ArticlePDF Available

Effects of eight weeks of TRX versus traditional resistance training on physical fitness factors and extremities perimeter of non-athlete underweight females


Abstract and Figures

Introduction: New form of suspension training (TRX) has been introduced that has the ability to develop physical fitness factors. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of eight weeks of resistance training by traditional and TRX methods on physical fitness factors and extremities perimeter of non-athlete underweight girls. Material and methods: Thirty non-athlete underweight female students qualified with an average age of 23±1.64 years, weight of 43.53±0.28 kg, height of 162.66±6.6 cm and BMI of 16.31±0.2 kg/m 2 were selected and randomly assigned into three groups of 10 subjects (traditional, TRX and control). Participants performed training 3 sessions per week for eight weeks. Before and after the period of training, physical fitness variables including muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, and thigh and arm circumferences were measured. Results: The results showed that both of training had a significant effect on muscular strength and endurance, and there was no significant difference in flexibility and thigh and arm circumferences. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the traditional and TRX training have created almost same improvements in physical fitness factors, and TRX training can be considered an efficient choice to do alongside traditional training or as its alternative in order to earn desired training achievements. It is noteworthy that when training goal is enhancing muscular strength and endurance especially in upper-body, TRX training appears to be accompanied by greater gains compared to traditional resistance training.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Physical Activity Review vol. 6, 2018
Original Article
Effects of eight weeks of TRX versus traditional resistance
training on physical fitness factors and extremities
perimeter of non-athlete underweight females
Hamid AraziACDE, Fatemeh MalakoutiniaBCDE, Mani IzadiCD
Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
Authors' Contribution: A Study Design, B Data Collection, C Statis tical Analysis, D Manuscript Preparation, E Funds Collection
Introduction: New form of suspension training (TRX) has been introduced which has the ability to
develop physical fitness factors. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of eight weeks of
resistance training by traditional and TRX methods on physical fitness factors and extremities
perimeter of non-athlete underweight girls. Material and methods: Thirty non-athlete underweight
female students qualified with an average age of 23±1.64 years, weight of 43.53±0.28 kg, height of
162.66±6.6 cm and BMI of 16.31±0.2 kg/m2 were selected and randomly assigned into three groups of
10 subjects (traditional, TRX and control)
Participants performed training of 3 sessions per week for
eight weeks. Before and after the period of training, physical fitness variables including muscular
strength and endurance, flexibility, thigh and arm circumferences were measured. Results: The results
showed that both forms of training had a significant effect on muscular strength and endurance. There
was no significant difference in flexibility and thigh and arm circumferences. Conclusion: It can be
concluded, that the traditional and TRX training have created almost same improvements in physical
fitness factors, so TRX training can be considered an efficient choice to do alongside traditional
training or as its alternative in order to earn desired training achievements. It is noteworthy that when
training goal is to enhance muscular strength and endurance especially in upper-body, TRX training
appears to be accompanied by greater gains compared to traditional resistance training.
Keywords: functional training, weight training, strength gain, hypertrophy.
Address for correspondence: Hamid Arazi - Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences,
University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran. e-mail:
Recevied: 12.04.2017; Accepted: 22.10.2017; Published online: 25.04.2018
Cite this article as: Arazi H, Malakoutinia F, Izadi M. Effects of eight weeks of TRX versus traditional resistance
training on physical fitness factors and extremities perimeter of non-athlete underweight females, Physical
Activity Review 2018, 6: 73-80. doi:
Physical Activity Review vol. 6, 2018
The fitness enthusiasts, recreational weight trainers, and athletes all take advantage of
resistance training programs in order to gain muscle size and physical fitness factors such as muscular
strength and endurance. Additionally, the resistance exercise is a major component of training
programs in most sports and plays an effective role in injury prevention and rehabilitation. These
goals can be accomplished using various types of resistance training modalities [1,2].
Traditional trainings are accompanied by fixed and mobile equipment in which the exercises
are performed in certain ranges of motion and difficultly, that can be used in everyday life [3].
Traditional training is known as a common training program because of its positive effects on
improving muscular strength and power [4,5].
Functional training is a specific strength training that properly involves the muscles, that are
required for the implementation of daily life, including suspension training that is conducted in
different from other resistance trainings [6]. Weiss et al. [7] showed that traditional and functional
training programs provide similar results in muscular strength, core muscular endurance and balance.
However, flexibility had greater increase in functional training group.
The suspension training has different forms, that have in common unstable surface and only
used tool is different. These exercises can cause more activation in motor units of muscles [5,8]. The
use of suspension equipment is a popular choice among fitness enthusiasts. This training method is
recommended to people whose aim to achieve functional strength and health. Although suspension
training is characterized as an innovative training method, but the history of using these devices goes
back to classical gymnastic rings [8].
Few studies have been done on unstable strength training programs. Additionally, most of
these researches have examined the physiological mechanisms of stability control [9], and little data
exists regarding the effects of balance on functional attributes such as power and strength [10,11].
TRX (Total-Body Resistance Exercise) is a kind of new functional training, which as suspension
training allows people to use their body weight (or force exerted by the gravity force) as resistance
during exercise with several motor plates as well as muscle and joint groups. In a research, Janot et al.
[12] compared the traditional and TRX trainings, and results showed that TRX training improves
muscular fitness in both youth and adult groups similar to traditional resistance training.
In order to evaluate the real effect of a strength training program regardless of unstable and
stable conditions, it is important to keep the training load constant. However, the principle of training
overload is necessary to challenge training adaptations. Resistances in most unstable surface training
exercises can be body weight, and the magnitude of exercise load depends on the degree of instability,
which is provided by devices and body positions. This makes it difficult to prescribe a given exercise
intensity and volume. One way to control the magnitude of effort in such conditions can be used by the
rating of perceived exertion (RPE), which is measured by assigning a numerical score at the end of
each exercise and each training session [13].
Up to now, there is no certain criterion for quantifying the instability produced by different
devices or postural changes for determining the real magnitude of effort and load. Currently, little
information is also available on the benefits of TRX as a model of functional training compared to
traditional resistance training programs. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to compare the
resistance training results between the traditional method and TRX on the factors of strength,
muscular endurance, flexibility and extremities perimeter in non-athlete underweight females.
