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Despite an increasing body of scientific evidence accumulated over the last 25 years, organizational design thinking has almost c1ompletely ignored the role of beauty on organizational life and performance. Based on a literature review in the fields of organizational aesthetics and management, this article explores ways in which beauty can create value for organizations. It develops an integrative approach, both rational and aesthetic, that helps better understand the contribution of beauty to organizational efficiency and performance. The analysis shows that beauty in organizations can contribute through different organizational elements: resources, outcomes, processes, organization and environment. It also gives some guidelines on how to measure and integrate it into organizations through the concept of ROIB (Return on Investment in Beauty). Finally, the article concludes with some business implications and suggestions for future research.
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... Aesthetic needs at a workplace tend to be negatively associated with work stress and more frequently reported than ergonomic needs (Schell, Theorell, & Saraste, 2011). These arguments and findings have been successfully extended to establish the field of organizational aesthetics, dedicated to bringing the concept of beauty to the forefronts of innovative organizational research (Ivanaj, Shrivastava, & Ivanaj, 2018). ...
... 383), of which beauty is one step towards humanistic design in organizations (Mannen & MacAllister, 2017). Although the field of organizational aesthetics has produced a considerable number of studies over the last 25 years, it remains oriented towards conceptual and phenomenological arguments developed outside the service industry, leaving most of its theoretical propositions reviewed here short of empirical support and not context-specific (Bjerke, Ind, & De Paoli, 2007;Ivanaj et al., 2018). Therefore, by empirically verifying many of the above claims in the hotel context, this study contributes to the fields of both organizational aesthetics and hospitality management. ...
... Not only it is an important outcome of organizational products and services, organizational artefacts are also capable of eliciting aesthetic experiences in sensory, cognitive, affective, and valuation processes, which leads to meaningful and pleasurable state of mind for its employees (De Groot, 2014). Thus, individuals' commitment to and satisfaction with their work may be influenced by sensory perceptions of tools with which they work as well as the setting in which they work (Ivanaj et al., 2018). ...
The study recognizes the lack of a clear theoretical and empirical link between employees' sense of well-being and hotel design aesthetics, although beautiful environments are associated with optimal human functioning. Drawing on conceptual insights from organizational aesthetics and theory of subjective well-being, this quantitative study explored relationships between workplace design aesthetics, hotel employee subjective well-being and the role of contrast of back-vs. front-of-the-house. Based on cross-sectional data collected from 525 operations-level hotel employees in USA, the study found that backstage employees experience less aesthetic pleasure and report lower levels of well-being than frontstage employees. Design characteristics Unity and Variety positively affect the sense of well-being, while Typicality exhibits a U-type relationship with well-being. The effect of Variety is weaker for back-of-the-house employees. This study is the first attempt to empirically and explicitly connect organizational aesthetics to well-being and identifies a novel way to enhance the well-being of the hospitality workforce.
... These elements have the power to define an organization's existence. Properly satisfied, they can define an organization's brand (Kumar and Dash, 2017;Ivanaj et al., 2018). Since these are end needs representing all the enablers which influence them, employees satisfied with these parameters will be content with all the other lower level elements. ...
... Since these are end needs representing all the enablers which influence them, employees satisfied with these parameters will be content with all the other lower level elements. Both management as well as employees can evaluate their positions with respect to HRD for sustainability provided and demanded Filleti et al., 2017;Ivanaj et al., 2018). ...
