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406 Trakia Journal of Sciences, Vol. 15, Suppl. 1, 2017
Trakia Journal of Sciences, Vol. 15, Suppl. 1, pp 406-412, 2017
Copyright © 2017 Trakia University
Available online at:
ISSN 1313-7069 (print)
ISSN 1313-3551 (online) doi:10.15547/tjs.2017.s.01.068
N. Angelova*, G. Kiryakova, L. Yordanova
Faculty of Economics, Trakia University, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
Internet of things (IoT) - the new paradigm has a great impact on different areas like industry, health,
education, agriculture, farming and many others and its main functions are to make our life easier and
more comfortable. Implementing this new technology in any business model has advantages but also
all the players (companies, governments and consumers) in this field should be aware of some
challenges and threats like privacy, security and standardization. The article aims to explore how IoT
changes the way we live and work and to present some of its best business practices, statistics and
Key words: Internet of Things (IoT), business, smart home, wearables, statistics, security, privacy
The dynamic development of modern ICT has
a huge impact on our daily routine, work, way
of living and thinking. Household appliances
could be controlled through our smartphones
and could exchange data using build-in
sensors, cars could choose the best route to
avoid traffic and automatically order a new
part to replace the broken one in the nearest
Just a few years ago, all these "smart" and
"talking" devices were part of the science
fiction movies, but today they are part of our
everyday life. The technologies make life
easier, create a variety of conveniences, speed
up the access to different services and
management automation. On the other hand
there is a threat of creating dependency on
these new technologies and "smart" devices, so
users need to be taught how to use them
The concept of the Internet of Things is a part
of our time and the current work aims to
present its main applications in different
spheres of our life, the main advantages,
development trends, problems and challenges
that need to be addressed.
Over the years many authors have been trying
*Correspondence to: Nadezhda Angelova, Faculty
of Economics, Trakia University Stara Zagora,
to define the Internet of Things phenomenon
by expanding the concepts of "Internet" and
"things", describing their features, ways of
connecting and interacting. Discussions take
place and even arguments are given against the
use of the words "Internet" and "things"
because of the interference of the human
factor, so the term "Internet of people" is
Rob van Kranenburg (1) explores and
systematizes different definitions of the
concept. One of them, given by the EU project
Casagras, explains in details that IoT is “A
global network infrastructure, linking physical
and virtual objects through the exploitation of
data capture and communication capabilities.
This infrastructure includes existing and
evolving Internet and network developments. It
will offer specific object-identification, sensor
and connection capability as the basis for the
development of independent cooperative
services and applications. These will be
characterized by a high degree of autonomous
data capture, event transfer, network
connectivity and interoperability”.
Adrian McEwen (2) gives very simple
definition presented by the following equation:
Physical object + Controller, Sensor and
Actuators + Internet = Internet of things
where actuators are the outputs into the world
produced by the ”things”.
All these definitions shows that the
prerequisites that make the Internet of Things
come into all spheres of our life are Internet
ANGELOVA N., et al
Trakia Journal of Sciences, Vol. 15, Suppl. 1, 2017 407
accessibility, including building a good
Internet infrastructure, cheap Internet
connection, and increasing IP address space,
thanks to IPv6. This makes possible to connect
and address all the "things" on the planet. (3).
Like any other immersing technology Internet
of Things has a lot of advantages that gives
new opportunities and creates variety of
applications for businesses and customers.
Along with this there are some threads and
problems that need to be solved in order to
make all the players feel safe and comfortable
when participating in the IoT ecosystem.
According to (4, 5) the major advantages of
Internet of Things that have impact on business
Communication - Internet of Things
provides a permanent connection and data
exchange between connected devices and
users. Thanks to the built-in sensors and the
different technologies that ensure
communication among objects, it is possible to
track the health indicators of patients, to locate
items and goods during transportation, to
monitor the status of buildings, etc.