The present quasi-experimental research was conducted on three groups of control, TRX
training and traditional training in which the participants took part in a plan with pre-test and post-
test. In the current study, after inviting individuals to participate in the research period, those who
voluntarily interested in the project were referred to gym with personal consent. After evaluating
body mass index, daily physical activity, history of diseases and health questionnaire, 30 of 70 subjects
Physical Activity Review vol. 6, 2018
were selected as available samples. Then, all participants completed individual consent and
demographic information forms.
Inclusion criteria were willingness to participate in the research, BMI below 18.5 kg/m2, age
between 18 to 26 years, no regular exercise in the last year, avoiding the use of supplements and
medications during the past six months and no history of chronic diseases including cardiovascular
diseases. This research was approved by the ethic committee on human experiments in faculty of
physical education and sport science of Guilan University.
Before eight weeks of training, some anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics
including arm and thigh circumferences, upper-body muscular endurance (push-ups), upper-body
strength (bench press), lower-body strength (leg press) and flexibility (sit-and-reach) were assessed
in all participants.
Extremities perimeter
Tape measure was used to obtain round-arm and round-femur so that the tape was wrapped
softly around the organs and no pressure was applied to the skin.
Arm circumference measurement: while the palm was upward and upper limbs were kept
directly in front of the body, the measurement was carried out at the mid-point between the
shoulder and the elbow.
Thigh circumference measurement: measurement part of the thigh was just below the buttocks.
Berzicky equation was used to calculate muscular strength in the resistance efforts. Subjects
performed bench press and leg press exercises with an estimated weight up to eight repetitions; then
by putting the number of repetitions in the mentioned equation, the value of 1RM was calculated.
Bench press and leg press tests were used to assess upper-body and lower-body strength, respectively
Muscular endurance
The push-ups test was used to measure muscular endurance. Participants kept their hands
shoulder width apart, while a straight line was formed from toes to hips and shoulders, the upper-
body was brought down and the elbows were bent about 90 degrees and again the body was lifted up.
The subjects performed the test as much as possible and the examiner counted the number of
The sit-and-reach test was used to measure flexibility, so that the participants were allowed to
perform three replications and with 60 seconds of rest between them. Some of the conditions of this
test include both knees should be locked and pressed flat to the floor, the legs are stretched and the
soles of the feet have 90 degree angles. The test was carried out without doing stretching exercises
Training protocol
After the initial test (pre-test), experimental groups trained for 8 weeks, 3 sessions per week
for non-consecutive days and at the same time of the day; all exercises were carried out in two
10-repetition sets with slow speed and in circuit design. The rest interval was one or two minute(s)
between the two exercises. The first 10 minutes of session was devoted to warm-up and the last 5
minutes of the session was devoted to stretching for cool-down. Before starting the program, two
sessions were intended to familiarize the participants with the exercises.
TRX training protocol
The training program was a combination of exercises for large muscle groups and several
motor plates. The TRX training program was performed using the TRX device related to suspension
training system. The TRX device was mounted on a rod by connecting 2.44 meters above the ground.
This allowed the participants to perform exercises directly below the connection point.
Physical Activity Review vol. 6, 2018
In general, progress in training levels for TRX group were as distance placed closer to the
connection point, alter of two feet to one foot, and an increase in body angle to maintain intensity
within the specified range. Dedicated intensity of advanced squat movements rose from two feet to
one foot. Hamstring curl exercise progresses included further raising the thighs and buttocks in the
form of bridge and bring both heels toward the buttocks. One unit increase to exert overload was
considered every other weeks using the 10-rating Borg scale. Exercise intensities were in the range of
4-5 for the first fortnight using the Borg scale and based on increased load in the range of 5-6 during
the second fortnight, 6-7 within the third fortnight and 7-8 during the fourth fortnight, respectively.
Traditional training protocol
The intensity of traditional resistance exercise protocol, equivalent to the Borg scale, was
respectively as follows: for the first fortnight in the range of 60-65% of 1RM, and during the second
fortnight based on the increasing load in the range of 65-70% of 1RM, within the third fortnight about
70-75% of 1RM and during the fourth fortnight about 75-80% of 1RM.
Statistical analyses
After testing normality of data using Shapiro-Wilk test, Intra-group changes were determined
using Paired t-test. Additionally, ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests were used to determine
differences among the three groups. For abnormal distributed data, nonparametric Wilcoxon test was
used to assess intra-group differences and nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test for the inter-group
evaluation. Data were analysed using SPSS 16 software and the significance level was considered
In total, 20 subjects (10 in traditional training group and 10 in TRX training group) completed
the 8-week training period. As there were no significant changes in control group (without any
training program) in any tested variable. There were significant improvements and strength (upper
and lower body) in both traditional and TRX training groups. Both of training groups showed
increased upper-body and lower-body strength after 8 weeks of training. The percentage of upper-
body strength change in TRX group was significantly different from CT and RT groups. Post-test is
significantly different from pre-test at p<0.05. Post-test is significantly different from pre-test at
p<0.01. Change is significantly different from control group at p<0.01. Change is significantly different
from other training group at p<0.05 (figure 1). Both of training groups showed increased muscular
endurance after 8 weeks of training. The percentage of muscular endurance change in TRX group was
significantly different from CT and RT groups, and TRX group showed higher improvement in
muscular endurance. There was significant difference between RT and CT groups in the percentage of
muscular endurance change. Post-test is significantly different from pre-test at p<0.05. Post-test is
significantly different from pre-test at p<0.01.Change is significantly different from control group at
p<0.05. Change is significantly different from control group at p<0.01. Change is significantly different
from other training group at p<0.05 (figure 2).
No significant change in flexibility was observed among groups. In the inter-group comparison,
upper-body strength and muscular endurance showed further significant increase in TRX group
compared with traditional group. Neither of training groups showed significant change in extremities
perimeter after 8 weeks of training. Non-significant inter-group differences were also observed in the
percentage of changes (figure 3).