Sustainability is defined a triple bottom line approach, which concentrates on economic,
social and environment growth of any organization. In order to achieve sustainability
objective, the human resource focused enablers are playing a significant role in optimizing
expenses, improving productivity and quality of work. Therefore, the present study seeks to build a model for the enablers of human resource development for sustainability in India power sector. The study findings help the sector to improve the productivity of their workers and establish all the enablers, which can be seen to improve quality of work life in the Indian power sector. Improved human resource capabilities and work conditions provide not only much needed motivation to power sector employees to improve their efficiency but also assist to accomplish social-ecological-economic organizational sustainability. Total Interpretive Structural Modelling with Matrice d'Impacts Croisés Multiplication Appliqués à un Classement (MICMAC) analysis has been applied to build a structural model and to identify the driving force and dependence power of enablers. Validation of relationships among the enablers and managerial implications are also discussed. According to the findings, the enablers ‘work safety and healthy working conditions’ have the highest driving power. The outcomes of this study can help the power sector to enhance human resource capabilities and quality of work life within the organization through provision of a benchmark model and help to accomplish sustainable development initiatives in its business.
... Quelque rares travaux de recherche récentes ont aussi porté leur attention sur la contribution de l'esthétique, de l'art et de l'artiste au développement de la performance organisationnelle durable (Ivanaj, Shrivastava & Ivanaj, 2018). Partant du constat de la difficulté des connaissances scientifiques et rationnelles à apporter des réponses aux grands défis (environnementaux, économiques et sociaux) du développement durable (Shrivastava, 2010 ;Adler, 2015), ces recherches mettent l'accent sur l'intérêt de l'approche esthétique et de l'art comme vecteur de changement des comportements individuels et organisationnels, en faisant le lien avec l'émotion (Huy, 2002) et la passion (Vallerand, 2008). ...
... La compréhension du rôle de l'approche esthétique sur la gestion des émotions pourrait devenir un levier important de la conduite du changement (Miller et al., 2004). A l'avenir, il serait pertinent de porter plus d'attention à l'étude des dimensions émotionnelles et esthétiques des organisations, afin de comprendre leur impact sur la capacité à implémenter les orientations stratégiques nouvelles, ainsi que sur la capacité des individus et des organisations à changer (Ivanaj et al, 2018). Les travaux de recherche future dans le champ de l'esthétique organisationnelle pourraient ainsi trouver une voie de recherche fertile dans l'étude du lien entre les dimensions esthétiques de la stratégie et leur impact sur le changement et la performance organisationnelle, sujet très peu étudié jusqu'à maintenant (De Groot, 2014). ...
... Organizational aesthetics initially was described by scholars like Strati (1999Strati ( , 2000, Ramirez (2005), Gagliardi (1996), and Linstead and Höpfl (2000. Their main contributions were suggestions in which organizational aesthetic stimuli (OAS) aesthetic value could be observed by the observer (Ivanaj et al., 2018). The v. ...
New research on organizational aesthetics shows that in particular formal aesthetic properties concerning organizational coherence such as alignment of activities, and alignment of personal goals with organization goals can be considered as strong triggers for aesthetic experiences and experiencing aesthetic value in organizations (De Groot, 2014). They could be understood as aesthetic perfection. But what about imperfection in organizations? This study examined 30 organizational aesthetic stimuli (OAS) that trigger aesthetic experiences of 286 employees representing 5 Dutch organizations. And in particular, it investigated the role of aesthetic properties which constitute the basis for experiencing aesthetic value which resulted in 5Cs of beautiful organizations (coherence, curiosity, contact, congruence, and completion). Curiosity-perhaps most related to the aspect of imperfection-was found in OAS like offered challenges and learning opportunities which positively triggered aesthetic experiences of employees as well. This study shows coherence and curiosity need each other! The interdependence of striving for perfection by coherence and descrying and revealing imperfection by curiosity can bring about great and positive effects to employees, supported by a strong correlation between both properties. Imperfection in perfection. Or perfection by imperfection?
We test how hedonic motivation impacts customers' dress choice for shopping through the mediation of perceived instrumentality, aesthetics, and symbolism. The level of involvement and level of sociability of the business context are examined as moderators in this process. Based on a survey of 415 customers, a structural equation model shows that these variables are linked to preference for specific dress styles, and that sociability level, but not involvement level moderates the relationship between them. This work confirms the importance of dress as a social tool even for customers, and clarifies the processes that guide customers when dressing for shopping.