Control and automation All Internet of
Things consumers (users and businesses)
through applications installed on their mobile
devices such as phones, tablets, etc. can
remotely control smart devices, adjust different
metrics, and choose specific options. In many
cases, systems send automatic messages and
warnings or take actions. For example, the
fridge can order food from the supermarket if
some of the products are down, the car can
send a request for the spoiled part that needs to
be replaced, and the user can adjust the
temperature at their homes while they are
Cost savings (time, resources, money)
The connectivity and fast communication
among devices reduces response time and
human labor, thus increase productivity and
efficiency. Many of the appliances that make
our homes “smart” save electricity, resources
and money. Nowadays a lot of investments are
made for predictive maintenance that will
help to predict and avoid failures in IoT
Citizen experiences The idea of Internet
of Things and the connectivity of objects tend
to improve the quality of life and facilitate
citizens. The use of smart devices and systems
that have elements of interactivity and
gamification make users more active and make
them feel part of this ecosystem, creating a
better experience for them.
Greater revenue opportunities The
widespread penetration of the Internet of
Things phenomenon in all spheres of life
enables manufacturers to offer smarter devices,
expanding to new markets and developing new
products that will generate great revenues.
The main issues and challenges facing the
Internet of Things are identical to those of
Internet-based technologies - data security and
data protection, data quality, the use of
common standards and protocols,
interoperability, legal issues, etc.
Another major challenges facing the Internet of
Things outlined by (6) are: making a common
addressing mechanism for effective addressing
of the devices, creating embedded devices
available at a low cost that can be more energy
efficient and more reliable, creating governing
bodies that can govern the usage of the
devices, making quick and reliable
communication, minimizing the load on
servers as well as on the embedded devices.
The increased production and deployment of
these devices goes beyond the solution of these
issues and all actors, especially companies and
government, must be united to solve them in
time and implement policies for the proper and
lawful use of the Internet of Things.
Privacy defines the rules on which
individual data can be accessed and is
therefore one of the biggest challenges. The
identification and tracking of devices, all the
actions they perform, the collection of personal
data from various applications make users feel
spy as if they are part of the Big Brother and
can be localized at any time (7). On one hand,
it is convenient to discover people who have
been lost, abducted or have suffered an
accident. On the other hand, it is an
inconvenience for all who want to preserve
their privacy.
Security is one of the most critical
challenges that Internet of Things has to tackle.
Affordable and at low cost broadband
connection and Wi-Fi capabilities in many
devices are a prerequisite for easy localization
in public places, making them unprotected and
victim of cyber-attacks. Internet of Things
allows permanent data sharing between related
objects and identifies three main components
ensuring security - authentication,
confidentiality, and access control, with a
special focus on IoT systems.(8)
Compatibility. Different manufacturers of
sensors embedded in smart devices and
different platform providers use different data
transfer protocols that would cause
communication problems. (9). There are many
initiatives and projects that aim to create
ANGELOVA N., et al
408 Trakia Journal of Sciences, Vol. 15, Suppl. 1, 2017
standards of communication.
Complexity. Errors may occur in complex
systems that connect and manage multiple
objects. Users should not rely excessively on
technology because faulty data or no data can
be exchanged because of faulty scanners and
sensors. This can also be due to
electromagnetic disturbances, vibrations, the
age of humans. For example, when scanning
the iris of an eye or fingerprint for biometric
data, it can be affected by eye and fingers
injuries. (1)
The concept of Internet of Things and all
connected objects exchanging data is widely
used in all areas of life, including wearables,
and other devices and sensors that make smart
every object.
IoT Analytics presents Internet of Things by
segments for the third quarter for 2016. (10),
analyzing 640 actual enterprise IoT projects,
not including smart home and wearables
projects (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Internet of Things by segments for the third quarter for 2016
Connected industry is also known as Industry
4.0 and its main approach is to digitize
production and implementation of new ICT.
The domain includes the process innovation
and product innovation and a combination of
these two. Smart industry has a social context
because it changes the way people live, their
working environment, where they interact with
machines and robots. (11). Connected industry
includes the largest number of business
management projects, including Oil & Gas and
Automotive Industry, which are presented
separately here.