Physical Activity Review vol. 6, 2018
Figure 1. Comparison of upper-body and lower-body strength among TRX and RT groups. Abbreviations are; CT:
Control, RT: Traditional resistance training.
Figure 2. Comparison of muscular endurance and flexibility among TRX and RT groups. Abbreviations are; CT:
Control, RT: Traditional resistance training, reps: repetitions.
Figure 3. Comparison of thigh and arm perimeter among TRX and RT groups. Abbreviations are; CT: Control, RT:
Traditional resistance training.
The findings of the present study showed that after eight weeks of resistance training with TRX
and traditional methods, the upper- and lower-body strength had significant changes in both
Physical Activity Review vol. 6, 2018
traditional and TRX training groups. Dannelly et al. [11] reported increased upper-body strength after
13 weeks in both traditional and sling groups. Maté-Muñoz et al. [15] observed an increase in upper-
body strength after seven weeks of resistance training in young men trained in both unstable and
traditional training groups. Their result was in line with present study that could possibly justify
elevated upper-body strength in both training groups. However, the present research demonstrated
that TRX resulted in higher improvement in upper-body strength compared to traditional resistance
training. Further, Janot et al. [12] found improved lower-body strength after seven weeks of TRX
resistance training in middle-aged and youth groups.
The increase in muscular strength in this study is probably due to neural adaptations created
during the eight weeks of training in underweight young girls. Since the nervous system is heavily
involved in TRX training regarding the suspension condition, so neural adaptations justify the strength
found in this study. Regularly, strength does not depend only on muscle mass, but nervous portion of
motor units are also important. Thus, the strength increases in the early weeks of a strength training
program, while there is no sign of muscle hypertrophy in this period.
In the present study, the changes in arm and thigh circumferences were considered as the
criterion for muscular hypertrophy. According to the theory of neural adaptation, high muscular
strength occurs rapidly in initial six to eight weeks of training, which is consistent with our results. On
the other hand, minimal muscular hypertrophy due to strength training can be seen in six weeks,
which may need more time to increase the muscle mass due to the impact of gender of subjects (low
levels of testosterone and less muscle mass in females than in males) [16]. The results are in contrast
with a research of Sayloret al. [2] which found significant improvement in lean body mass.
In this regard, one of the main theories is that the training in unstable conditions creates the
same strength adaptation in lighter loads [17]. Similar strength responses caused by both kinds of
training show that the body position and the instability generated by TRX had a similar effect to
produce external load in resistance exercise. Increased strength observed arises largely due to neural
adaptations caused by motor unit recruitment, frequency of excited motor units in addition to
increasing motor unit recruitment or decreased neural inhibitors, and other neural factors including
increased activity of facultative agonists and reducing antagonist performance. Many studies have
investigated neuromuscular responses to exercise in suspension and stable positions. Capacity of
recruiting motor units is very important. In fact, the muscle fibers that are not used during training
cannot be stimulated to adapt. Byrne et al. [18] observed significant increase in EMG activity in the
core, abdominal, thoracic and thigh muscles induced by TRX Plank in young adults.
The long-term increase in strength is usually associated with trained muscle hypertrophy. A lot
of time is required to make proteins by reducing protein degradation and increased protein synthesis,
or both. Apparently, neural factors have the greatest contribution within the 8 to 10 weeks of training.
Supposedly, any increase in strength is under the influence of neural factors, but long-term strength
increase is mainly due to hypertrophy. Probably, because the impact of gender of subjects, more time
is needed to increase the volume of muscle mass [16]. Therefore, it is inferred that the eight-week
resistance trainings at the suspension (TRX) and traditional manners may not have sufficient effect on
muscular hypertrophy in underweight young girls.
Increased flexibility after a period of training was observed in both experimental groups, but
not statistically significant, probably due to insufficient number of participants. Active and passive
muscle stretching for warming-up in each training session is one of the causes of increased flexibility.
Flexibility is increased because of wide combination of movements in multiple plates, creating
large range of motion. It is noteworthy that flexibility is considered neither clearly a fitness ability nor
coordinator ability. However, it is a complex feature influences fitness and coordination abilities at the
various performances. Flexibility is closely related to strength, endurance, speed and skill. The results
of the present study about flexibility were in contrast to the findings of a study conducted by Weiss et
al. [7] which reported further increase in flexibility for the participants in the functional training group
compared to traditional group. On the other hand, Distefano et al. [19] observed similar changes in
flexibility for participants involved in an integrated training program focused on core stability,
strength, agility, and advanced resistance training. In general, these studies support the importance of
functional trainings performed through all range of motion for increasing flexibility.
Physical Activity Review vol. 6, 2018
The involvement in resistance training professionally leads to decreased flexibility. But since
the participants in this study had inactive lifestyle, traditional exercises have caused positive
adaptations. However, improvement of flexibility compared to baseline state was non-significant.
Muscular endurance in both groups showed significant improvement due to effects of eight
weeks of traditional and TRX trainings, indicating the effects of both training programs on the
improvement of shoulder girdle muscular endurance. However, TRX caused higher improvement in
muscular endurance. In this context, Dannelly et al. [11] observed significant improvement in
muscular endurance in closed chain exercises at the end of training; but unlike the present study, no
changes were observed in open chain exercises.
It seems that since the participants in this study had inactive lifestyle with low primary
muscular endurance, traditional and TRX resistance training led to more activation of muscles and
improvement of muscular endurance compared to baseline. Increased muscular endurance of
shoulder girdle may be due to local muscular adaptations caused by increased oxidative enzymes
activities such as succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), cytochrome oxidase and glycolytic enzymes like
phosphorylase and phosphofructokinase [16]. Additionally, increasing the amount of glycogen is one
of the dramatic changes in muscle during training period. The muscle trained for endurance tends to
increase its glycogen stores and possible changes in these reserves may be effective in changing
muscular endurance [16]. The problem referring to the influence TRX presented in this work, makes
a part of complex problematics that can be specified as reflection about alternative model of
traditional training [20]. The development of this aspect makes a part of interdisciplinary papers
The goal of the present study was to compare the effects of eight weeks of TRX versus
traditional resistance training on physical fitness factors and extremities perimeter of non-athlete
underweight girls. Based on the results of this research, underweight non-athlete girls could benefit
from TRX training as an alternative model of traditional resistance training and even a resistance
training module with some possible advantages compared to traditional type with diversity in form
and structure to gain muscular strength and endurance in addition to nutritional considerations.