The present study examined the impact of fun activities among entry-level employees in the hospitality industry. Specifically, this research examined the impact of 12 fun activities on employee engagement, constituent attachment, and employee turnover, with a sample of 205 employees from 11 hotel properties in the United States. The results demonstrated that the fun activities overall were significantly related to both engagement and constituent attachment, but not turnover. However, closer inspection revealed that specific activities were related to each of the three outcomes. A key implication is that not all fun activities are equal, and they may impact workplace outcomes differently.
This paper aims to show the levels of local and regional embeddedness of the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao (GMB) as well as its effects on the position of Bilbao within global networks. Although it is often said that the GMB as an international art franchise did not fit well with the local traditions, values and culture of Bilbao and the Basque Country, this paper attempts to show that the GMB is quite embedded into the local and regional context of institutions, private agents and policies. This effect increases with the growing recognition of the potential effects of the GMB on the creative and service industry in the Bilbao region. On the other hand, there is also an increasing tendency for Bilbao and the GMB to be included in global networks, as can be demonstrated by the branding effect of the GMB on the attraction of tourists or the increasing importance of the term “Bilbao” in semantic networks. The authors conclude with some recommendations on strengthening both the regional embeddedness and the global networking potential of museums in order to generate positive effects on urban regeneration and regional development.
With the rising use of arts-based methods in organizational development and change, scholars have started to inquire into how and why these methods work. We identify four processes that are particular to the way in which arts-based methods contribute to the development of individual organization managers and leaders: through the transference of artistic skills, through projective techniques, through the evocation of "essence," and through creating artifacts such as masks, collages, or sculpture, a process we call "making." We illustrate these processes in detail with two case examples and then discuss the implications for designing the use of arts-based methods for managerial and leadership development.
The aesthetic dimension of work and organizational life attracted the attention of organization scholars during the 1980s and 1990s, and its study burgeoned at the turn of the new millennium. There are today four main approaches to the study of organizational aesthetics: (i) the archaeological approach which privileges the symbolic dimension of aesthetic understanding; (ii) the empathic-logical approach which seeks to grasp the pathos of organizational life; (iii) the aesthetic approach which emphasizes the negotiation of organizational aesthetics; (iv) the artistic approach which examines flow, creativity, and playfulness. They all engage in an intellectual controversy with approaches to the study of organizations which privilege the mental, cognitive, and rational dimension of social action whilst neglecting the material, sensible, and emotional dimension of work relations in organizations. This article will illustrate and discuss these approaches by paying particular attention to the topics of the emancipation of people at work and the style of work and organizational practices.
This paper proposes that aesthetic inquiry can convey emotional knowledge related to sustainability topics, which is different from scientific inquiry that conveys facts and analysis. Sustainability is an emotionally charged theme of study and people often have difficulty in grappling
with its complexity. We provide a method of art-based learning that can help people to understand and deal with sustainability topics as opposed to classical ways of learning (lectures, coursework). Art is a vehicle of human emotions, and aesthetic inquiry can help to get at the emotional
connection between humans and nature. During the workshop process we have developed over the past few years, participants produce paintings, drawings and metaphors that bring life to their vision of sustainability. Expressing this perspective as a work of art and sharing it with others, helps
them to better understand underlying concepts, creates a sense of community and gives courage to take action.
This paper explores the power of stories and how they can give voice to the unheard. The first part of the paper consists of a story. The fairy tale of Little Red Riding Hood has been rewritten from the wolf's perspective. The wolf has been a silent voice in the fairy tale for a long
time. Writing the story from his perspective makes it easier to understand his actions and identify with him. The second part of the paper is an explanatory section, which describes how the story of Little Red Riding Hood can be seen as a metaphor for discourse and hidden power relations.