This is perhaps one of the most popular
Internet of Things applications, including
various home appliances that have built-in
sensors and via an Internet connection can be
controlled through a smartphone. This
Smart thermostats that regulate home
temperature and significantly reduce electricity
Smart refrigerators that monitor the
availability of products every time when the
door is open and order new ones, offer recipes,
plays music and thus make it easier for
consumers to shop and cook;
Smart locking systems;
Smart devices that switch on and off the
electricity of the appliance, thus reduces the
risk of fire, the risk of damage of the appliance
by electric accidents;
Smart devices with sensors to monitor our
homes for accidents and intruders and notify
users through messages.
According to a US study of smart home
devices use in 2015, the most common smart
home item is the wireless speaker system
(17%), followed by smart thermostats (11%),
smart / wireless home security systems (9%)
and domestic robots (8%) (12). Another
statistics reported that connected home
ANGELOVA N., et al
Trakia Journal of Sciences, Vol. 15, Suppl. 1, 2017 409
technologies sales in the United States from
2012 to 2017 (in million US dollars) have
increased from 98 in 2012 to 1,485 in
The concept of "smart city" includes
technological solutions and initiatives that
alleviate and improve the life of citizens. This
is an ecosystem that allows the rational
management of the resources of different city
services and ensures maximum safety. Some
applications are (14):
Waste management - Waste bins equipped
with build-in sensors to monitor their fill level.
This prevents overfilling by alerting companies
and optimizes the trash collection routes
directing garbage trucks to places where waste
disposal is needed in order to save time and
Smart parking - Many parking places have
installed sensors to inform the public in real
time, where are free parking spaces depending
on driver’s location or destination.
Smart street lighting - The equipment of
street lights with sensors to adjust the
brightness of street lights, depending on the
illumination, the presence of pedestrians and
cars, saves electricity.
Traffic congestion - Directing drivers and
pedestrians to places with less traffic,
switching green traffic lights depending on
where the cars are and at what time of day is.
This reduces traffic and air pollution from the
exhaust of cars, which burn more than 17% of
their fuel, waiting for red light;
Smart roads - Highways that show signs of
traffic situation and warn drivers of icy roads
and accidents.
Structural health - Tracking the condition
of buildings, bridges and cultural monuments
to prevent their destruction and incidents
related to their use.
Since 2007, the Technical University of
Vienna has been working on a project to
develop a model that categorizes cities as
"smart". The established model includes 6 key
fields - smart economy, smart mobility, smart
environment, smart people, smart living and
smart governance (15).
In 2013 Barcelona is the first “Smart” Spanish
city and one of the smart cities in Europe
ahead of Paris, Stockholm, and London. Some
of the initiatives that the government of
Barcelona implements are: stellar bus transit
system, bicycle sharing system, smart parking
places, pneumatic waste management system,
smart lighting and effective energy systems
The use of the Internet of Things in healthcare
can be applied in different directions - medical
equipment, medical treatment, diagnosis and
prevention, social care. This includes:
Control of freezers used for storing
medicines and vaccines;
Monitoring of patients in hospitals and in
their homes;
Monitoring of elderly people living alone;
Measuring biometric data and sending it to
the doctor without need to go to his office;
Sensors that send signals and remind
patients of taking their medication at the right
time and according to the prescribed
Appliances that take care for our health like
a smart toothbrush, a smart fork that vibrates
when we eat too fast.
Early diagnosis of diseases and their
prophylaxis reduces the expenses of
hospitalization and treatment. The main
requirements for Internet-based healthcare
systems are related to interoperability,
reliability, flexibility and extensibility. (17)
Some of the benefits of implementation
Internet of Things in healthcare are: decreased
costs, improved outcomes of treatments,
improved disease management, reduced errors,
enhanced patient experience, enhanced
management of drug (18).
A research shows that the global smart
healthcare products market is expected to rise
at a CAGR of 8.84% between 2015 and 2023.
This will result in the market’s valuation to
increase from US$31.71 bn in 2016 to
US$57.85 bn by 2023 (19).