However, the present research had some limitations such as short-term protocol and few numbers of
subjects. Hence, a further is recommended to be done on larger numbers of participants with a longer
period design in order to clarify the impacts of TRX compared to traditional resistance training on
structural and functional adaptations of muscular system during long-period training. For feature
studies, it is also recommended to use electromyography to assure neurophysiological alterations are
induced by TRX versus traditional resistance training within a same period of time.
The authors would like to thank all the participants who volunteered to engage in this research.
The authors report no conflict of interests.
1. Fleck SJ, Kraemer W. Designing Resistance Training Programs, 4E. Human Kinetics, 2014.
2. Saylor SM. Efficacy of whole-body suspension training on enhancing functional movement abilities
following a supervised or home-based 8-week training program 2016 (Doctoral dissertation, Cleveland
State University).
3. Anderson K, Behm DG. The impact of instability resistance training on balance and stability, Sports
Medicine 2005; 35(1): 43-53.
4. Mühlberg W, Sieber C. Sarcopenia and frailty in geriatric patients: implications for training and
prevention, Zeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie 2004; 37(1): 2-8.
Physical Activity Review vol. 6, 2018
5. Dudgeon WD, Herron JM, Aartun JA et al. Physiologic and metabolic effects of a suspensión training
workout, International Journal of Sports Science 2015; 5(2): 65-72. doi: 10.5923/j.sports.20150502.04
6. Behm DG, Drinkwater EJ, Willardson JM et al. Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology position stand:
The use of instability to train the core in athletic and nonathletic conditioning, Applied Physiology,
Nutrition, and Metabolism 2010; 35(1): 109-112. doi: 10.1139/H09-128
7. Weiss T, Kreitinger J, Wilde H et al. Effect of functional resistance training on muscular fitness outcomes
in young adults, Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness 2010; 8(2): 113-122. doi:
8. Snarr RL, Esco MR. Comparison of electromyographic activity when performing an inverted row with
and without a suspension device, Age (yrs) 2013; 26(4.2): 22-3.
9. Gentil P, Oliveira E, Bottaro M. Time under tension and blood lactate response during four different
resistance training methods, Journal of Physiological Anthropology and Applied Human Science 2006;
25(5): 339-344.
10. Wernbom M, Augustsson J, Raastad T. Ischemic strength training: a low-load alternative to heavy
resistance exercise? Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 2008; 18(4): 401-416.
11. Dannelly BD, Otey SC, Croy T et al. The effectiveness of traditional and sling exercise strength training in
women, The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 2011; 25(2): 464-471.
12. Janot J, Heltne T, Welles C et al. Effects of TRX versus traditional resistance training programs on
measures of muscular performance in adults, Journal of Fitness Research 2013; 2(2): 23-28.
13. Borg G. Perceived exertion as an indicator of somatic stress, Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation
Medicine 1970; 2(2): 92-98.
14. Brzycki M. Strength testingpredicting a one-rep max from reps-to-fatigue, Journal of Physical
Education, Recreation & Dance 1993; 64(1): 88-90.
15. Mate-Munoz JL, Monroy AJ, Jodra Jimenez P et al. Effects of instability versus traditional resistance
training on strength, power and velocity in untrained men, Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 2014;
13(3): 460-468.
16. Costill DL, Wilmore JH, Kenney WL. Physiology of sport and exercise. Human Kinetics, 2008.
17. Behm DG, Anderson K, Curnew RS. Muscle force and activation under stable and unstable conditions,
The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 2002; 16(3): 416-22.
18. Byrne JM, Bishop NS, Caines AM et al. Effect of using a suspension training system on muscle activation
during the performance of a front plank exercise, The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 2014;
28(11): 3049-55. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000000510
19. Distefano LJ, Distefano MJ, Frank BS et al. Comparison of integrated and isolated training on
performance measures and neuromuscular control, The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research
2013; 27(4): 1083-90. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e318280d40b
20. Wasik J, Wojcik A. Health in the context of martial arts practice, Physical Activity Review 2017; 5: 9194.
doi: 10.16926/par.2017.05.013
21. Ortenburger D, Wasik J, Gora T. Report of the 1st World Congress on Health and Martial Arts in
Interdisciplinary Approach 17-19 September 2015. Physical Activity Review 2015; 3: 49-51. doi:
22. Wasik J, Ortenburger D, Gora T. The kinematic effects of taekwondo strokes in various conditions the
outside environment. Interpretation in the psychological aspect and perspective of application in sport,
health-related training and survival abilities. Archives of Budo 2016; 12: 287-292
... It has been shown that suspension training is just as effective as other forms of exercise, producing comparable gains in muscle strength, core muscular endurance, and balance [29], and improvements in power, muscular strength and functional performance have been observed regardless of age and gender [30,31,32,33,34]. For example, when non-athlete underweight women trained for eight weeks using two various techniques, traditional training, and suspension training, both training methods almost equally improved physical fitness factors, leading researchers to conclude that suspension training can be considered an equally effective choice alongside traditional training or as its substitute [35]. Another research found that ballet swimmers, who underwent 12 weeks of combined or hybrid resistance exercises and suspension training, improved in terms of fitness and body composition despite the disparities between the two forms of exercise [36]. ...
... In general, progress in training levels for the suspension group was as distance placed closer to the connection point, alter of two feet to one foot, and an increase in body angle to maintain intensity within the specified range. The 10-rating Borg scale, as utilized in earlier research, was employed to consider a one-unit increment to exert overload every two weeks [35]. According to the Borg scale and depending on increasing load, exercise intensities were in the range of 4-5 for the first and second weeks, 5-6 for the third and fourth weeks, 6-7 for the fifth and sixth weeks, and 7-8 for the seventh and eighth weeks. ...