Often in organisations, in communities, and in societies there are voices present that are not being heard. It is hard to pay attention to these voices because they are so difficult to hear, even when they speak. Other voices are louder, more familiar or just the majority. It is argued that
sacred stories are an important cause of exclusion and, especially in an organisation that wants to be a learning organisation, we should pay attention to silent voices instead of overruling them. Silent voices have a different perspective, which might help discover organisational blind spots.
But in order to look beyond our sacred stories, we need to look for other means than the obvious. Fiction could be one of those means, being a silent voice within the dominant discourses of social science itself.
Through an ethnographic study of how consumers perceive and experience Louis Vuitton flagship stores, we show that luxury stores are becoming hybrid institutions, embodying elements of both art galleries and museums, within a context of exclusivity emblematic of luxury. We create the term "M(Art)World" to capture the essence of this aesthetically oriented strategy. Participants take note of the company's sleekly elegant architecture, interior design, and adroit use of lighting that are modelled after those of museums housing world-class exhibits. The store's merchandize is artisanal, often produced in collaboration with artists. Objects for sale are displayed alongside actual art, rendering both products equivalent. Employees function as curators, offering guidance and knowledge, as well as goods for sale. We analyze how luxury consumers experience and evaluate the ways in which luxury stores operate as contemporary art institutions, and extrapolate those insights into managerial implications for other retail venues.
I used qualitative methods to explore why some employees working in a newly created, non-territorial office environment perceived that their workplace identities were threatened and used particular tactics to affirm those threatened identities. Findings suggest that the non-territorial work environment threatened some employees' workplace identities because it severely limited their abilities to affirm categorizations of distinctiveness (versus status) through the display of personal possessions. Categorizations of distinctiveness appeared to be most threatened by the loss of office personalization because of three characteristics: (1) their absolute, rather than graded membership structure, (2) their high subjective importance and personal relevance, and (3) their high reliance on physical markers for affirmation. In affirming threatened identity categorizations, employees chose different tactics, in terms of the amount of effort required and their conformance with company rules, based on the acceptability and importance of affirming the threatened categorization.
This article explores whether artistic interventions in organizations offer employees the possibility of fulfilling the human need to give meaning to work. It draws on several distinct bodies of theories relating to the non-instrumental management of work to identify dimensions of meaningful work, and builds on previous empirical research to specify analytical categories. The qualitative data consists of responses from 67 employees who experienced artistic interventions. The analysis shows that artistic interventions can enable employees to experience meaningful work. It enriches theory-building by offering an expanded integrated framework to conceptualize meaningful work with several categories that had not yet been identified in the literature. The implications for management in taking the learning forward in the organization are discussed, and suggestions for future research to address the study's limitations are identified.
This article reports the results from a first experiment specifically designed to disentangle the effect of beauty from that of race in the observed labor market discrimination, for both females and males in Peru. We randomly assigned Quechua and white surnames and (subjectively perceived) attractive or homely-looking photographs (or no photos) to 4,899 fictitious résumés sent in response to 1,247 job openings. We find that candidates who are physically attractive, have a white-sounding surname, and are males, receive 82%, 54%, and 34% more callbacks for job interviews than their similarly-qualified counterparts, thus imposing a triple penalty on homely-looking, indigenous, and female job candidates. We further find that the intensity of discrimination by race and physical appearance differs for males and females; the intensity of discrimination by physical appearance and sex differs for Quechua and white applicants; and the intensity of racial and sexual discrimination differs for beautiful and homely-looking persons.
This article explains the coexistence and interaction of aesthetic experience and moral value systems of decision makers in organizations. For this purpose, we develop the concept of “aesthetic rationality,” which is described as a type of value-oriented rationality that serves to encourage sustainable behavior in organizations, and to complete the commonly held, “instrumentally rational” view of organizations. We show that organizations regularly exhibit not only an instrumental rationality but also an “aesthetic rationality,” which is manifested in their products and processes. We describe aesthetics, its underlying moral values, its evolutionary roots, and its links to virtue ethics as a basis for defining the concept of aesthetic rationality. We examine its links with human resources, organizational design, and other organizational elements. We examine these implications, identify how an aesthetic-driven ethic provides a potential for sustainable behavior in organizations, and suggest new directions for organizational research.