The main problems are connected with
generating big amount of data and the privacy
and security of data. The quality of data of all
the measurements that are made by the sensors
is very important in order to take the right
treatment for the patients.
The equipment of cars with sensors and a
permanent Internet connection ensures the
comfort and safety of the passengers, reduces
the pollution of the environment.
Some of the most significant features of
connected cars are:
to program in-car navigation system
remotely via smartphone;
to fire up car engine remotely up to 15
minutes before start to drive in order to heat
the car in frosty morning or to cool it when it is
ANGELOVA N., et al
410 Trakia Journal of Sciences, Vol. 15, Suppl. 1, 2017
hot outside;
to monitor information about fuel
consumption, average speed, traffic conditions
and distance;
to alert the emergency services in case of a
serious collision, using GPS to locate the
vehicle and send help;
to remind where driver have parked;
to monitor car’s maintenance schedule, fuel
and oil levels, and tracks it in the event of a
theft (20).
Smart cities include the improvement of road
infrastructure and the implementation of
connected cars in public transport in order to
reduce traffic, reduce transport-related carbon
dioxide emissions and increase passengers’
comfort and safety.
According some statistics the projected size of
the global connected car market in 2016 and
2021, by segment (in billion euros) in 2016
and 2021 are safety, home integration, mobility
management, vehicle management,
entertainment, well-being and autonomous
2016: safety(15,5), home integration (0),
mobility management (4,4), vehicle
management (3,6), entertainment (6), well-
being (2) and autonomous driving (9,5),
2021: safety(49,3), home integration (0,1),
mobility management (5,6), vehicle
management (7,1), entertainment (13,4), well-
being (7,6) and autonomous driving (39,6).
As can be seen, the largest share occupies the
security segment, followed by autonomous
driving and entertainment, which will increase
more than twice.
Overall, the connected car market is predicted
to grow from 40.3 billion euros to 122.6 billion
euros (21).
The use of the Internet of Things in agriculture
and livestock farming aims to improve the
quality and quantity of crops, to monitor
livestock indicators. Real-time data is
collecting, processing, and analyzing. This
allows farmers to take measures to properly
process and avoid mistakes, plan the actions
and costs involved in sowing and harvesting,
make weather forecasts for drought, hail, take
measures to reduce the loss of production.
Built-in sensors in devices, machines and
systems could provide and ensure modern
breeding, crop growth, quality and safety of
agricultural products monitoring with using
IoT to focus on RFID technology, weather
forecasting, wildlife management, forestry,
livestock farming, market identification and
rural financing (22-24).
Generally, we can say that wearables are all
devices that can be worn as accessories -
watches, bracelets, clothes, glasses that are
connected to the Internet. They are able to
collect, process, analyze and transfer data.
These devices are usually used in the field of
health, fitness and entertainment. They are
highly energy-efficient, ultra-low power, and
small-sized (25).
Some of the most popular wearables are
fitness bands. They measure people's activity,
stairs climbed, running distance, calories
burned and sleep quality. With an application
installed on the smartphone, these metrics can
be synced, presented in a graphical form and
help users to track their fitness progress.
Smart glasses are not only a fashionable
accessory but another example how IoT could
help users to improve their everyday
experience through multiple build-in sensors
like gyroscope, accelerometer and
magnetometer and can also measure fitness
activity and location. Embedded cameras and
processors give them the capabilities of small
computers. The collected and processed data is
presented directly in front of user’s eyes.
The ability of wearables to integrate with
third-party applications is one of the benefits
that makes them so popular and increases their
A research shows that health and fitness
wearables can change the consumer’s attitude
towards his health conditions and how these
fitness devices make users more active and
more responsible for their health. Factors that
might influence the adoption and use of
wearables are defined:
Context of use - Technical infrastructure,
Observational learning, Social expectations
Technology user - Personal characteristics
(age, gender, psychological traits), Previous
experience with technology, Habit
Technology features and utility -
Utilitarian and hedonic benefits sought,
Perceived costs and challenges of using the
technology, Features deemed most useful (26).
