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Natural products have been a rich source of bioactive compounds, some of these compounds showed significant antibacterial activity. Black pepper fruit (Piper nigrum L.) is one of the most famous pungency and flavor spices in the world, it is known as the king of spices. However, its benefit is not restricted on food seasoning. It has numerous bioactive effects on the human body. One of these benefits is its noticeable antibacterial activity. This mini-review summarizes the findings of scientific studies on the antibacterial activity of black pepper fruit against 6gram negative and 7gram positive bacteria, highlights the methods used for testing the antibacterial activity and the best solvent for extraction of the plant. The findings validate the use of this spice in traditional medicine and recommend it as a source of innovative therapeutic agents against food borne pathogens and infectious diseases.
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Plants are known of their ability to maintain good health since
antiquity. Nowadays, the interest in natural products as antimicrobial
agents has greatly increased due to the gradual collapse of antibiotics
in the front of the multi-drug-resistant pathogens.1 Spices are rich
in bioactive chemical compounds and they have been used by
several cultures for many centuries as food seasoning, preservatives,
insecticidal, colorants, and natural avoring.2,3 Many spices are
used to extend shelf-life of food, prevent food spoilage and food-
borne diseases, though some spices are used in food production
industry and also many spices are used to inhibit infectious diseases
and eradicate pathogens, particularly in traditional medicine.4 The
antibacterial efcacy of some spices and seasonings have been
proved scientically, as example of these spices; black seed (Nigella
sativa),5 garlic bulb (Allium sativum),6 onion (Allium cepa),7 thyme
(Thymus vulgaris) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum),8 cinnamon
bark (Cinnamomum verum),9 oregano (Origanum vulgare),10 cumin
(Cuminum cyminum)11 and many more. According to recent global
interest in natural products, medicinal plants and traditional medicine,
studies on spices should be revived in order to innovate new natural
drugs. Encouraging this, is the fact that up to 80% of the world
populations are still rely on medicinal plants and natural products
in their primary health-care needs.12 The current brief review aimed
to highlight the medicinal importance of black pepper fruits and its
efcacy as antibacterial agent.
Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), botanical
information and applications
The genus Piper L. (family Piperaceae) consists of more than one
thousand species, distributed mainly in tropical regions of the world.13
Piper nigrum L. (black pepper) is the most famous species of this
genus, it is known as the “king of spices” due to its pungent principle
piperine and the popularity in use for avoring food throughout the
world.14 On the other hand, P. nigrum (Piper nigrum) has been used
for medicinal purposes in many parts of the world since ancient
times. Medicinal uses of P. nigrum include antibacterial, antifungal,
antiapoptotic, antidepressant, antidiarrheal, anti-inammatory,
antimutagenic, antioxidative, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antitumor,
to improve appetite and digestive power, anti-cold, anti-cough,
dyspnea, for curing from throat diseases, anti-intermittent fever, anti-
colic, anti-dysentery, get rid of worms and piles,14,15 some of these
uses are illustrated in Figure 1.
Figure 1 Some uses of the black pepper fruits in traditional medicine
P. nigum is a woody climbing vine growing to 9 m (30 ft) or
more in length. The grayish stem may reach 1.2 cm (0.5 in) diameter.
Numerous rootlets grow from swollen stem nodes. Leaves dark green
above and pale green beneath, glossy, ovate and acutely tipped, and
range in size from 13–25cm (5–10 in) in length. Elongated, slender
spikes or catkins (1.6–2cm [4–5 in] in length) bear minute, white
owers. The ower spikes, each producing from 50–60 single-seeded
dark red berries, approximately 5millimeters (0.20 in) in diameter,
always appear on stems opposite the leaves.16
Different parts of the plant are used for medicinal purposes;
however, the part commonly used as the spice black pepper is the
cooked and dried unripe berry,17 that is why we focused only on the
use of this plant part.
J Bacteriol Mycol Open Access. 2018;6(2):141145. 141
© 2018 Abdallah et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which
permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.