The aesthetic has long endured an uneasy relationship with institutions of power and authority. For Plato (trans. 1955/1987), the subversive potential he detected in the practice of art, and the aesthetic it engendered, was sufficient for him to call for poets and performers to be banned from his ideal Republic, lest they should corrupt his guardians and future philosopher kings. For the great minds of the Enlightenment the aesthetic, something unwieldy and corporeal in its nature, threatened their equally idealized realm of mind and led Kant (1790/1952) to construct his elaborate philosophical system to ensure its subservience to the exercise of reason and judgement. More recently, during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries as modernity witnessed art and aesthetic practice emerge as a radical political and cultural force, the Janusfaced character of the age became increasingly apparent as the creations of the avant-garde rapidly became the sole preserve of the rich and powerful in society to accumulate and enjoy.
Modern museums do more than display historical artefacts and culturally relevant materials. The twenty-first-century museum is both a physical, technological and virtual space to learn about the past, present and future. Furthermore, the emerging importance of the social and well-being aspect of museum engagement with communities, as social justice campaigners supporting positive mental health and well-being, has never been more pronounced. The modern museum engages with far more people than visitor numbers can account for, presenting a challenge for museums to assess, evaluate and demonstrate their success, worth and value. This article assesses what the modern museum does, how it can measure its social impact, and specifically critiques the use of social return on investment methodology as an effective measurement tool.
This chapter explores the nature of stories of self, both as they are told and lived in social life. It examines the story form—or more formally, the structure of narrative accounts. It then describes the way narratives of the self are constructed within social life and the uses to which they are put. As story advances, it become increasingly clear that narratives of the self are not fundamentally possessions of the individual; rather they are products of social interchange—possessions of the socius. This analysis set the stage for a discussion of lived narrative. The chapter proposes the traditional concept of individual selves is fundamentally problematic. What have served as individual traits, mental processes, or personal characteristics can promisingly be viewed as the constituents of relational forms. The form of these relationships is that of the narrative sequence. Thus, by the end of story it can be found that the individual self has all but vanished into the world of relationship.
This research makes three important contributions. First, the study provides evidence that the atmosphere created by varying service environments influences consumer loyalty. Second, these effects are captured by a two-dimensional representation of consumer loyalty - behavioral and attitudinal. Third, the type of service environment, lean versus elaborate, significantly alters the process by which true consumer commitment is created.
Drawing on archival and textual materials, this paper challenges conventional views of scientific management by exploring its aesthetic implications through an analysis of the inspiration that the European modernist architects of the 1890-1930 period drew from the ideology and techniques associated with this organizational model. The historical and institutional conditions that surrounded such a revolutionary reinterpretation of scientific management are compared across countries. The common grounding of scientific management and modernist architecture in engineering is proposed as the key influence that shaped the professional reconstruction of the organizational field of architecture and the subsequent diffusion of modernist design. The implications for organizational studies are discussed in the context of the prevailing underestimation of scientific management's qualities and impact on society.
Companies may have difficulty in adapting design as a strategic tool in industrial competition if they do not have an understanding of its meaning and value in practice. Part of the problem stems from the lack of a clear typology of design dimensions and attributes-the equivalent of marketing's 4 "P"s (Lorenz 1995). This research provides a fresh look at the design factor and a new typology and framework that will allow companies to analyse and adapt their values, image, process and production (VIPP's), thereby gaining competitive advantage by design.