The development of wearables and the
presentation of their capabilities can be used in
various initiatives by governments to improve
the health of the population and to fight obesity
and diabetes (27).
ANGELOVA N., et al
Trakia Journal of Sciences, Vol. 15, Suppl. 1, 2017 411
The statistics reports that manufacturers of
wearable fitness devices Fitbit, Garmin,
Samsung show a slight increase in global
wearable device shipments for 2016 compared
to 2015, while Apple, the third on this list, has
a slight decline of 11.6 to 10.7 million units.
Overall, the Wearables market is rising, in
2014 worldwide units shipments amounted to
28.8, 2015 - 81.9, 2016 - 102.4 million units
According to Gartner's reports and forecasts,
there will be 20 billion connected devices on
Earth by 2020. BI Intelligence is projected to
reach more than 24 billion and nearly $6
trillion will be spent on IoT solutions over the
next five years (29).
This will change the way companies,
connected with IoT, act. They should invest in
Internet of things hardware and optimize the
workflow, transform and adopt new business
models, modify the traditional organization
roles, ensure cyber security and customer’s
privacy (30).
The Cisco’s report (31) shows the investment
opportunities of Bulgaria:
Invest in digitalization in the public and
private sectors;
Recognize the importance of national policy
leadership in digitalization;
Investing into future-proof infrastructure such
as broadband and ICT conversion;
Invest in 3G/4G mobile services;
Invest in ICT based health technologies;
Invest in Big Data as a Big Opportunity for
Inclusive Growth.
The main directions for the application of the
Internet of Things in Bulgaria are:
Energy industry - Build a smart grid to reduce
costs and pollution.
Tourism - Increase revenue and offer more
opportunities for users by using mobile
technologies and related advertising and
Agriculture - Improve the quality and quantity
of production by the use of sensors.
Nowadays initiatives and examples of
implementation of Internet of Things solutions by
Bulgarian business already exist. One of the most
popular examples of Smart Home application is
Tesy Cloud that helps consumers to control
remotely electric water heaters and heating
appliances. This innovative solution is intuitive
and easy to use, saves time and electricity
Sofia, the capital city of Bulgaria, adopt the
idea of smart waste management of one the
public markets - Zhenski pazar. The system
that is integrated in the underground garbage
bins sends information about the fill level three
times a day. The company responsible for the
garbage transportation reports that this
initiative reduces costs with 20%, saves time
and gives opportunities to citizens to send
signals about overflowing waste bins. This
system will be implemented in other places in
Sofia and in other cities (32).
In the next years the first smart city in Bulgaria
will be built. The project is named “St. Sofia”
and is first one for Bulgaria in the framework
of the strategic initiative "One Belt - One
Time" between the companies Bulgaria
Development Holdings Limited (BDHL) and
ZTEICT. IoT, Cloud computing and 5G will
be provided in the field of innovative
technology solutions for business, education,
tourism and services (33).
Undoubtedly, the rapid development of new
technologies impact all areas of everyday life and
the presented analytics and reports show that
these trends will continue and grow in the years
to come. Whether we want it or not, we are part
of this technological revolution and the most
important thing is to learn how to use it properly
and wisely. Therefore the efforts of all players in
the world of Internet of Things - device
providers, operators, platform providers, systems
integrators, application providers, governments
and consumers should be united to ensure a
secure and safety environment for
communication and exchange of personal data.
Internet of Things' integration should follow a
certain vision and idea, identify opportunities for
using technology, attract business institutions and
government, and build a culture of using the
Internet of Things.
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... Teniendo en cuenta lo anterior, el IoT al ser implementado en los negocios aporta ventajas en comunicación, gracias a la cantidad de objetos conectados y las redes de comunicación; tener mayor control y automatización de sus procesos y clientes, ahorrar costos asociados al tiempo, recursos y de dinero; debido a que con el uso de esta tecnología se reducen tiempos de respuesta y labores humanas, mayores oportunidades de ingresos y crear nuevos modelos de negocio. Esto se genera a partir de la oferta digital y sin olvidar que la experiencia de los clientes mejora notablemente, debido a la unificación y sinergia dadas a través de los diversos canales de atención a los que pueden acceder (Angelova et al., 2017;SAS Institute Inc, 2019). ...