Black pepper fruit (Piper nigrum L.) as antibacterial
agent: A mini-review
Volume 6 Issue 2 - 2018
Emad M Abdallah,1 Wail E Abdalla1,2
1Department of Laboratory Sciences, Qassim University, Saudi
2Medicinal & Aromatic Plants Research Institute, National
Centre for Research, Sudan
Correspondence: Emad Mohamed Abdallah, Department of
Laboratory Sciences, College of Sciences and Arts at Al-Rass,
Qassim University, Saudi Arabia, Email
Received: March 29, 2018 | Published: April 13, 2018
Natural products have been a rich source of bioactive compounds, some of these
compounds showed significant antibacterial activity. Black pepper fruit (Piper nigrum
L.) is one of the most famous pungency and flavor spices in the world, it is known
as the king of spices. However, its benefit is not restricted on food seasoning. It has
numerous bioactive effects on the human body. One of these benefits is its noticeable
antibacterial activity. This mini-review summarizes the findings of scientific studies
on the antibacterial activity of black pepper fruit against 6gram negative and 7gram
positive bacteria, highlights the methods used for testing the antibacterial activity and
the best solvent for extraction of the plant. The findings validate the use of this spice
in traditional medicine and recommend it as a source of innovative therapeutic agents
against food borne pathogens and infectious diseases.
Keywords: spices, seasonings, black pepper fruit, Piper nigrum, antibacterial
Journal of Bacteriology & Mycology: Open Access
Mini Review Open Access
Black pepper fruit (Piper nigrum L.) as antibacterial agent: A mini-review 142
©2018 Abdallah et al.
Citation: Abdallah EM, Abdalla WE. Black pepper fruit (Piper nigrum L.) as antibacterial agent: A mini-review. J Bacteriol Mycol Open Access. 2018;6(2):141145.
DOI: 10.15406/jbmoa.2018.06.00192
Bioactive chemical compounds of the black
Almost all spices have aromatic features, regular grindings of
spices lead to loss of important aroma compounds and accordingly
resulted to considerable loss of aroma and avor components and
deterioration of quality.18 The dried black pepper fruit is rich in
bioactive phytochemical compounds. Piperine (Figure 2) is one of the
most abundant chemical alkaloids in the black pepper.19 Other similar
alkaloids are also isolated from black pepper such as piperanine,
piperettine, piperylin A, piperolein B, and pipericine. However, the
pungency of these piperine’s analogs are less the Piperine.20 Black
pepper was also found to have a good quantity of polyphenols. The
interesting ndings are that, black pepper contains more polyphenols
compared with white pepper. Moreover, it is believed that, after eating
Black pepper, it hydrolyzed in the gut and liberating these bound
polyphenols.21 In addition, some studies stated that the Black pepper
contains aromatic compounds, avonoids, alkaloids, amidesand
lignans.21 The volatile oils of the Black pepper fruits were analyzed
using column chromatography, high resolution gas chromatography
and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS); up to 46
compounds were identied including δ-cadinol, δ-guaiene, (Z) (E)-
farnesol, (E)-β-ocimene and guaiol.22 In another study, ve phenolic
amides were isolated from the black pepper, which revealed high
antioxidant activity more effective than some naturally occurring
antioxidants.23 These investigations revealed the wealth of the
black pepper in bioactive phytochemical components of promising
medicinal importance.
Figure 2 Piperine, the major compound in the Black pepper fruit19
Results and discussion
In the past 70 years, the antibiotics have saved lives of millions
of people all over the globe and participated in the development
of modern medicine.24 However, in recent years, the human
communities all over the world are suffering from the growing
crisis of epidemic antibiotic resistant pathogens, such as methicillin-
resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Streptococcus pneumonia
and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.25 Accordingly, this pandemic crisis
requires development or innovation of new antibacterial drugs. WHO
reported that, infectious diseases are a major cause of morbidity and
mortality worldwide, it estimated that about 50% of all deaths in
developing tropical countries in particular are because of microbial
infectious diseases. Moreover, based on 2002 statistics, around 98%
of the 10.5million pediatric deaths of children under age of ve in
these countries were from infectious diseases.26 When putting in
consideration that, since more than 40 years ago, no new classes of
antibiotics were launched in the Pharmacies, while most bacterial
pathogens have developed resistance to the available antibiotics in the
markets which threaten the health situation in the world as never before.
