tracking in confined areas which is based on a combined use of a stereo vision tracking system and a set of sensors available on a mobile platform. This platform is a hands-free, sensory augmented, wearable computer, designed to support visits to museums and archaeological sites. The system is going to be demonstrated within the framework of a cultural heritage application at the "Musei Universitari di Palazzo Poggi" in Bologna.
Conference Paper
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Communication effectiveness and reconstruction validation are two important goals faced by archaeologists. This paper shows how these targets can be reached more easily by means of a mobile and user-centric fruition system designed with both the visitor's and the archaeologist's needs in mind. This system, called MUSE(1), consists of interactive multimedia tablets connected to a site control centre by a wireless link. Virtual models based on reconstructive hypotheses made by the archaeologists can be enjoyed on-site. Fruition may occur both on the mobile tablet and on conveniently located high-performance display stations radio-controlled by the tablet itself. The system allows for immediate comparison between present and original reality through simultaneous surfing of two synchronised virtual reconstructions. Natural and easy navigation in the virtual worlds is achieved by making the tablet sensitive to its rotation with respect to two axes.This paper shows how the proposed navigation metaphor supports the archaeologist in reconstruction validation and drives the visitor to an easy and engaging learning experience. The system will be demonstrated at the "Casa del Centenario" in Pompeii.
Full-text available
ne can perform a heuristic evaluation of a hypermedia application effectively by coupling a systematic analysis of the application based on a hypermedia design model with general usability criteria, independent of the specific application area, user profile(s), and user task(s). We call our method design-oriented evaluation (as opposed to the user-oriented evaluation commonly applied in usability testing), since it evaluates the internal strength of the design underlying the hypermedia application.
Conference Paper
Handheld devices are becoming an integral part of every day life in the home, office, and on the road. Furthermore, mobile devices are a key ingredient in the pervasive environments. To be effective, those devices need to be thrifty in power consumption, attentive to user intentions and environment changes and should be easily managed. Several sensor based applications such as GPS mapping, finger print based authentication, and accelerometer based hard disk protection are becoming popular in small hand held devices. In this paper, a formalized architecture is proposed to allow systematic access and use of low cost sensors that are being built into small hand held systems for various end user functions. Preliminary results of the impact of using sensors to save power in the mobile architecture based on various policies are shown. The low power platform used for the experiments and measurement of results is a concept platform developed at Intel® Labs. The sensor-board used in this project is made at ARCES Labs (University of Bologna), funded by *Ducati Sistemi S.p.A. and MIUR.