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Industria 4.0 e Internet de las Cosas (IoT) han revolucionado la forma de gestionar procesos en organizaciones, incluidos los restaurantes. El objetivo es identificar tendencias en producción científica en uso del IoT en servicios de restaurantes. Se realiza revisión de literatura en Scopus para construir indicadores de cantidad y estructura. Los resultados resaltan creciente investigación y difusión, particularmente, India, Estados Unidos, China y Emiratos Árabes, por diferentes autores e instituciones. Las tendencias investigativas se asocian con el uso, automatización y enrutamiento de dispositivos móviles inteligentes, interconexión mediada por IoT en ciudades inteligentes, utilización de datos procedentes de la Web, implementación de redes neuronales para generar recomendaciones, gestión de residuos, aprendizaje automático y la aplicación del IoT en servicios industriales. Se concluye que los beneficios se reflejan en mayor toma de decisiones y productividad, control de inventario, reducción de deshechos, ahorro de costos y mejora en experiencia del cliente.
... As a result, some anomaly detection techniques may have an issue with false positives. Machine learning techniques are being used in various scenarios, including anomaly detection and misuse detection [7]. Because of the absence of labelled training datasets and the heavy reliance on retrieved features extracted by humans, conventional machine learning approaches cannot be deployed on big platforms [8]. ...
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Cybersecurity in information technology (IT) infrastructures is one of the most significant and complex issues of the digital era. Increases in network size and associated data have directly affected technological breakthroughs in the Internet and communication areas. Malware attacks are becoming increasingly sophisticated and hazardous as technology advances, making it difficult to detect an incursion. Detecting and mitigating these threats is a significant issue for standard analytic methods. Furthermore, the attackers use complex processes to remain undetected for an extended period. The changing nature and many cyberattacks require a quick, adaptable, and scalable defense system. For the most part, traditional machine learning-based intrusion detection relies on only one algorithm to identify intrusions, which has a low detection rate and cannot handle large amounts of data. To enhance the performance of intrusion detection systems, a new deep multilayer classification approach is developed. This approach comprises five modules: preprocessing, autoencoding, database, classification, and feedback. The classification module uses an autoencoder to decrease the number of dimensions in a reconstruction feature. Our method was tested against a benchmark dataset, NSL-KDD. Compared to other state-of-the-art intrusion detection systems, our methodology has a 96.7% accuracy.
... As shown in the chart above, the first important aspect of IT that was identified is the use of the Internet of Things (IoT) in construction project activities. Research has identified that the tech world today, is reliant on the idea of improved connectivity that can be achieved through IoT (Angelova, et al., 2017). During the data collection, it was identified that IoT is used as a technique that will improve the efficiency of the operational functions of a project, while at the same time improving the safety of construction sites. ...
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The ongoing global pandemic of the COVID-19 which was first identified in Wuhan, China, has impacted many sectors due to country lockdowns, travel restrictions, etc. Many health regulations have been presented by the Ministries of Health on how to conduct work safely. The construction sector in Sri Lanka is one of the major industries that have been impacted by the pandemic. This study was conducted to understand the impact of IT on the success of the construction sector in Sri Lanka, especially during the pandemic. The research was conducted as a qualitative data collection approach, where the researcher collected data from a group of sector professionals. The study revealed some of the important aspects and uses of IT in the construction sector in Sri Lanka and the same were justified by using secondary data.
... Algoritmii de prelucrare a datelor urmăresc profilul clientului potențial prin monitorizarea căutărilor pe internet legate de turism și ținand cont de profilul rezervărilor anterioare. Conform lui Angelova (2017) utilizarea IoT în turism are avantaje și dezavantaje. Principalele avantaje sunt: controlul comunicării, automatizarea, îmbunătățirea experienței, venituri mai mari prin reducerea costurilor. ...