This urge the scientic community to search for new alternatives
from plants and natural products.27 Spices are rich in phytochemical
components of bioactive effects on the human body. In literature, the
black pepper was extensively studied for its antibacterial properties.
Table 1 summarizes most studies conducted on the antibacterial
activity of the black pepper, which are tested in vitro using different
antibacterial assays; initially, the cup-plate method, disc diffusion
method, micro-dilution method or minimum inhibitory concentration
(MIC), as other antibacterial assays. According to these studies,
different black pepper extracts showed signicant inhibitory effects
against varied gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, although
some studies revealed that the black pepper have no antibacterial
activity, which could be attributed to differences in plant varieties,
microbiological methods, solvents used and tested microorganisms.
In general, the majority of these studies suggest that the black pepper
could be a potential candidate for developing new antibacterial drugs
against the wide range of pathogenic bacteria either food borne, food
spoilage or clinical isolates.
Table 1 Antibacterial activity of Black Pepper fruit (Piper nigrum L.)
used in
Assay Microorganism
Gram negative bacteria Gram positive
E.c. K.p. S.t. P.a. P.s. S.a. S.e. E.f. S.f. B.c. B.m. B.s.
3RMI 17.9 - - - - - 13.5 - - - - - - 28
EtOH MIC (mg/ml) - 0.62 - - - - - - - - - - - 29
Cold H2O DD 23 - 20 15 - - 20 - 21 - - - - 30
Hot H2O DD 21 - 22 18 - - 22 - 19 - - - -
MeOH DD 21 - 21 21 - - -ve - 20 - - - -
Pet. ether WD -ve --ve -ve - - 14 - - - - - - 31
EtOH WD 14 - 18 17 - - 11 - - - - - -
H2O WD -ve - 12 -ve - - 15 - - - - - -
Acetone MIC (mg/ml) 125 125 250 62.5 - - 125 - 500 - 250 - - 32
DCM MIC (mg/ml) 125 125 250 125 - - 125 - 125 - 62.5 - -
EtOH MIC (%) - - - - - - 0.06
->4% - - - - - - 33
CCl4DD 5-9 - -ve 5-9 - - - 5-9 - - - 5-9 - 34
Black pepper fruit (Piper nigrum L.) as antibacterial agent: A mini-review 143
©2018 Abdallah et al.
Citation: Abdallah EM, Abdalla WE. Black pepper fruit (Piper nigrum L.) as antibacterial agent: A mini-review. J Bacteriol Mycol Open Access. 2018;6(2):141145.
DOI: 10.15406/jbmoa.2018.06.00192
Benzene DD 5-9 - 5-9 5-9 - - - 5-9 - - - 5-9 -
CHCl 3 DD -ve - 5-9 5-9 - - - 5-9 - - - -ve -
Ethyl acetate DD -ve - 5-9 5-9 - - - 5-9 - - - -ve -
Acetone DD -ve - 5-9 5-9 - - - 5-9 - - - -ve -
EtOH DD 5-9 - 10-14 5-9 - - - 5-9 - - - 5-9 -
H2O DD 5-9 - 5-9 -ve - - - 5-9 - - - 5-9 -
Essential oil MIC (%) -ve - - - - - 1.00% - - - 0.25% - - 35
EtOH WD 8 - - 9 - - 18 - - - - - 14 36
MeOH DD 9.7 - - 12.2 - 10.5 11.7 - - - - - - 37
H2O WD 8 - - - - - 13 - - - - - - 38
EtOH WD 22 - 12 15 - - 11 - - - - - - 39
3WD 18 - 14 8 18 - 16 - - - - - -
H2O DD 19.3 - - 13.3 - 16.3 18.3 - - - - - - 40
MeOH DD 11.3 - - 9.6 - 9.3 10.6 - - - - - -
EtOH DD 14.6 - - 10.3 - 10 12.3 - - - - - -
Pet. ether DD 11.3 - - 9.6 - 9.3 10.6 - - - - - -
MeOH DD -ve -ve --ve - - 6.9 - - - - - - 41
Volatile oil WD -ve -ve -ve -ve -ve - 14 - - - - - - 42
Acetone WD 17 -ve -ve -ve -ve - 13 - - - - - -
MeOH WD -ve -ve -ve -ve -ve - 13 - - - - - -
Hexane DD 14 - 12 - - - 12 - - - - - 17 3
DCM DD 15 - 16 - - - 14 - - - - - 19
EtOH DD 8 - 14 - - - 11 - - - - - 14
H2O DD 8 - 8 - - - 7 - - - - - 9
Acetone WD - 8 - - - - 9 - - - - - - 43