We design a laboratory experiment to test the extent to which the often-observed “beauty premium”–a positive relationship between attractiveness and wages–is context-specific. Using three realistic worker tasks, we find that the existence of the “beauty premium” indeed depends on the task: while relatively more attractive workers receive higher wage bids in a bargaining task, there is no such premium in either an analytical task or a data entry task. Our analysis shows that the premium in bargaining is driven by statistical discrimination based on biased beliefs about worker performance. We also find that there is substantial learning after worker-specific performance information is revealed, highlighting the importance of accounting for longer-run interactions in studies of discrimination.
DESIGNERS HAVE TRADIIONALLY FOCUSED ON ENHANCING THE LOOK AND FUNCTIONALITY OF PRODUCTS. RECENTLY, THEY HAVE BEGUN USING DESIGN TOOLS TO TACKLE MORE COMPLEX PROBLEMS, SUCH AS FINDING WAYS TO PROVIDE LOW-COST HEALTH CARE THROUGHOUT THE WORLD. BUSINESSES WERE FIRST TO EMBRACE THIS NEW APPROACH—CALLED DESIGN THINKING—NOW NONPROFITS ARE BEGINNING TO ADOPT IT TOO.
Organizational Aesthetics, Experience and Plausibility Aesthetic Knowledge of Organizational Action The Elusiveness of Organizational Aesthetics The Beautiful in Organizational Life Artefacts, Form and Aesthetic Categories Conclusions
Forest Products Society The efficiency and productivity of the wood products manufacturing sector have been evaluated by many researchers. Productivity growth compensates for price increases and enhances competitiveness. Technical efficiency, which is the efficiency of converting inputs to outputs, directly affects costs and consequently profits and capital investments. Considering the importance of efficiency and productivity studies, this paper provides an introduction to performance assessment approaches and reviews the literature on productivity and efficiency studies of the Canadian wood industry. It concludes that further research in this area may develop by incorporating factors and aspects specific to the wood industry and including desirable and undesirable outputs of the production process into the models. Comparative analyses with other regions and temporal efficiency studies can also help in evaluating and monitoring the performance of wood producers in Canada and identifying improvement policies.
This paper argues that organizational communication research, and in particular a perspective that focuses on narrative, can contribute in important ways to understanding the practices of strategy. Narrative is believed to be critical to sensemaking in organizations, and multiple levels and forms of narrative are inherent to strategic practices. For example, narrative can be found in the micro-stories told by managers and others as they interact and go about their daily work, in the formalized techniques for strategy-making whether or not the techniques are explicitly story-based, in the accounts people give of their work as strategy practitioners, and in the artefacts produced by strategizing activity. After exploring applications of narrative approaches to strategy praxis, practices, practitioners and text, we review two concepts that might serve to integrate micro and macro levels of analysis. Overall, narrative is seen as a way of giving meaning to the practice that emerges from sensemaking activities, of constituting an overall sense of direction or purpose, of refocusing organizational identity, and of enabling and constraining the ongoing activities of actors.
Malcolm Gladwell; род. 3 сентября 1963, Хэмпшир) — канадский журналист, поп-социолог. В 2005 году «Time» назвало Малкольма Гладуэлла одним из 100 самых влиятельных людей. Книги и статьи Малкольма часто касаются неожиданных последствий исследований в социальных науках и находят широкое применение в научной работе, в частности в областях социологии, психологии и социальной психологии. Некоторые из его книг занимали первые строки в списке бестселлеров «The New York Times». В 2007 году Малкольм получил первую премию Американской Социологической ассоциации за выдающиеся достижения по отчетам в социальных вопросах. В 2007 году он также получил почетную степень доктора филологии Университета Ватерлоо. Малькольм Гладуелл описывает эксперименты, которые показывают, что человеку с поврежденными эмоциональными центрами крайне трудно принимать решения. Он рассказывает про одного такого пациента, которому было предложено прийти на прием либо во вторник, либо в пятницу. И пациент два часа решал во вторник ему прийти или в пятницу — в столбик выписывал плюсы и минусы, их сравнивал, группировал по разному, всяко переставлял. И в жизни своих домашних он просто убивал вот этим. Если его спрашивали, ты что хочешь: омлет или салат? — это задача минут на сорок. Обычный человек очень просто поступает. Он видит омлет, что-то чувствует и говорит: Хочу! Все. Выбор сделан легко и быстро.