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The study examines the causal relationship between the level of IoT adoption in tourism services and trust in these systems, on the one hand, and individual internal consumer behaviours, on the other. Influencing factors are grouped into six categories: awareness, confidentiality and safety, cost, convenience, social influence, and habits. Each category is described by several items, and the correctness of their aggregation is tested with the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The dependent variable is defined on an ordinal scale, to be able to progressively evaluate the degree of IoT adoption. The research methodology uses the ordered multinomial logit model, applied to a database of 431 tourists from Romania. The main results show the significant influence of behavioural variables related to awareness, convenience, habits, and cost. Among the socio-demographic factors, the role of age and education was highlighted. The conclusions of the study make policy recommendations necessary for the development of IoT systems in tourism industry.
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The Internet of Things (IoT) is changing the conventional way of doing business, worldwide. The focus of business is on reducing the cost that pertains to attracting and retaining customers, while rendering service to them. Although this may not be a new approach, the objective of this paper today is now more on improving Quality of Service (QoS) in IoT edges business outfits. This paper examines and reviews the prospects and challenges of IoT application in customer service operations in Nigeria business. The study has shown that application of IoT in customer service helps companies in Nigeria to provide robust and timely response and support to their customers, as well as facilitating real-time monitoring of the way customers buy products and the performance of a given product throughout its life cycle. This way, companies provide predictive and preventive actions by informing customers ahead of time about the problem they might face and offering a solution or service to issues that they might encounter in the near future. However, a company adopting and implementing IoT in Nigeria should be aware of certain issues and threats such as attitude, compatibility, privacy and data security. It is recommended that before IoT is integrated in a business model, certain questions should be considered before implementation.
Conference Paper
In the past years we believed that IoT will be the future of the Internet and now we can easily say that we live in the future. The Internet of Things has rapidly expanded and is expected to continue expanding even faster in the following years. This paper gives an overview of the most common Web protocols and IoT protocols and provides a comparison between the IoT Stack and Web Stack seen through prism of various layers assisting you in deciding the most suitable set of protocols for your IoT device.
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Tourism is one of the fastest growing business domains. Self-assisted services and Internet of things-based devices have become the current age cash. Internet of Things is a network for devices to connect and communicate information using physical devices embedded with sensor, software, cloud computing and other technologies. Therefore, self-assistance options enhance customer experience when it comes to hotel accommodation. The Internet of Things plays major role in improving the stay experience by providing customized services to customers. Self-services like pre-booking, registration and user preferred payment mode, automated check in & check out are also few aspects that are contributing for improved guest experience. In this paper, role of Internet of Things in hotel industry is taken into consideration for improving the guest experience and providing the customized services and the application of IoT in hotel industry has been analyzed.