MeOH WD - 9 - - - - 8 - - - - - -
EtOH WD - - - -ve - - -ve -ve -ve - - - - 44
MeOH WD -ve --ve - - - -ve --ve - - - -
Essential oil DD 26 - - - - - - - - - - - - 45
H2O WD 24 27 7 - 7 - 9 - - - - - - 46
EtOH WD 36 38 15 - 6 - 38 - - - - - -
Essential oil WD 7.3 -ve 7.7 7.1 - 14.5 - 8.8 - - - 9.5 47
EtOH DD 20 15 - 8 17 - 12 - - - - - - 48
EtOH MIC (mg/ml) 15 - - 5 - - 12.5 15 - - 12.5 - - 49
Essential oil DD - - - 10.2 - - - - - - - - 6 50
Essential oil MIC (mg/ml) >2.0 >2.0 - >2.0 - >2.0 >2.0 - 1 - - - - 51
MeOH WD 7.3 - - - - - -ve - - - -ve - - 52
3, chloroform; MeOH, Methanol; H2O, Water; EtOH, Ethanol; Pet.ether, Petroleum ether; DCM, Dichloromethane; CCl4, Carbon tetrachloride; -ve, No
activity; - , Not tested; E.c., Escherichia coli; S.a., Staphylococcus aureus; S.e., Staphylococcus epidermidis; K.p., Klebsiellapneumoniae; E.f., Enterococcus faecalis; S.t.,
Salmonella typhi; , Salmonella typhimurium; P.a., Pseudomonas aeruginosa; B.c., Bacillus cereus; B.s., Bacillus subtilis; B.m., Bacillus megaterium; S.f., Streptococcus
faecalis; DD, Disc diffusion(mm); WD, Well-diffusion (mm); MIC, Minimum inhibitory concentration; RMI, Respiratory metabolism Inhibition (%)
*Not all studied microorganisms are mentioned in the table
Table continued..
Black pepper fruit (Piper nigrum L.) as antibacterial agent: A mini-review 144
©2018 Abdallah et al.
Citation: Abdallah EM, Abdalla WE. Black pepper fruit (Piper nigrum L.) as antibacterial agent: A mini-review. J Bacteriol Mycol Open Access. 2018;6(2):141145.
DOI: 10.15406/jbmoa.2018.06.00192
The above Table 1 revealed that the most bacterial strain tested
is Escherichia coli (gram negative) and the highest inhibition value
reached 36 mm using the well-diffusion method and the solvent used
for extraction of the plant fruit was ethanol, while no activity was
noticed when using the methanol as a solvent for extraction in most
studies, On the other hand, the most tested gram positive bacterial
species was Staphylococcus aureus, and the highest inhibition value
reached 38mm zone of inhibition using the well-diffusion method
using ethanol as a solvent for extraction of the plant fruit, while
no activity was noticed when using methanol as a e solvent in the
extraction in most studies. These observations revealed that the
antibacterial components could be extracted better using ethanol,
which reects some of its chemical characteristics. Accordingly, more
chemical studies are required in order to isolate these antibacterial
The human being used plants as the source of medicine since
ancient time. Spices were part of these ancient traditional medicines.
Until now, many drugs are obtained and produced from plants and
natural products and the majority of inhabitants still depends on natural
products (including spices) for their primary health caresystems.
Spices are used not only in food but also in medicine. The black
pepper fruits (Piper nigrumL.) are the king of spices and used all over
the world. This spice has many health benets and used traditionally
to treat different ailments. Numerous scientic studies, which have
been summarized in this study, showed that the black pepper fruits
have promising antibacterial activity.
Conict of interest
There is no conict to publish our article in this Journal.
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Research Journal. 2013;20(5):2905−2910.