Is design more effective when designers are given greater freedom? Does it help to combine experiential design with functional design? And what kind of study will give you those answers? The Association of Dutch Designers and two Dutch universities collaborated on a survey of 163 Dutch firms in an attempt to find out.
Purpose ‐ When comparing and contrasting features of the public service sector with those of the private service sector, the differences between the notions of customer and citizen, notable in the past, are now blurring. Whilst acknowledging the important differences that exist between the two service sectors, the authors seek to address the recent structural changes in the public service sector that aim to adopt best practices taken from the private into the public sector. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the important differences in public and private service delivery processes; with an emphasis on the need for improved definitions. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The literature reviews undertaken were qualitative synthesis in nature. Content analysis was undertaken and applied in reviewing 39 literature of sub-fields of public and private service delivery, published in English-speaking peer-reviewed journals. Findings ‐ Based on the literature review, a promising approach for public sector productivity might be the disaggregated approach. Such an approach, focusing on the output components at a tactical level, could alleviate the problems related to public service productivity measurement (i.e. the problem of output definition). In particular, it could help define outputs at the operative level. Such measures could then percolate up to the strategic level (by aggregating the operative level results). Clearly this remains an interesting challenge for the productivity and performance management discipline and worthy of greater examination. Research limitations/implications ‐ The authors compared and contrasted appropriate performance and productivity tools and highlight the challenges in adopting performance and productivity measures in the public sector in an attempt to become more efficient and effective. Until greater understanding is gained, there is little likelihood of successfully transferring models of productivity and performance management between the sectors or the development of appropriate models. Originality/value ‐ To date, there has been inadequate attention given to identifying, comparing and contrasting the significant differences between the organisations that deliver the public funded services and those in the commercial private services sector. This work highlights specific areas for future research.
Purpose ‐ The article aims to provide a discussion of societal norms concerning "attractiveness," the existence of appearance discrimination in employment, the presence of "preferring the pretty", and then the authors examine important civil rights laws that relate to such forms of discrimination. Finally, the authors apply ethical theories to determine whether such discrimination can be seen as moral or immoral. Design/methodology/approach ‐ It is a legal paper which covers all the laws related to discrimination based on look. Court cases and Americans laws related to this concept are reviewed and critically discussed. Findings ‐ The paper finds that appearance-based discrimination is not illegal in the USA so long as it does not violate civil rights laws. Research limitations/implications ‐ This research is limited to Federal and State laws in the USA and may not be relevant in other countries as the local laws might vary. Practical implications ‐ Managers and employees can protect themselves in the workplace from illegal discriminatory practices. Social implications ‐ Employees know their rights and enhance their understanding of laws related to appearance, attractiveness, and why companies look to hire those who are considered "handsome", "pretty" and "beautiful". Originality/value ‐ This is an original and comprehensive paper by the authors.
In this guest editorial we have two aims. First, to outline the background to, and motivation for, this special issue, which called for contributions that went beyond the academic article and used fiction and other literary techniques to communicate; and second, to introduce the papers
and briefly outline their contribution. We conclude the editorial with some reflections on the preparation of this issue and a call for academics to embrace the uncertainty associated with communicating their ideas in novel forms.
This chapter addresses a new approach to organizational learning, namely, artistic interventions, which encompass a variety of ways that people, products, and practices from the world of the arts enter the world of organizations. Although the field has grown rapidly, little empirical research has been conducted on what actually happens inside organizations during and after artistic interventions. The author argues that, to close gaps and correct for biases in existing work, future research will need to engage multiple stakeholders (employees, artists, managers, intermediaries, and policy-makers), address multiple ways of knowing, especially the neglected bodily senses, and draw on concepts and methods from diverse disciplines.