Günümüzde çok fazla bilgi, çok büyük bir hızla üretilmektedir. Üretilen bilgi de yeni teknolojileri ortaya çıkarmaktadır. Bilgi ve teknoloji toplumları ekonomik, sosyal ve kültürel açıdan geliştirmekte, toplumların refahını artırmaktadır. Böyle bir ortamda da rekabet kaçınılmazdır. Dolayısıyla pazarlama fonksiyonunun da işletme içindeki önemi artmaktadır. Çünkü pazarlama, işletmenin dinamik ve dışa dönük bir fonksiyonudur. Çevrenin karmaşık ve belirsiz olması, pazarlamanın da çevreye uyum sağlayacak şekilde sürekli geliştirilmesini gerektirmektedir. İşletmelerin birinci amacı müşteri kazanmaktır. Müşteri kazanmak için müşterilerle iletişim kurulmalı ve kurulan bu iletişim devam ettirilmelidir. İletişimi sağlayacak işletme birimi ise pazarlamadır. Pazarlama, işletmenin ortalamanın üzerinde kar etmesi ve rakiplerini geçmesi, dolayısıyla yaşamını sürdürebilmesi için büyük bir öneme sahiptir. Pazarlamanın başarılı olması da yönetimin müşteri odaklı bir anlayışa sahip olması ile mümkündür. Bu kapsamda, işletme yönetimi, yenilik ve gelişmeleri takip etmeli, pazarlama uygulamalarını gözden geçirmeli, yeni pazarlama stratejileri geliştirmelidir. Dünya ekonomisi içinde aile işletmeleri büyük bir öneme sahiptir. Dünyadaki işletmelerin %75’inin, Türkiye’deki işletmelerin de yaklaşık %95’inin aile işletmelerinden oluştuğu bilinmektedir. Aile işletmelerinin pazarlamaya yeterince önem vermediği ve klasik yönetim anlayışı ile yönetildiği görülmektedir. Aile işletmelerinin yöneticileri, işletmesini modern pazarlama anlayışı ile yönetmek zorundadır. Çünkü rekabet artık yerel değildir, küreseldir. Dolayısıyla aile işletmelerinin de ürünlerini; pazarlama araştırması, pazar bölümlendirme, konumlandırma, marka, farklılaşma gibi stratejik pazarlama unsurları doğrultusunda müşterilerinin ihtiyaçlarını ve isteklerini, onları düşündüğünü göstererek üretmesi viii ve ürünlerini müşteri taleplerine uygun bir şekilde fiyatlandırması, tutundurması ve dağıtması gerekmektedir. Kısaca pazarlama sürecinin bütünleşik bir şekilde ele alınması gerekmektedir. Endüstri 4.0 olarak bilinen dijitalleşme ile yöneticiler de bu süreçte ortaya çıkan bulut bilişim, nesnelerin interneti, büyük veri ve yapay zeka gibi kavramları ve uygulamaları anlamaya ve bunları işletmelerine adapte etmeye çalışmaktadır. Çünkü tüm bu teknolojiler işletmelerin tedarik zinciri yönetiminden üretimine, finansal yönetiminden pazarlama yönetimine kadar tüm süreçlerini hızla dönüştürmektedir. Bu da üretim-pazarlama biçimlerinden yönetim anlayışına kadar işletmelerin birçok kararında değişikliğe neden olmaktadır. Endüstri 4.0’ın ve dijital teknolojilerin aile işletmeleri açısından pazarlama fonksiyonu özelinde incelenmesi oldukça önemlidir. Bu çalışma, böyle bir amacı gerçekleştirilebilmek için bir araya gelmiş bilim insanları tarafından hazırlanmıştır. Editörlüğünü Doç. Dr. Osman Yılmaz, Dr. Öğr. Üyesi Özgür Çark ve Dr. Öğr. Üyesi Saadet Sağtaş’ın yürüttüğü bu çalışmada, aile işletmelerinde endüstri 4.0 teknolojileri ve dijital dönüşümün pazarlama yönetimi konuları ele alınmıştır. Eserin içeriğini oluşturan editörleri, kitabın yazımında emeği geçen tüm akademisyen arkadaşlarımı içtenlikle kutluyorum. Prof. Dr. Ruziye Cop
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The Internet of Things (IoT) and, particularly, wearable products have changed the focus of the healthcare industry to prevention programmes that enable people to become active and take responsibility for their own health. These benefits will only materialise, however, if users adopt and continue to use these products, as opposed to abandoning them shortly after purchase. Our study investigates how the characteristics of the device, the context and the user can support the adoption and the sustained use of health and fitness wearables. We find that the factors that support the former differ from those that support the latter. For instance, features that signal the device’s ability to collect activity data are essential for adoption, whereas device portability and resilience are key for sustained use.
This paper presents security of Internet of things. In the Internet of Things vision, every physical object has a virtual component that can produce and consume services Such extreme interconnection will bring unprecedented convenience and economy, but it will also require novel approaches to ensure its safe and ethical use. The Internet and its users are already under continual attack, and a growing economy-replete with business models that undermine the Internet's ethical use-is fully focused on exploiting the current version's foundational weaknesses.
The advantages and disadvantages of Internet of Things
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