... benzaldehyde, 4-methoxy, anethole, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, ascaridole epoxide, d-mannose, pterin-6-carboxylic acid, 4-methoxybenzoic acid, allyl ester, arisaldehyde dimethyl acetal, 1-propyl-3, 6-diazahomoadamantan-9-ol, 4-(2,5-dihydro-3-methoxyphenyl) butylamine, corymbolone, apiol, fenretinide, dihydroxanthin, 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1, 5-pentanediol, 1-heptatriacotanol, gibberellic acid, 2, 3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-6-decaisoprenyl-chinon, 2-[4-methyl-6-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-enyl) hexa-1,3,5-trienyl] cyclo, cis-vaccenic 1,5] cyclo, (22S)-21-acetoxy-6alpha, 11beta-dihydroxy-16alpha, 17alpha-propylmethylenedioxyp, oxiraneoctanoic acid, 3-octyl-, methyl ester, ingol 12-acetate, alpha-D-glucopyranoside, and 2,24a,6a,8a,9,12b,14a-octamethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,6b,7,8,8a,9,1 as identified by chromatogram GC-MS method [381]. Essential oil is present in ample amount in fennel seeds that provides the characteristic flavor. ...
... It is recorded that alkaloids, some aromatic compounds, flavonoids, amides, and lignans are found in black pepper. Some volatile oils like γ-cadinol, γ-guanine, and (E)-β-ocimene were determined by high-resolution gas chromatography, column chromatography, and gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS) in black pepper [5]. Piperine enhances the bioavailability of many medicines, and nutrients by retarding several metabolizing enzymes. ...
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Medicinal or herbal spices are grown in tropical moist evergreen forestland, surrounding most of the tropical and subtropical regions of Eastern Himalayas in India (Sikkim, Darjeeling regions), Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan, a few Central Asian countries, Middle East, USA, Europe, South East Asia, Japan, Malaysia, and Indonesia. According to the cultivation region surrounded, economic value, and vogue, these spices can be classified into major, minor, and colored tropical spices. In total, 24 tropical spices and herbs (cardamom, black jeera, fennel, poppy, coriander, fenugreek, bay leaves, clove, chili, cassia bark, black pepper, nutmeg, black mustard, turmeric, saffron, star anise, onion, dill, asafoetida, celery, allspice, kokum, greater galangal, and sweet flag) are described in this review. These spices show many pharmacological activities like anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, central nervous system, and antioxidant activities. Numerous bioactive compounds are present in these selected spices, such as 1,8-cineole, monoterpene hydrocarbons, γ-terpinene, cuminaldehyde, trans-anethole, fenchone, estragole, benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, eugenol, cinnamaldehyde, piperine, linalool, malabaricone C, safrole, myristicin, elemicin, sinigrin, curcumin, bidemethoxycurcumin, dimethoxycurcumin, crocin, picrocrocin, quercetin, quercetin 4’-O-β-glucoside, apiol, carvone, limonene, α-phellandrene, galactomannan, rosmarinic acid, limonene, capsaicinoids, eugenol, garcinol, and α-asarone. Other than that, various spices are used to synthesize different types of metal-based and polymer-based nanoparticles like zinc oxide, gold, silver, selenium, silica, and chitosan nanoparticles which provide beneficial health effects such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-diabetic, enzyme retardation effect, and antimicrobial activity. The nanoparticles can also be used in environmental pollution management like dye decolorization and in chemical industries to enhance the rate of reaction by the use of catalytic activity of the nanoparticles. The nutritional value, phytochemical properties, health advantages, and both traditional and modern applications of these spices, along with their functions in food fortification, have been thoroughly discussed in this review
... It could also injure the cytoplasmic membrane (57). Other Piper plants were reported for their huge antibacterial spectrum (60). For instance, Piper nigrum L. methanolic and chloroform extracts inhibited E. coli, S. aureus, S. typhi, and Proteus sp. ...