... Free weight training protocol The Free weight training program was performed using dumbbells, barbells, and kettlebells. According to the Borg scale based on increasing load, the intensity of the free weight training program was as follows: 60-65% of 1RM for the first and second weeks, 65-70% of 1RM for the third and fourth weeks roughly 70-75% of 1RM for the fifth and sixth weeks, and 75-80% of 1RM for seventh and eighth weeks, as used in previous studies [35]. The movement of the free weight exercises, number of sets, times, and intensity were similar to suspension training. ...
Full-text available
Background and Study Aim. This paper aims to compare the effects of two types of resistance training programs (suspension training and free weight training) on the explosive power, dynamic balance, and discus throwers performance. Material and Methods. Twenty-four male discus throwers (with an average age: 19.17 ± 0.99 years; body mass: 99.87 ± 3.63 kg; height: 177.23 ± 3.16 cm) were assigned into three groups (eight subjects in each group); suspension training (STG), free weight training (FWTG) and control (CG). For eight weeks, subjects underwent training consisting of three sessions a week. Prior to and after the training period, explosive power, dynamic balance, and discus throwing distance variables were measured. The explosive power was measured using the medicine ball throw (SLJT) and standing long jump (MBTT) tests. The dynamic balance was measured using the Y excursion balance test (YBT). The discus throwing distance was measured according to the IAAF rules (DTT). Results. The results showed that both experimental groups had a significant effect on MBTT, SLJT, and DTT compared to the control group. There was a significant difference in YBT favoring STG when compared to the FWTG and CG, and also, favoring FWTG when compared to CG in the three directions (anterior, posterolateral, and posteromedial). All three groups improved the tests from pre- to post-test. Conclusions. We can conclude that suspension training and free weight training have created almost the same improvements in explosive power. Also, suspension training was more effective than free weight training for improving dynamic balance.
... Traditional resistance training is one of the resistance training types which is common among professional bodybuilders and due to the movement pattern implemented in it, is less generalizable to functional sports activities (9). Unstable training is a relative innovation in resistance training that allows people to train with multiple upper and lower body training positions. ...
... The TRX suspension is a unique training method that allows you to use your body weight as resistance with two bands and handles (10). The most important feature of this device, in addition to focusing on the target muscle, is the imbalance, in which the athlete has to use the muscles of the central part of the body to maintain balance (9,11 exercises where stress and strain are applied to one muscle group, TRX allows the use of a large number of muscle groups simultaneously as well as with a wider range of multi-stage movements (10). ...
Full-text available
Objective: This study aimed to compare the effect of eight weeks of traditional resistance training and total body resistance exercise (TRX) on the immune system of obese sedentary women. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 28 obese women with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 30.39± 4.65 (kg/m2) were randomly divided into three groups of TRX training (N= 9), traditional resistance training (N= 9) and control (N= 10). The experimental groups performed exercise training in three sessions per week for 8 weeks. Blood samples were taken from all subjects 48 hours before and after the last training session and were used for neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, basophil, and eosinophil analysis. Data were statistically analyzed using dependent T-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) by SPSS software, the significance level was P< 0.05. Results: The results of the study did not show significant differences within and between groups in the variables of the immune system (neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils) (P< 0.05). Also, the results of ANOVA showed a significant difference in basophil count only between the three groups (P= 0.006). Conclusion: According to the results of the study, no significant difference in immune system indices was observed between the groups. Therefore, performing traditional resistance exercises and moderate-intensity TRX has no significant effect on the immune system of sedentary obese women.
... Numerous studies in adults have compared suspension training with training on stable surfaces [17,18]. For instance, in the study by Janot et al. [19], improvement in muscular fitness variables has been observed after TRX and traditional resistance training. ...
... The improvement of muscular fitness variables has been described in numerous resistance exercises under stable conditions in children [5]. Moreover, instability resistance training compared to stable ones has mainly led to similar performance improvements in youth and adulthood [17]. These findings were observed in the few extant studies on children [22]. ...
Full-text available
Background Resistance training is now highly recommended for enhancing physical fitness in preadolescence. According to this critical period of development, choosing the safe and efficient types of training is important. Aims Comparing the effect of two types of suspension and unsuspension resistance training on physical fitness and body composition in prepubescent soccer athletes. Methods Thirty immature boys were assigned randomly to either total-body resistance exercise (TRX), bodyweight training (BW), and control groups. Training groups completed training programs for 8 weeks which designed progressively according to ACSM recommendations for children. Suspension training was conducted using TRX bands and unsuspension training using body weight. Results TRX training showed significant improvements in muscular endurance (p < 0.001), upper and lower body strength (both; p < 0.01), static balance (p < 0.05), and also percent body fat (p = 0.005) compared to BW training. Also, there were no difference in aerobic power, agility, and muscular power. Conclusions Although the benefits of both types of resistance training were evident, TRX training seems to be more effective in children’s physical fitness components and can be developed as a fitness training method in youth athletes.
... The increase in muscle strength in this group is probably the product of neural adaptations that were generated over the period of six weeks, as suspension training predominantly includes neuromuscular training. Strength frequently depends not just on muscle mass but also on the neurological system [26]. ...
Full-text available
Purpose: Non-specific chronic neck pain (NSCNP) is a major health problem. Scapular dyskinesia is one of the contributing factors to NSCNP. The suspension-type of exercise is a relatively new method used in rehabilitation of scapular dysfunction. The purpose of this pretest post- test randomized clinical trial was to study the effects of scapular muscles training using a prefabricated suspension system on improving pain, function, scapular muscle strength, and scapular position in subjects with non-specific chronic neck pain and scapular dyskinesia. Materials and methods: This was a quasi-experimental two groups pre-posttest clinical trial performed at an outpatient clinic. Fifty-two patients diagnosed with NSCNP, and scapular dyskinesia participated in this study. Their mean age was 24.46 5.32 years. They were randomized to receive either stretching exercises and manual scapular resistance (group A) or stretching exercises and scapular training using a prefabricated suspension system (group B). Researchers measured pain intensity using the numeric pain rating scale (NPRS), function using the neck disability index (NDI), scapular muscle strength using a handheld dynamometer, and scapular stability using the lateral scapular slide test (LSST). Twelve sessions were given to the individuals over a period of six weeks, and pre- and post-intervention outcome measures were evaluated. Results: Mann-Whitney test demonstrated no statistically significant difference between the two groups after the intervention in terms of pain relief, functional improvement, or scapular stability (p>0.05). On the other hand, there was a statistically significant difference between groups in favor of group B who received suspension- type exercise regarding improvement in scapular muscle strength (p<0.05). Conclusion: While superiority of one intervention cannot be concluded due to lack of a control group, using suspension type of exercise can be beneficial in improving the scapular muscle strength as compared to traditional exercise therapy, while both methods have similar effect on pain, function, and scapular stability in patients with NSCNP and scapular dyskinesia.