This paper is about two managers of Red Cross refugee camps in Tanzania who manage by exception in rather exceptional circumstances. Using a model of managerial work that delineates roles carried out at the information, people, and action levels, inside and outside the unit, these managers' activities concentrate especially on communicating and controlling a chaotic situation in a steady state, at least temporarily. While many other managers appear to be moving away from conventional forms of managing--to more linking instead of leading and convincing instead of controlling, etc.--here are two managers who seem to be going the other way, precisely because their situation is so unconventionally risky. Ned Bowman's great contribution has been not justabout risks and options per se, butin the risks that he himself took and the options that he himself exposed. In this spirit, the paper concludes with a plea for the opening up not simply of content, but of context.
Beautiful action in organizations comes from exceptional craft skill and focuses us on exceptional management skill. Beautiful management action tends to be particular and local—It may only be experienced by a single person within the organization. I call such small moments “little beauties” and offers three examples from a small organization. I conclude that little beauties provide a way to find and inquire into instances of exceptional craft skill and thus offer a Positive Organizational Scholarship approach to practice.
Facial attractiveness has a positive influence on electoral success both in experimental paradigms and in the real world. One parameter that influences facial attractiveness and social judgements is facial adiposity (a facial correlate to body mass index, BMI). Overweight people have high facial adiposity and are perceived to be less attractive and lower in leadership ability. Here, we used an interactive design in order to assess whether the most attractive level of facial adiposity is also perceived as most leader-like. We found that participants reduced facial adiposity more to maximize attractiveness than to maximize perceived leadership ability. These results indicate that facial appearance impacts leadership judgements beyond the effects of attractiveness. We suggest that the disparity between optimal facial adiposity in attractiveness and leadership judgements stems from social trends that have produced thin ideals for attractiveness, while leadership judgements are associated with perception of physical dominance.
This article is based on a keynote address delivered at the 33rd annual Organizational Behavior Teaching Conference in Rochester, New York, on June 15, 2006. The audience for this address included faculty, executive educators from the profit and nonprofit sectors, and doctoral students in the organizational and management sciences who had gathered to explore the content and processes for high-quality management education.
This study examines tourists’ attitudes towards tourist-tourist encounters. The appearance and the number of observed tourists as well as the place of residence of the observing tourists were studied. The variables of tourist appearance and the number of people at the site were manipulated electronically in a set of rainforest photographic images. The data were collected through an on-site self-administered questionnaire. The results from 409 respondents suggested that there were different encounter preferences between Japanese and Western observers with respect to both appearance and the number of people encountered. Japanese have a preference for mixing with Westerners, at least in the rainforest setting studied. Westerners do not have marked appearance-related preferences. For the number of people in the setting, Westerners are inclined to favour few or no people while Japanese prefer some people and are tolerant of larger numbers. These findings, which contradict much of the existing North American recreation based work on people in contact, were examined from a number of theoretical perspectives, including in-group and out-group analyses, and dynamic encounter norms. Some potential management implications were outlined.
Sustainable landscape design is generally understood in relation to three principles – ecological health, social justice and economic prosperity. Rarely do aesthetics factor into sustainability discourse, except in negative asides conflating the visible with the aesthetic and rendering both superfluous.
This article examines the role of beauty and aesthetics in a sustainability agenda. It argues that it will take more than ecologically regenerative designs for culture to be sustainable, that what is needed are designed landscapes that provoke those who experience them to become more aware of how their actions affect the environment, and to care enough to make changes. This involves considering the role of aesthetic environmental experiences, such as beauty, in re-centering human consciousness from an egocentric to a more bio-centric perspective. This argument in the form of a manifesto is inspired by American landscape architects whose work is not usually understood as contributing to sustainable design.