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Piper cubeba L.f. (Piperaceae), known as cubeb, is a popular traditional herbal medicine used for the treatment of many diseases, especially digestive and respiratory disorders. The plant is rich in essential oil, found mainly in fruits, and this makes it economically important. Many traditional utilizations have been also validated from the plant and its isolated compounds owing to their antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. These biological activities are attributed to the phytochemicals (phenolic compounds, lignans and alkaloids) and the essential oil of the plant. The present work aims to provide an up-to-date review on the traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of the plant and discusses the future perspectives to promote its valorization for nutritional-and health-promoting effects.
... Piper nigrum is very commonly utilized spice because of having 1-peperoyl piperidine/Piperine (an alkaloid) in it also known as the king of the spices, which is the member of Piperaceae family that consist of around a thousand species. It is used for medicinal purposes worldwide, especially in Unani and Ayurvedic systems (Abdallah & Abdalla, 2018). It is very commonly grown in humid tropical areas of the world like South Asian countries, its origin is from India and it is an everlasting plant, the height of the shrub is around 2 feet (Joshi et al., 2018). ...
Medicinal plants are achieving favour and have shown exponential growth throughout the globe due to fewer side effects in comparison to allopathic medications and innate pharmacological effects and being present naturally. Humans show intimate association with nature and always utilize the components of their surroundings to get medicines and foodstuffs. Around 50% of medications utilized by humans emanated from plant parts. For preliminary healthcare in developing countries, more than 80% of humans rely on herbal drugs. Worldwide, India has been the most extensive developer for herbs that have medicinal importance. So, there is a necessity to review this priceless herbal knowledge. This chapter will assist in furnishing the advantageous usage of herbs in various infections. It is a big challenge to conserve biodiversity because of the involvement of political difficulties and social demurs. There is a requirement to conserve these plant species and nurture their farming.
... It is used as spice in various dishes due to its pungent taste and odor. Black pepper has polyphenols, aromatic compounds, alkaloids and flavonoids which is used in different health aliments (Singletary, 2010;Abdallah and Abdalla, 2018). ...
... officinale Roscoe) [33] , Black pepper (P. nigrum L.) [34] , Guduchi (T. cordifolia) [35] , Liquorice (G. ...
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The whole world is standing on the verse of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic scenario, which revealed the endurance of our current health care system. Moreover, to overcome the global menace and dwindle the infection; there is an exigency for social distancing and quarantines. Health is the greatest wealth for human mankind. So, there has been a great requirement in ways to boost our immune system and to build a strong defence mechanism against the deadly virus and diseases. Since ancient times, the use of medicinal plants, herbs and spices has been well known for their medicinal and healing properties. Therefore, the use of medicinal plants and herbs will play a critical role in boosting our immunity during the COVID-19 pandemic, despite any side effects. It is also very important to consume supplements in the form of immune nutrients such as vitamin A, C, D, E, B-complex, Zinc and Copper that will support your body to fight against pathogens. We have been using different types of herbs which are traditionally being used by tribal and rural people of India as well as China and other developing countries in the form of ayurvedic formulations. This paper presents an analysis of popular immune-boosting medicinal plants and herbs and their effectiveness in the treatment of various ailments.
... Different plant parts are used for different types of remedies. Leaves, stem, root, fruit, secondary components or essential oil, etc. could be used as pest repellent 54 . This review paper tried to summarize various pest control measures using black pepper with special importance to piperine. ...
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ABSTRACT: Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is a widely used spice around the world. It has also been explored for its biological properties and bioactive compounds. The significance and efficacy of black pepper and its bioactive compounds in insecticidal, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal infections are well-acknowledged throughout the world. The secondary metabolites of Piper nigrum L. are responsible for these activities. Piperine is one of the potent components in pest control due to its pungent smell. Eventually, efficient and optimal extraction methodologies are obligatory for the most competent functionalization of black pepper extract. Plausible reports are supporting its impact and application as a natural pesticide to control the pest abundance. The novel, environmentally benevolent natural pesticides are essential for pest control. In this review paper, we tried to summarize all potential, rapid, simple, feasible, and sustainable methods for black pepper extraction, isolation, and mode of action as a pest regulator. Lethal concentration, doses, and application time are the major regulating factors of a natural pesticide. Changes in the growth and developmental stages of target pests consequently fluctuate black pepper extract's application rate and efficiency. It also contains bio-enhancing properties. Synergistic effects of piperine along with other secondary components of black pepper are the way to chemical-free natural pesticides
Another name of Vitiligo is leukoderma, a pigmentation disorder of the skin in which the formation of melanocytes destroys the skin. As a result, white patches appear on the skin on different parts of the body, which affects even the psychology & social status of the patient. It affects 1% - 2% of the population worldwide. In recent years, it has been proved that Piperine from Black Pepper& Psoralea Corylifolia from Babchi oil has the depigmenting capacity. The use of Piperine & Psoralea Corylifolia in Vitiligo reduces UV radiation and prevents side effects. The present work is about the extraction of Piperine from black pepper & Psoralea Corylifolia, its evaluation followed by formulation & evaluation of cream. Keywords: Vitiligo, leukoderma, Melanocytes, Psoralea Corylifolia, UV Radiation.