... Increased muscular strength enables participants to exert more force and perform tasks more efficiently, whether in sports, recreational activities, or everyday tasks involving lifting or carrying objects. Enhanced endurance capacity allows participants to engage in prolonged physical activity without feeling excessively tired or experiencing premature fatigue [42]. ...
Introduction: Optic disc swelling (ODS) is a pathological condition with a variety of causes, including optic neuritis (ON), anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, and papilledema. Determining the causes of ODS is critical due to the possibilities of vision-or life-threatening diseases, such as space-occupying lesions. Objective: To assess the clinical and radiology finding of Patients with Bilateral Optic Disc Swelling. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Ophthalmology, Ad-din Akij Medical College Hospital, Khulna, Bangladesh from January to June 2019. One hundred patients with bilateral disc swelling were selected as study population where bilateral disc swelling due to congenital disc anomaly, pseudo disc edema or need emergency medical care had been purposively excluded from the study. All patients were subjected to detailed ophthalmic examination, including visual acuity (VA), red saturation, bright sensitivity, color vision, and detailed slit lamp examination. All the information’s were recorded in a pre-designed data collection sheet. Results: Total 100 patients included in our study. Most commonly affected age group was between 21-30 years in which 32% case are observed, least common affected age group was 51-60 yr. in which 6% cases are observed. Male patients were 33% and female were 67%. The patients by presenting complaints were headache 71.0% followed by dimness of vision 63.0%. Nausea/ vomiting were present in 42.0% patients and ocular pain had 21 (21.0%) patients. Few (5.0%) had transient loss of vision. Among the patients who had IIH 34 (34%), ICSOL were 25(25%) and grade 4 Hypertensive retinopathy 9% respectively. Among the patients who had bilateral optic neuritis and VKH majority of them 13% and 13% respectively. In right eye, 44 (44.0%) had Visual acuity >0.3 while in left eye, 40 (40.0%) had Visual acuity >0.3. One third had (33.0%) sluggish pupillary response in both eye. Majority of the patients (right: 67.0%, left: 64.0%) had only disc swelling. Seventy-three patients (73.0%) did not have any ocular manifestation other than optic disc swelling while 14 (14.0%) had diplopia, 12 (12.0%) had uveitis and 1 (1.0%) had ptosis. Out of 100 patients, 70 patients (70.0%) did not have any space occupying lesion while 9 (9.0%) had meningioma and 6 (6.0%) had Cerebellopontine (CP) angle tumor. Conclusions: Among them headache is the most common presenting complaint and IIH is the most common clinical diagnosis.
... Increased muscular strength enables participants to exert more force and perform tasks more efficiently, whether in sports, recreational activities, or everyday tasks involving lifting or carrying objects. Enhanced endurance capacity allows participants to engage in prolonged physical activity without feeling excessively tired or experiencing premature fatigue [42]. ...
The purpose of this study is to determine whether a structured exercise program can improve students' motor skills. Everyday activities, including academic and professional ones, necessitate strong motor skills. In any case, numerous understudies need assistance with their coordinated movements which can influence their general exhibition. An experimental design with a randomized control group was used in this study. There were two groups of 100 students in the research sample: the exploratory gathering, which went through an organized actual activity program, and the benchmark group, which got no mediation. Before and after the intervention, students' motor skills were assessed using a tested that was proven to work. The outcomes showed that the organized actual activity program altogether further developed understudies' coordinated abilities contrasted with the benchmark group. Motor coordination, agility, and movement accuracy all improved significantly in the experimental group. They also said they performed better on tasks that required motor skills. This study's findings show that students' motor skills can be improved with a structured exercise program. This study's practical implications include the need to incorporate structured physical activity into higher education curriculum to ensure that students have sufficient motor skills for life success.
... One previous study using suspension training in healthy adults three times a week for eight weeks found a reduction in disease risk by improving not only muscle strength and endurance but also predictors of cardiovascular disease, such as waist circumference and blood pressure [21]. Another previous study that focused on underweight women found similar results, indicating that a high body weight is not a requirement for suspension training to be effective [24]. However, there was no significant difference in flexibility, which could be explained by the fact that suspension exercise focuses more on strength and muscular endurance than flexibility. ...
Full-text available
Middle-aged women have an increased risk of chronic degenerative diseases and reduced physical strength, which can lead to decreased vascular function and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, these problems can be treated or prevented with healthy nutrition and regular exercise. We focused on these benefits as recent studies have reported the potential synergistic effects of suspension training and nutrition. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of 12 weeks of adlay intake and suspension training on improvements in body composition, physical fitness, blood lipids, and arterial stiffness in middle-aged women. Neither the adlay + suspension exercise (ASEG) nor suspension exercise groups (SEG) showed significant changes in body composition. Nonetheless, with respect to physical fitness, there was a difference in time among all variables except flexibility, though the ASEG showed a more significant effect than the SEG. Regarding blood lipids, significant interaction effects were found for triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, while only the ASEG significantly improved these parameters. Furthermore, pulse wave velocity was only significantly decreased in the ASEG. In summary, performing suspension exercises for 12 weeks improved physical strength in middle-aged women. Additionally, when adlay was consumed simultaneously, blood lipids and arterial stiffness were improved.
... There have been numerous theoretical and empirical studies on the current state of physical fitness training research, difficulties that exist, and potential directions for growth by domestic scholars in recent years. Studies on physical training theory and practice in the United States and overseas tend to focus on the microcosmic level of understanding and quantitative analysis, instead of the macrocosmic level [1][2][3][4][5]. ...
Full-text available
Physical fitness is defined as a person’s capacity to perform at a high level in terms of their strength, speed, endurance, coordination, flexibility, agility, and other athletic attributes. The morphological and functional aspects of the human body are intimately linked when it comes to determining one’s level of physical fitness. It is possible to categorize physical fitness into two types: healthy physical fitness and competitive physical fitness, depending on the performance and role it plays in various groups of individuals. Competitive physical fitness is built on the foundation of healthy physical fitness, which is the ability of the organ systems to work properly for a particular set of people. Healthful physical fitness is a prerequisite for the future growth of competitive competition. The simulation study of physical fitness training is an important topic, regardless of whether the goal is to achieve healthy physical fitness or competitive physical fitness. This work combines it with deep learning algorithms to propose a strategy MPRN-ATT-LSTM for physical training simulation analysis. First, this work proposes the idea of a hybrid model, which uses a residual network structure (MPRN) with a pooling layer to learn features from time series to reduce the dimension. Then, the extracted feature vector is sent to the LSTM model for further feature extraction. Considering that the LSTM model has high requirements on sequence of input sequence, when input sequence is changed or unreasonable, it may lead to inaccurate feature extraction and affect the classification results. This work solves this problem by adding a self-attention mechanism, which can better focus on information important for classification and give higher weights. Finally, a large number of experiments are carried out in this work to verify the superiority of this method for simulation analysis of physical training.
Full-text available
Purpose: One of the main problems of patients with multiple sclerosis is decreased ability to walk, coordination and also muscle weakness caused by neuromuscular disorders which leads to limitations in upper and lower functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of suspended swing exercises on gait and upper performance in patients with multiple sclerosis. Therefore, the present study will examine the effects of 8 weeks antigravity swing exercises on multiple sclerosis female patients with moderate disability. Methods: 18 patients with multiple sclerosis with mean age of 36.55±3.74 years, mean height of 164.66± 4.01 cm and weight of 66.48 ±5.34 kg and 13 patients with mean age of 37.34±4.82 years, height 166.76±4.91 cm and weight 66.66±6.32 kg were included. Both groups had a disability index of 4.5 ≤EDSS≤6.5. They were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group performed suspended swing exercises in the club for eight weeks and the control group performed their normal daily activities without any restrictions and in accordance with the physiotherapy interventions of the relevant physician. Results: According to the results, the functional ability of the upper limb is related to the study of patient's performance in four testing times (p=0.001). Also, a significant difference was observed in walking performance between the four test times (p=0.001). There was a significant difference between the experimental group and the control group in both upper and lower limbs function (p=0.001). Conclusion: Considering the effectiveness of antigravity, swing exercises can be used as a clinical intervention to rehabilitate and improve neuromuscular factors in multiple sclerosis patients with moderate disability. According to the measurement of patient's progress at 4 th week until 8 th week in this study, the onset of effectiveness of the training protocol can be determined to a large extend by considering the patient's disability.
Full-text available
Background & Study Aim: In traditional taekwondo hand strikes are an important element of the training of athletes. The aim of this work was the knowledge whether a kinematic effects of straight punch depends on a physical conditions of hitting (without physical target and in plastic board) and the lateralisation. Material & Methods: Five women training taekwondo ITF were analysed. During the tests, from side standing posture (position), they were performing the traditional hand strike without physical target and into a typical plastic “breaking board” that is commonly used for taekwondo competition (in part of dedication of martial art-performance). For the purpose of this research, HML (Human Motion Lab) was used. Results: The registered maximum speed of the fist, during the execution of a straight punch without a physical target was 7.08 ±0.95 m/s for the right hand and 7.19 ±0.80 m/s for the left hand. While during the board breaking 5.52 ±0.79 m/s for the left hand and 6.12 ±1.02 m/s for the right hand. The factor of preference of left or right side of the body did not contribute to the speed of the straight punch in the taekwondo athletes. Significant differences (p<0.01) were seen during the execution of straight punch on different conditions (target and without physical target). Conclusions: These empirical effects may be associated with the concept of resource sharing, if action has a higher ceiling of difficulty, it is followed by extended reaction time and the mechanism of the speed-accuracy trade off. The results of these studies open up a new perspective on interdisciplinary analysis of taekwondo and other combat sports as a modern means of rehabilitation, therapy and improve the quality of life (including the ability to survive).
Full-text available
Suspension training is a combination of unique training movements aimed at improving strength, endurance, coordination, flexibility, power, and core stability within a single workout. Suspension training is marketed as a cardiovascular and resistance training exercise modality performed like a circuit-training workout, in which a series of exercises are performed in rotation with minimal rest time. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a suspension training workout on physiologic and metabolic markers of intensity and performance. Methods: Twelve male subjects (22.0 ± 0.7 years) participated in a 60-minute whole body interval-based suspension training workout while connected to a metabolic cart. Lactate was measured before, at mid point, and various times following exercise. Results: The average heart rate (HR) during the work out was 69±2 % of estimated max. Blood lactate levels rose to 8.0±0.5 mmol/L at mid point, and remained elevated during the work out. The caloric expenditure was 340.9±13.6 kcals, or 5.3±0.4 kcal/min with a respiratory exchange ratio1.03±0.01. Conclusions: These data indicate that a suspension training workout with a 30 sec: 60 sec work to rest ratio provides at least a moderate-intensity cardiovascular workout while some data suggest a higher intensity workout is achieved.
Full-text available
This study determined the extent of electromyographic (EMG) activity of the latissimus dorsi (LD), middle trapezius (MT), posterior deltoid (PD), and biceps brachii (BB) while performing the inverted row (IR) with and without a suspension training (ST) device. Eleven men and 4 women participated in this study. Each subject performed 4 repetitions of the IR with and without a ST device while EMG activity was recorded for each of the studied musculature. There were no significant differences in EMG activity of the LD, MT, and PD between each exercise (P>0.05). However, EMG activity of the BB was significantly greater (P<0.05) with the IR compared to the suspension inverted row(SIR).The results of this study demonstrated no significant differences in the selected musculature of the posterior chain (i.e., LD, MT, and PD) between the IR and the SIR. Therefore, it appears that the ST device provided a suitable alternative to traditional equipment (e.g., a Smith machine) when targeting the posterior musculature analyzed in this study with the IR. However, BB activity was significantly lower when performing the IR with the ST device compared to the traditional approach.