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The area expansion and volume of Indonesian palm oil production is not in line with its productivity. The productivity of Indonesian oil palm is inseparable from the plants age, most of which have exceeded their productive age. There are also significant indications of the use of illegitimate seeds,, causing a gap between yield and potential productivity. Efforts to increase the productivity and sustainability of oil palm plantations have been carried out by forming a particular agency that collects and manages oil palm plantation funds. One of the programs to increase productivity and sustainability is the “Replanting of Smallholder Palm Oil (PSR)” with a grant scheme for participating farmers. The progress of replanting realization is plodding. The target of 180,000 hectares per year cannot be realized. Accelerated breakthroughs without neglecting the primary mission of increasing productivity and sustainability are very urgent. This paper is a review on the importance of supporting the PSR seed institutional innovation in accelerating the productivity and sustainability of Indonesian oil palm.
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In the last decades, the antibiotics-resistance phenomenon has become a global health crisis, due to the rapid emergence of multi-drug resistant pathogens. Novel approaches in designing drugs able to overcome these resistant microbes are persistent need. With the suggestion of looking at nature for solutions, exploring medicinal plants may lead to develop new antimicrobial drugs. Seeds of Nigella sativa are mentioned and used since ancient great civilizations and until now in many regions as a part of their traditional health care systems. This mini-review highlights the potential use of this distinguished plant product as an effective antimicrobial drug.
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Infectious diseases caused by pathogens and food poisoning caused by spoilage microorganisms are threatening human health all over the world. The efficacies of some antimicrobial agents, which are currently used to extend shelf-life and increase the safety of food products in food industry and to inhibit disease-causing microorganisms in medicine, have been weakened by microbial resistance. Therefore, new antimicrobial agents that could overcome this resistance need to be discovered. Many spices—such as clove, oregano, thyme, cinnamon, and cumin—possessed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against food spoilage bacteria like Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens, pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, harmful fungi like Aspergillus flavus, even antibiotic resistant microorganisms such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore, spices have a great potential to be developed as new and safe antimicrobial agents. This review summarizes scientific studies on the antibacterial and antifungal activities of several spices and their derivatives.
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Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the major skin bacteria that cause the formation of acne. The present study was conducted to investigate antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of cinnamon bark, honey, and their combination against acne bacteria. The antibacterial activity of extract of cinnamon bark and honey were investigated against P. acnes and S. epidermidis using disc diffusion. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were attained using Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) methods. The interaction between cinnamon bark extract and honey was determined using a checkerboards method. The results showed that the MICs of cinnamon bark extract and honey against P. acne were 256 μg/mL and 50% v/v, respectively, while those against S. epidermidis were 1024 μg/mL and 50% v/v, respectively. The MBC of cinnamon bark extract against P. acnes and S. epidermidis were more than 2048 μg/mL, whereas the MBC for honey against P. acnes and S. epidermidis were 100%. The combination of cinnamon bark extract and honey against P. acnes and S. epidermidis showed additive activity with a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) value of 0.625. Therefore, the combination of cinnamon bark extract and honey has potential activity against acne-causing bacteria.
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Essential oils are the most important compounds produced during secondary metabolism in aromatic plants. Essential oils are volatile, have characteristic odor and are used as defensive agents by plants. In pepper, it is possible to say that essential oils are the “flavor fingerprint” of each species. In the present article, eight species of pepper were studied in order to extract their essential oils and oleoresins, test their antibacterial and antifungal activities and also to identify the compounds present in the most bioactive samples. Results demonstrated that two essential oils [Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. and Schinus terebinthifolius] and three oleoresins (Schinus terebinthifolius and Piper nigrum white and black) recorded significant antimicrobial activity. These active essential oils and oleoresins are interesting for use in biotechnological processes employed in food, pharmaceutical and other industries.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of black pepper essential oil (BPEO) on Escherichia coli, further evaluate the potential mechanism of action. Results showed that the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of BPEO was 1.0 μL/mL. The diameter of inhibition zone values were with range from 17.12 to 26.13 mm. 2 × MIC treatments had lower membrane potential and shorter kill-time than 1 × MIC, while control had the highest values. E. coli treated with BPEO became deformed, pitted, shriveled, adhesive, and broken. 2 × MIC exhibited the greatest electric conductivity at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13 h, leaked DNA materials at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28 h, proteins at 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 h, potassium ion at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 h, phosphate ion at 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 h and ATP (P < 0.05); 1 × MIC had higher values than control. BPEO led to the leakage, disorder and death by breaking cell membrane. This study suggested that the BPEO has potential as the natural antibacterial agent in meat industry.
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An alkaloid piperine was extracted from dry seeds of plant Piper nigrum with ethanol by using saxohlet extraction then isolation and purification by re-crystallization , the structure of Piperine was confirmed by the IR spectroscopy. Antimicrobial activity of Piperine was studied against gram+ve, gram-ve bacteria and Candida albicans piperine showed potent antimicrobial activity against tested organisms especially C. albicans followed by E. coli and less than on P. aeruginosa the zone of inhibition ranges from 8-23 mm and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) 3.125-100 mg/ml .
Aims: Herbal and medicinal plants bioactive compounds of Jatropha curcas, Piper nigrum and P. betle have been shown to possess therapeutic properties. This study investigates the presence and characterization of phytochemical compounds as well as to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of the methanolic crude extract of the leaves and seeds of J. curcas, P. nigrum L. and P. betle. Methodology and results: The study on antibacterial and antifungal efficacy of the crude extracts of leaves and seeds were carried out using standard disc diffusion method. The crude extracts were found to exhibit an average response of antimicrobial activity with the inhibition zones ranged from 3% to 28% for antibacterial and from 21% to 79% for antifungal activity. Among all extracts, the leaf extract of P. betle showed a good antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and excellent antifungal properties against Aspergillus niger and A. flavus. The phytochemical screening analysis revealed the presence of saponin, tannins, glycosides, terpenoids, reducing sugar, flavonoid and anthraquinones. However, phlobatannins was not present. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were highly detected in the crude extract of P. betle and recorded as 13.33 mg of gallic acid equivalents, GAE (mg/ 100 mg sample) and 0.88 mg of RE (mg/100 mg sample), respectively. GC-MS analysis of the bioactive compounds reveals the presence of diethyl phthalate, 2-hexadecen-1-ol (Phytol), hexadecanoic acid, piperine, phenol and other minor compounds. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The study suggested that P. betle has a potential as a source for antimicrobial agent from plants extracts. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to elucidate their precise mechanism of action.
Piperine is the major bio-active component of pepper, which imparts pungency and biting taste to it. This naturally occurring alkaloid has numerous demonstrated health effects and beneficial therapeutic properties; nevertheless, its biological applications are limited due to its poor solubility in aqueous environments. This emphasizes an implementation of advanced extraction approaches which could enhance the extraction yield of piperine from pepper and also the development of new formulations containing piperine to improve its in vivo bioavailability. This paper presents a review on the therapeutic and medicinal effects of piperine, its isolation from pepper fruit and the development of new formulations for its medicinal (pharmaceutical) applications. A thorough review on conventional and advanced separation techniques for the extraction of piperine from pepper is presented and an outline of the most significant conditions to improve the extraction yield is provided and discussed. Different methods used to measure and quantify the isolated piperine are also reviewed. An overview of biotechnological advancements for nanoparticle formulations of piperine or its incorporation in lipid formulations, which could enhance its bioavailability, is also presented.