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was compare the effects of a traditional and an instability resistance circuit training program on upper and lower limb strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability. Thirty-six healthy untrained men were assigned to two experimental groups and a control group. Subjects in the experimental groups performed a resistance circuit training program consisting of traditional exercises (TRT, n = 10) or exercises executed in conditions of instability (using BOSU® and TRX®) (IRT, n = 12). Both programs involved three days per week of training for a total of seven weeks. The following variables were determined before and after training: maximal strength (1RM), average (AV) and peak velocity (PV), average (AP) and peak power (PP), all during bench press (BP) and back squat (BS) exercises, along with squat jump (SJ) height and counter movement jump (CMJ) height. All variables were found to significantly improve (p <0.05) in response to both training programs. Major improvements were observed in SJ height (IRT = 22.1%, TRT = 20.1%), CMJ height (IRT = 17.7%, TRT = 15.2%), 1RM in BS (IRT = 13.03%, TRT = 12.6%), 1RM in BP (IRT = 4.7%, TRT = 4.4%), AP in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.3%), AP in BP (IRT = 2.4%, TRT = 8.1%), PP in BS (IRT=19.42%, TRT = 22.3%), PP in BP (IRT = 7.6%, TRT = 11.5%), AV in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.4%), and PV in BS (IRT = 8.6%, TRT = 4.5%). Despite such improvements no significant differences were detected in the posttraining variables recorded for the two experimental groups. These data indicate that a circuit training program using two instability training devices is as effective in untrained men as a program executed under stable conditions for improving strength (1RM), power, movement velocity and jumping ability.
Full-text available
Traditional weight training programs utilize an exercise prescription strategy that emphasizes improving muscle strength through resistance exercises. Other factors, such as stability, endurance, movement quality, power, flexibility, speed, and agility are also essential elements to improving overall functional performance. Therefore, exercises that incorporate these additional elements may be beneficial additions to traditional resistance training programs. The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of an isolated resistance training program (ISO) and an integrated training program (INT) on movement quality, vertical jump height, agility, muscle strength / endurance, and flexibility. The ISO program consisted of primarily upper and lower extremity progressive resistance exercises. The INT program involved progressive resistance exercises, as well as core stability, power, and agility exercises. Thirty subjects were cluster-randomized to either the ISO (n=15) or INT (n=15) training program. Each training group performed their respective programs 2-times per week for 8 weeks. Subjects were assessed before (pre-test) and after (post-test) the intervention period using the following assessments: a jump-landing task graded using the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS), vertical jump height, T-test time, push-up and sit-up performance, and sit-and-reach test. The INT group performed better on the LESS test (pre-test: 3.90±1.02, post-test: 3.03±1.02; P=0.02), faster on the T-test (pre-test: 10.35±1.20s, post-test: 9.58±1.02s; P=0.01), and completed more sit-ups (pre-test: 40.20±15.01, post-test: 46.73±14.03; P=0.045) and push-ups (pre-test: 40.67±13.85, post-test: 48.93±15.17, P=0.05) at post-test compared to pre-test, and compared to the ISO group at post-test. Both groups performed more push-ups (P=0.002), jumped higher (P<0.001), and reached further (P=0.008) at post-test compared to pre-test. Performance enhancement programs should use an integrated approach to exercise selection in order to optimize performance and movement technique benefits.
Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of suspension training on functional movement and body composition, and to compare the effectiveness of home-based training to supervised training. Methods: Seventeen healthy subjects (8 male, 9 female, age=21.8±3.4 y) with no recent history of resistance training were randomly assigned to a home- based or supervised training group. Subjects performed an 8-week suspension training program consisting of 10 exercises targeting major muscle groups, twice per week for the duration of the study. Pre- and post-intervention testing included body composition using air displacement plethysmography, and a Functional Movement Screen (FMS) to measure functional movement abilities. Results: The 8-week training program, significantly improved total FMS scores across the whole sample of subjects (Pre=16.4; Post=17.5; p=0.004), with no differences in improvements between groups. When compared separately, only the supervised group significantly improved FMS scores. There was also a significant increase in lean mass across the total sample of subjects (Pre=52.4 kg; Post=53.3 kg; p=0.03) with no differences between groups. But when compared independently, neither group exhibited a significant increase in lean mass. Conclusions: When completed as a whole body exercise program over an 8-week period, suspension training can improve functional ability and increase lean mass in both a supervised and a home-based setting.
: The objective of the study was to examine the effect of suspension training on muscle activation during performance of variations of the plank exercise. Twenty-one participants took part. All individuals completed two repetitions each of four different plank exercises that consisted of a floor based plank, or planks with arms suspended, feet suspended, or feet and arms suspended using a TRX® Suspension System. During plank performance, muscle activation was recorded from rectus abdominis, external oblique, rectus femoris and serratus anterior muscles using electromyography. All planks were performed for a total of three seconds. Resulting muscle activation data was amplitude normalized and root mean square activation was then determined over the full three second duration of the exercise. A significant main effect of plank type was found for all muscles. Post-hoc analysis and effect size examination indicated that abdominal muscle activation was higher in all suspended conditions compared to the floor based plank. The highest level of abdominal muscle activation occurred in the arms suspended and arms/feet suspended conditions, which did not differ from one another. Rectus femoris activation was greatest during the arms suspended condition, while serratus anterior activity peaked during normal and feet suspended planks. These results indicate that suspension training as performed in the present study appears to be an effective means of increasing muscle activation during the plank exercise. Contrary to expectations, the additional instability created by suspending both the arms and feet did not result in any additional abdominal muscle activation. These findings have implications in prescription and progression of core muscle training programs.